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  • 1.
    Abbott, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.
    Möller, Hans
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gerdhem, Paul
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    CONTRAIS: CONservative TReatment for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a randomised controlled trial protocol2013In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 14, article id 261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional structural deformity of the spine that occurs in children and adolescents. Recent reviews on bracing and exercise treatment have provided some evidence for effect of these interventions. The purpose of this study is to improve the evidence base regarding the effectiveness of conservative treatments for preventing curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Methods/design:

    Patients: Previously untreated girls and boys with idiopathic scoliosis, 9 to 17 years of age with at least one year of remaining growth and a curve Cobb angle of 25–40 degrees will be included. A total of 135 participants will be randomly allocated in groups of 45 patients each to receive one of the three interventions.Interventions: All three groups will receive a physical activity prescription according to the World Health Organisation recommendations. One group will additionally wear a hyper-corrective night-time brace. One group will additionally perform postural scoliosis-specific exercises.Outcome: Participation in the study will last until the curve has progressed, or until cessation of skeletal growth. Outcome variables will be measured every 6 months. The primary outcome variable, failure of treatment, is defined as progression of the Cobb angle more than 6 degrees, compared to the primary x-ray, seen on two consecutive spinal standing x-rays taken with 6 months interval. Secondary outcome measures include the SRS-22r and EQ5D-Y quality of life questionnaires, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form, and Cobb angle atend of the study.

    Discussion:This trial will evaluate which of the tested conservative treatment approaches that is the most effective for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Trial registration: NCT01761305

  • 2.
    Al-Amiry, Bariq
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Pantelakis, Georgios
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Mahmood, Sarwar
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Kadum, Bakir
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brismar, Torkel B.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Sayed-Noor, Arkan S.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Does body mass index affect restoration of femoral offset, leg length and cup positioning after total hip arthroplasty?: A prospective cohort study2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In obese patients, total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be technically demanding with increased perioperative risks. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on radiological restoration of femoral offset (FO) and leg length as well as acetabular cup positioning.

    Methods

    In this prospective study, patients with unilateral primary osteoarthritis (OA) treated with THA between September 2010 and December 2013 were considered for inclusion. The perioperative plain radiographs were standardised and used to measure the preoperative degree of hip osteoarthritis, postoperative FO, leg length discrepancy (LLD), acetabular component inclination and anteversion.

    Results

    We included 213 patients (74.5% of those considered for inclusion) with a mean BMI of 27.7 (SD 4.5) in the final analysis. The postoperative FO was improper in 55% and the LLD in 15%, while the cup inclination and anteversion were improper in 13 and 23% of patients respectively. A multivariable logistic regression model identified BMI as the only factor that affected LLD. Increased BMI increased the risk of LLD (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25). No other factors included in the model affected any of the primary or secondary outcomes.

    Conclusion

    Increased BMI showed a negative effect on restoration of post-THA leg length but not on restoration of FO or positioning of the acetabular cup. Age, gender, OA duration or radiological severity and surgeon’s experience showed no relation to post-THA restoration of FO, leg length or cup positioning.

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  • 3.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University, and Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Katarina
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University, and Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lower prevalence of hip fractures in foreign-born individuals than in Swedish-born individuals during the period 1987-19992010In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 11, p. 203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This is the first longitudinal study with a 22-year follow-up, based on a national and complete sample, to determine whether the prevalence of hip fracture and the age when it occurs are influenced by migration and by being foreign-born. Cultural background and environmental factors such as UV-radiation and lifestyle during childhood and adolescence may influence the risk of a hip fracture event later in life. Differences in prevalence might occur between the indigenous population and those who have migrated to a country.

    METHODS: The study was based on national population data. The study population consisted of 321,407 Swedish-born and 307,174 foreign-born persons living in Sweden during the period 1987-1999.

    RESULTS: Foreign-born individuals had a reduced risk of hip fracture, with odds ratios (ORs) of 0.47-0.77 for men and 0.42-0.88 for women. Foreign-born women had the hip fracture event at a higher age on average, but a longer time spent in Sweden was associated with a small but significant increase in risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found that there was a reduced risk of hip fracture in all foreign-born individuals, and that the hip fracture event generally happened at a higher age in foreign-born women. Migration must therefore be considered in relation to the prevalence and risk of hip fracture. Migration can therefore have a positive effect on one aspect of the health of a population, and can influence and lower the total cost of healthcare due to reduced risk and prevalence of hip fracture.

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  • 4.
    Anderson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Herngren, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Risto, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Limited angular remodelling after in-situ fixation for slipped capital femoral epiphysis2024In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 25, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIn Sweden, most children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) are operated on with a single smooth pin or a short-threaded screw, allowing further growth of the femoral neck. Using the Swedish Pediatric Orthopaedic Quality registry, SPOQ, we investigated whether angular remodelling occurs adjacent to the proximal femoral epiphysis after fixation of SCFE using implants, allowing continued growth of the femoral neck.MethodsDuring 2008-2010 a total national population of 155 children were reported to the SPOQ registry. Following our strict inclusion criteria, radiographs of 51 hips were further assessed. The lateral Head Shaft Angle (HSA), the Notzli 3-point alpha-angle, the anatomic alpha-angle, and the Anterior Offset Ratio (AOR) on the first postoperative radiographs and at follow-up were measured to describe the occurrence of remodelling. Slip severity was categorised as mild, moderate or severe according to postoperative HSA.ResultsMean and SD values for the change in HSA were 3,7 degrees (5,0 degrees), for 3-point alpha-angle 6,8 degrees (8,9 degrees), and anatomic alpha-angle 13,0 degrees (16,3 degrees). The overall increase in AOR was 0,038 (0.069). There were no significant differences between the slip severity groups.ConclusionsWe found limited angular remodelling after in situ fixation with smooth pins or short threaded screws for SCFE. The angular remodelling and the reduction of the CAM deformity was less than previously described after fixation of SCFE with similar implants. Results about the same magnitude with non-growth sparing techniques suggest that factors other than longitudinal growth of the femoral neck are important for angular remodelling.

  • 5.
    Ardern, Clare
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    BAck iN the Game (BANG) - a smartphone application to help athletes return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: protocol for a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sustaining injury is a common consequence of playing sport. At least one in every three recreational athletes with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction do not return to their preinjury sport following treatment. Psychological factors including confidence and fear of new injury exert large effects on returning to sport. The primary aim of this trial is to test whether a custom smartphone application delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy is effective for improving the number of people who return to their preinjury sport and level following ACL reconstruction. Methods: Participants scheduled for primary ACL reconstruction are recruited prior to surgery from one of six trial sites in Sweden. We aim to recruit 222 participants (111 in each group) for the BANG trial. Participants are randomly allocated to receive either usual rehabilitation care alone or usual rehabilitation care plus the Back in the Game smartphone application intervention. Back in the Game is a 24-week Internet-delivered programme, based on cognitive-behavioural therapy. The primary outcome is return to the preinjury sport and level at 12 months follow-up. The secondary outcomes assess physical activity participation, new knee injuries, psychological factors, quality of life and physical function. Physical activity participation and new injuries are self-reported every two weeks for 12 months, then every 4 weeks to 24 months follow-up. Psychological readiness to return to sport, knee self-efficacy, motivation to participate in leisure time physical activity, knee-related quality of life, and self-reported knee function are also assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months after surgery. A clinical assessment of strength, knee range of motion, effusion and hopping performance is completed by a blinded assessor at 12 months to assess physical function. Discussion: This protocol outlines how we plan to assess the efficacy of a custom smartphone application, delivering cognitive-behavioural therapy to address fear, confidence and recovery expectations, for improving return to sport following serious sports-related musculoskeletal injury. The BANG trial employs a pragmatic design to best reflect the reality of, and inform, clinical practice.

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  • 6.
    Asker, Martin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Naprapathogskolan Scandinavian Coll Naprapath Man, Sweden.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Hässleholm Kristianstad Ystad Hospital, Sweden.
    Kallberg, Henrik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Public Health Agency Sweden, Sweden.
    Holm, Lena W.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University of Toronto, Canada.
    Skillgate, Eva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Naprapathogskolan Scandinavian Coll Naprapath Man, Sweden.
    A prospective cohort study identifying risk factors for shoulder injuries in adolescent elite handball players: the Karolinska Handball Study (KHAST) study protocol2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Handball is a physical contact sport that includes frequent overhead throwing, and this combination leads to a high rate of shoulder injuries. Several factors have been associated with shoulder injuries in overhead athletes, but strong scientific evidence is lacking for most suggested risk factors. We therefore designed the Karolinska Handball Study (KHAST) with the aim to identify risk factors for shoulder injuries in adolescent male and female elite handball players studying at handball-profiled secondary schools in Sweden. Secondary objectives are to investigate whether shoulder function changes during the competition season and whether the physical profile of the players changes during their time in secondary school. Methods: Players aged 15 to 19 years were included during the pre-season period of the 2014-2015 and the 2015-2016 seasons. At inclusion, players signed informed consent and filled in a questionnaire regarding playing position, playing level, previous handball experience, history of shoulder problems and athletic identity. Players also completed a detailed test battery at baseline evaluating the shoulder, neck and trunk. Players were then prospectively monitored weekly during the 2014-2015 and/or 2015-2016 competitive seasons regarding injuries and training/match workload. Results from the annual routine physical tests in the secondary school curriculum including bench press, deep squat, hand grip strength, clean lifts, squat jumps, counter movement jumps, amp;lt;30 m sprints, chins, dips and Coopers test will be collected until the end of the competitive season 2017-2018. The primary outcome is the incidence of shoulder injuries and shoulder problems. The secondary outcome is the prevalence of shoulder injuries and shoulder problems. Discussion: Shoulder problems are frequent among handball players and a reduction of these injuries is therefore warranted. However, in order to introduce appropriate preventive measures, a detailed understanding of the underlying risk factors is needed. Our study has a high potential to identify important risk factors for shoulder injuries in adolescent elite handball players owing to a large study sample, a high response rate, data collection during consecutive seasons, and recording of potential confounding factors.

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  • 7.
    Bendelin, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Björkdahl, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Risell, Mimmi
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Buhrman, Monica
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Patients experiences of internet-based Acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: a qualitative study2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain is a globally widespread condition with complex clusters of symptoms within a heterogeneous patient group. Internet-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (IACT) has shown promising results in the treatment of chronic pain. How IACT is experienced by patients is less well known. Qualitative studies of patients experiences are needed to further understand factors behind both engagement and negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore how IACT was experienced by chronic pain patients who had participated in a controlled trial. Methods: Through an open and exploratory approach this study aimed to investigate how IACT was experienced when delivered as a guided self-help program to persons with chronic pain. Eleven participants were interviewed over telephone after completing IACT. Results: Qualitative analysis based on grounded theory resulted in 2 core categories and 8 subcategories. In treatment: Physical and cognitive restraints, Time and deadline, Therapist contact, and Self-confrontation. After treatment: Attitude to pain, Image of pain, Control or Command, and Acting with pain. Individual differences as well as specific conditions of the treatment may explain variations in how the treatment was approached, experienced and what consequences it led to. Therapist guidance and deadlines for homework play complex roles in relation to autonomy and change. Conclusions: Adjusting treatment content and format based on participants characteristics, such as expectations, motivation and restraints, might positively affect engagement, autonomy and change. Further research on attrition and negative effects of treatment might clarify what enables chronic pain patients to benefit from IACT.

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  • 8.
    Bjersing, Jan L.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palstam, Annie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ernberg, Malin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Monika
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Kosek, Eva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm Spine Centre, Sweden.
    Mannerkorpi, Kaisa
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Benefits of resistance exercise in lean women with fibromyalgia: involvement of IGF-1 and leptin2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain and fatigue improves by exercise in fibromyalgia (FM) but underlying mechanisms are not known. Obesity is increased among FM patients and associates with higher levels of pain. Symptom improvement after aerobic exercise is affected by body mass index (BMI) in FM. Metabolic factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and leptin may be involved. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the role of metabolic factors in lean, overweight and obese women during resistance exercise, in relation to symptom severity and muscle strength in women with FM. Methods: Forty-three women participated in supervised progressive resistance exercise, twice weekly for 15-weeks. Serum free and total IGF-1, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), adiponectin, leptin and resistin were determined at baseline and after 15-weeks. Level of current pain was rated on a visual analogue scale (0-100 mm). Level of fatigue was rated by multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) subscale general fatigue (MFIGF). Knee extension force, elbow flexion force and handgrip force were assessed by dynamometers. Results: Free IGF-1 (p = 0.047), IGFBP3 (p = 0.025) and leptin (p = 0.008) were significantly decreased in lean women (n = 18), but not in the overweight (n = 17) and the obese (n = 8). Lean women with FM benefited from resistance exercise with improvements in current pain (p= 0.039, n = 18), general fatigue (MFIGF, p = 0.022, n = 18) and improved elbow-flexion force (p = 0.017, n = 18). In overweight and obese women with FM there was no significant improvement in pain or fatigue but an improvement in elbow flexion (p = 0.049; p = 0.012) after 15 weeks of resistance exercise. Conclusion: The clearest clinical response to resistance exercise was found in lean patients with FM. In these individuals, individualized resistance exercise was followed by changes in IGF-1 and leptin, reduced pain, fatigue and improved muscular strength. In overweight and obese women FM markers of metabolic signaling and clinical symptoms were unchanged, but strength was improved in the upper limb. Resistance exercise combined with dietary interventions might benefit patients with FM and overweight.

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  • 9.
    Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Rehabilitation Center. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Quality of life and acquired organ damage are intimately related to activity limitations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus2015In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 16, no 188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multi-organ disease, characterized by episodes of disease flares and remissions over time, which may restrain affected patients ability to perform daily activities. The purpose of the present study was to characterize variation in activity limitations among well-defined SLE patients, and to describe disease phenotypes, acquired organ damage and their relations to activity limitation and self-reported health, respectively. Methods: The disease phenotypes were organized into 4 different clinical groups and logistic regression analyses were used to identify how an elevated health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) score was related to disease variables such as phenotypes, disease activity and damage accrual. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between each group of variables - background variables, disease variables and self-reported measurements - and the degree of elevated HAQ. Results: We found a higher proportion of activity limitation in patients with skin and joint involvement compared to others. The presence of activity limitation, as detected by the HAQ instrument, was significantly associated with quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and accrual of organ damage using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/ACR damage index. Conclusions: The findings highlight the differing requirements of the multi-professional rehabilitation interventions for the various SLE phenotypes in order to optimize the clinical care of the patients.

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  • 10.
    Buck, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Strid, Emma Nilsing
    Örebro Univ, Sweden.
    Knibbe, Hanneke J. J.
    Res Hlth Care, Netherlands.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the risk assessment instrument TilThermometer for a Swedish version - patient handling in the healthcare sector2022In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are common in the healthcare sector due to exposure of physical demanding work tasks. Risk assessment is necessary to prevent injuries and promote a safety culture. The TilThermometer has proved to be useful in the Netherlands for assessing healthcare workers physical exposure to patient handling. The aim of this study was to translate the risk assessment instrument TilThermometer from Dutch to Swedish, perform cross-cultural adaptation, and evaluate its linguistic validity to a Swedish healthcare context.

    Methods. Translation and validation process was performed according to following eight steps: 1) Translation (two translators), 2) Synthesis, 3) Back-translation (two back-translators), 4) Synthesis, 5) Linguistic review (one bilingual reviewer), 6) fifteen experts in a panel review according to Delphi-method, 7) Semi-structured interviewing eleven informants, analyzed using qualitative content analysis and step 8) discussion and input from creators of the instrument.

    Results: A new Swedish version, the TilThermometer, was provided through the translation process (steps 1-5). The linguistic validity and usefulness were confirmed thru step 6 and 7. Consensus was reached in the expert review after two rounds, comments were analyzed and grouped into five groups. The qualitative content analyses of the interviews emerged in to three categories: 1) "User-friendly and understandable instrument", 2) "Further development", and 3) "Important part of the systematic work-environment management".

    Conclusion: In this study, the cross-cultural adaption and translation performed of the Swedish version of TilThermometer assured linguistic validity. This is this first phase before further testing the psychometrics aspects, inter-rater reliability and feasibility of TilThermometer. In the second phase TilThermometer will be implemented and evaluated together with other measures in the Swedish healthcare sector.

  • 11.
    Charlesworth, Jonathon
    et al.
    Australasian Coll Sport and Exercise Phys, Australia.
    Fitzpatrick, Jane
    Australasian Coll Sport and Exercise Phys, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Perera, Nirmala
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Australasian Coll Sport and Exercise Phys, Australia.
    Orchard, John
    Australasian Coll Sport and Exercise Phys, Australia; Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Osteoarthritis- a systematic review of long-term safety implications for osteoarthritis of the knee2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, article id 151Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is no cure for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and typically patients live approximately 30-years with the disease. Most common medical treatments result in short-term palliation of symptoms with little consideration of long-term risk. This systematic review aims to appraise the current evidence for the long-term (amp;gt;= 12 months) safety of common treatments for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline and PubMed were systematically searched from 1990 to July 2017, inclusive. Inclusion criteria were 1) peer-reviewed publications investigating treatments for KOA referred to in the Australian Clinical Care Standard and/or Therapeutic Guidelines: Rheumatology 2) specifically addressing safety of the treatments 3) with amp;gt;= 12 months of follow-up and 4) Downs and Black quality score amp;gt;= 13. Results: Thirty-four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Lifestyle modifications (moderate exercise and weight loss), paracetamol, glucosamine, Intraarticular Hyaluronic Acid (IAHA) and platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections have a low risk of harm and beneficial amp;gt;= 12 month outcomes. Although Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) provide pain relief, they are associated with increased risk of medical complications. Cortisone injections are associated with radiological cartilage degeneration at amp;gt; 12 months. Arthroscopy for degenerative meniscal tears in KOA leads to a 3-fold increase in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). TKA improves primary outcomes of KOA but has a low rate of significant medical complications. Conclusions: Given the safety and effectiveness of lifestyle interventions such as weight loss and exercise, these should be advocated in all patients due to the low risk of harm. The use of NSAIDs should be minimized to avoid gastrointestinal complications. Treatment with opioids has a lack of evidence for use and a high risk of long-term harm. The use of IAHA and PRP may provide additional symptomatic benefit without the risk of harm. TKA is associated with significant medical complications but is justified by the efficacy of joint replacement in late-stage disease.

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  • 12.
    Christopher, S.
    et al.
    Elon Univ, NC USA.
    Tadlock, B. A.
    Elon Univ, NC USA.
    Veroneau, B. J.
    Elon Univ, NC USA.
    Harnish, C.
    Mary Baldwin Coll, VA USA.
    Perera, Nirmala
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Oxford, England; Univ Oxford, England; La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Knab, A. M.
    Queens Univ, NC USA.
    Vallabhajosula, S.
    Elon Univ, NC USA.
    Bullock, G. S.
    Univ Oxford, England; Univ Oxford, England; Wake Forest Sch Med, NC 27101 USA.
    Epidemiological profile of pain and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug use in collegiate athletes in the United States2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although athletic endeavours are associated with a high amount of physical stress and injury, the prevalence of pain is underreported in the sports medicine literature with only a few studies reporting pain on collegiate athletes or exploring sex difference of pain. Impact of pain on athlete availability, training and performance can be mitigated when key epidemiological information is used to inform adequate pain management strategies. This study aims to 1) provide an epidemiological profile of self-reported pain experienced by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes by sex during the first half of the 2019 season, 2) describe their self-reported non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. Methods Online survey was completed by athletes at three NCAA institutions from 1 August to 30 September 2019. Descriptive statistics were used to describe player demographic data, self-reported pain and self-reported NSAID use. Pain incidence proportion were calculated. Results Two hundred thirty female athletes and 83 male athletes completed the survey. Self-reported pain incidence proportion for female athletes was 45.0 (95% CI 41.5-48.5) vs 34.9 (95% CI 29.4-40.4) for male athletes. Majority of the athletes did not report pain (55% female vs 62% male) during the first half of the 2019 season. Female athletes reported pain in their back (35%), knee (26%), and ankle/foot (23%) whilst male athletes reported pain in their knee (35%), back (28%), and shoulder (24%). Of all athletes, 28% female vs 20% male athletes reported currently taking NSAIDs. Of athletes that reported pain, 46% female vs 38% male athletes currently took NSAIDs. 70% female vs 61% male athletes self-purchased NSAIDs, and 40% female vs 55% male athletes consumed alcohol. Conclusions Half of female athletes and one in three male athletes reported pain. Most commonly back, knee and foot/ankle pain and knee, back and shoulder pain was reported in female and male athletes respectively. One in four female athletes and one in five male athletes use NSAIDs for pain or prophylactic purpose. Majority self-purchase these medications indicating need for health literacy interventions to mitigate potential adverse effects.

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  • 13.
    Dedering, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Halvorsen, Marie
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cleland, Joshua
    Franklin Pierce University, Denver, CO, USA .
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neck-specific training with a cognitive behavioural approach compared with prescribed physical activity in patients with cervical radiculopathy: a protocol of a prospective randomised clinical trial2014In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 15, no 274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with cervical radiculopathy often have neck- and arm pain, neurological changes, activity limitations and difficulties in returning to work. Most patients are not candidates for surgery but are often treated with different conservative approaches and may be sick-listed for long periods. The purpose of the current study is to compare the effectiveness of neck- specific training versus prescribed physical activity. Methods/Design: The current protocol is a two armed intervention randomised clinical trial comparing the outcomes of patients receiving neck specific training or prescribed physical activity. A total of 144 patients with cervical radiculopathy will be randomly allocated to either of the two interventions. The interventions will be delivered by experienced physiotherapists and last 14 weeks. The primary outcome variable is neck- and arm pain intensity measured with a Visual Analogue Scale accompanied with secondary outcome measures of impairments and subjective health measurements collected before intervention and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after base-line assessment. Discussion: We anticipate that the results of this study will provide evidence to support recommendations as to the effectiveness of conservative interventions for patients with cervical radiculopathy.

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  • 14.
    Flodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Rolander, B.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Futurum, Sweden.
    Lofgren, H.
    Ryhov Hosp, Sweden.
    Krapi, Blerim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Nyqvist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute for Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk factors for neck pain among forklift truck operators: a retrospective cohort study2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    No previous research has been performed into neck pain among forklift operators. This is a common complaint among these workers, who number around 150,000 in Sweden and six million in Europe. The aim of the study was to examine long-term exposure to unnatural neck positions among forklift operators as a risk factor for neck pain.

    Methods

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all eligible employees at a high-level warehouse. Forklift operators and office workers answered an 18-page questionnaire comprising questions about joint pain, work tasks, work postures and year of start for all items. By using person years in the exposed and less-exposed groups before start of neck pain we were able to calculate Incident Rate ratios for various exposures.

    Results

    Forty nine percent of the forklift operators reported having experienced neck pain compared to 30 % of office workers. Being a forklift operator was associated with an increased risk of neck pain (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 1.4–18.2). Holding the head in an unnatural position resulted in significantly increased risks for neck pain, irrespective of type of position. The risks for neck pain remained after taking other ergonomic exposures and psychosocial aspects into consideration.

    Conclusions

    This is the first published study showing that forklift operators have an increased risk of neck pain. The results are therefore of significance for improving work schedules, the adjustment of work tasks for these workers and the design of the vehicles.

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  • 15.
    Fors, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abbott, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Effects of pre-surgery physiotherapy on walking ability and lower extremity strength in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: Secondary outcomes of the PREPARE randomised controlled trial2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1article id 468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Degenerative lumbar spine disorders are common among musculoskeletal disorders. When disabling pain and radiculopathy persists after adequate course of rehabilitation and imaging confirms compressive pathology, surgical decompression is indicated. Prehabilitation aiming to augment functional capacity pre-surgery may improve physical function and activity levels pre and post-surgery. This study aims to evaluate the effect and dose-response of pre-surgery physiotherapy on quadriceps femoris strength and walking ability in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders compared to waiting-list controls and their association with postoperative physical activity level.

    Method

    In this single blinded, 2-arm randomised controlled trial, 197 patients were consecutively recruited. Inclusion criteria were: MRI confirmed diagnosis and scheduled for surgery due to disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis, ages 25-80 years. Patients were randomised to 9 weeks of pre-surgery physiotherapy or to waiting-list. Patient reported physical activity level, walking ability according to Oswestry Disability Index item 4, walking distance according to the SWESPINE national register and physical outcome measures including the timed ten-meter walk test, maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps femoris muscle strength, patient-rated were collected at baseline and follow-up. Parametric or non-parametric within and between group comparisons as well as multivariate regression was performed.

    Results

    Patients who received pre-surgery physiotherapy significantly improved in all variables from baseline to follow-up (p < 0.001 – p < 0.05) and in comparison to waiting-list controls (p < 0.001 – p < 0.028). Patients adhering to ≥12 treatment sessions significantly improved in all variables (p < 0.001 – p < 0.032) and those receiving 0-11 treatment session in only normal walking speed (p0.035) but there were no significant differences when comparing dosages. Physical outcome measures after pre-surgery physiotherapy together significantly explain 27.5% of the variation in physical activity level 1 year after surgery with pre-surgery physical activity level having a significant multivariate association.

    Conclusion

    Pre-surgery physiotherapy increased walking ability and lower extremity strength in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders compared to waiting-list controls. A clear treatment dose-response response relationship was not found. These results implicate that pre-surgery physiotherapy can influence functional capacity before surgical treatment and has moderate associations with maintained postoperative physical activity levels mostly explained by physical activity level pre-surgery.

    Trial registration

    NCT02454400. Trial registration date: August 31st 2015, retrospectively registered.

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  • 16.
    Gerdle, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Björk, Jonas
    Competence Centre for Clinical Research Lund University Hospital.
    Cöster, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Henriksson, Chris
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Bengtsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Prevalence of widespread pain and associations with work status: A population study2008In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. This population study based on a representative sample from a Swedish county investigates the prevalence, duration, and determinants of widespread pain (WSP) in the population using two constructs and estimates how WSP affects work status. In addition, this study investigates the prevalence of widespread pain and its relationship to pain intensity, gender, age, income, work status, citizenship, civil status, urban residence, and health care seeking. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using a postal questionnaire was sent to a representative sample (n = 9952) of the target population (284,073 people, 18-74 years) in a county (Östergötland) in the southern Sweden. The questionnaire was mailed and followed by two postal reminders when necessary. Results. The participation rate was 76.7% (n = 7637), the non-participants were on the average younger, earned less money, and male. Women had higher prevalences of pain in 10 different predetermined anatomical regions. WSP was generally chronic (90-94%) and depending on definition of WSP the prevalence varied between 4.8-7.4% in the population. Women had significantly higher prevalence of WSP than men and the age effect appeared to be stronger in women than in men. WSP was a significant negative factor - together with age 50-64 years, low annual income, and non-Nordic citizen - for work status in the community and in the group with chronic pain. Chronic pain but not the spreading of pain was related to health care seeking in the population. Conclusion. This study confirms earlier studies that report high prevalences of widespread pain in the population and especially among females and with increasing age. Widespread pain is associated with prominent effects on work status. © 2008 Gerdle et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 17.
    Gerdle, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Gronlund, Christer
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Karlsson, Stefan J
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Roeleveld, Karin
    Norwegian University Science and Technology.
    Altered neuromuscular control mechanisms of the trapezius muscle in fibromyalgia2010In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 11, no 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: fibromyalgia is a relatively common condition with widespread pain and pressure allodynia, but unknown aetiology. For decades, the association between motor control strategies and chronic pain has been a topic for debate. One long held functional neuromuscular control mechanism is differential activation between regions within a single muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neuromuscular control, i.e. differential activation, between myalgic trapezius in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Methods: 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 healthy controls performed 3 minutes bilateral shoulder elevations with different loads (0-4 Kg) with a high-density surface electromyographical (EMG) grid placed above the upper trapezius. Differential activation was quantified by the power spectral median frequency of the difference in EMG amplitude between the cranial and caudal parts of the upper trapezius. The average duration of the differential activation was described by the inverse of the median frequency of the differential activations. Results: the median frequency of the differential activations was significantly lower, and the average duration of the differential activations significantly longer in fibromyalgia compared with controls at the two lowest load levels (0-1 Kg) (p andlt; 0.04), but not at the two highest load levels (2 and 4 Kg). Conclusion: these findings illustrate a different neuromuscular control between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls during a low load functional task, either sustaining or resulting from the chronic painful condition. The findings may have clinical relevance for rehabilitation strategies for fibromyalgia.

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  • 18.
    Gerdle, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre Working Environm, Denmark.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Saltin, Bengt
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sogaard, Karen
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Sjogaard, Gisela
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Algogenic substances and metabolic status in work-related Trapezius Myalgia: a multivariate explorative study2014In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 15, no 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study compares the levels of algesic substances between subjects with trapezius myalgia (TM) and healthy controls (CON) and explores the multivariate correlation pattern between these substances, pain, and metabolic status together with relative blood flow changes reported in our previous paper (Eur J Appl Physiol 108: 657-669, 2010). Methods: 43 female workers with (TM) and 19 females without (CON) trapezius myalgia were - using microdialysis - compared for differences in interstitial concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), bradykinin (BKN), serotonin (5-HT), lactate dehydrogenas (LDH), substance P, and N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PINP) in the trapezius muscle at rest and during repetitive/stressful work. These data were also used in multivariate analyses together with previously presented data (Eur J Appl Physiol 108: 657-669, 2010): trapezius muscle blood flow, metabolite accumulation, oxygenation, and pain development and sensitivity. Results: Substance P was significantly elevated in TM (p=0.0068). No significant differences were found in the classical algesic substances (p: 0.432-0.926). The multivariate analysis showed that blood flow related variables, interstitial concentrations of metabolic (pyruvate), and algesic (BKN and K+) substances were important for the discrimination of the subjects to one of the two groups (R-2: 0.19-0.31, pless than0.05). Pain intensity was positively associated with levels of 5-HT and K+ and negatively associated with oxygenation indicators and IL-6 in TM (R-2: 0.24, pless than0.05). A negative correlation existed in TM between mechanical pain sensitivity of trapezius and BKN and IL-6 (R-2: 0.26-0.39, pless than0.05). Conclusion: The present study increased understanding alterations in the myalgic muscle. When considering the system-wide aspects, increased concentrations of lactate, pyruvate and K+ and decreased oxygenation characterized TM compared to CON. There are three major possible explanations for this finding: the workers with pain had relatively low severity of myalgia, metabolic alterations preceded detectable alterations in levels of algesics, or peripheral sensitization and other muscle alterations existed in TM. Only SP of the investigated algesic substances was elevated in TM. Several of the algesics were of importance for the levels of pain intensity and mechanical pain sensitivity in TM. These results indicate peripheral contribution to maintenance of central nociceptive and pain mechanisms and may be important to consider when designing treatments.

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  • 19.
    Gerdle, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Molander, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weak outcome predictors of multimodal rehabilitation at one-year follow-up in patients with chronic pain-a practice based evidence study from two SQRP centres.2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic pain, the heterogeneity of clinical presentations makes it difficult to identify patients who would benefit from multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRP). Yet, there is limited knowledge regarding the predictors of MMRP's outcomes. This study identifies predictors of outcome of MMRPs at a 12-month follow-up (FU-12) based on data from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP).

    METHODS: Patients with chronic pain from two clinical departments in Sweden completed the SQRP questionnaires-background, pain characteristics, psychological symptoms, function, activity/participation, health and quality of life-on three occasions: 1) during their first visit; 2) immediately after the completion of their MMRP; and 3) 12 months after completing the MMRP (n = 227). During the FU-12, the patients also retrospectively reported their global impressions of any changes in their perception of pain and their ability to handle their life situation in general.

    RESULTS: Significant improvements were found for pain, psychological symptoms, activity/participation, health, and quality of life aspects with low/medium strong effects. A general pattern was observed from the analyses of the changes from baseline to FU-12; the largest improvements in outcomes were significantly associated with poor situations according to their respective baseline scores. Although significant regressors of the investigated outcomes were found, the significant predictors were weak and explained a minor part of the variation in outcomes (15-25%). At the FU-12, 53.6% of the patients reported that their pain had decreased and 80.1% reported that their life situation in general had improved. These improvements were associated with high education, low pain intensity, high health level, and work importance (only pain perception). The explained variations were low (9-11%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Representing patients in real-world clinical settings, this study confirmed systematic reviews that outcomes of MMRP are associated with broad positive effects. A mix of background and baseline variables influenced the outcomes investigated, but the explained variations in outcomes were low. There is still a need to develop standardized and relatively simple outcomes that can be used to evaluate MMRP in trials, in clinical evaluations at group level, and for individual patients.

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  • 20.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Department Research and Dev, Sweden.
    Thelin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Biomarkers of lsystemic inflammation in farmers with musculoskeletal disorders; a plasma proteomic study2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, no 206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Farmers have an increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) such as osteoarthritis of the hip, low back pain, and neck and upper limb complaints. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Workrelated exposures and inflammatory responses might be involved. Our objective was to identify plasma proteins that differentiated farmers with MSD from rural referents. Methods: Plasma samples from 13 farmers with MSD and rural referents were included in the investigation. Gel based proteomics was used for protein analysis and proteins that differed significantly between the groups were identified by mass spectrometry. Results: In total, 15 proteins differed significantly between the groups. The levels of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein, haptoglobin, complement factor B, serotransferrin, one isoform of kininogen, one isoform of alpha-1-antitrypsin, and two isoforms of hemopexin were higher in farmers with MSD than in referents. On the other hand, the levels of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein, apolipoprotein A1, antithrombin, one isoform of kininogen, and one isoform of alpha-1-antitrypsin were lower in farmers than in referents. Many of the identified proteins are known to be involved in inflammation. Conclusions: Farmers with MSD had altered plasma levels of protein biomarkers compared to the referents, indicating that farmers with MSD may be subject to a more systemic inflammation. It is possible that the identified differences of proteins may give clues to the biochemical changes occurring during the development and progression of MSD in farmers, and that one or several of these protein biomarkers might eventually be used to identify and prevent work-related MSD.

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  • 21.
    Ghafouri, Nazdar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Dragioti, Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Fischer, Marcelo Rivano
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Ringqvist, Asa
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Effects of interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation programs on neuropathic and non-neuropathic chronic pain conditions - a registry-based cohort study from Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP)2023In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aimNeuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system. Pharmacological treatments for neuropathic pain often fail despite following guidelines. Interdisciplinary Pain Rehabilitation Programs (IPRP) are an effective intervention for chronic pain conditions. Little research has investigated whether IPRP can benefit patients with chronic neuropathic pain compared to other chronic pain conditions.This study assesses the real-world effects of IPRP on patients with chronic neuropathic pain compared to non-neuropathic patients using Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) available in the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP).MethodsA neuropathic group of patients (n = 1,654) were identified in two steps. This group was compared to a non-neuropathic group (n = 14,355) composed of common diagnoses (low back pain, fibromyalgia, whiplash associated disorders, and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome) in relation to background variables, three overall outcome variables, and mandatory outcome variables (pain intensity, psychological distress symptoms, activity/participation aspects and health-related quality of life variables). Of these patients 43-44% participated in IPRP.ResultsAt assessment, the neuropathic group reported significantly (with small effect sizes (ES)) more physician visits the previous year, older age, shorter pain durations, and less spatial extent of the pain (moderate ES). Moreover, for the 22 mandatory outcome variables, we found only clinically insignificant differences according to ESs between the groups. For patients participating in IPRP, the neuropathic group displayed equal or in some cases slightly superior results compared to the non-neuropathic group.Discussion and conclusionAfter assessing the real-world effects of IPRP, this large study found that neuropathic pain patients can benefit from the IPRP intervention. Both registry studies and RCTs are needed to better understand which patients with neuropathic pain are most suitable for IPRP and to what extent special considerations need to be made for these patients within the framework of IPRP.

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  • 22.
    Grimby-Ekman, A.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahlstrand, C.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Sanden, H.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds after a light dynamic physical load in patients with chronic neck-shoulder pain2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background To investigate the development of pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds during and 24 h after a light dynamic physical load among patients with chronic neck-shoulder pain. Methods Twenty-six patients with chronic neck-shoulder pain and 12 healthy controls were included. The participants arm-cycled on an ergometer. Effort was rated with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion scale (RPE), and pain intensity with an numeric rating scale (NRS). Pressure pain thresholds were measured by an algometer. Participants started a pain diary 1 week before the physical exercise and continued until 1 week after. Pain intensity was assessed before, during and the following two evenings after arm-cycling. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed before, 15 min after, 105 min after and 24 h after. Results The chronic pain group showed increased pain intensity during, and the following two evenings after the arm cycling, and decreased pain thresholds immediately after the arm cycling involving painful regions. In the patient group there were no impact on pain thresholds in the neck the following day. Conclusions Patients with chronic neck-shoulder pain reported increased pain intensity during and in the evenings after a light dynamic load involving painful regions. In addition, they showed decreased pain thresholds close to the exercise, indicating mechanical hyperalgesia.

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  • 23.
    Grimby-Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Bjork, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Comorbidities, intensity, frequency and duration of pain, daily functioning and health care seeking in local, regional, and widespread pain-a descriptive population-based survey (SwePain)2015In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 16, no 165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The clinical knowledge of factors related to the spread of pain on the body has increased and understanding these factors is essential for effective pain treatment. This population-based study examines local (LP), regional (RP), and widespread pain (WSP) on the body regarding comorbidities, pain aspects, and impact of pain and elucidates how the spread of pain varies over time. Material and methods: A postal questionnaire that addressed pain aspects (intensity, frequency, duration and anatomical spreading on a body manikin), comorbidities and implications of pain (i.e., work situation, physical activity, consumption of health care and experience of hospitality and treatment of health care) was sent to 9000 adults living in southeastern Sweden. Of these, 4774 (53 %) completed and returned the questionnaire. After 9 weeks, a follow-up questionnaire was sent to the 2983 participants who reported pain in the first questionnaire (i.e. 62 % of 4774 subjects). Of these, 1940 completed and returned the questionnaire (i.e. 65 % of 2983 subjects). The follow-up questionnaire included the same items as the first questionnaire. Results: This study found differences in intensity, frequency and duration of pain, comorbidities, aspects of daily functioning and health care seeking in three pain categories based on spreading of pain: LP, RP and WSP. Compared to the participants with RP and LP, the participants with WSP had lower education and worse overall health, including more frequent heart disease and hypertension. In addition, participants with WSP had more intense, frequent, and long-standing pain, required more medical consultations, and experienced more impact on work. The participants with RP constituted an intermediate group regarding frequency and intensity of pain, and impact on work. The participants with LP were the least affected group regarding these factors. A substantial transition to RP had occurred by the 9-week follow-up. Conclusions: This study shows an association between increased spread of pain and prevalence of heart disease, hypertension, more severe pain characteristics (i.e., intensity, frequency and duration), problems with common daily activities and increased health care seeking. The WSP group was the most affected group and the LP group was the least affected group. Regarding these factors, RP was an obvious intermediate group. The transitions between the pain categories warrant research that broadly investigates factors that increase and decrease pain.

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  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Marit
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Futurum Acad Hlth and Care Reg Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Leif E.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rolfson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic status of patients in a Swedish national self-management program for osteoarthritis compared with the general population: a descriptive observational study2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    First-line treatment for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) including education and supervised exercises, delivered as a self-management program, is considered one of the mainstays in OA treatment. However, the socioeconomic profile of the population that utilizes first-line treatment for hip and knee OA is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the socioeconomic status (SES) of a population referred to a self-management program for OA, in comparison with that of the general Swedish population.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study including 72,069 patients with hip or knee OA enrolled in the National Quality Register for Better management of patients with Osteoarthritis (BOA) between 2008 and 2016, and registered before participation in a structured OA self-management program. A reference cohort (n = 216,207) was selected from the general Swedish population by one-to-three matching by year of birth, sex and residence. Residential municipality, country of birth, marital status, family type, educational level, employment, occupation, disposable income and sick leave were analyzed.

    Results

    The BOA population had higher educational level than the reference group, both regarding patients with hip OA (77.5% vs 70% with ≥10 years of education), and with knee OA (77% vs 72% with ≥10 years of education). Their average disposable income was higher (median [IQR] in Euro (€), for hip €17,442 [10,478] vs €15,998 [10,659], for knee €17,794 [10,574] vs €16,578 [11,221]). Of those who worked, 46% of patients with hip OA and 45% of the reference group had a blue-collar occupation. The corresponding numbers for knee OA were 51 and 44% respectively. Sick leave was higher among those with hip and knee OA (26%) than those in the reference groups (13% vs 12%).

    Conclusions

    The consistently higher SES in the BOA population compared with the general population indicates that this self-management program for OA may not reach the more socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who are often those with a higher disease burden.

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  • 25.
    Hallberg, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammerby, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Radiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Toss, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Health-related quality of life after vertebral or hip fracture: a seven-year follow-up study2009In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 10, no 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The negative impact of vertebral and hip low-energy fractures on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) has been demonstrated previously, but few prospective long-term follow-up studies have been conducted. This study aims to (i) investigate the changes and long-term impact of vertebral or hip fracture and between fracture groups on HRQOL in postmenopausal women prospectively between two and seven years after the inclusion fracture, (ii) compare HRQOL results between fracture and reference groups and (iii) study the relationship between HRQOL and physical performance, spinal deformity index and bone mineral density at seven-year follow-up.

    Methods

    Ninety-one women examined two years after a low-energy vertebral or hip fracture were invited to a new examination seven years after the diagnosis. HRQOL was examined using the SF-36 questionnaire and was compared with an age and sex-matched reference group. Physical function was assessed using tests and questionnaires. Bone mineral density was measured. Radiographs of the spine were evaluated using the visual semiquantitative technique. A longitudinal and cross-sectional design was used in this study. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, Student’s t-tests, ANCOVA, and partial correlation.

    Results

    Sixty-seven women participated. In the 42 women (mean age 75.8, SD 4.7) with vertebral fracture as inclusion fracture, bodily pain had deteriorated between two and seven years and might be explained by new fracture. Remaining pronounced reduction of HRQOL was seen in all domains except general health and mental health at seven-year follow-up in women with vertebral fractures compared to the reference group (p<0.05). All 25 women (mean age 75.0, SD 4.7) with hip fracture as inclusion fracture had no significant changes in HRQOL between two and seven years and did not differ from the reference group regarding HRQOL after seven years. The vertebral group had significantly lower values for bodily pain, vitality, role-emotional function and mental health compared to the hip group. HRQOL showed a positive relationship between physical activity, static balance and handgrip strength.

    Conclusions

    The long-term reduction of HRQOL in women with vertebral fracture emerged clearly in this study. The relationships between HRQOL and physical performance in women with vertebral and hip fracture raise questions for more research.

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  • 26.
    Hermansen, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Hedlund, Rune
    Nacka Specialistsjukhus, Sweden.
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A more than 20-year follow-up of pain and disability after anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery for degenerative disc disease and comparisons between two surgical techniques2023In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundFollow-ups more than 20 years after neck surgery are extremely rare. No previous randomized studies have investigated differences in pain and disability more than 20 years after ACDF surgery using different techniques. The purpose of this study was to describe pain and functioning more than 20 years after anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery, and to compare outcomes between the Cloward Procedure and the carbon fiber fusion cage (CIFC).MethodsThis study is a 20 to 24-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Questionnaires were sent to 64 individuals, at least 20 years after ACDF due to cervical radiculopathy. Fifty individuals (mean age 69, 60% women, 55% CIFC) completed questionnaires. Mean time since surgery was 22.4 years (range 20,5-24). Primary outcomes were neck pain and neck disability index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were frequency and intensity of neck and arm pain, headache, dizziness, self-efficacy, health related quality of life or global outcome. Clinically relevant improvements were defined as 30 mm decrease in pain and a decrease in disability of 20 percentage units. Between-group differences over time were analyzed with mixed design ANOVA and relationships between main outcomes and psychosocial factors were analyzed by Spearman s rho.ResultsNeck pain and NDI score significantly improved over time (p &lt; .001), with no group differences in primary or secondary outcomes. Eighty-eight per cent of participants experienced improvements or full recovery, 71% (pain) and 41% (NDI) had clinically relevant improvements. Pain and NDI were correlated with lower self-efficacy and quality of life.ConclusionThe results from this study do not support the idea that fusion technique affects long-term outcome of ACDF. Pain and disability improved substantially over time, irrespective of surgical technique. However, the majority of participants reported residual disability not to a negligible extent. Pain and disability were correlated to lower self-efficacy and quality of life.

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  • 27.
    Herngren, Bengt
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stenmarker, Margaretha
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Vavruch, Ludek
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hagglund, Gunnar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: a population-based study2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is the most common hip disorder in children 9-15 years old. This is a population-based study in Sweden presenting the epidemiology for SCFE. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, we analysed pre- and postoperative radiographs, medical records for all children treated for SCFE in Sweden 2007-2013, demographic data, severity of slip and surgical procedures performed. Results: We identified 379 Swedish children with primary SCFE 2007-2013; 162 girls, median age 11.7 (7.2-15.4) years, and 217 boys, median age 13 (3.8-17.7) years. The average annual incidence was 4.4/10000 for girls and 5.7/10000 for boys 9-15 years old. Obesity or overweight was found in 56% of the girls and in 76% of the boys. As an initial symptom, 66% of the children had hip/groin pain and 12% knee pain. At first presentation, 7% of the children had bilateral SCFE. Prophylactic fixation was performed in 43%. Of the remaining children, 21% later developed a contralateral slip. Fixation with implants permitting further growth was used in amp;gt;90% of the children. Femoral neck osteotomy was performed for 11 hips. Conclusions: The annual average incidence 2007-2013 in Sweden showed a mild increase for girls. The male-to-female ratio was lower than previous regional data from Sweden. Overweight or obesity is one major characteristic for boys with SCFE but to a less extent for girls. Knee pain as initial symptom cause a delay in diagnosis. Most hospitals in Sweden treat amp;lt;2 children annually.

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  • 28.
    Hägglund, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Atroshi, Isam
    Hassleholm Hospital.
    Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players - design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595]2009In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 10, no 75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods: In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters) in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13-17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams) or a control group (256 teams). The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October) and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1) baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2) computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3) injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion) and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks). Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion: Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to be effective in reducing the incidence of knee injury, it can have a major impact by reducing the future knee injury burden in female football as well as the negative long-term disabilities associated with knee injury.

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  • 29.
    Istefan, Emanuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Belstock, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Nyman, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Surgery of Schwannoma in the upper limb - sensitivity and specificity of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and relation between tumour size and symptoms2023In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Benign peripheral nerve tumours consist of different types, most commonly Schwannomas. Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is commonly performed before surgery and Pathoanatomical Diagnosis (PAD) confirms the diagnosis. Our aims were to study the utility of MRI and the relation between tumour size and symptoms.Methods Retrospectively, patients, surgically treated for benign nerve tumours between 2008 and 2019, were identified and preoperative MRI, with measurement of tumour size, PAD, symptoms, peroperative details, and symptomatic outcomes of surgery, were analysed.Results The sensitivity and specificity to correctly identify Schwannomas with preoperative MRI were 85% and 50%, respectively, based on 30 Schwannomas and nine neurofibromas that were identified. Tumour size did not affect the presence of preoperative symptoms, but patients with sensory dysfunction at last follow-up had larger Schwannomas (p &lt; 0.05). Symptoms as a palpable tumour, paraesthesia and pain improved by surgical excision (p &lt; 0.001, p &lt; 0.001 and p &lt; 0.012, respectively), but sensory and motor dysfunction were common postoperatively. No malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) were found. Using a surgical microscope, instead of only loop magnification, lowered the risk of perioperative nerve injuries (p &lt; 0.05), but did not further diminish postoperative symptoms.Conclusions Early and accurate diagnosis of Schwannomas is valuable for adequate presurgical preparation and prompt surgical intervention. Preoperative examination with MRI has a high sensitivity, but low specificity; although recent advancement in MRI technology indicates improvement in diagnostic precision. Surgical excision is preferably performed early in conjunction with symptomatic debut to improve outcome.

  • 30.
    Karlsson, Linn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    Finnish Institute Occupat Heatlh, Finland .
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Evaluation of pain and function after two home exercise programs in a clinical trial on women with chronic neck pain - with special emphasises on completers and responders2014In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 15, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different types of exercises can help manage chronic neck pain. Supervised exercise interventions are widely used, but these protocols require substantial resources. The aim of this trial, which focused on adherence, was to evaluate two home exercise interventions. Methods: This parallel group randomized controlled trial included 57 women randomly allocated into two groups - a strength training group (STRENGTH, 34 subjects) and a stretching group (STRETCH, 23 subjects). The interventions focused on the neck and shoulder muscles and lasted for 12 months. The STRENGTH group performed weight training and ended each session with stretching exercises. These stretching exercises constituted the entirety of the STRETCH groups training session. Both groups were instructed to exercise three times per week. All the participants kept an exercise diary. In addition, all participants were offered support via phone and e-mail. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and function. The trial included a four-to six-month and a twelve-month follow-up. A completer in this study exercised at least 1,5 times per week during eight unbroken weeks. A responder in this study reported clinically significant improvements on pain and function. The statistical analyses used the Mann Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and X-2 test. Results: At four-to six-months, the numbers of completers were 19 in the STRENGTH group and 17 in the STRETCH group. At twelve months, the corresponding numbers were 11 (STRENGTH) and 10 (STRETCH). At four-to six-months, the proportions of subjects reporting clinically important changes (STRENGTH and STRETCH) were for neck pain: 47% and 41%, shoulder pain: 47% and 47%, function: 37% and 29%. At twelve months, the corresponding numbers were for neck pain: 45% and 40%, shoulder pain: 55% and 50%, function: 55% and 20%. Conclusions: No differences in the two primary outcomes between the two interventions were found, a finding that may be due to the insufficient statistical power of the study. Both interventions based on home exercises improved the two primary outcomes, but the adherences were relatively low. Future studies should investigate ways to improve adherence to home exercise treatments.

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  • 31.
    Kashfi, Pegah
    et al.
    Univ Social Welf and Rehabil Sci, Iran.
    Karimi, Noureddin
    Univ Social Welf and Rehabil Sci, Iran.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rahnama, Leila
    Univ Social Welf and Rehabil Sci, Iran; Univ North Georgia, GA 30597 USA.
    The effects of deep neck muscle-specific training versus general exercises on deep neck muscle thickness, pain and disability in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain: protocol for a randomized clinical trial (RCT)2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundAltered thickness, cross-sectional area and activity of deep neck muscles have frequently been reported in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain (CNNP). It is claimed that these muscles do not recover spontaneously. These muscles provide a considerable amount of cervical stability. Therefore, various therapeutic exercises have been recommended to recover from resulting complications. However, most exercise protocols do not target deep neck muscles directly. Thus, this might be a reason for long-lasting complications. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study is to discuss a randomized controlled trial (RCT) protocol in which we aim to investigate and compare the effects of neck-specific exercise programmes versus general exercise programmes in patients with CNNP.MethodsA 2*2 factorial RCT with before-after design. Sixty-four participants with CNNP will be recruited into the study. They will be randomly divided into two groups, including specific neck exercise and general exercise. Each exercise programme will be carried out three times a week and will last for 8 weeks. Primarily, dorsal and ventral neck muscle thickness, pain and disability and secondarily, muscle strength, quality of life, sleep quality, fear avoidance and neck range of motion will be assessed at the baseline and immediately at the end of the exercise protocol.DiscussionThe results of this study will inform clinicians on which type of exercise is more beneficial for patients with CNNP.

  • 32.
    Kjaer, Per
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark; Univ Coll Lillebaelt, Denmark.
    Kongsted, Alice
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark; Nord Inst Chiropract and Clin Biomech, Denmark.
    Ris, Inge
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Abbott, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Norregaard
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Denmark.
    Roos, Ewa M.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Skou, Soren T.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark; Naestved Slagelse Ringsted Hosp, Denmark.
    Andersen, Tonny Elmose
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Hartvigsen, Jan
    Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark; Nord Inst Chiropract and Clin Biomech, Denmark.
    GLA:D-(R) Back group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of back pain- development, theories and scientific evidence-2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, article id 418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundClinical guidelines recommend that people with back pain be given information and education about their back pain, advice to remain active and at work, and exercises to improve mobility and physical activity. Guidelines, however, rarely describe how this is best delivered. The aim of this paper is to present the development, theories, and underlying evidence for GLA:D Back - a group education and exercise program that translates guideline recommendations into a clinician-delivered program for the promotion of self-management in people with persistent/recurrent back pain.MethodsGLA:D Back, which included a rationale and objectives for the program, theory and evidence for the interventions, and program materials, was developed using an iterative process. The content of patient education and exercise programs tested in randomised trials was extracted and a multidisciplinary team of expert researchers and clinicians prioritised common elements hypothesised to improve back pain beliefs and management skills. The program was tested on eight people with persistent back pain in a university clinic and 152 patients from nine primary care physiotherapy and chiropractic clinics. Following feedback from the clinicians and patients involved, the working version of the program was created.ResultsEducational components included pain mechanisms, pain modulation, active coping strategies, imaging, physical activity, and exercise that emphasised a balance between the sum of demands and the individuals capacity. These were operationalised in PowerPoint presentations with supporting text to aid clinicians in delivering two one-hour patient education lectures.The exercise program included 16 supervised one-hour sessions over 8weeks, each comprising a warm-up section and eight types of exercises for general flexibility and strengthening of six different muscle groups at four levels of difficulty. The aims of the exercises were to improve overall back fitness and, at the same time, encourage patients to explore variations in movement by incorporating education content into the exercise sessions.ConclusionFrom current best evidence about prognostic factors in back pain and effective treatments for back pain, research and clinical experts developed a ready-to-use structured program - GLA:D (R) Back - to support self-management for people with persistent/recurrent back pain.

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  • 33.
    Kragh, Annika M
    et al.
    Hassleholm Hospital.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Apelqvist, Anna
    Hassleholm Hospital.
    Wagner, Philippe
    Lund University.
    Atroshi, Isam
    Hassleholm Hospital.
    Bleeding and first-year mortality following hip fracture surgery and preoperative use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: an observational cohort study2011In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 12, no 254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hip fracture is associated with high mortality. Cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities requiring long-term anticoagulant medication are common in these mostly elderly patients. The objective of our observational cohort study of patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture was to study the association between preoperative use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LdAA) and intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion and first-year all-cause mortality. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: An observational cohort study was conducted on patients with hip fracture (cervical requiring hemiarthroplasty or pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric requiring internal fixation) participating in a randomized trial that found lack of efficacy of a compression bandage in reducing postoperative bleeding. The participants were 255 patients (andgt;= 50 years) of whom 118 (46%) were using LdAA (defined as andlt;= 320 mg daily) preoperatively. Bleeding variables in patients with and without LdAA treatment at time of fracture were measured and blood transfusions given were compared using logistic regression. The association between first-year mortality and preoperative use of LdAA was analyzed with Cox regression adjusting for age, sex, type of fracture, baseline renal dysfunction and baseline cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Blood transfusions were given postoperatively to 74 (62.7%) LdAA-treated and 76 (54%) non-treated patients; the adjusted odds ratio was 1.8 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.3). First-year mortality was significantly higher in LdAA-treated patients; the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 2.35 (95% CI 1.23 to 4.49). The mortality was also higher with baseline cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular disease, adjusted HR 2.78 (95% CI 1.31 to 5.88). Patients treated with LdAA preoperatively were significantly more likely to suffer thromboembolic events (5.7% vs. 0.7%, P = 0.03). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: In patients with hip fracture (cervical treated with hemiarthroplasty or pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric treated with internal fixation) preoperative use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid was associated with significantly increased need for postoperative blood transfusions and significantly higher all-cause mortality during one year after surgery.

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  • 34.
    Larsson, Anette
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palstam, Annie
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bjersing, Jan
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Lofgren, Monika
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Danderyd Hosp, Sweden.
    Ernberg, Malin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; SCON, Sweden.
    Kosek, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Spine Ctr, Sweden.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Mannerkorpi, Kaisa
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Controlled, cross-sectional, multi-center study of physical capacity and associated factors in women with fibromyalgia2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health and physical capacity are commonly associated with disease, age, and socioeconomic factors. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which physical capacity, defined as muscle strength and walking ability, is decreased in women with fibromyalgia (FM), as compared to healthy women, who are matched for age and level of education. The secondary aim was to investigate whether muscle strength and walking ability are associated with age, symptom duration, activity limitations and, Body Mass Index (BMI) in women with FM and control subjects. Methods: This controlled, cross-sectional, multi-center study comprised 118 women with FM and 93 age-and education-level-matched healthy women. The outcome measures were isometric knee-extension force, isometric elbow-flexion force, isometric hand-grip force, and walking ability. Differences between the groups were calculated, and for the women with FM analyses of correlations between the measures of physical capacity and variables were performed. Results: The women with FM showed 20% (p amp;lt; 0.001) lower isometric knee-extension force, 36% (p amp;lt; 0.001) lower isometric elbow-flexion force, 34% (p amp;lt; 0.001) lower isometric hand-grip force, and 16% lower walking ability (p amp;lt; 0.001), as compared to the healthy controls. All measures of muscle strength in women with FM showed significant weak to moderate relationship to symptom duration (r(s) = -0.23-0.32) and walking ability (r(s) = 0.25-0.36). Isometric knee-extension force correlated with activity limitations, as measured using the SF-36 Physical function subscale (r(s)= 0.23, p = 0.011). Conclusions: Physical capacity was considerably decreased in the women with FM, as compared to the age-and education-level-matched control group. All measures of physical capacity showed a significant association with symptom duration. Knee-extension force and walking ability were significantly associated with activity limitations, age, and BMI. It seems important to address this problem and to target interventions to prevent decline in muscle strength. Assessments of muscle strength and walking ability are easy to administer and should be routinely carried out in the clinical setting for women with FM.

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  • 35.
    Larsson, Sara L.
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Brogren, Elisabeth
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Björkman, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, Elisabeth
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in wrist osteoarthritis: test-retest reliability and construct validity2022In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are frequently used to assess the effects of treatments in patients with wrist osteoarthritis (OA), but their psychometric properties have not been evaluated in this group of patients. Our aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS pain at rest, pain on motion without load, and pain on load), the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) questionnaires in patients with wrist OA regarding test-retest reliability and construct validity. Methods The NRS, DASH and PRWE were self-administered by 50 patients (40 men and 10 women, mean age 66 years) in a postal survey on two occasions, two weeks apart. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics and the Spearman rank correlation coefficients (rho) were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results The Kappa coefficients for DASH, PRWE and NRS pain on motion without load and NRS pain on load were > 0.90, 95% CI ranging from 0.84 to 0.98, while NRS pain at rest was 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.92. The construct validity of the PROMs was confirmed by three formulated hypotheses: a higher correlation between PRWE and NRS (rho 0.80-0.91, p < 0.001) was found, compared to DASH and NRS (rho 0.68-0.80, p < 0.001); the NRS pain on motion without load and NRS pain on load correlated more strongly to PRWE and DASH (rho 0.71-0.91, p < 0.001) compared to NRS pain at rest (rho 0.68-0.80) and a high correlation between PRWE and DASH was found (rho 0.86, p < 0.001). Conclusions The NRS, DASH and PRWE demonstrate excellent test-retest reliability and moderate to high construct validity in patients with wrist OA. These PROMs are highly related, but they also differ. Therefore, they complement each other in ensuring a comprehensive evaluation of perceived disability in wrist OA. As PRWE showed the highest test-retest reliability and the highest relation to the other PROMs, the sole use of the PRWE can be recommended in clinical practice.

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  • 36.
    Larsson, Sara L.
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Ekstrand, Elisabeth
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Bjoerkman, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brogren, Elisabeth
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Effects of a neuromuscular joint-protective exercise therapy program for treatment of wrist osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial2024In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 25, no 1, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIndividuals with wrist osteoarthritis (OA) can suffer from pain, muscular weakness, and impaired motion of the wrist, which can reduce the quality of life. While there is strong evidence that all patients with OA should receive first-line treatment with education and exercises, this approach has not yet been proposed for individuals with wrist OA. Therefore, this trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a first line neuromuscular joint-protective exercise therapy program compared to a training program with range of motion (ROM) exercises in patients with wrist OA.MethodsIn this randomized controlled trial (RCT), 48 patients with symptomatic and radiographically confirmed wrist OA were randomly allocated to a 12-week self-management program with either a neuromuscular joint-protective exercise therapy program (intervention group) or a training program with ROM exercises only (control group). Our primary outcome measure was the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) with secondary outcome measures of grip strength, range of wrist motion, the Numerical Pain Rating, Scale (NPRS), the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). The outcome measures were evaluated by a blinded assessor at baseline and 12 weeks. Between-groups differences were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and within-group differences were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.ResultsA total of 41 participants were analyzed at 12 weeks. There were no significant differences in PRWE between the groups at 12 weeks (p = 0.27). However, DASH improved significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (p = 0.02) and NPRS on load within the intervention group (p = 0.006). The difference in DASH should be interpreted with caution since it could be due to a non-significant increase (worsening) from baseline in the control group in combination with a non-significant decrease (improvement) in the intervention group.ConclusionsThis RCT showed that the novel neuromuscular joint-protective exercise therapy program was not superior in reducing pain and improving function compared to a training program with ROM exercises at 12 weeks. Future research is warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of forthcoming exercise therapy treatment programs for patients with wrist OA.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05367817. Retrospectively registered on 10/05/2022. https://clinicaltrials.gov.

  • 37.
    Laslett, Mark
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    McDonald, B
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Aprill, C N
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Agreement between diagnoses reached by clinical examination and available reference standards: A prospective study of 216 patients with lumbopelvic pain2005In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The tissue origin of low back pain (LBP) or referred lower extremity symptoms (LES) may be identified in about 70% of cases using advanced imaging, discography and facet or sacroiliac joint blocks. These techniques are invasive and availability varies. A clinical examination is non-invasive and widely available but its validity is questioned. Diagnostic studies usually examine single tests in relation to single reference standards, yet in clinical practice, clinicians use multiple tests and select from a range of possible diagnoses. There is a need for studies that evaluate the diagnostic performance of clinical diagnoses against available reference standards. Methods: We compared blinded clinical diagnoses with diagnoses based on available reference standards for known causes of LBP or LES such as discography, facet, sacroiliac or hip joint blocks, epidurals injections, advanced imaging studies or any combination of these tests. A prospective, blinded validity design was employed. Physiotherapists examined consecutive patients with chronic lumbopelvic pain and/or referred LES scheduled to receive the reference standard examinations. When diagnoses were in complete agreement regardless of complexity, "exact" agreement was recorded. When the clinical diagnosis was included within the reference standard diagnoses, "clinical agreement" was recorded. The proportional chance criterion (PCC) statistic was used to estimate agreement on multiple diagnostic possibilities because it accounts for the prevalence of individual categories in the sample. The kappa statistic was used to estimate agreement on six pathoanatomic diagnoses. Results: In a sample of chronic LBP patients (n = 216) with high levels of disability and distress, 67% received a patho-anatomic diagnosis based on available reference standards, and 10% had more than one tissue origin of pain identified. For 27 diagnostic categories and combinations, chance clinical agreement (PCC) was estimated at 13%. "Exact" agreement between clinical and reference standard diagnoses was 32% and "clinical agreement" 51%. For six pathoanatomic categories (disc, facet joint, sacroiliac joint, hip joint, nerve root and spinal stenosis), PCC was 33% with actual agreement 56%. There was no overlap of 95% confidence intervals on any comparison. Diagnostic agreement on the six most common patho-anatomic categories produced a kappa of 0.31. Conclusion: Clinical diagnoses agree with reference standards diagnoses more often than chance. Using available reference standards, most patients can have a tissue source of pain identified. © 2005 Laslett et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 38.
    Laslett, Mark
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aprill, Charles N.
    Magnolia Diagnostics, New Orleans United States of America.
    McDonald, Barry
    Massey University, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Albany, New Zealand.
    Zygapophysial joint blocks in chronic low back pain: a test of Revel's model as a screening test2004In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 5, no 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Only controlled blocks are capable of confirming the zygapophysial joints (ZJ) as the pain generator in LBP patients. However, previous workers have found that a cluster of clinical signs ("Revel's criteria"), may be valuable in predicting the results of an initial screening ZJ block. It was suggested that these clinical findings are unsuitable for diagnosis, but may be of value in selecting patients for diagnostic blocks of the lumbar ZJ's. To constitute evidence in favour of a clinical management strategy, these results need confirmation. This study evaluates the utility of 'Revel's criteria' as a screening tool for selection of chronic low back pain patients for controlled ZJ diagnostic blocks.

    Methods

    This study utilized a prospective blinded concurrent reference standard related validity design. Consecutive chronic LBP patients completed pain drawings, psychosocial distress and disability questionnaires, received a clinical examination and lumbar zygapophysial blocks. Two reference standards were evaluated simultaneously: 1. 75% reduction of pain on a visual analogue scale (replication of previous work), and 2. abolition of the dominant or primary pain. Using "Revel's criteria" as predictors, logistic regression analyses were used to test the model. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios for selected variables were calculated for the two proposed clinical strategies.

    Results

    Earlier results were not replicated. Sensitivity of "Revel's criteria" was low sensitivity (<17%), and specificity high (approximately 90%). Absence of pain with cough or sneeze just reached significance (p = 0.05) within one model.

    Conclusions

    "Revel's criteria" are unsuitable as a clinical screening test to select chronic LBP patients for initial ZJ blocks. However, the criteria may have use in identifying a small subset (11%) of patients likely to respond to the initial block (specificity 93%).

  • 39.
    Lindblad, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Johansson, Torsten
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    No correlation to collagen synthesis disorders in patients with Perthes' disease: a nationwide Swedish register study of 3488 patients2024In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 25, no 1, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMutations of the COL2A1 gene have been identified in patients with Perthes' disease. Several studies have hypothesised a connection between Perthes' disease and collagen synthesis disorders, especially COL2A1-related disorders, but no large studies on the subject have been made. The aim of this study was thus to discover if there is a connection between patients presenting with Perthes' disease, and collagen synthesis disorders. A secondary aim was to see if the children with both disorders had less optimal birth characteristics than the rest.MethodsSwedish national registers were used to collect data on children diagnosed with Perthes' disease or a collagen synthesis disorder. These registers include all births in Sweden, and data from both outpatient and in-hospital visits. A wide range of data is included besides diagnoses. All children with follow-up data to the age of 15 years were included. Pearson's chi-square was used for analysis. Statistical significance was further analysed with Fisher's Exact Test.ResultsIn total, 3488 children with either diagnosis were included. 1620 children had only Perthes disease, while 1808 children had only a collagen synthesis disorder. Five children were found to have both the diagnosis Perthes' disease and a collagen synthesis disorder. One child was large for their gestational age and none of the children had a low birthweight. Two of the children were moderately preterm.ConclusionsThe distinct lack of overlap in such a large body of material raises doubt about a connection between the presentation of Perthes' disease and collagen synthesis disorders, either COL2A1-related or not. We could not find an overrepresentation of less optimal birth characteristics either.

  • 40.
    Lindbäck, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Abbott, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Bond University, Australia.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    PREPARE: Pre-surgery physiotherapy for patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder: a randomized controlled trial protocol2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, no 270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current guidelines for the management of patients with specific low back pain pathology suggest non-surgical intervention as first-line treatment, but there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations of the content in the non-surgical intervention. Opinions regarding the dose of non-surgical intervention that should be trialled prior to decision making about surgery intervention vary. The aim of the present study is to investigate if physiotherapy administrated before surgery improves function, pain and health in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder scheduled for surgery. The patients are followed over two years. A secondary aim is to study what factors predict short and long term outcomes. Methods: This study is a single blinded, 2-arm, randomized controlled trial with follow-up after the completion of pre-surgery intervention as well as 3, 12 and 24 months post-surgery. The study will recruit men and women, 25 to 80 years of age, scheduled for surgery due to; disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease. A total of 202 patients will be randomly allocated to a pre-surgery physiotherapy intervention or a waiting list group for 9 weeks. The waiting-list group will receive standardized information about surgery, post-surgical rehabilitation and advice to stay active. The pre-surgery physiotherapy group will receive physiotherapy 2 times per week, consisting of a stratified classification treatment, based on assessment findings. One of the following treatments will be selected; a) Specific exercises and mobilization, b) Motor control exercises or c) Traction. The pre-surgery physiotherapy group will also be prescribed a tailor-made general supervised exercise program. The physiotherapist will use a behavioral approach aimed at reducing patient fear avoidance and increasing activity levels. They will also receive standardized information about surgery, post-surgical rehabilitation and advice to stay active. Primary outcome measure is Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcome measures are the visual analogue scale for back and leg pain, pain drawing, health related quality of life, Hospital anxiety and depression scale, Fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire, Self-efficacy scale and Work Ability Index. Discussion: The study findings will help improve the treatment of patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorder scheduled for surgery.

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  • 41.
    Lindbäck, Yvonne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Spinal Surgery.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Abbott, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Bond University, Australia.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Altered somatosensory profile according to quantitative sensory testing in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders scheduled for surgery2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatosensory profiling in affected and non-affected body regions can strengthen our insight regarding the underlying pain mechanisms, which can be valuable in treatment decision making and to improve outcomes, in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders pre-surgery. The aim was to describe somatosensory profiles in patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders, to identify the proportion with altered somatosensory profile, and to analyze demographic characteristics, self-reported function, pain, and health pre- and 3 months post-surgery. Methods: In this prospective cohort study in a Spine Clinic, 105 patients scheduled for surgery for spinal stenosis, disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, or spondylolisthesis were consecutively recruited. Exclusion criteria were; indication for acute surgery or previous surgery at the same spinal level or severe grade of pathology. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) and self-reported function, pain, and health was measured pre- and 3 months post-surgery. The somatosensory profile included cold detection threshold, warmth detection threshold, cold pain threshold, heat pain threshold and pressure pain threshold in affected and non-affected body regions. Results: On a group level, the patients somatosensory profiles were within the 95% confidence interval (CI) from normative reference data means. On an individual level, an altered somatosensory profile was defined as having two or more body regions (including a non-affected region) with QST values outside of normal ranges for reference data. The 23 patients (22%) with altered somatosensory profiles, with mostly loss of function, were older (P = 0.031), more often female (P = 0.005), had higher back and leg pain (P = 0.016, 0.020), lower mental health component summary score (SF 36 MCS) (P = 0.004) and larger pain distribution (P = 0.047), compared to others in the cohort. Post-surgery there was a tendency to worse pain, function and health in the group with altered somatosensory profile pre-surgery. Conclusions: On a group level, patients with degenerative lumbar spine disorders scheduled for surgery were within normal range for the QST measurements compared to reference values. On an individual level, an altered somatosensory profile outside of normal range in both affected and non-affected body regions occurred in 22% of patients, which may indicate disturbed somatosensory function. Those patients had mostly loss of sensory function and had worse self-reported outcome pre-surgery, compared to the rest of the cohort. Future prospective studies are needed to further examine whether these dimensions can be useful in predicting post-surgery outcome and guide need of additional treatments.

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  • 42.
    Lund, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). AMRA Medical AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Elliott, James M
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Northern Sydney Local Health District, The Kolling Institute, University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW, Australia; Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine.
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). AMRA Medical AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Fatty infiltrate and neck muscle volume in individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders compared to healthy controls – a cross sectional case–control study2023In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) are not fully understood. More knowledge of morphology is needed to better understand the disorder, improve diagnostics and treatments. The aim was to investigate dorsal neck muscle volume (MV) and muscle fat infiltration (MFI) in relation to self-reported neck disability among 30 participants with chronic WAD grade II-III compared to 30 matched healthy controls.

    Methods: MV and MFI at spinal segments C4 through C7 in both sexes with mild- to moderate chronic WAD (n = 20), severe chronic WAD (n = 10), and age- and sex matched healthy controls (n = 30) was compared. Muscles: trapezius, splenius, semispinalis capitis and semispinalis cervicis were segmented by a blinded assessor and analyzed.

    Results: Higher MFI was found in right trapezius (p = 0.007, Cohen’s d = 0.9) among participants with severe chronic WAD compared to healthy controls. No other significant difference was found for MFI (p = 0.22–0.95) or MV (p = 0.20–0.76).

    Conclusions: There are quantifiable changes in muscle composition of right trapezius on the side of dominant pain and/or symptoms, among participants with severe chronic WAD. No other statistically significant differences were shown for MFI or MV. These findings add knowledge of the association between MFI, muscle size and self-reported neck disability in chronic WAD.

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  • 43.
    Moosmayer, Stefan
    et al.
    Martina Hansens Hospital, Norway.
    Marius Ekeberg, Ole
    Helse Fonna Hospital, Norway.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Heier, Ingar
    Vestfold Hospital, Norway.
    Kvalheim, Synnove
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Blomquist, Jesper
    Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Norway.
    Hugo Pripp, Are
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Gunnar Juel, Nils
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Harald Kjellevold, Stein
    Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Norway.
    Ivar Brox, Jens
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    KALK study: ultrasound guided needling and lavage (barbotage) with steroid injection versus sham barbotage with and without steroid injection - protocol for a randomized, double-blinded, controlled, multicenter study2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For the treatment of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder a variety of treatment regimes exist. Commonly used treatment measures include medication with oral analgesics, corticosteroid injections, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, ultrasound guided needling and lavage, and surgical treatment. Earlier cohort studies suggest that patients may benefit from these treatments, but there are few randomized studies and conflicting evidence about the effectiveness of the various treatments. In the present study we aim to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound guided needling and lavage (barbotage) together with a steroid injection to sham barbotage with and without an additional steroid injection. Methods: The study will be performed in six secondary-care institutions in Norway and Sweden. It is designed as a pragmatic, randomized, three-arm, parallel group, double-blinded, sham-controlled clinical trial with a 2-year follow-up. It will be performed on 210 patients, aged 30 years or older, presenting with painful arc, positive impingement sign and a calcium deposit amp;gt; 5 mm. Randomization to one of the three treatment options will be performed by using an online central randomization system. The three treatment groups are barbotage together with a subacromial steroid injection (the barbotage group), sham barbotage together with a subacromial steroid injection (the steroid group) or sham barbotage without a subacromial steroid injection (the placebo group). In the placebo group the steroid injection will be replaced by a short-acting local anaesthetic. Standardized home-based post-treatment physiotherapy will be performed by all patients for 8 weeks. Follow-ups are at 2 and 6 weeks, 4, 8, 12 and 24 months after treatment was given and will be performed with the patients and the outcome assessors blinded for group assignment. Primary outcome will be the Oxford shoulder score at 4 month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures are the QuickDASH upper extremity score, the EQ-5D-5L general health score and visual analogue scales for pain at rest, during activity, and at night. Discussion: The scientific evidence from this placebo-controlled trial will be of importance for future treatment recommendations in patients with calcific tendinitis.

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  • 44.
    Nikiphorou, Elena
    et al.
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Hannonen, Pekka
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland.
    Rannio, Tuomas
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland.
    Sokka, Tuulikki
    Jyvaskyla Central Hospital, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Long-term outcomes of destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis - description of four clinical cases2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, article id 246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Seronegative rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a milder course of progression compared to seropositive disease. However, long-term follow-up data of the clinical course of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis are sparse. Here we describe four cases with a rare disease entity of aggressive destructive seronegative (rheumatoid) arthritis with 20-35 years of follow-up. Case presentation: The four cases are women with an initial presentation of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis in 1980-1996 and have received disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs since the diagnosis. In all cases, the condition has been refractory to treatments and evolved into a severe disease with destructions of the wrists, sub-talar and ankle joints, as well as large joints but not small joints of fingers and toes. All cases are negative with regard to rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and antibodies against carbamylated proteins. Conclusions: This report adds to the existing literature, making the reader aware of this sub-type of inflammatory arthritis which despite being seronegative, can have devastating disease consequences. The report highlights the need for further research into this field in order to better understand this disease sub-type, the pathogenesis, disease course and outcomes.

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  • 45.
    Nilsson, Abraham
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Alkner, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Orthopedics, Regional Hospital Eksjö, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Wetterlöv, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Orthopedics, Regional Hospital Eksjö, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Wetterstad, Stefan
    Department of Orthopedics, Region Hospital Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Palm, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Schilcher, Jörg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Low compartment pressure and myoglobin levels in tibial fractures with suspected acute compartment syndrome.2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The intense ischemic pain of acute compartment syndrome can be difficult to discriminate from the pain related to an associated fracture. Lacking objective measures, the decision to perform fasciotomy is often only based on clinical findings and performed at a low threshold. Biomarkers of muscle cell damage might help to identify and monitor patients at risk. In patients with fractures, however, markers of muscle cell damage could be elevated because of other reasons associated with the trauma, which would make interpretation difficult. In a review of all patients who underwent emergency fasciotomy in our health care district we aimed to investigate the decision-making process and specifically the use of biomarkers in patients with and without fractures.

    METHODS: In the southeast health care region of Sweden 79 patients (60 men) with fractures (median age 26 years) and 42 patients (34 men) without associated fractures (median age 44 years) were treated with emergency fasciotomy of the lower leg between 2007 and 2016. Differences in clinical findings, p-myoglobin and p-creatine phosphokinase as well as pressure measurements were investigated.

    RESULTS: P-myoglobin was analyzed preoperatively in 20% of all cases and p-creatine phosphokinase in 8%. Preoperative levels of p-myoglobin were lower in patients with fractures (median 1065 μg/L, range 200-3700 μg/L) compared with those without fractures (median 7450 μg/L, range 29-31,000 μg/L), p < 0.05. Preoperative intracompartmental pressure was lower in the fracture group (median 45 mmHg, range 25-90 mmHg) compared with those without fractures (median 83 mmHg, range 18-130 mmHg), p < 0.05.

    CONCLUSIONS: Biomarkers are seldom used in the context of acute fasciotomy of the lower leg. Contrary to our expectations, preoperative levels of p-myoglobin and intracompartmental pressures were lower in fracture patients. These findings support differences in the underlying pathomechanism between the groups and indicate that biomarkers of muscle cell necrosis might play a more important role in the diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome than previously thought.

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  • 46.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Engström, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Jönsson, Margaretha
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Herrgardets Vardcentral, Sweden.
    Wåhlén, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Kristjansson, Eythor
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Bahat, Hilla Sarig
    Univ Haifa, Israel.
    German, Dmitry
    Univ Haifa, Israel.
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Pathophysiology behind prolonged whiplash associated disorders: study protocol for an experimental study2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThere is insufficient knowledge of pathophysiological parameters to understand the mechanism behind prolonged whiplash associated disorders (WAD), and it is not known whether or not changes can be restored by rehabilitation. The aims of the projects are to investigate imaging and molecular biomarkers, cervical kinaesthesia, postural sway and the association with pain, disability and other outcomes in individuals with longstanding WAD, before and after a neck-specific exercise intervention. Another aim is to compare individuals with WAD with healthy controls.MethodsParticipants are a sub-group (n=30) of individuals recruited from an ongoing randomized controlled study (RCT). Measurements in this experimental prospective study will be carried out at baseline (before intervention) and at a three month follow-up (end of physiotherapy intervention), and will include muscle structure and inflammation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), brain structure and function related to pain using functional MRI (fMRI), muscle function using ultrasonography, biomarkers using samples of blood and saliva, cervical kinaesthesia using the butterfly test and static balance test using an iPhone app. Association with other measures (self-reported and clinical measures) obtained in the RCT (e.g. background data, pain, disability, satisfaction with care, work ability, quality of life) may be investigated. Healthy volunteers matched for age and gender will be recruited as controls (n=30).DiscussionThe study results may contribute to the development of improved diagnostics and improved rehabilitation methods for WAD.Trial registrationClinicaltrial.gov Protocol ID: NCT03664934, initial release 09/11/2018.

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  • 47.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Borén, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Elliott, James M.
    Univ Sydney, Australia; Kolling Inst, Australia.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Morphology and composition of the ventral neck muscles in individuals with chronic whiplash related disorders compared to matched healthy controls: a cross-sectional case-control study2022In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundObjective Studies of cross-sectional area (CSA) (morphology) and muscle fat infiltration (MFI) (composition) in ventral neck muscles is scarce in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), especially for men and those with severe WAD compared with matched healthy controls. The aim was to compare CSA and MFI of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), longus capitis (LCA) and longus colli (LCO) in patients with chronic right-sided dominant moderate (Neck Disability Index: NDI &lt; 40) or severe WAD (NDI &gt;= 40), compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods Cross-sectional case-control study with blinded investigators. Thirty-one patients with chronic WAD (17 women and 14 men, mean age 40 years) (SD 12.6, range 20-62)) and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging of ventral neck muscles segmental level C4. Results Unique to the severe group was a larger magnitude of MFI in right SCM (p = 0.02) compared with healthy controls. There was no significant difference between the groups with regards to the other muscles and measures. Conclusions Individuals with severe right-sided dominant WAD have a higher MFI in the right SCM compared to healthy controls. No other differences were found between the groups. The present study indicates that there are changes in the composition of muscles on the side of greatest pain.

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  • 48.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Overmeer, Thomas
    Malardalen University, Sweden .
    Dedering, Asa
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden .
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Johansson, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effects of neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioural approach in addition to prescribed physical activity for individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: a prospective randomised study2013In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 14, no 311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Up to 50% of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) patients experience considerable pain and disability and remain on sick-leave. No evidence supports the use of physiotherapy treatment of chronic WAD, although exercise is recommended. Previous randomised controlled studies did not evaluate the value of adding a behavioural therapy intervention to neck-specific exercises, nor did they compare these treatments to prescription of general physical activity. Few exercise studies focus on patients with chronic WAD, and few have looked at patients ability to return to work and the cost-effectiveness of treatments. Thus, there is a great need to develop successful evidence-based rehabilitation models. The study aim is to investigate whether neck-specific exercise with or without a behavioural approach (facilitated by a single caregiver per patient) improves functioning compared to prescription of general physical activity for individuals with chronic WAD. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods/Design: The study is a prospective, randomised, controlled, multi-centre study with a 2-year follow-up that includes 216 patients with chronic WAD (andgt;6 months and andlt;3 years). The patients (aged 18 to 63) must be classified as WAD grade 2 or 3. Eligibility will be determined with a questionnaire, telephone interview and clinical examination. The participants will be randomised into one of three treatments: (A) neck-specific exercise followed by prescription of physical activity; (B) neck-specific exercise with a behavioural approach followed by prescription of physical activity; or (C) prescription of physical activity alone without neck-specific exercises. Treatments will be performed for 3 months. We will examine physical and psychological function, pain intensity, health care consumption, the ability to resume work and economic health benefits. An independent, blinded investigator will perform the measurements at baseline and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after inclusion. The main study outcome will be improvement in neck-specific disability as measured with the Neck Disability Index. All treatments will be recorded in treatment diaries and medical records. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDiscussion: The study findings will help improve the treatment of patients with chronic WAD.

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  • 49.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation in Motala.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Neck-specific exercises with internet-based support compared to neck-specific exercises at a physiotherapy clinic for chronic whiplash-associated disorders: study protocol of a randomized controlled multicentre trial2017In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 18, article id 524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, neck pain is the fourth most common condition associated with longer periods of living with disability. Annually, approximately 0.3% of the population of Western countries undergo whiplash trauma, and half of those individuals will develop chronic problems with high costs for the individual and society. Evidence for chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) treatment is scarce, though neck-specific training at a physiotherapy clinic twice a week for 12 weeks has demonstrated good results. More efficient, flexible rehabilitation with reduced waiting times and lower costs is needed, ideally replacing lengthy on-site treatment series by healthcare providers. Internet-based care has been shown to be a viable alternative for a variety of diseases and interventions, but studies are lacking on Internet-based interventions for individuals with chronic neck problems. The aim of the trial described here is to compare the effects of an Internet-based neck-specific exercise programme to the same exercises performed at a physiotherapy clinic in regards to self-reported and clinical measures, as well as cost-effectiveness. Methods: This prospective, randomized controlled trial will involve 140 participants. Measurements will be made at baseline, 3 months (end of treatment), and 15 months (12 months after end of intervention) and will include ratings of pain, disability, satisfaction with care, work ability, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion: The study results may contribute to the development of a more effective rehabilitation, flexible and equal care, shorter waiting times, increased availability, and lower costs for healthcare and society.

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  • 50.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wibault, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dedering, Åsa
    Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zsigmond, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Futurum, County Council Jönköping, Sweden .
    Persson, Liselott
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Outcome of physiotherapy after surgery for cervical disc disease: a prospective randomised multi-centre trial2014In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 15, no 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Many patients with cervical disc disease require leave from work, due to long-lasting, complex symptoms, including chronic pain and reduced levels of physical and psychological function. Surgery on a few segmental levels might be expected to resolve disc-specific pain and reduce neurological deficits, but not the non-specific neck pain and the frequent illness. No study has investigated whether post-surgery physiotherapy might improve the outcome of surgery. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a well-structured rehabilitation programme might add benefit to the customary post-surgical treatment for cervical disc disease, with respect to function, disability, work capability, and cost effectiveness.

    METHODS/DESIGN:

    This study was designed as a prospective, randomised, controlled, multi-centre study. An independent, blinded investigator will compare two alternatives of rehabilitation. We will include 200 patients of working age, with cervical disc disease confirmed by clinical findings and symptoms of cervical nerve root compression. After providing informed consent, study participants will be randomised to one of two alternative physiotherapy regimes; (A) customary treatment (information and advice on a specialist clinic); or (B) customary treatment plus active physiotherapy. Physiotherapy will follow a standardised, structured programme of neck-specific exercises combined with a behavioural approach. All patients will be evaluated both clinically and subjectively (with questionnaires) before surgery and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after surgery. The main outcome variable will be neck-specific disability. Cost-effectiveness will also be calculated.

    DISCUSSION:

    We anticipate that the results of this study will provide evidence to support physiotherapeutic rehabilitation applied after surgery for cervical radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease.

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