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  • 1.
    Aspegren Kendall, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Ekselius, L
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Sörén, B
    Bengtsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Feldenkrais intervention in fibromyalgia patients: A pilot study2001In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the Feldenkrais intervention, in fibromyalgia patients. Methods: Twenty fibromyalgia patients started Feldenkrais intervention done as one individual and two group sessions weekly for 15 weeks. Nineteen started a group-based pain education program followed by a pool program. Test and self-report questionnaires were administered at the start, at six month follow up, and at the end of intervention. Results: After the Feldenkrais intervention improvement in balance and trends to better lower extremity muscle function were shown, but the improvements were not maintained. Conclusions: No sustained benefit of the Feldenkrais intervention compared to a pool program was seen. Methodological problems are discussed. ⌐ 2001 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Aspegren Kendall, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hurtig, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sören, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Differences in sensory thresholds in the skin of women with fibromyalgia syndrome: A comparison between ketamine responders and ketamine non-responders2003In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare detection and pain thresholds in the skin of female fibromyalgia patients who were either ketamine responders or ketamine nonresponders.

    Methods: Detection thresholds to innocuous warmth, of cold, heat or cold pain, and touch and dynamic touch sensation were determined in the skin. Pressure pain thresholds, local and widespread pain intensity, and pain duration were also registered.

    Results: Ketamine nonresponse was associated with more pronounced hypersensitivity for thermal pain [especially cold pain] than ketamine response.

    Conclusions: Blockade of N-metyl-D-aspartic acid receptors by ketamine and the recording of pain thresholds in the skin, especially for cold pain, might reveal different mechanisms of allodynia.

  • 3. Graven-Nielsen, T.
    et al.
    Sörensen, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Bengtsson, M.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC - Medicin och kirurgicentrum, Anestesi.
    Arendt-Nielsen, L.
    Central hyperexcitability in fibromyalgia1999In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 7, p. 261-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Is fibromyalgia a central pain state?2002In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 45-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To review the literature concerning pain mechanisms in fibromyalgia [FMS]. Findings and Conclusions: Thirteen investigations using different methods, comprising 250 patients with FMS, confirm a biological dysfunction of the nociceptive system, especially in the central nervous system in the majority of patients with FMS. The hyperexcitability in the nociceptive nervous system may have different causes in the individual patient. Localized long-standing muscle pain, chronic stress, genetic factors, and hormonal changes may all play a role. Pain generators in the muscle may not be specific for FMS but may be of importance for initiating and maintaining pain and allodynia/hyperalgesia. © 2002 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine/Pain Clinic. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Muscle activity and chronic muscle pain.1999In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 7, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Larsson, Britt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Balogh, Istvan
    Is there a relationship between fibromyalgia syndrome and work conditions?2005In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 13, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study examines the initial course of the fibromyalgia syndrome [FMS] and the influence of physical and psychosocial workplace factors on developing FMS. Methods: Patients with FMS were recruited to participate in a structured interview about pain and physical and psychosocial load. In addition, they participated in a clinical examination. Physical load in occupational life was assessed by two validated indices relevant for risk evaluation of pain in the upper extremities and the neck. Results: Of the 116 female FMS patients [25-45 years] recruited, 64 agreed to participate. Seventy percent of the participants noted that their pain started out as localized pain. The neck [52 percent], the shoulders [45 percent], and the low back [28 percent] were the regions most frequently engaged. The localized pain worsened to widespread pain [median six years after start of pain]. For the 71 percent of the participants who were working at the onset of pain, the onset occurred after eight occupationally active years. They scored relatively high on the validated measures of physical load for the employment period, including the time for onset of pain. To a higher degree, the FMS patients had heavy and light repetitive work compared to the age-matched women from the same geographic area. The odds ratio affected by FMS when occupied in heavy or light repetitive work was 5.1 [95 percent CI: 3.4-7.7] compared to subjects occupied in administration, computer work, or medium heavy variable work-tasks. Conclusions: Job strain and strenuous events were more common in the FMS group than in the control group. The majority of FMS patients had been exposed to a substantially risky physical work-load. Hence, we consider physical workload as an important risk factor for localized pain and for FMS. Occurrence of job strain probably enhances the risk for the development of FMS. The frequently reported strenuous events might have contributed to spreading localized pain. © 2005 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Persson, Ann L
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Sjolund, Bengt H
    Umeå University.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Three Clusters of Different Properties Characterize Women with Chronic Trapezius Myalgia2008In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: A correlative study on data from 14 women with unilateral chronic shoulder pain was undertaken.

    Methods: Data were obtained on evoked pain and pressure pain thresholds [PPTs] changes upon muscle exertion and biopsy findings on capillary density and Muscular pathology. The PPTs were measured in the trapezius muscle, before and after a static abduction endurance test of the shoulder [electronic algometer]. Holding time and pain intensity was registered. Capillarization and ragged red fibers, cytochrome-c-oxidase negative fibers, and moth-eaten muscle fibers were analyzed in the same trapezius muscles.

    Results: Principal component analysis was used for multivariate analysis, showing a model with three statistically significant components. The first component explained 33 percent of the variation. Pressure pain threshold changes were positively correlated with capillarization, and negatively correlated with prevalence of moth-eaten fibers and cytochrome-c-oxidase negative fibers. The second component explained 23 percent of the variation, and reflected the correlations between holding time, differences in pain and PPTs, i.e., between various aspects of perceived pain after exertion. The third component explained 19 percent of the variation. The pain difference correlated positively with the prevalence of cytochrome-c-oxidase negative fibers and raggedred fibers; subjects with high prevalence of these two fiber types presented increased pain. In summary, Our results suggest that not only capillarization and histopathological findings of the trapezius muscle, but also centrally modulated pain intensity and PPT changes after muscle exertion are associated.

    Conclusions: Three clusters of different properties were revealed in women with trapezius myalgia, highlighting the multifactorial mechanisms responsible. These components may have prognostic value.

  • 8.
    Trygg, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosenlund, Elisabeth
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Personality characteristics of women with fibromyalgia and of women with chronic neck, shoulder, or low back complaints in terms of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and defense mechanism technique modified2002In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 33-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare personality features of fibro-myalgia patients with those of a disease control group with regional pain.

    Methods: A group of 33 women with fibromyalgia [FMS-group] was compared on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI] and the Defense Mechanism Technique modified [DMTm] with 31 women [C-group] without this diagnosis who had localized chronic pain in their neck, shoulder, and/or low back areas and were very similar in chronological age, intelligence, and basic personality patterns.

    Results: As hypothesized the FMS-group scored higher than the C-group on the MMPI-scales of Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria. They also scored higher on Admission of symptoms, Psych-asthenia, Anxiety, Schizophrenia, Social introversion, and a number of nonclinical subscales. The differences were not found to be due to differences in pain intensity. The only statistically significant difference in DMTm between the groups was that of FMS patients more often reporting the projected self to be positive and/or to be afraid, suggesting them to be more vulnerable than the comparison group to threatening experiences. Significant relationships between the disability level and the number of tender points, group membership, pain intensity, and various of the MMPI scales were found.

    Conclusions: There were no signs on the MMPI of serious psychological disturbances in either group, and at the “deeper” psychological level, assessed in DMTm, there were no marked differences between the two groups, a proneness to somaticize psychological pain being found in both groups. Both the MMPI and the DMTm results were interpreted as suggesting that a cognitive coping strategy program be considered for rehabilitation. The fact that both different symptoms and signs had importance when regressing disability might indicate that univariate approaches is not sufficient when investigating factors of importance for disability.

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