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  • 1.
    Hydén, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Arlinger, Stig
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Technical Audiology.
    On the sneeze-reflex and its control2007In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 218-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments in cats have shown that sneezing can be induced using low intensity electrical current. This study focusses on answering the question whether the sneezing-reflex can also be induced in man through electrical stimulation, whether it is reproducible, and if the response can be abolished pharmacologically? Three healthy males were tested using intranasal stimulation in different parts of the nose using a current from an electric pulse generator. Using currents in the range 2-11 mA, it was possible to induce and reproduce sneezing in the anterior portion of the nose corresponding to the distribution area of the anterior ethmoidal nerve. In one tested subject, local anaesthetics applied to the mucous membranes of the nose abolished the sneezing. Sneeze reflex-reduction may be one way to reduce viral contamination between subjects. Further research could include pharmacological investigations to identify a sneeze-inhibiting substance with small risks for side effects that can be added to common cold nasal sprays.

  • 2.
    Lindbom, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Irander, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Phospholipase A2 mRNA expression in the nasal mucosa of healthy subjects and patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis2004In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a family of enzymes that play different role(s) in inflammation, but their importance in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) has not been clarified. Here, we determined the levels of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for different PLA2 types in the nasal mucosa of SAR patients (n=6) and healthy controls (n=5). Nasal brush samples were taken both during pollen season, when the symptoms of the patients were severe, and off-season, when the patients were free of symptoms. We found that PLA2 IB, IIA, IID,IIE, IIF III, IVA, IVB, IVC, VIA, VIB, VIIA, VIIB, VIIIA, VIIIB, X, XII and XIII were all expressed in each subject at both occasions. The mRNA levels of PLA2 VIIA (platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase) were lower in SAR patients than controls, both during pollen season (p = 0.03) and off season (p = 0.03). These findings demonstrate that a large number of PLA2 types are expressed in the nasal mucosa, regardless of whether there is ongoing allergic inflammation or not. The observation that PAF acetylhydrolase mRNA expression in the nasal mucosa is lower in SAR patients than in healthy subjects suggests the possibility that impaired ability to inactivate PAF might be of importance in SAR. Further studies are required to clarify whether the decreased PAF acetylhydrolase mRNA expression in SAR is accompanied by decreased enzyme activity and whether aberrations in PAF acetylhydrolase are present in infectious rhinitis patients as well.

  • 3.
    Thorold, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical Programme.
    Bende, Mats
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Central Hospital, Skövde.
    The effect of smoking on physiological decongestion of the nasal mucosa in human.2010In: Rhinology, ISSN 0300-0729, E-ISSN 1996-8604, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 438-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Exercise is known to decongest the nasal mucosa which results in increased nasal patency. In a recent study it was suggested that smoking might influence the effect of exercise on the nasal mucosa. This implies that smoking may cause neurological damage to the normal nasal physiology, which has not previously been shown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in nasal mucosal reaction to exercise between smokers and non-smokers.

    METHODOLOGY: Forty-two smokers and non-smokers underwent acoustic rhinometry to register nasal geometry before and after cycling on an ergometer cycle. A structured interview was used for questions about smoking habits and airway symptoms.

    RESULTS: Both smokers and non-smokers had a significant increase in MCA (minimal cross-section area) and total nasal volume after exercise. There was no statistical significant difference between smokers and non-smokers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Smoking does not seem to affect the normal physiological decongestion of the nasal mucosa after exercise.

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