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  • 1.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Bernier, Denise
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Kisely, Steve
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Town, Joel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Sustained reduction in health care costs after adjunctive treatment of graded intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy in patients with psychotic disorders2015Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 228, nr 3, s. 538-543Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the changes in symptom severity and long-term health care cost after intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) individually tailored and administered to patients with psychotic disorders undergoing standard psychiatric care. Eleven therapists with different levels of expertise delivered an average of 13 one-hour sessions of graded ISTDP to 38 patients with psychotic disorders. Costs for health care services were compiled for a one-year period prior to the start of ISTDP (baseline) along with four one-year periods after termination. Two validated self-report scales, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, were administered at intake and termination of ISTDP. Results revealed that health care cost reductions were significant for the one-year post-treatment period relative to baseline year, for both physician costs and hospital costs, and the reductions were sustained for the follow-up period of four post-treatment years. Furthermore, at treatment termination self-reported symptoms and interpersonal problems were significantly reduced. These preliminary findings suggest that this brief adjunctive psychotherapy may be beneficial and reduce costs in selected patients with psychotic disorders, and that gains are sustained in long-term follow-up. Future research directions are discussed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rasic, Daniel
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Town, Joel M.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Johansson, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Long-term healthcare cost reduction with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychiatric service2015Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 64, s. 114-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate whether a mixed population of patients treated with Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) would exhibit reduced healthcare costs in long-term follow-up. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was employed in which data on pre- and post-treatment healthcare cost were compared for all ISTDP cases treated in a tertiary care service over a nine year period. Observed cost changes were compared with those of a control group of patients referred but never treated. Physician and hospital costs were compared to treatment cost estimates and normal population cost figures. Results: 1082 patients were included; 890 treated cases for a broad range of somatic and psychiatric disorders and 192 controls. The treatment averaged 7.3 sessions and measures of symptoms and interpersonal problems significantly improved. The average cost reduction per treated case was $12,628 over 3 follow-up years: this compared favorably with the estimated treatment cost of $708 per patient. Significant differences were seen between groups for follow-up hospital costs. Conclusions: ISTDP in this setting appears to facilitate reductions in healthcare costs, supporting the notion that brief dynamic psychotherapy provided in a tertiary setting can be beneficial to health care systems overall. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Adeback, Petra
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schulman, Abbe
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Children exposed to a natural disaster: psychological consequences eight years after 2004 tsunami2018Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 72, nr 1, s. 75-81Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a need for studies that follow up children and adolescents for many years post disaster since earlier studies have shown that exposure during natural disasters constitutes a risk factor for poor psychological health.Aims: The main aim was to examine whether there was an association between severity of exposures during a natural disaster experienced in childhood or adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, self-rated health, diagnosis of depression, anxiety or worry, thoughts about or attempted suicide, physical symptoms or daily functioning eight years later in young adulthood. A second aim was to compare psychological distress and self-rated health of exposed young adults with a matched population-based sample.Method: Young adults, who experienced the 2004 tsunami as children between 10 and 15 years of age, responded to a questionnaire eight years post disaster. The results were compared to a matched population sample.Results: The results showed that the likelihood for negative psychological outcomes was higher for those who had been exposed to several types of exposures during this natural disaster.Conclusions: The negative psychological impact on children and adolescents can still be present eight years post-disaster and seems to have association with the type of exposure; loss, physical presence and subjective experience. It is important for clinicians, who meet young adults seeking help, to be conscious about the impact as long as eight years post disaster and to be aware of possible clinical implications associated with severity of exposures.

  • 4.
    Adebäck, Petra
    et al.
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundh, Lena
    Academic Primary Health Care Centre, Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Children or adolescents who lost someone close during the Southeast Asia tsunami 2004 – The life as young2022Ingår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikel-id e2563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: To lose a person close suddenly, during childhood or adolescence, can be devastating. Many children or adolescents experienced the 2004 Indonesian tsunami when they were between 10- and 15-years-old. This study, from Stockholm, Sweden, describes the long-term effects of loss, eight- or nine-years post disaster, in young adulthood.

    Method: A mixed-method approach was used including statistical analyses (n = 210) and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA).

    Results: It was shown that there was a significant difference between bereaved (n=34) and nonbereaved (n = 176) respondents concerning, psychological distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and self-rated health. Three themes were found by using the IPA approach (n=9): Living in traumas, carrying heavy baggage, and living with change.

    Conclusion: The respondents described personal feelings of grief that are not expressed in their outward appearance or behavior in their daily living. When meeting young adults that have lost someone close in childhood or adolescence, this is important to have in mind.

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  • 5.
    Adebäck, Petra
    et al.
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lundh, Lena
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Academic Primary Health Care Center, Karolinska Institute, Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Late Reminders Nine Years Post Disaster in Adults Who As Children or Adolescents Were Exposed to the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami2022Ingår i: Child Care in Practice, ISSN 1357-5279, E-ISSN 1476-489X, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 290-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine if young adults, who as children and adolescents were heavily exposed to the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia, had late reminders of this disaster nine years post disaster and, if so, how they handled these late reminders.

    Method: The subjects who had been exposed when they were between 10 and 15 years old were interviewed nine years post disaster when they had reached adulthood.

    Results: All those interviewed stated that they had experienced different late reminders of the 2004 tsunami even nine years later. They said that they could plan in advance or deal with late reminders should they occur. Two types of reminders were identified, one type designated as external and the other as internal. The interview subjects described how they had handled these reminders by striving for balance by thinking, talking, letting feelings out, doing something else or by avoiding.

    Conclusions: These young adults strived to find a balance between their function as adults in society and continued effects from the 2004 tsunami. A person, even if not affected functionally, can be affected in different ways in adulthood by the natural disaster they had experienced during childhood or adolescence. This is something important for anyone to think about when he or she meets persons who have been heavily exposed to a natural disaster many years earlier.

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  • 6. Adebäck, Petra
    et al.
    Nilsson, Doris
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Social Support for Exposed Children and Adolescents Who Experienced the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami - Associations with Psychological Health in Young Adulthood2019Ingår i: Journal of Health science and Education, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lack of social support is a risk factor for negative psychological outcomes post disaster. However, we do not know if this is the case after many years.

    Aim: The aim was to examine the association between remembered social support directly after the 2004 tsunami or social support eight years post disaster and psychological distress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, self-rated health, worry or anxiety and suicide ideation in 2012 for exposed children and adolescents.

    Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to young adults who experienced the tsunami when they were 10-15 years of age. The questionnaire included Crises Support Scale, General Health Questionnaire, Impact of Events Scale Revised and questions of Worry and Anxiety, Self-rated Health, and Suicidal ideation and questions specially made.

    Results: Low levels of perceived social support given in 2004 or 2012 were associated with higher levels of psychological distress, additional posttraumatic stress symptoms, low self-rated health, more worry or anxiety and more suicidal ideation in 2012.

    Conclusion: The results show that providing social support for children and adolescents who have experienced a disaster create better psychological health many years later

  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Avdelningen för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete, Hälsohögskolan, Jönköping University.
    Näslund, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ungdomars attityder och beteende när det gäller att köpa och sälja sex: en studie i Jönköpings län våren 20082009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapen om i vilken omfattning ungdomar har sålt eller köpt sex är begränsad. Delvis kan det bero på svårigheten med att bestämma vad som omfattas i begreppen sälja och köpa sex. Studier visar också att det i ungdomsrelationer förekommer att gåvor ges efter sexuella aktiviteter.

    I denna studie har totalt 16 personer (1,9 %) uppgett att de i olika omfattning utfört sexuella tjänster mot ersättning och att 79 personer (9,1 %) blivit erbjudna pengar eller annan ersättning för sexuella tjänster. Det är fler killar än tjejer som säljer sex. När det gäller att ha blivit erbjuden sex mot ersättning är det flest tjejer som svarat ja. Resultatet visar också att 131 personer (15,1 %) kan tänka sig att utföra sexuella tjänster mot ersättning. I svaren kan vi också utläsa att 348 personer (40,1%), mestadels killar, accepterar att andra utför sexuella tjänster mot ersättning.

    När det gäller i vilka kretsar de som säljer sex umgås är det tydligt att ungdomarna tittar mer på porr, att det är vanligare att de visar sig i sexuella situationer och att de har mindre tolerans mot homosexuella. Samlagsdebuten var ett år tidigare än hela undersökningsgruppen. Det är vanligare att man blivit utsatt för olika sexuella handlingar mot sin vilja, men man har också utsatt andra för sexuella handlingar mot deras vilja. Sammantaget kan vi se att ungdomarna i denna studie som sålt sex lever ett påtagligt mer sexualiserat liv än vad andra ungdomar i motsvarande ålder gör.

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    Ungdomars attityder och beteende när det gäller att köpa och sälja sex: en studie i Jönköpings län våren 2008
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  • 8.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Georgoulas, George
    Univ Patras, Greece; DataWise Data Engn LLC, GA 30318 USA.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Towards a Context-Dependent Multi-Buffer Driver Distraction Detection Algorithm2022Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 4778-4790Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents initial work on a context-dependent driver distraction detection algorithm called AttenD2.0, which extends the original AttenD algorithm with elements from the Minimum Required Attention (MiRA) theory. Central to the original AttenD algorithm is a time buffer which keeps track of how often and for how long the driver looks away from the forward roadway. When the driver looks away the buffer is depleted and when looking back the buffer fills up. If the buffer runs empty the driver is classified as distracted. AttenD2.0 extends this concept by adding multiple buffers, thus integrating situation dependence and visual time-sharing behaviour in a transparent manner. Also, the increment and decrement of the buffers are now controlled by both static requirements (e.g. the presence of an on-ramp increases the need to monitor the sides and the mirrors) as well as dynamic requirements (e.g., reduced speed lowers the need to monitor the speedometer). The algorithm description is generic, but a real-time implementation with concrete values for different parameters is showcased in a driving simulator experiment with 16 bus drivers, where AttenD2.0 was used to ensure that drivers are attentive before taking back control after an automated bus stop docking and depot procedure. The scalability of AttenD2.0 relative to available data sources and the level of vehicle automation is demonstrated. Future work includes expanding the concept to real-world environments by automatically integrating situational information from the vehicles environmental sensing and from digital maps.

  • 9.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    A Generalized Method to Extract Visual Time-Sharing Sequences From Naturalistic Driving Data2017Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, nr 11, s. 2929-2938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indicators based on visual time-sharing have been used to investigate drivers visual behaviour during additional task execution. However, visual time-sharing analyses have been restricted to additional tasks with well-defined temporal start and end points and a dedicated visual target area. We introduce a method to automatically extract visual time-sharing sequences directly from eye tracking data. This facilitates investigations of systems, providing continuous information without well-defined start and end points. Furthermore, it becomes possible to investigate time-sharing behavior with other types of glance targets such as the mirrors. Time-sharing sequences are here extracted based on between-glance durations. If glances to a particular target are separated by less than a time-based threshold value, we assume that they belong to the same information intake event. Our results indicate that a 4-s threshold is appropriate. Examples derived from 12 drivers (about 100 hours of eye tracking data), collected in an on-road investigation of an in-vehicle information system, are provided to illustrate sequence-based analyses. This includes the possibility to investigate human-machine interface designs based on the number of glances in the extracted sequences, and to increase the legibility of transition matrices by deriving them from time-sharing sequences instead of single glances. More object-oriented glance behavior analyses, based on additional sensor and information fusion, are identified as the next future step. This would enable automated extraction of time-sharing sequences not only for targets fixed in the vehicles coordinate system, but also for environmental and traffic targets that move independently of the drivers vehicle.

  • 10.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system - A field study2017Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, s. 414-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway. The results show that drivers look at the system for 5-8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (amp;gt;2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice. All in all, the eco-driving support system under investigation is not likely to have a strong negative impact on glance behaviour. However, there is room for improvements. We recommend that eco-driving information is integrated with the speedometer, that optional activation of sound alerts for intermittent information is made available, and that the pop-up duration should be extended to facilitate self-regulation of information intake. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Wachtmeister, Jesper
    Mobile Behav, Sweden.
    Nyman, Mattias
    DING Designingenjorerna Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Nordenstrom, Axel
    DING Designingenjorerna Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Using smartphone logging to gain insight about phone use in traffic2020Ingår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 181-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of mobile phone usage in traffic has been studied by road-side counting, naturalistic driving data, surveillance cameras, smartphone logging, and subjective estimates via surveys. Here, we describe a custom-made smartphone logging application along with suggestions on how future such applications should be designed. The developed application logs start and end times of all phone interactions (mobile phone applications, incoming/outgoing phone calls and text messages, audio output, and screen activations). In addition, all movements are automatically classified into transport, cycling, walking, running, or stationary. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated in a pilot study with 143 participants. Examples of results that can be gained from smartphone logging include prevalence in different transportation modes (here found to be 12% while driving, 4% while cycling, and 7% while walking), which apps are being used (here found to be 19% navigation, 12% talking, 12% social media, and 10% games) and on which road types (rural, urban, highway etc.). Smartphone logging was found to be an insightful complement to the other methods for assessing phone use in traffic, especially since it allows the analyses of which apps are used and where they are used, split into transportation mode and road type, all at a relatively low cost.

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  • 12.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Brylid, Andre
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Saleh, Muna Atallah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för inflammation och infektion. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Medicincentrum, Reumatologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Doubtful Clinical Value of Subtyping Anti-U1-RNP Antibodies Regarding the RNP-70 kDa Antigen in Sera of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus2023Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 24, nr 12, artikel-id 10398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of antinuclear antibodies is central to the diagnosis and prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), primary Sjogrens syndrome (pSS) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Anti-U1-RNP and anti-RNP70 antibodies were assayed in the sera of patients with SLE (n = 114), pSS (n = 54) and MCTD (n = 12). In the SLE group, 34/114 (30%) were anti-U1-RNP positive, and 21/114 (18%) were both anti-RNP70 positive and anti-U1-RNP positive. In the MCTD group, 10/12 (83%) were anti-U1-RNP positive, and 9/12 (75%) were anti-RNP70 positive. Only one individual with pSS was antibody positive (for both anti-U1-RNP and anti-RNP70). All anti-RNP70-positive samples were also anti-U1-RNP positive. Anti-U1-RNP-positive subjects with SLE were younger (p < 0.0001); showed lower concentrations of complement protein 3 (p = 0.03); had lower eosinophil (p = 0.0005), lymphocyte (p = 0.006) and monocyte (p = 0.03) counts; and had accrued less organ damage (p = 0.006) than the anti-U1-RNP-negative SLE patients. However, we observed no significant clinical or laboratory parameter differences between the anti-U1-RNP-positive individuals with/without anti-RNP70 in the SLE group. In conclusion, anti-RNP70 antibodies are not exclusive to MCTD but are rarely detected in pSS and healthy individuals. In SLE, anti-U1-RNP antibodies are associated with a clinical phenotype that resembles MCTD, with hematologic involvement and less damage accrual. Based on our results, the clinical value of subtyping anti-RNP70 in anti-U1-RNP-positive sera appears to be of limited value.

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  • 13.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Per A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Transpersoner diskrimineras i rekryteringsprocessen2021Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 19-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Per A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Transpersoner väljs bort av arbetsgivarna2020Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 15.
    Al Nima, Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Kevin M.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Anthropedia Fdn, MO USA.
    Lucchese, Franco
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden;.
    Validation of a general subjective well-being factor using Classical Test Theory2020Ingår i: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 8, artikel-id e9193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective Well-Being (SWB) is usually conceptiislind in terms of an affective (i.e., judgements of biological emotional reactions and experiences) and a cognitive component (i.e., judgements of life satisfaction in relation to a psychological self-imposed ideal). Recently, researchers have suggested that judgements of harmony in life can replace or at least complement the cognitive component of SWB. Here, however, we go beyond that suggestion and propose that harmony in life should be seen as SWBs social component since it is the sense of balance between the individual and the world around her-a process that comprises acceptance, adaptation, and balance. By adding judgements of ones social interactions (i.e., harmony in life) to judgments of ones life satisfaction (psycho) and judgements of ones emotional reactions (bio), we propose a tentatively biopsychosocial model of SWB. As a first step, we used different factorial models in order to determine if both a general factor and specific sub-factors contribute to the biopsychosocial model of SWB. Method: A total of 527 participants responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; 20 items), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; five items), and the Harmony in life Scale (HILS; five items). We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to validate the biopsychosocial model of subjective well-being and a general factor (SWBS). Results: The 20 PANAS items reflected a mixture of general latent structure saturation and specific latent structure saturation, but contributed to their respective specific latent factor (PA: 48%; NA: 49%) more than to the general latent SWBS factor (positive affect: 25%; negative affect: 32%). The five SWLS items contributed to a larger degree to the general SWBS factor (72%) than to life satisfaction itself (22%), while the five HILS items contributed to even a larger degree to the general SWBS factor (98%) than to harmony in life (0%). The bifactor model was the best model compared with all other models we tested (chi(2) = 1,660.78, df = 375, p < 0.001); Satorra Bentler chi(2 )1,265.80, df = 375, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.92; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.067. This model of a general SWBS factor explained about 64% of the total variance in the model, while specific SWBS components together explained 15% of the total variance. Conclusion: Our study suggests SWB as a general factor in a multidimensional biopsychosocial model. Indeed, as much as 64% of the variance of SWB was explained by this general factor. The SWB components, however, contributed to a different degree to each corresponding factor in the model. For instance, while the affective and cognitive components seem to be their own constructs and also part of the general SWB factor, the social component tested here contributed 0% to its own variance but 98% to the general factor.

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  • 16.
    Al Nima, Ali
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Int Network Well Being, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Int Network Well Being, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Int Network Well Being, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Kevin M.
    Anthropedia Fdn, MO USA; Int Network Well Being, TX USA.
    The ABC of happiness: Validation of the tridimensional model of subjective well-being (affect, cognition, and behavior) using Bifactor Polytomous Multidimensional Item Response Theory2024Ingår i: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id e24386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Happiness is often conceptualized as subjective well-being, which comprises people's evaluations of emotional experiences (i.e., the affective dimension: positive and negative feelings and emotions) and judgements of a self-imposed ideal (i.e., the cognitive dimension: life satisfaction). Recent research has established these two dimensions as primary parts of a higher order factor. However, theoretical, conceptual, and empirical work suggest that people's evaluations of harmony in their life (i.e., the sense of balance and capacity to behave and adapt with both acceptance and flexibility to inter- and intrapersonal circumstances) constitutes a third dimension (i.e., the behavioral dimension). This tridemensional conceptualization of subjective well-being has recently been verified using Unidimensional Item Response Theory (UIRT) and Classical Test Theory (CTT). Here, we use a recently developed and more robust approach that combines these two methods (i.e., Multidimensional Item Response Theory, MIRT) to simultaneously address the complex interactions and multidimensionality behind how people feel, think, and behave in relation to happiness in their life. Method: A total of 435 participants (197 males and 238 females) with an age mean of 44.84 (sd = 13.36) responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (10 positive affect items, 10 negative affect items), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (five items), and the Harmony in life Scale (five items). We used Bifactor-Graded Response MIRT for the main analyses. Result: At the general level, each of the 30 items had a strong capacity to discriminate between respondents across all three dimensions of subjective well-being. The investigation of different parameters (e.g., marginal slopes, ECV, IECV) strongly reflected the multidimensionality of subjective well-being at the item, the scale, and the model level. Indeed, subjective well-being could explain 64 % of the common variance in the whole model. Moreover, most of the items measuring positive affect (8/10) and life satisfaction (4/5) and all the items measuring harmony in life (5/5) accounted for a larger amount of variance of subjective well-being compared to that of their respective individual dimensions. The negative affect items, however, measured its own individual concept to a lager extent rather than subjective well-being. Thus, suggesting that the experience of negative affect is a more independent dimension within the whole subjective wellbeing model. We also found that specific items (e.g., "Alert", "Distressed", "Irritable", "I am satisfied with my life") were the recurrent exceptions in our results. Last but not the least, experiencing high levels in one dimension seems to compensate for low levels in the others and vice versa. Conclusion: As expected, the three subjective well-being dimensions do not work separately. Interestingly, the order and magnitude of the effect by each dimension on subjective well-being mirror how people define happiness in their life: first as harmony, second as satisfaction, third as positive emotions, and fourth, albeit to a much lesser degree, as negative emotions. Ergo, we argue that subjective well-being functions as a complex biopsychosocial adaptive system mirroring our attitude towards life in these three dimensions (A: affective dimension; B: behavioral dimension; C: cognitive dimension). Ergo, researchers and practitioners need to take in to account all three to fully understand, measure, and promote people's experience of the happy life. Moreover, our results also suggest that negative affect, especially regarding high activation unpleasant emotions, need considerable changes and further analyses if it is going to be included as a construct within the affective dimension of a general subjective well-being factor.

  • 17.
    Alawa, Jude
    et al.
    Stanford Univ Sch Med, CA 94305 USA.
    Muhammad, Muzzammil
    Yale Univ Sch Med, CT 06510 USA.
    Kazemitabar, Maryam
    Yale Univ Sch Publ Hlth, CT 06510 USA.
    Bromberg, Daniel J.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Yale Univ Sch Publ Hlth, CT 06510 USA.
    Khoshnood, Kaveh
    Amer Univ Beirut, Lebanon.
    Ghandour, Lilian
    Amer Univ Beirut, Lebanon.
    Medication for opioid use disorder in the Arab World: A systematic review2022Ingår i: International journal of drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 102, artikel-id 103617Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a global public health concern. The standard of care for OUD involves treatment using medications such as buprenorphine, methadone, or naltrexone. No known review exists to assess the contextual factors associated with medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in the Arab World. This systematic review serves as an implementation science study to address this research gap and improve the uptake of MOUD in the Arab World.Methods: Systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, and a citation analysis, were used to identify peer-reviewed articles with original data on MOUD in the Arab World. Quality assessment was conducted using the CASP appraisal tools, and main findings were extracted and coded according to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Results: 652 research articles were identified, and 10 met inclusion criteria for final review. Four studies considered health-systems aspects of MOUD administration, such as cost-effectiveness, the motivations for and impact of national MOUD policies, the types of social, political, and scientific advocacy that led to the adoption of MOUD in Arab countries, and the challenges limiting its wide-scale adoption in the Arab World. Six papers considered MOUD at individual and group patient levels by evaluating patient quality of life, addiction severity, patient satisfaction, and patient perspectives on opioid agonist therapy.Conclusion: Despite financial and geographic barriers that limit access to MOUD in the Arab World, this review found MOUD to be cost-effective and associated with positive health outcomes for OUD patients in the Arab World. MOUD can be successfully established and scaled to the national level in the Arab context, and strong coalitions of health practitioners can lobby to establish MOUD programs in Arab countries. Still, the relative novelty of MOUD in this context precludes an abundance of research to address its long-term delivery in the Arab World.

  • 18.
    Alexander, Lind
    et al.
    Lund Univ CRC, Sweden.
    Yang, Cao
    Orebro Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Maria, Hardstedt
    Orebro Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Vansbro Primary Hlth Care Ctr, Sweden.
    Stefan, Jansson
    Orebro Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Ake, Lernmark
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Martin, Sundqvist
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Staffan, Tevell
    Orebro Univ, Sweden; Karlstad Hosp, Sweden; Reg Varmland, Sweden.
    Cheng-ting, Tsai
    Enable Biosci Inc, CA USA.
    Jeanette, Wahlberg
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Johan, Jendle
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Anxiety, depression and quality of life in relation to SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in individuals living with diabetes during the second wave of COVID-192024Ingår i: DIABETES EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, ISSN 2666-9706, Vol. 13, artikel-id 100194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The objective was to compare anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in individuals living with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes with matched controls during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Via randomization, individuals living with diabetes T1D (n = 203) and T2D (n = 413), were identified during February-July 2021 through health-care registers. Population controls (n = 282) were matched for age, gender, and residential area. Questionnaires included self-assessment of anxiety, depression, QoL, and demographics in relation to SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Blood was collected through home-capillary sampling, and SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid (NCP) and Spike antibodies (SC2_S1) were determined by multiplex Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP) assays. Results: Younger age and health issues were related to anxiety, depression, and QoL, with no differences between the study groups. Female gender was associated with anxiety, while obesity was associated with lower QoL. The SARS-CoV-2 NCP seroprevalence was higher in T1D (8.9 %) compared to T2D (3.9 %) and controls (4.0 %), while the SARS-CoV-2 SC2_S1 seroprevalence was higher for controls (25.5 %) compared to T1D (16.8 %) and T2D (14.0 %). Conclusions: A higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in T1D may be explained by younger age and higher employment rate, and the associated increased risk for viral exposure. (c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC

  • 19.
    Alexandersson, Klas
    et al.
    Sundsvall Hosp, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Malin
    Sundsvall Hosp, Sweden.
    Ekeblad, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Sundsvall Hosp, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Session-to-session effects of therapist adherence and facilitative conditions on symptom change in CBT and IPT for depression2023Ingår i: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 33, nr 1: special sektion part 2, s. 57-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of adherence to both specific technique factors and facilitative condition variables (e.g., therapists involvement, understanding and support) in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). In addition, we were interested in whether the effect of therapist adherence would depend on the level of the working alliance. Method: Three sessions each from 74 patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder who were randomized to 14 sessions of IPT or CBT were rated for adherence using a modified version of The Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale-6 (CSPRS-6). Data was analyzed using Multilevel Modeling. Results: No effects of adherence to specific factors on outcome were found in neither CBT nor IPT. Facilitative conditions were associated with better outcome in CBT but not in IPT, even after adjustment for the quality of the working alliance. No interaction effects were found. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of relational factors in CBT, but do not support the need for specific adherence to any of the two treatments. Possible explanations of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

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  • 20.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Clinical supervision in cognitive behavior therapy improves therapists competence: a single-case experimental pilot study2020Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 425-438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a cornerstone in psychotherapists training but there are few empirical evaluations on the effects of supervision on therapists competencies. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of standardized supervision on rater-assessed competency in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Six therapists with basic training in CBT were provided with protocol-based clinical supervision in CBT in a single-case experimental multiple baseline design. The supervision focused on specific CBT competencies and used experiential learning methods such as role-play. Each therapist recorded weekly treatment sessions during phases without and with supervision. The therapists CBT competence was assessed by third-party raters using the Revised Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R). Statistical analyses showed that the therapists CTS-R scores increased significantly during the phase with supervision with a mean item increase of M = 0.71 (range = 0.50-1.0) on the supervision focus areas. This is one of the first empirical studies that can confirm that supervision affect CBT competencies. The results also suggest that supervision can be manualized and that supervisees have a positive perception of more active training methods. Further studies are needed to replicate the results and to find ways to improve the impact of supervision.

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  • 21.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Asa
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review2018Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 206-228Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 22.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive-behavioral therapy: a study protocol for a systematic review.2017Ingår i: Systematic Reviews, E-ISSN 2046-4053, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id 94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical supervision by a senior therapist is a very common practice in psychotherapist training and psychiatric care settings. Though clinical supervision is advocated by most educational and governing institutions, the effects of clinical supervision on the supervisees' competence, e.g., attitudes, behaviors, and skills, as well as on treatment outcomes and other patient variables are debated and largely unknown. Evidence-based practice is advocated in clinical settings but has not yet been fully implemented in educational or clinical training settings. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize and present the empirical literature regarding effects of clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    METHODS: This study will include a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that have empirically investigated the effects of supervision on supervised psychotherapists and/or the supervisees' patients. A comprehensive search strategy will be conducted to identify published controlled studies indexed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases. Data on supervision outcomes in both psychotherapists and their patients will be extracted, synthesized, and reported. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies will be assessed systematically.

    DISCUSSION: This systematic review will rigorously follow established guidelines for systematic reviews in order to summarize and present the evidence base for clinical supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy and may aid further research and discussion in this area.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016046834.

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  • 23.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för pedagogik och didaktik i utbildning och skola (PeDiUS). Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Academic commitment and self-determination among teacher students2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nyantagna lärarstudenters motiv, motivation, självtillit och akademiska engagemang2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det första studieåret vid universitet eller högskola har visat sig utgöra en kritisk period för nya studenter och en stor del av alla avhopp sker under den här perioden. Forskning har visat att hög studiemotivation, självtillit och högt akademiskt engagemang hos studenter predicerar goda studieresultat och motverkar avhopp.

    I den här rapporten redogör vi för en studie av nyantagna lä-rarstudenters motiv för studieval, akademiska självtillit, studiemo-tivation och akademiska engagemang. I rapporten beskrivs även relationerna mellan dessa variabler och deras koppling till kön och lärarkategori. Studieavhopp analyseras i relation till kön, lärarkategori och studenternas initiala motiv för att läsa till lärare. En central teoribildning som forskningsprojektet utgår ifrån är teorin om själv-beslutsamhet (”self-determination theory”). Urvalet utgörs av stu-denter vid Linköpings universitet som avser att studera till grundskol- och gymnasielärare. Data har samlats in med enkäter och bearbetats med deskriptiv och analytisk statistisk.

    Av resultaten framgår att studenterna rapporterar att de i första hand har valt att läsa till lärare till följd av altruistiska och inre skäl, och att de i högre grad motiveras av autonom motivation än kontrollerad motivation i sina studier. De blivande lärarna i grundskolans senare år och gymnasiet (senarelärare) uppvisade en högre akademisk självtillit än de blivande lärarna i grundskolans tidigare år (tidigarelärare). För akademiskt engagemang var resul-tatet det omvända. Medelvärdena för självbeslutsamhet, akademisk självtillit och akademiskt engagemang i studien är dock inte högre än att det finns utrymme för att försöka höja dem för kommande kohorter av lärarstudenter. Andelen avhopp bland lärarstudenterna som ingår i studien ligger på drygt 40%. Andelen avhopp var större för senarelärarna än för tidigarelärarna. Resultaten visar också att altruistiska motiv bakom valet att studera till lärare sammanhänger med en lägre benägenhet till avhopp via akademiskt engagemang som medierande variabel. Avslutningsvis diskuteras pedagogiska implikationer av studien för lärarutbildningen.

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    Nyantagna lärarstudenters motiv, motivation, självtillit och akademiska engagemang
  • 25.
    Amato, Clara
    et al.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Network Well Being, Sweden.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Network Well Being, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Network Well Being, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    TELL ME WHO YOU ARE2020Ingår i: TPM - Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, ISSN 1972-6325, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 153-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze freely generated self-presentations through the natural language processing technique of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). Four hundred fifty-one participants (F = 360; M = 143) recruited from LinkedIn (a professional social network) were randomly assigned to generate 10 words to describe themselves to either an employer (recruitment-condition) or a friend (friendship-condition). The words frequency-rate and their semantic representation were compared between conditions and to the natural language (Googles n-gram database). Self-presentations produced in the recruitment condition (vs. natural language) had significantly higher number of agentic words (e.g., problemsolver, responsible, able team-worker) and their contents were semantically closer to the concept of agency (i.e., competence, assertiveness, decisiveness) comparing to the friendship condition. Furthermore, the valence of the self-presentations words was higher (i.e., with a more positive meaning) in the recruitment condition. Altogether, these findings are consistent with the literature on the "Big Two," self-presentation, and impression management.

  • 26.
    Aminoff, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Bobeck, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hjort, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sorliden, Elise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken.
    Berg, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Tailored internet-based psychological treatment for psychological problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: A randomized controlled trial2023Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 34, artikel-id 100662Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic influence mental health in both infected and non-infected populations. In this study we examined if individually tailored internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) could be an effective treatment for psychological symptoms related to the pandemic. Following recruitment we included 76 participants who were randomized to either a treatment group (n = 37) or a waitlist control group (n = 39). The treatment group received 8 modules (out of 16 possible) during 8 weeks with weekly therapist support. We collected data on symptoms of depression, experienced quality of life, anxiety, stress, anger, insomnia, PTSD, and alcohol use before, after the treatment and at one year follow-up. Using multiple regression analysis, group condition was found to be a statistically significant predictor for a decrease, favoring the treatment group, in symptoms of depression, insomnia, and anger with small to moderate effect sizes. The improvements remained at one year follow-up. Group condition did not significantly predict changing symptoms regarding experienced quality of life, anxiety, stress, PTSD and alcohol use. Findings indicate that ICBT is an effective intervention for some psychological symptoms associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need for further studies on mechanisms of change and on tailored ICBT for problems associated with crises like the pandemic.

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  • 27.
    Aminoff, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Sellén, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Fly me to the moon: LUNA: En faktoriell studie om betydelsen av self-efficacy, behandlingstrovärdighet och utfallsförväntan vid IKBT för depression2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Depression är en växande folkhälsosjukdom och anses vara den globalt ledande orsaken till funktionsnedsättning. Internetbaserad kognitiv beteendeterapi (IKBT) för depression har visat sig vara en effektiv behandling. Behandlingsformatet kan tillhandahållas på varierande sätt, exempelvis utifrån vem som väljer behandlingsprogram och grad av behandlarstöd. Lägre grad av stöd är exempelvis mindre resurskrävande och kan därmed bidra till en ökning av tillgången på psykologisk behandling. Samtidigt kräver det ett mer kognitivt och beteendemässigt engagemang av patienten. Till följd av detta är det intressant att undersöka för vilka patienter som en friare behandlingsform är mest fördelaktigt. I den aktuella studien undersöks således två oberoende behandlingsvariabler, typ av individualiserat behandlingsprogram och typ av stöd. Dessa undersöks med en faktoriell design (2x2) på en IKBT-behandling för vuxna (N = 172) med depression. Syftet med studien är att undersöka huruvida grad av self-efficacy och behandlingstrovärdighet/utfallsförväntan korrelerar med depressiva symtom samt om initial grad av self-efficacy och behandlingsförväntan/utfallsförväntan kan predicera den eventuella symtomförändring som uppnåtts efter behandlingens slut. Med syftet att generera kunskap om vilka som drar nytta av ett friare, och mer kostnadseffektivt, behandlingsformat undersöks dessutom om grad av self-efficacy korrelerar med behandlingsutfall specifikt för deltagare i behandlingsgruppen med egenvalda moduler och stöd vid behov. Huruvida skillnader mellan behandlingsgrupperna föreligger undersöktes även vad gällande förändring i upplevd self-efficacy.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar resultatet att grad av self-efficacy ökar (d = 0.46) under behandlingen och att förändringen i self-efficacy korrelerar med förändringen i depressiva symtom. Ett samband mellan behandlingstrovärdighet/utfallsförväntan och behandlingsutfall påvisades dessutom. Initial grad av upplevd self-efficacy predicerar inte behandlingsutfallet totalt, men högre grad av upplevd self-efficacy vid ett friare behandlingsformat visades ha ett samband med lägre förändring i depressionssymtom

    (ηp2= .030). Denna studie belyser därmed vikten av att ta hänsyn till både self-efficacy och behandlingstrovärdighet/utfallsförväntan vid IKBT-behandling för depression, vilka båda visats ha ett samband med behandlingsutfallet.

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  • 28.
    Aminoff, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sellén, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sörliden, Elise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Medicinska och geriatriska akutkliniken. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Berg, Matilda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychological Distress Associated With the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, artikel-id 684540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with various negative psychological consequences. This is a challenge for the society as regular psychological services cannot be offered to the same extent as before the pandemic. In addition to the requirement of social distancing, there is a need to adjust psychological treatment components like exposure to avoid increasing the spread of the infection. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has an established evidence base for a range of psychiatric problems and has been suggested as one possible approach to deal with the situation. This study aimed to conduct a randomized controlled pilot trial during the summer of 2020 with a broad focus on psychological distress and a treatment approach that tailors the intervention based on symptom profile and preferences.

    Methods: Following the advertisement and interview, we included 52 participants with elevated levels of psychological distress. They were randomly allocated to either a 7-week-long individually tailored ICBT (n = 26) or a wait-list control condition (n = 26). Measures of depression and quality of life were used as primary outcomes. We also included secondary outcome measures of anxiety, insomnia, trauma, stress, anger, and alcohol use. For screening, we used the CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS).

    Results: Overall moderate to large between-group effects were found at post-treatment in favor of the treatment on measures of both depression [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); Cohens d = 0.63; Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): d = 0.62] and anxiety [Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7-item scale (GAD-7); d = 0.82]. This was also observed for stress symptoms [Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14); d = 1.04]. No effects were seen on measures of quality of life, insomnia, symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and anger. There was an effect on alcohol use [Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT); d = 0.54], which was not of clinical relevance.

    Conclusion: Individually tailored ICBT shows initial promise as a way to reduce psychological problems in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. A possible limitation was that the trial was conducted when the effects of the pandemic were decreasing and when fewer people were affected by the restrictions (e.g., the summer of 2020).

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  • 29.
    Andelius, Kim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland ensamagerande våldsverkare i Sverige2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förekomsten av psykisk ohälsa bland ensamagerande våldsverkare i Sverige studerades genom en tematisk analys på textdokument. Trettiofem av 70 ensamagerande våldsverkare valdes ut genom ett systematiskt slumpmässigt urval. Textdokumenten innehåller sekretessbelagd information ifrån Polismyndighetens system. Av de undersökta ensamagerande våldsverkarna hade 43 % en psykiatrisk diagnos och tecken på psykisk ohälsa fanns hos 34 %. Resultatet går i linje med internationell forskning som visar att ungefär 40 % av ensamagerande våldsverkare innehar en psykiatrisk diagnos. Sammanfattningsvis i aktuell studie uppvisade 77 % av de ensamagerande våldsverkarna tecken på psykisk ohälsa vilket kan indikera att antalet med psykiatriska diagnoser i studien kan ha underskattats. Således visade studien att psykisk ohälsa är en viktig riskfaktor för våld och Polismyndigheten behöver samverka med andra samhällsaktörer för att kunna förebygga, förhindra och upptäcka brottslighet från ensamagerande våldsverkare.

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    Psykisk ohälsa bland ensamagerande våldsverkare i Sverige
  • 30.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Helland, Turid
    Universitetet i Bergen, Norge.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Language profiles and mental health problems in children with specific language imapirment and children with AD/HD2014Ingår i: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 226-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to explore whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with ADHDcan be differentiated from each other in terms of their language profiles, and also to investigate whether these two clinicalgroups differ regarding mental health problems. Method: A total of 59 children in the age range 6 to 12 years participatedin the study. The parents completed the Children’s Communication Checklist–Second Edition and the Strengths andDifficulties Questionnaire. Results: Communication impairments were as prominent in the ADHD group as in the SLIgroup; however, the groups were separable from each other in terms of their language profiles. Furthermore, the ADHDgroup experienced significantly more mental health problems compared with the SLI group. Conclusion: Language shouldbe assessed in children with ADHD and instruments sensitive to ADHD should be included when assessing children withSLI. Mental health should be an area of concern to be addressed in both groups. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX)

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  • 31.
    Andersen Helland, Wenche
    et al.
    Stord Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Lundervold, Astri
    University of Bergen, Norway.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Posserud, Maj-Britt
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Stable associations between behavioral problems and language impairments across childhood - the importance of pragmatic language problems2014Ingår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 943-951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated language function associated with behavior problems, focusing on pragmatics. Scores on the Children’s Communication Checklist Second Edition (CCC-2) in a group of 40 adolescents (12–15 years) identified with externalizing behavior problems (BP) in childhood was compared to the CCC-2 scores in a typically developing comparison group (n=37). Behavioral, emotional and language problems were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and 4 language items, when the children in the BP group were 7–9 years (T1). They were then assessed with the SDQ and the CCC-2 when they were 12–15 years (T2). The BP group obtained poorer scores on 9/10 subscales on the CCC-2, and 70% showed language impairments in the clinical range. Language, emotional and peer problems at T1 were strongly correlated with pragmatic language impairments in adolescence. The findings indicate that assessment of language, especially pragmatics, is vital for follow-up and treatment of behavioral problems in children and adolescents.

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    Stable associations between behavioral problems and language impairments across childhood - the importance of pragmatic language problems
  • 32.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Does the management of personal integrity information lead to differing participation rates and response patterns in mental health surveys with young adults?: A three-armed methodological experiment2021Ingår i: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, ISSN 1049-8931, E-ISSN 1557-0657, Vol. 30, nr 4, artikel-id e1891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This study evaluates whether initiation rates, completion rates, response patterns and prevalence of psychiatric conditions differ by level of personal integrity information given to prospective participants in an online mental health self-report survey. Methods A three-arm, parallel-group, single-blind experiment was conducted among students from two Swedish universities. Consenting participants following e-mail invitation answered the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health-International College Student (WMH-ICS) mental health self-report survey, screening for eight psychiatric conditions. Random allocation meant consenting to respond (1) anonymously; (2) confidentially, or (3) confidentially, where the respondent also gave consent for collection of register data. Results No evidence was found for overall between-group differences with respect to (1) pressing a hyperlink to the survey in the invitation email; and (2) abandoning the questionnaire before completion. However, participation consent and self-reported depression were in the direction of higher levels for the anonymous group compared to the two confidential groups. Conclusions Consent to participate is marginally affected by different levels of personal integrity information. Current standard participant information procedures may not engage participants to read the information thoroughly, and online self-report mental health surveys may reduce stigma and thus be less subject to social desirability bias.

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  • 33.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Reg Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Engstrom, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Reg Stockholm, Sweden.
    Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts in association to self-reported symptoms, mental health and study capacity in Swedish university students2022Ingår i: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The present study investigates if symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in different social contexts (cohabitants, family, acquaintances, and others) are associated with university students own self-reported symptoms of COVID-19 contagion, mental health, and study capacity. This was investigated by a cross-sectional survey administrated in Sweden during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, at the time when universities were locked down to limit viral spread and contagion. Results Mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 in cohabitants and family members were associated with students self-reported symptoms of contagion, while no associations could be seen in relation to mental health and study capacity. Symptoms of COVID-19 contagion in acquaintances and others were not associated with students self-reported symptoms, nor with their mental health and study capacity. To conclude, during the initial lockdown of universities students self-reported symptoms of contagion were mainly associated with cohabitants and family members, while symptoms of contagion in different social contexts were not associated with mental health and study capacity. Findings suggest that lockdown of universities may have contributed to limiting infection pathways, while still allowing students to focus on their studies despite significant contagion among others known to the student.

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  • 34.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Molander, Olof
    Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Sweden.
    Associations between compliance with covid-19 public health recommendations and perceived contagion in others: a self-report study in Swedish university students2021Ingår i: BMC Research Notes, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: During the COVID pandemic, government authorities worldwide have tried to limit the spread of the virus. Swedens distinctive feature was the use of voluntary public health recommendations. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of this strategy. Based on data collected in the spring of 2020, this study explored associations between compliance with recommendations and observed symptoms of contagion in others, using self-report data from university students. Results: Compliance with recommendations ranged between 69.7 and 95.7 percent. Observations of moderate symptoms of contagion in "Someone else I have had contact with" and "Another person"were markedly associated with reported self-quarantine, which is the most restrictive recommendation, complied with by 81.2% of participants. Uncertainty regarding the incidence and severity of contagion in cohabitants was markedly associated with the recommendation to avoid public transportation, a recommendation being followed by 69.7%. It is concluded that students largely followed the voluntary recommendations implemented in Sweden, suggesting that coercive measures were not necessary. Compliance with recommendations were associated with the symptoms students saw in others, and with the perceived risk of contagion in the students immediate vicinity. It is recommended that voluntary recommendations should stress personal relevance, and that close relatives are at risk.

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  • 35.
    Andersson, Claes
    et al.
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Molander, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Lindner, Philip
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Granlund, Lilian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Engstroem, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Berman, Anne H. H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth care Serv, Sweden.
    Academic self-efficacy: Associations with self-reported COVID-19 symptoms, mental health, and trust in universities management of the pandemic-induced university lockdown2022Ingår i: Journal of American College Health, ISSN 0744-8481, E-ISSN 1940-3208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate perceived changes in academic self-efficacy associated with self-reported symptoms of COVID-19, changes in mental health, and trust in universities management of the pandemic and transition to remote education during lockdown of Swedish universities in the spring of 2020. Methods: 4495 participated and 3638 responded to self-efficacy questions. Associations were investigated using multinomial regression. Results: Most students reported self-experienced effects on self-efficacy. Lowered self-efficacy was associated with symptoms of contagion, perceived worsening of mental health and low trust in universities capacity to successfully manage the lockdown and transition to emergency remote education. Increased self-efficacy was associated with better perceived mental health and high trust in universities. Conclusion: The initial phase of the pandemic was associated with a larger proportion of students reporting self-experienced negative effects on academic self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy is a predictor of academic performance, it is likely that students academic performance will be adversely affected.

  • 36.
    Andersson, E
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Enander, J
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Andren, P
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Hedman, E
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Ljotsson, B
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hursti, T
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Bergstrom, J
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Kaldo, V
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lindefors, N
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ruck, C
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial2012Ingår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 42, nr 10, s. 2193-2203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod. Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohens d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69-1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46-72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1-17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.

  • 37.
    Andersson, E
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Steneby, S
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Karlsson, K
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljótsson, B
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman, E
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enander, J
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, V
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, N
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rück, C
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Long-term efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with or without booster: a randomized controlled trial.2014Ingår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 44, nr 13, s. 2877-2887Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As relapse after completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common, many treatment protocols include booster programs to improve the long-term effects. However, the effects of booster programs are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the long-term efficacy of Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support for OCD with or without an Internet-based booster program.

    METHOD: A total of 101 participants were included in the long-term follow-up analysis of ICBT. Of these, 93 were randomized to a booster program or no booster program. Outcome assessments were collected at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months after receiving ICBT.

    RESULTS: The entire sample had sustained long-term effects from pre-treatment to all follow-up assessments, with large within-group effect sizes (Cohen's d = 1.58-2.09). The booster group had a significant mean reduction in OCD symptoms compared to the control condition from booster baseline (4 months) to 7 months, but not at 12 or 24 months. Participants in the booster group improved significantly in terms of general functioning at 7, 12 and 24 months, and had fewer relapses. Kaplan-Meier analysis also indicated a significantly slower relapse rate in the booster group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that ICBT has sustained long-term effects and that adding an Internet-based booster program can further improve long-term outcome and prevent relapse for some OCD patients.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Radu Djurfeldt, Diana
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isung, Josef
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svanborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mataix-Cols, David
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Div Psychiat, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    D-Cycloserine vs Placebo as Adjunct to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Interaction With Antidepressants: A Randomized Clinical Trial.2015Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 72, nr 7, s. 659-667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: It is unclear whether d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate agonist that enhances fear extinction, can augment the effects of exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether DCS augments the effects of CBT for OCD and to explore (post hoc) whether concomitant antidepressant medication moderates the effects of DCS.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial with 3-month follow-up conducted at an academic medical center between September 4, 2012, and September 26, 2013. Participants included 128 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of OCD and a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of 16 or higher. Concurrent antidepressant medication was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least 2 months prior to enrollment and remained unchanged during the trial. The main analysis was by intention-to-treat population.

    INTERVENTIONS: All participants received a previously validated Internet-based CBT protocol over 12 weeks and were randomized to receive either 50 mg of DCS or placebo, administered 1 hour before each of 5 exposure and response prevention tasks.

    MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Clinician-administered Y-BOCS score at week 12 and at 3-month follow-up. Remission was defined as a score of 12 or lower on the Y-BOCS.

    RESULTS: In the primary intention-to-treat analyses, DCS did not augment the effects of CBT compared with placebo (mean [SD] clinician-rated Y-BOCS score, DCS: 13.86 [6.50] at week 12 and 12.35 [7.75] at 3-month follow-up; placebo: 11.77 [5.95] at week 12 and 12.37 [6.68] at 3-month follow-up) but showed a significant interaction with antidepressants (clinician-rated Y-BOCS, B = -1.08; Z = -2.79; P = .005). Post hoc analyses revealed that antidepressants significantly impaired treatment response in the DCS group but not the placebo group, at both posttreatment and follow-up (clinician-rated Y-BOCS: t62 = -3.00; P = .004; and t61 = -3.49; P < .001, respectively). In the DCS group, a significantly greater proportion of antidepressant-free patients achieved remission status at follow-up (60% [95% CI, 45%-74%]) than antidepressant-medicated patients (24% [95% CI, 9%-48%]) (P = .008). Antidepressants had no effect in the placebo group (50% [95% CI, 36%-64%] remission rate in both groups).

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings suggest that antidepressants may interact with DCS to block its facilitating effect on fear extinction. Use of DCS may be a promising CBT augmentation strategy but only in antidepressant-free patients with OCD.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01649895.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wikstrom, Maja
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Elveling, Elin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Cost-effectiveness of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a randomized controlled trial2015Ingår i: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, s. 47-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common and disabling disorder. Although evidence-based psychological treatments exists, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), the cost-effectiveness of CBT has not been properly investigated. In this trial, we used health economic data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial, where 101 OCD patients were allocated to either internet-based CBT (ICBT) or control condition (online support therapy). We analyzed treatment effectiveness in relation to costs, using both a societal- (including all direct and indirect costs) and a health care unit perspective (including only the direct treatment costs). Bootstrapped net benefit regression analyses were also conducted, comparing the difference in costs and effects between ICBT and control condition, with different willingness-to-pay scenarios. Results showed that ICBT produced one additional remission for an average societal cost of $931 and this figure was even lower ($672) when narrowing the perspective to treatment costs only. The cost-utility analysis also showed that ICBT generated one additional QALY to an average price of $7186 from a societal perspective and $4800 when just analyzing the treatment costs. We conclude that ICBT is a cost-effective treatment and the next step in this line of research is to compare the cost-effectiveness of ICBT with face-to-face CBT. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Predictors and moderators of Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from a randomized trial2015Ingår i: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has shown efficacy in randomized trials but many patients do not respond to the treatment, we therefore need to find predictors and moderators of treatment response. In this study, we analyzed predictors of ICBT response using both post-treatment as well as 24-month outcome data. As half of the participants were randomized to receive an Internet-based booster program as an adjunct to ICBT, we also investigated moderators of ICBT with or without booster. Results showed that more severe baseline OCD symptoms predicted worse end state outcome but also higher degree of change. Furthermore, high degree of working alliance predicted better outcome but patients with primary disgust emotions had worse treatment effects. The moderator analysis also indicated that scoring high on the obsessing subscale on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised predicted worse treatment outcome in the booster group. In conclusion, there are some possible predictors and moderators of ICBT for OCD but more research is needed with larger and clinically representative samples. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Testing the Mediating Effects of Obsessive Beliefs in Internet-Based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial2015Ingår i: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 722-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cognitive interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been tested in randomized trials, there are few trials that have tested the specific mechanisms of cognitive interventions, i.e. how they achieve their effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mediating effects of a short cognitive intervention in the treatment of OCD and used data from a recently conducted randomized controlled trial where 101 participants were allocated to either Internet-based CBT (ICBT) or to a control condition. Obsessive beliefs were measured at pre-treatment, at the time they had received the cognitive intervention, and also at post-treatment. Weekly OCD symptoms were measured throughout the 10 weeks of treatment. We hypothesized that (1) the ICBT group would have greater reductions in obsessive beliefs (controlling for change in OCD symptoms) after completing the cognitive intervention, and that (2) this reduction would, in turn, predict greater OCD symptom reduction throughout the rest of the treatment period. Contrary to our expectations, the longitudinal mediation analysis indicated that (1) being randomized to ICBT actually increased the degree of obsessive beliefs after receiving the cognitive intervention at weeks 1-3, and (2) increase in obsessive beliefs predicted better outcome later in treatment. However, when repeating the analysis using cross-sectional data at post-treatment, the results were in line with the initial hypotheses. Results were replicated when the control condition received ICBT. We conclude that, although obsessive beliefs were significantly reduced at post-treatment for the ICBT group, early increase rather than decrease in obsessive beliefs predicted favourable outcome. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Mattson, Simon
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Enander, Jesper
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ruck, Christian
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Cost-effectiveness of an internet-based booster program for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Results from a randomized controlled trial2015Ingår i: Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, ISSN 2211-3649, E-ISSN 2211-3657, Vol. 4, s. 14-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for OCD when delivered face-to-face, in group-format and also via the internet. However, despite overall large effect sizes, a considerable amount of the patients relapse. One intervention that has the potential to reduce these relapse rates is booster programs, but if booster program is a cost-effective method of preventing relapse is still unknown. We used health economical data from a recent randomized controlled trial, where patients who had undergone an internet-based CBT were randomly allocated to receive an additional booster program. Assessment points were 4-, 7-, 12- and 24-month. Health economical data were primarily analyzed using a societal perspective. Results showed that the booster program was effective in preventing relapse, and the cost of one avoided relapse was estimated to $1066-1489. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the booster program had a 90% probability of being cost-effective given a willingness to pay of $1000-1050 the first year, but this figure grew considerably after two years ($2500-5500). We conclude that internet-based booster programs are probably a cost-effective alternative within one-year time frame and that more treatment may be needed to maintain adequate cost-effectiveness up to two years. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Evelyn
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rück, Christian
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedman, Erik
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schalling, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindefors, Nils
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine systems and outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. e79015-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703Tpolymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.

    METHOD: Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202). Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment) for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report.

    RESULTS: At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials.

    CONCLUSIONS: None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD.

     

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  • 44.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Age may moderate response to different unguided Internet-delivered interventions for depression2014Ingår i: Evidence-Based Mental Health, ISSN 1362-0347, E-ISSN 1468-960X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 29-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Atheism and how it is perceived: Manipulation of, bias against and ways to reduce the bias2016Ingår i: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 194-203Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the cognitive foundations of religion and experimental methods have been used to explain religious behaviours. However, in the world, there are a substantial number of non-believers (atheists), and this has been a largely unknown field for experimental and more basic research informed by cognitive science. This has now changed and in this review, I cover three domains of study. First, studies in which belief in God has been manipulated in the direction of showing less belief are reviewed. For example, it is shown that analytical thinking reduces religious belief. Second, recent studies on cognitive bias against atheists are covered showing that atheists are distrusted, elicit disgust and are viewed as immoral both explicitly and implicitly. Third, I review studies in which prejudice against atheists has been experimentally manipulated showing that it is possible to reduce bias against atheists. I conclude the paper arguing that the bias against atheists need to be investigated in the Scan-dinavian countries.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Clinician-Supported Internet-Delivered Psychological Treatment of Tinnitus2015Ingår i: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 299-301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Internet-delivered psychological treatments for tinnitus distress have existed for more than 15 years, and there are a slowly growing number of studies. The aim of this brief report is to review the evidence and to comment on the future potentials of Internet treatments for tinnitus. Method: Studies were retrieved, and in total 6 controlled studies were included in the review with 9 different comparisons (6 in which the treatment was compared against a control group and 3 in which Internet treatment was compared against group treatment). Moreover, 2 open studies based on clinical samples in regular care were also included in the review. The outcomes for the 2 controlled sets of studies were analyzed using meta-analytic methods. Results: For the 6 studies comparing Internet treatment against a no-treatment control condition, a moderate effect size was found (Hedgess g = 0.58). The 3 studies comparing Internet treatment against face-to-face group treatments showed a small difference of Hedgess g = 0.13. Conclusions: Internet-delivered psychological treatment holds promise as a treatment alternative to other standard forms of treatment delivery, including group treatment. Larger studies are needed as well as ways to blend information technology with regular services.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Forskningsmetoder och consilience2021Ingår i: Psykisk ohälsa: ett biopsykosocialt perspektiv / [ed] Ali Sarkohi, Gerhard Andersson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, Vol. Sidorna 23-50, s. 23-50Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna bok omnämns flera olika psykiska ohälsotillstånd och mekanismerna bakom dem. I detta kapitel vill jag ge en översikt med några exempel på metoder för de olika nivåerna i den biopsykosociala modellen. Begreppet consilience, myntat av Edward O. Wilson, introducerades som ett ramverk för hur olika vetenskapstraditioner kan samverka och berika varandra. Jag går igenom olika metoder inom olika forskningstraditioner och avslutar med en diskussion om utmaningar med att förena olika angreppssätt i förståelsen av psykisk sjukdom.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Guided internet treatment for anxiety disorders. As effective as face-to-face therapies?2012Ingår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 181, s. 3-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Guided Internet-delivered treatments were developed in the late 1990s and have since been tested in numerous controlled trials. While promising, there are yet few direct comparisons between Internet treatments and traditional face-to-face treatments. The aim of the present study is to present an overview of the evidence in the field of anxiety disorders. Method: Studies were located, including unpublished trials from our research group in Sweden. Results: Results of direct comparative trials on panic disorder (n=3) and social anxiety disorder (n=3) show equivalent outcomes. One study on specific phobia did not show equivalent outcomes with an advantage for face-to-face treatment. However, a systematic review by Cuijpers et al. (2010) found equivalent outcomes across several self-help formats, suggesting that guided self-help overall can be as affective as face-to-face treatments. Conclusion: Overall, there are still few large-scale trials and statistical power is often limited. A preliminary conclusion is that guided Internet treatment can be as effective as face-to-face treatments, but there is a need to investigate moderators and mediators of the outcome.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Innovating CBT and Answering New Questions: the Role of Internet-Delivered CBT2023Ingår i: International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, ISSN 1937-1209, E-ISSN 1937-1217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) was developed in the late 1990s, and since then, a large number of studies have been conducted. Many programs have been developed and sometimes implemented, and ICBT has become a major way to investigate and innovate CBT including important questions regarding mechanisms and moderating factors. The aim of this narrative review was to comment on the treatment format, the evidence behind ICBT, innovations, and finally challenges. ICBT has been developed and tested for a range of conditions including both psychiatric and somatic health problems and also transdiagnostic problems like loneliness and poor self-esteem. Meta-analytic reviews suggest that guided ICBT can be as effective as face-to-face CBT and by using individual patient data meta-analytic methods (IPDMA), it is now possible have better power for the search of moderators. There are also several reports of how well ICBT works in regular clinical settings, mostly replicating the results reported in efficacy studies. Cost-effectiveness has also been documented as well as studies using qualitative methodology to document client and clinician experiences. In terms of innovation, there are now studies on problems for which there is limited previous face-to-face research, and one major advancement is the use of factorial design trials in which more than one independent variable is tested. Finally, ICBT has the potential to be useful in times of crisis, with the COVID-19 pandemic being one recent example. Future challenges include use of artificial intelligence in both treatment development and possibly treatment delivery. Another urgent priority is to reach less favored parts of the world as most studies and programs have been tested and implemented in Western countries. In conclusion, ICBT is now an established as a way to develop, test, and deliver CBT.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Internet interventions: Past, present and future2018Ingår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 12, s. 181-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet interventions have been around now for about 20 years. While the field still suffers from a scattered terminology a large number of programs and studies exist. In the present paper I present an overview of my experiences of studying internet-supported cognitive-behaviour therapy (ICBT), but also mention other approaches including the use of smartphones. The paper covers the history of ICBT, short-term effects in controlled trials for a range of conditions, long-term effects, comparisons against face-to-face therapy, effectiveness studies, prediction studies, how the treatment is perceived, critique, and finally future directions. I conclude that we have now reached a stage in which we have numerous evidence-based treatments and procedures, and increasingly internet interventions including ICBT are disseminated.

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