liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 121
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Ahmed, Uday
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ayo, Priscilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Developing Common Questions about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Ecodesign and Engineering Education2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, more and more manufacturing firms recognize the benefit of providing products together with related services with an aim to gain higher profits as compared to supplying products without additional services. On the other hand, the competition in the global markets has been increased dramatically through increased sales of services in order to gain additional value for their products. In addition, several environmental challenges such as climate change, pollution, global warming impact, greenhouse gases emissions have played a vital role by influencing on the production protocols and trend of the companies. These challenges forced manufacturing countries to take into consideration environmentally conscious approach to their design thinking and industrial production processes. As a result, it became an important drive for manufacturing industries to shift from traditional product-oriented to service-oriented business models that has been witnessed during the last few years.

     

    The objective of this study research is to develop common questions that capture fundamental and common issues about Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Design for Environment (DFE) and Engineering education are effectives for industries to check and develop their knowledge, because the Engineering education plays a necessary role in associating socio-ethical knowledge with scientific and technological advances. The strategy taken to conduct this thesis task was first to study and understand the concept of Product Service System (PSS), IPSE, and Ecodesign as well as Engineering Education. Informative knowledge on these concepts were collected by reviewing several related journal articles, CIRP IPS2 conference proceedings.

     

    In this thesis the concepts of PSS, IPSE, DFE and Engineering Education discussed to develop the key common questions and issues to address the environmental, economic and social problems. Since PSS aims to reduce consumption through alternative schemes of product use as well as to increase overall resource productivity and dematerialization, but IPSE does not focus on a single factor but incorporates a wide range of factors such as environmental, social and economic issues. Whilst one of the main problems in this research focused on how to develop and strengthen the relationship between the academia and industry, and how this relation can be used to improve the academic performance and scientific research at universities and transfer them to industry.

     

    Sustainability and the life cycle concept have become a main solution for various problems such as a growing world population and a change in the industrial culture to come. As results Ecodesign and environmental considerations, financial aspects, product improvement as well as the commercial aspects were discussed in this project by understanding the previous concepts. The university considered as an important base of cultivating the talents, basic of inputs business organizations which help them to develop and improve their level of performance and quality of their products and services, and enhance its competitive position in the market. Changes in organized science further encouraged university interests in expanding technology transfer, because the scientific disciplines play an important role in influencing the type of interactions with industry as well as the University and Industry collaboration became the basic method of solving the problems to achieve (environmental, economic and social) sustainability.

  • 2.
    Aldén, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hantering av digitala verktygsmodeller: En studie av hur 3D-modeller av monteringsverktyg ska lagras, struktureras och geopositioneras på Scania CV AB inom Chassimontering2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing product complexity and usage of digital methods has made more and more companies realize the usefulness of good systems for Product Lifecycle Management and Product Data Management to handle their product through its lifecycle. The idea behind PLM solutions is to make sure that everybody has access to the last updated data at all times. This is achieved through central vaults for storage of data and the possibility to structure and manage the data. At Scania, Spectra and Enovia are used to structure and store all the product data. In recent years Digital Test Assembly (DTA) has been used along physical test assembly at the department of chassis production. DTA is used to simulate the ability to assemble new products before production starts.

    At the department for test assembly a need has been identified for better management of 3D models for tools. Mainly a need for better availability of the models has been identified since the models are used to simulate access for tools during assembly. The master thesis will study a future usage of Spectra and Enovia, in the production department, in order for better management of the increased amount of 3D models that today are stored in the computers of the process engineers.   

    Two methods to import the 3D models, which are delivered from Scania's subcontractors, into Enovia have been developed. Since it is the process engineers that manage the investments of tools today they should also perform the imports to Enovia. A structure for the tools was made in Spectra, the PLM-system at Scania. The structure was built according to the assembly sequence at the production of chassis. A study of how the models of tools should be geometrically positioned in the digital environment was also performed.

    The study showed that the production unit of chassis assembly should implement Enovia for storage of models and also look into the possibilities to structure and geometrically position the models using Spectra. In order for the models to be geometrically positioned correctly the data system needs to be further developed to also handle tools instead of only products.

    To improve the development process and lessen the waste of time and money the department of chassis and Scania as a whole need to improve the communication between the production unit and the development unit. Communication will improve the exchange of knowledge and resources between the units. The personnel at Scania also need to make higher demands on the material they get from subcontractors. Scania needs to get digital 3D material from their subcontractors as well in order to reach the vision of a more digital way of doing things.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Hagqvist, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Konstruktion för tillverkning av strukturdelar i komposit: En DFM-strategi för SAAB Aerostructures2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På SAAB Aerostructures i Linköping utvecklas och tillverkas delsystem, så som dörrar och skevroder, till kommersiella flygplan åt framförallt Boeing och Airbus. Inom flygindustrin går utvecklingen mot en större användning av kompositmaterial i denna typ av strukturer. För att befästa sin position på marknaden och bygga kunskap kring konstruktion i och tillverkning av kompositmaterial har SAAB startat ett forskningsprojekt kallat GF Demo. Projektet syftar till att ta fram nästa generations kompositstrukturer för civilflygplan, samt att utveckla effektiva produktionsprocesser för detta. En utmaning med konstruktioner i kompositmaterial är den dyra och komplexa tillverkningsprocessen. För att skapa möjlighet för effektiv tillverkning måste konstruktionerna anpassas efter produktionstekniska krav tidigt i utvecklingsarbetet. Syftet med detta arbete är att utveckla en strategi för hur SAAB ska lyckas med detta. Arbetet har fokuserat på large cargo door till Boeings Dreamliner som är ett av de delsystem som ingår i GF Demo. SAAB har som målsättning att fördubbla takten i tillverkningen av dessa dörrar, för att uppnå målet måste konstruktionen utvecklas för att passa tillverkningen. Ett sätt att skapa roduktionsanpassade konstruktioner är att arbeta med DFM. Genom att undersöka kommersiella DFM-metoder och hur andra företag arbetar med dessa frågor har en strategi anpassad efter företagets förutsättningar utvecklats. Den benchmarking och litteraturstudie som genomfördes visade på ett antal faktorer som skapar förutsättningar för ett lyckat arbete med DFM. De viktigaste faktorerna är att arbetet är förankrat i hela organisationen och att det finns väldefinierade mål med arbetet samt en tydlig ansvarsfördelning. För att kunna identifiera vilka specifika utmaningar som finns på SAAB har anställda på företaget intervjuats. De utmaningar som identifierats är framförallt tillverkningen av kompositartiklar, granskningar av konstruktioner utifrån produktionstekniska förutsättningar samt rutiner vid konceptval. Utifrån detta har en strategi utformats som hanterar främst dessa utmaningar och på lång sikt säkrar att de viktigaste framgångsfaktorerna realiseras på SAAB. En del av strategin är ett verktyg som konstruktörerna kan använda i sitt dagliga arbete för att underlätta utvecklingen av tillverkningsvänliga konstruktioner. Den framtagna strategin inbegriper organisatoriska, taktiska och strategiska förändringar. Den är utformad för att möta problematiken kring framförallt kompositartiklar och tillverkningen av dessa. Strategin innehåller moment från kommersiella produktutvecklings- och DFM-metoder som har anpassats efter de förutsättningar som finns på SAAB. Att arbeta strukturerat med DFM bidrar till en effektivare produktutvecklingsprocess och utveckling av konstruktioner anpassade för tillverkningsprocessen.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hagqvist, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design for Manufacturing of Composite Structures for Commercial Aircraft: The Development of a DFM strategy at SAAB Aerostructures2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 17, p. 362-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aircraft industry, the use of composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) is steadily increasing, especially in structural parts. Manufacturability needs to be considered in aircraft design to ensure a cost-effective manufacturing process. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a new strategy for how SAAB Aerostructures addressing manufacturability issues during the development of airframe composite structures. Through literature review, benchmarking and company interviews, a design for manufacturing (DFM) strategy was developed. The strategy ensures that the important factors for successful DEM management are implemented on strategic, tactical and operational levels that contribute to a more cost-efficient product development process and aircraft design.

  • 5.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automated layup and forming of prepreg laminates2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials like carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) present highly appealing material properties, as they can combine high strength with low weight. In aerospace applications, these properties help to realize lightweight designs that can reduce fuel consumption. Within the aerospace industry, the use of these types of materials has increased drastically with the introduction of a new generation of commercial aircraft. This increased use of CFRP drives a need to develop more rational manufacturing methods.

    For aerospace applications, CFRP products are commonly manufactured from a material called prepreg, which consists of carbon fibers impregnated with uncured polymer resin. There are two dominant manufacturing technologies for automated manufacturing using prepreg, automated tape layup and automated fiber placement. These two technologies are not suitable for all types of products, either due to technical limitations or a combination of high investment costs and low productivity. Automation alternatives to the two dominant technologies have been attempted, but have so far had limited impact. Due to the lack of automation alternatives, manual manufacturing methods are commonly employed for the manufacturing of complex-shaped products in low to medium manufacturing volumes.

    The research presented in this thesis aims to explore how automated manufacturing systems for the manufacturing of complex CFRP products made from prepreg can be designed so that they meet the needs and requirements of the aerospace industry, and are suitable for low to medium production volumes. In order to explore the area, a demonstrator-centered research approach has been employed. A number of demonstrators, in the form of automated manufacturing cells, have been designed and tested with industrial and research partners. The demonstrators have been used to identify key methods and technologies that enable this type of manufacturing, and to analyze some of these methods and technologies in detail. The demonstrators have also been used to map challenges that affect the development of enabling methods and technologies.

    Automated manufacturing of products with complex shapes can be simplified by dividing the process into two steps. Thin layers of prepreg are laid up on top of each other to form flat laminates that are formed to the desired shape in subsequent forming operations. The key methods and technologies required to automate such a system are methods and technologies for automated prepreg layup, the automated removal of backing paper and the forming of complex shapes. The main challenges are the low structural rigidity and tacky nature of prepreg materials, the extensive quality requirements in the aerospace industry and the need for the systems to handle a wide array of prepreg shapes.

    The demonstrators show that it is possible to automate the manufacturing of complexshaped products using automated layup and forming of prepreg laminates. Tests using the demonstrators indicate that it is possible to meet the quality requirements that apply to manual manufacturing of similar products.

    List of papers
    1. Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, p. 505-513Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, validation, change request management
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85268 (URN)978-91-7519-752-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2012), 6-8 November 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-05-17
    2. Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, automation, prepreg, gripping technology
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99344 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-2289 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE 2013 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, September 24-26, 2013, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Note

    SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2289

    Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, automation, off-the-shelf, aerospace
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120300 (URN)
    Conference
    ICCM20 - The 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 19-24th July 2015, Copenhagen Denmark
    Available from: 2015-07-27 Created: 2015-07-27 Last updated: 2017-05-17
    4. Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry
    2016 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, E-ISSN 1946-3987, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods forcomposite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products.Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them toform a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a greatnumber of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two differentdemonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizinga standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robotwhich allow for simpler end-effector design. In combination with a previously developed system for automated removal of backingpapers both systems have shown to be capable of automatically picking prepreg plies from a plane surface and stack them to generate aflat multistack laminate. The dual arm approach has shown advantageous since it result in simpler end-effector design and a successivelay down sequence that result in good adhesion between the plies in the laminate.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Warrendale, USA: SAE International, 2016
    Keyword
    Composite, Manufacturing, Automation, Low-cost, Prepreg
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121602 (URN)10.4271/2015-01-2606 (DOI)000386445700008 ()
    Available from: 2015-09-28 Created: 2015-09-28 Last updated: 2018-02-02Bibliographically approved
    5. Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129925 (URN)
    Conference
    ECCM17 - 17th European Conference on Composite Materials 26-30th June 2016, Munich, Germany
    Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enabling Automation of Composite Manufacturing through the Use of Off-The-Shelf Solutions2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials offer an appealing combination of low weight and high strength that is especially sought after in high-performance applications. The use of composite materials has and is continuing to increase, and the use of the material has been shown to provide substantial weight savings in for example aircraft design. With an increased use of composite materials follows an increased demand for cost-efficient manufacturing methods.

    Composite products are in many cases manufactured either by manual operations or by the use of complex automated solutions associated with high investment costs. The objective for this research is to explore an approach to develop automated composite manufacturing based on commercially available off-the-shelf solutions as an alternative to the existing automated solutions for composite manufacturing.

    The research, which was carried out in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace sector, is based on a demonstrator-centered research approach. Three conceptual demonstrators, focusing on three different manufacturing methods and a number of physical demonstrators, are used to show that off-the-shelf solutions can be used for automated manufacturing of composite products.

    Two aspects that affect if it is possible to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing are the rigorous quality standards used by the aerospace industry and the great variety in product properties and material properties that is associated with composite manufacturing.

    The advantages in using off-the-shelf solutions has shown to be that the solutions generally are associated with low investments and that published information about the solutions, and the solutions themselves, is generally available for evaluation and testing. When working with the demonstrators it has been shown to be useful to break down a manufacturing system into basic tasks and consider off-the-shelf solutions for each particular task. This approach facilitates the search for a suitable off-the-shelf solution to solve a particular task. However, each of the separate tasks can affect other areas of the manufacturing system, and an overall systems perspective is required to find solutions that are compatible with the entire manufacturing system.

    List of papers
    1. Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, automation, prepreg, gripping technology
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99344 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-2289 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE 2013 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, September 24-26, 2013, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    Note

    SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2289

    Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, p. 8960-8969Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Electronic Publishing BytePress.com, 2013
    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, ultrasonic cutting, preform, RTM, automation
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95875 (URN)978-0-9696797-1-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    19th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM19), July 28 - August 2, 2013, Montréal, Canada
    Available from: 2013-08-05 Created: 2013-08-05 Last updated: 2016-09-26
    3. Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

    Keyword
    composite, automation, off-the-shelf, adhesive joining
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109107 (URN)978-84-616-9798-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    16th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM16), June 22-26, 2014, Seville, Spain
    Available from: 2014-08-08 Created: 2014-08-08 Last updated: 2016-09-26
    4. Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, p. 505-513Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

    Keyword
    composite manufacturing, validation, change request management
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85268 (URN)978-91-7519-752-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2012), 6-8 November 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2012-11-14 Created: 2012-11-14 Last updated: 2017-05-17
  • 7.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Composite Manufacturing: How Improvement Work Might Lead to Renewed Product Validation2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Mats Björkman, 2012, p. 505-513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-performance polymer composites are mainly used in applications where the benefits of high strength and low weight justify the high material and manufacturing costs. Many of these applications are found today in the aerospace, space and defense industries. Most of today’s commonly used manufacturing methods within this area are highly labor intensive. Furthermore, the quality requirements from the customers require a high level of process control. The purpose of this paper is to explore how changes that are introduced in order to improve productivity in a manufacturing system are managed, particularly with regard to who takes the decision to implement a change and how a change is validated. The study is based on qualitative interviews performed at several companies that manufacture composite components for the aerospace, space and defense sectors. The findings show that the responsibility for deciding to implement a change and the need for validating it are based on many diverse and interconnected factors. Therefore, it is difficult to construct guidelines for early assessment of the scope and cost of a proposed change. Hence each individual change request must be evaluated on its own. The study also shows that the validation process can be adapted to a level that is based on the type of change. In addition, it highlights that control over process parameters in manufacturing is essential.

  • 8.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alexandersson, Dan
    GKN Aerospace Applied Composites AB.
    Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Cutting of RTM-Preforms – A Part of a High Volume Production System2013In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Composite Materials, 28th July - 2nd August 2013, Montreal, Canada: Composite Materials:The Great Advance / [ed] Suong Van Hoa & Pascal Hubert, Electronic Publishing BytePress.com , 2013, p. 8960-8969Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process parameters for an automated, three-dimensional ultrasonic cutting process of RTM-preforms are examined in order to find how they affect the cutting quality.

  • 9.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuswaldner, Michael
    RUAG Space AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Automated Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Automation Equipment – A Case from the Space Industry2014In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, 22nd-26th June 2014, Seville, Spain, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach to the manufacturing of composite products using off-the-shelf automation equipment is explored in this article. A manufacturing concept for a specific product is developed and analyzed, from a technical perspective, in order to find areas where off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used. The article also highlights areas where case-specific solutions need to be developed. In this particular case, off-the-shelf automation equipment can be used for most of the tasks that the manufacturing system needs to perform. The most challenging process is identified as the application of adhesive. The manufacturing concept described in the article shows that it is possible to build a system for the manufacturing of composite components using a high degree of off-the-shelf automation equipment.

  • 10.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs, Bröderna Ugglas Gata hus 208B, 58188 Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Automated material handling in compostie manufacturing using pick-and-place systems - a review2018In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 51, p. 222-229Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing use of fiber reinforced polymer composites follows a natural pursuit for more rational and effective manufacturing. Robotic pick-and-place systems can be used to automate handling of a multitude of materials used in the manufacturing of composite parts. There are systems developed for automated layup of prepreg, dry fibers and thermoplastic blanks as well as to handle auxiliary materials used in manufacturing. The aim of this paper is to highlight the challenges associated with automated handling of these materials and to analyze the main design principles that have been employed for pick-and-place systems in terms of handling strategy, reconfigurability, gripping technology and distribution of gripping points etc. The review shows that it is hard to find generic solutions for automated material handling due to the great variety in material properties. Few cases of industrial applications in full-scale manufacturing could be identified.

  • 11.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Compraser Labs.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Automation of Composite Manufacturing Using Off-the-shelf Solutions, Three Cases from the Aerospace Industry2015In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials follows a need for rational, cost-efficient manufacturing processes. This paper explores how off-the-shelf solutions, developed for other purposes than composite manufacturing, can be used to build systems for automated composite manufacturing. Three demonstrators, each of them dealing with a specific type of material and all of them representing different manufacturing technologies for automated composite manufacturing, are presented and analyzed to find aspects that affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions. The three demonstrators target low to medium manufacturing volumes of complex products and they have been developed in collaboration with industrial partners within the aerospace industry. The conclusions drawn from the development of the demonstrators are that it is technically feasible to use off-the-shelf solutions in the three cases while adhering to the high quality standards of the industry. Furthermore three groups of aspects, quality aspects, product aspects and system aspects, which affect the ability to use off-the-shelf solutions for automated composite manufacturing, are identified.

  • 12.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea SICOMP.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Åkermo, Malin
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robot-Forming of Prepreg Stacks ‐ Development of Equipment and Methods2016In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials (ECCM17), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aerospace industry the manufacturing of composite components with complex shapes, such as spars, ribs and beams are often manufactured using manual layup and forming of prepreg material. Automated processes for prepreg layup and efficient forming techniques like vacuum forming are sometimes difficult to employ to these type of products due to technical limitations. This paper describes the development of tools and the forming sequence needed to automate sequential forming of a complex shape using an industrial robot. Plane prepreg stacks are formed to the final shape using a dual-arm industrial robot equipped with rolling tools. Tests show that the developed tools and the employed sequence can be used to form stacks to the desired shape with acceptable quality.

  • 13.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures, Sweden.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry2016In: SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, E-ISSN 1946-3987, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods forcomposite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products.Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them toform a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a greatnumber of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two differentdemonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizinga standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robotwhich allow for simpler end-effector design. In combination with a previously developed system for automated removal of backingpapers both systems have shown to be capable of automatically picking prepreg plies from a plane surface and stack them to generate aflat multistack laminate. The dual arm approach has shown advantageous since it result in simpler end-effector design and a successivelay down sequence that result in good adhesion between the plies in the laminate.

  • 14.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem2013In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

  • 15.
    Di Orio, Giovanni
    et al.
    Dept. of Electrotechnical Engineering CTS – UNINOVA, Portugal.
    Rocha, Andre
    Dept. of Electrotechnical Engineering CTS – UNINOVA, Portugal.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barata, Jose
    Dept. of Electrotechnical Engineering CTS – UNINOVA, Portugal.
    The PRIME Semantic Language: Plug and Produce in Standard- based Manufacturing Production Systems2015In: Proceedings of the Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing Conference, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays manufacturing production systems are becoming more and more responsive in order to succeed in ahighly unstable environment. The capability of a production system to effectively and efficiently adapt and evolveto face the changing requirements – imposed by volatile and dynamic global markets – is a necessary conditionto enable manufacturing enterprises to be agile. Since the agility of a manufacturing enterprise is always limitedby the agility of its own building blocks than it needs to be spread over the whole enterprise including the operationand information technologies (OT/IT). Turning to production systems, one of the significant challenges isrepresented by the possibility to provide easy and rapid (re-)configuration of their internal components and/orprocesses. Innovative technologies and paradigms have been explored during the years that combined with theincreasing advancement in manufacturing technologies enable the implementation of the “plug and produce”paradigm. The “plug and produce” paradigm is the foundation of any agile production system, since to be agile itis inevitably required to reduce the installation and (re-)engineering activities time – changing/adapting the systemto new requirements – while promoting configuration rather than programming. Therefore, the “plug andproduce” paradigm is a necessary but not sufficient condition for implementing agile production systems. Modernproduction systems are typically known for their plethora of heterogeneous component/equipment. In this complexscenario, the implementation of the “plug and produce” paradigm implies the existence of a well-definedontological model to support components/equipment abstraction with the objective to allow interactions,collaboration and knowledge sharing between them. The PRIME semantic language specifies the semanticstructure for the knowledge models and overall system communication language.

  • 16.
    Dias-Ferreira, João
    et al.
    Production Engineering, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Akillioglu, Hakan
    Production Engineering, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neves, Pedro
    Production Engineering, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Onori, Mauro
    Production Engineering, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    BIOSOARM: a bio-inspired self-organising architecture for manufacturing cyber-physical shopfloors2016In: Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, ISSN 0956-5515, E-ISSN 1572-8145, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological collective systems have been an important source of inspiration for the design of production systems, due to their intrinsic characteristics. In this sense, several high level engineering design principles have been distilled and proposed on a wide number of reference system architectures for production systems. However, the application of bio-inspired concepts is often lost due to design and implementation choices or are simply used as heuristic approaches that solve specific hard optimization problems. This paper proposes a bio-inspired reference architecture for production systems, focused on highly dynamic environments, denominated BIO-inspired Self-Organising Architecture for Manufacturing (BIOSOARM). BIOSOARM aims to strictly adhere to bio-inspired principles. For this purpose, both shopfloor components and product parts are individualized and extended into the virtual environment as fully decoupled autonomous entities, where they interact and cooperate towards the emergence of a self-organising behaviour that leads to the emergence of the necessary production flows. BIOSOARM therefore introduces a fundamentally novel approach to production that decouples the system’s operation from eventual changes, uncertainty or even critical failures, while simultaneously ensures the performance levels and simplifies the deployment and reconfiguration procedures. BIOSOARM was tested into both flow-line and “job shop”-like scenarios to prove its applicability, robustness and performance, both under normal and highly dynamic conditions.

  • 17.
    Elfving, Sofi W.
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ericsson – The History from Product to Solution Provider and Challenges and Opportunities in an Evolving Environment2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) are realizing that their products, earlier the foundation of their success, no longer stand alone in satisfying customer requirements. Customers now demand integration of services and bundling as well as increased active participation of OEMs during the use phase. Ericsson, a Swedish multinational OEM of communications technology and services, is an example of such a company. The objective of this paper is to describe, compare and discuss Ericsson's journey from a product provider to a PSS provider, e.g. by comparison with other industry examples. Furthermore, the paper highlights future challenges and opportunities for instance regarding business models, trends and product design.

  • 18.
    Elo, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automation in the Recycling Industry: Recycling of Plastic and Large Liquid Crystal Displays2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of growing population and increasing prosperity, the demand for new high-technology products is increasing together with the demand for rawmaterials. To be able to deal with the demand for new raw materials and the increasing amount of waste, the recycling industry needs to prepare itself to cope with these changes. If the waste can become the new raw materials, then the recycling industry has a bright future. The implementation of new ways to recycle products can be the solution to succeeding in this challenge.

    The objective of this research is to investigate, from a technical perspective, automation in the recycling industry. More specifically, the objective is to identify problems and solutions in the recycling of plastics and large liquid crystal displays in order to better cope with current recycling requirements.

    This research was inspired by the research methodologies of industry-aslaboratory, action research, experimental research and two concept development methods.

    The results related to the recycling of plastics come from a theoretical investigation of the possibilities for a plastic sorting facility. The investigation resulted in two concepts for recycling systems, implementable with today’s stateof-the-art technology and a more futuristic concept for sorting and separating the different plastics of interest. The systems are designed with standardised processes and are arranged in a flexible way to be able to manage with current industrial requirements.

    The results related to large liquid crystal displays include a clarification of the requirements for an automatic recycling plant, concept generation, and practical testing of different technologies. Two preferred processes for dismantle large liquid crystal displays are the circle saw and band saw. Additional results are the semi-automatic process structure to manage with current industrial requirements for large liquid crystal displays.

    List of papers
    1. Automation of Plastic Recycling – A case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automation of Plastic Recycling – A case study
    2009 (English)In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009, Sapporo, Japan, Springer, 2009, p. 935-940Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic recycling is an increasingly important issue intoday’s society. The number of plastics and theirvariation with additives has increased lately, affecting inturn the possibilities for plastic material recycling.However, trends in e.g. Japan show a reduction in thenumber of plastics used in e.g. household appliances.This reduction has been put into force in order to easeplastic recycling for those kinds of products.In Sweden, more efforts are put on collecting plasticfor material recycling. The intention for doing this is tohave more plastic material recycled rather thanincinerated and energy recovered. This paper deals witha conceptual investigation and development of anautomatic plastic recycling plant in Sweden. In order toreach a recycling plant that fulfills required technical andeconomic specifications, a large investigation of existingtechniques was performed. This investigation revealedmany techniques described in research, but also whichtechniques that were used by recycling industry today.The results of these studies became a conceptual andpotential well-functioning material recycling plant forplastics which is fully automatic. However, the focus ofthis development has been to sort out and materialrecycle the most common plastics, namely polyetene(LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene(PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS)whereas the other plastics have been sorted out forenergy recovery. Having these delimitations, a goodrecycling process plant can be achieved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2009
    Keyword
    plastic, recycling, automation, Sweden, material recycling.
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63006 (URN)978-4-88898-192-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    6th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, December 7-9, Sapporo, Japan
    Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2016-04-12
    2. Requirements and needs of automatic material recycling of flat panel displays
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements and needs of automatic material recycling of flat panel displays
    2010 (English)In: Proceedings of Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2010, 8th International Symposium, November 8-11, Vienna, Austria, paper 107 on CD., 2010, p. 107-107Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of flat panel displays in the World is increasing and the day whenthe displays will start to end up in the waste stream in great number is getting closer. Themost common flat panel display, the liquid crystal display, contains liquid crystals, indiumand mercury. The capacity of the recycling plants is not dimensioned according to theamount of displays that needs to be recycled in the near future. To increase the capacity ofthe recycling plants and achieve a better work environment there is a possibility to automatethe recycling process in a greater extends comparing with today. The requirements andneeds of the automated processes are to handle; all incoming material, e.g. liquid crystaldisplays, plasma display panel, organic light emitted diode, other types of displays andother electronic waste, identify and separate the different incoming materials, disassemblethe material and separate the components and materials of interest.

    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63008 (URN)
    Conference
    Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2010, 8th International Symposium, November 8-11, Vienna, Austria
    Projects
    AutoDisAHÅPLA
    Available from: 2010-12-08 Created: 2010-12-08 Last updated: 2016-04-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Conceptual Process Development of Automatic Disassembly of Flat Panel Displays for Material Recycling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptual Process Development of Automatic Disassembly of Flat Panel Displays for Material Recycling
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings from the International Conference on Remanufacturing 2011, Glasgow, UK, University of Strathclyde, 27 - 29 July 2011, 2011, p. 187-197Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of television sets and computer monitors with flat panel displays have increased dramatically in recent years, and are expected to result in approximately 2.5 billion liquid crystal displays in Europe in the near future. A large investment will be required in Europe as well as globally to handle the large numbers of flat panel displays that are beginning to enter the waste stream today.Given the long-term effects of increased energy and raw material costs, as well as political directives to effect climate change and environmental pollution, it will be a necessity as well as a business opportunity to recycle both the raw materials and components from electronics waste. It is already an accepted truth that “today’s waste is tomorrow’s resources”.The research for this paper aims at exploring what process concepts there are for making an automatic recycling process of flat panel displays. The recycling process shall be both economical and practical to implement in the existing recycling industry.This paper is based on the requirements and needs facing Swedish electronic recycling companies due to the growing amount of electronic waste. This includes the material that will enter an automated flat panel display recycling facility, together with the material and components of interest.The conceptual process has been developed by conducting literature reviews and interviews with recycling companies, as well as by performing practical tests and financial calculations. The result of the evaluation of concepts shows that a circle-saw concept is most suitable, since it has high capacity and provides a good working environment in comparison to the other concepts studied.

    Keyword
    Automation, Material recycling, Disassembly, Conceptual process development
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71725 (URN)09-4764-981-6 (ISBN)978-09-4764-982-1 (ISBN)
    Conference
    International Conference on Remanufacturing 2011, Glasgow, UK, University of Strathclyde, 27 - 29 July 2011
    Projects
    AutoDisA
    Available from: 2011-11-02 Created: 2011-11-02 Last updated: 2016-04-12
  • 19.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatic Dismantling Challenges in the Structural Design of LCD TVs2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 15, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs) end up in the waste stream today. The combination of hazardous materials such as mercury and liquid crystal, and the labor-intensive disassembly of LCD TVs, make the recycling process interesting to automate. However, since there are so many manufacturers the variation of LCD TVs is high, making automation a challenge. Todays most common automatic process utilizes shredders, resulting in degradation of recycled material and possible decontamination of machine equipment. This paper aims to investigate the challenges related to the structural design of LCD TVs for an automatic dismantling process for the recycling of LCD TVs. The challenges identified during the empirical study were related to the mixture of materials, inhomogeneous materials, thin design, separation of the different components and finding a suitable dismantling sequence without unnecessary removal of components.

  • 20.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Process concepts for semi-automatic dismantling of LCD televisions2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 23, no 2014, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in turn increase the value of the recycled materials, improve the work environment for operators and remove mercury from the recycled materials. A literature review and two empirical studies were performed to be able to present a concept for dismantling direct illuminated LCD TVs. The process used a circular saw and/or a band saw to machine two cuts in LCD TVs to gain access to the mercury-containing cold cathode fluorescent lamps inside. This conceptual process is compared to the other processes found in the literature.

  • 21.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Farid, Amro M.
    et al.
    Masdar Institute of Science & Technology, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Axiomatic Design of a Multi-Agent Reconfigurable Manufacturing System Architecture2014In: Proceedings of ICAD2014 The Eighth International Conference on Axiomatic Design Campus de Caparica – September 24-26, 2014 / [ed] António M. Gonçalves-Coelho, Miguel Cavique and António Mourão, 2014, p. 51-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the fields of reconfigurable manufacturing systems, holonic manufacturing systems, and multi-agent systems have made technological advances to support the ready reconfiguration of automated manufacturing systems.  While these technological advances have demonstrated robust operation and been qualitatively successful in achieving reconfigurability, their ultimate industrial adoption remains limited.  Amongst the barriers to adoption has been the relative absence of formal and quantitative multi-agent system design methodologies based upon reconfigurability measurement.  Hence, it is not clear 1.) the degree to which these designs have achieved their intended level of reconfigurability 2.) which systems are indeed quantitatively more reconfigurable and 3.) how these designs may overcome their design limitations to achieve greater reconfigurability in subsequent design iterations.  To our knowledge, this paper is the first multi-agent system reference architecture for reconfigurable manufacturing systems driven by a quantitative and formal design approach.  It is rooted in an established engineering design methodology called axiomatic design for large flexible engineering systems and draws upon design principles distilled from prior works on reconfigurability measurement.  The resulting architecture is written in terms of the mathematical description used in reconfigurability measurement which straightforwardly allows instantiation for system-specific application.

  • 23.
    Farid, Amro M.
    et al.
    Dartmouth Coll, NH 03755 USA; MIT, MA 02139 USA.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Axiomatic Design of a Multiagent Reconfigurable Mechatronic System Architecture2015In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1142-1155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the fields of reconfigurable manufacturing systems, holonic manufacturing systems, and multiagent systems have made technological advances to support the ready reconfiguration of automated manufacturing systems. While these technological advances have demonstrated robust operation and been qualitatively successful in achieving reconfigurability, their ultimate industrial adoption remains limited. Among the barriers to adoption has been the relative absence of formal and quantitative multiagent system design methodologies based on reconfigurability measurement. Hence, it is not clear that the degree to which these designs have achieved their intended level of reconfigurability, which systems are indeed quantitatively more reconfigurable, and how these designs may overcome their design limitations to achieve greater reconfigurability in subsequent design iterations. To our knowledge, this paper is the first multiagent system reference architecture for reconfigurable manufacturing systems driven by a quantitative and formal design approach. It is rooted in an established engineering design methodology called axiomatic design for large flexible engineering systems and draws upon design principles distilled from prior works on reconfigurability measurement. The resulting architecture is written in terms of the mathematical description used in reconfigurability measurement, which straightforwardly allows instantiation for system-specific application.

  • 24.
    Ferreira, Joao Dias
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Akillioglu, Hakan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neves, Pedro
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maffei, Antonio
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization of an Agile Bio-inspired Shop-Floor2014In: Proceedings2014 12th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil 27-30 July, 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 404-410Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is currently one of the biggest challenges and driver of manufacturing industry. Nevertheless, with the decrease of product life cycles, the consumption of raw materials as well as the obsolescence of production systems increases. In this sense, agile shop-floors that enact companies with the ability to quickly reconfigure their shop-floors by deploying or removing modules are the key for sustainable industrial development. This paper attempts to characterize an innovative approach that relies on bio-inspired concepts as the main control mechanism, in order to foster sustainability by attaining the necessary shop-flooragility. Furthermore an experimental setup is presented and the results are analysed, in order to understand the influence and impact of the main properties that characterize the approach towards the system performance.

  • 25.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malm, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    What are the differences between related offset and outsourcing?: A case study of a related offset business at Saab2016In: International Journal of Technology Transfer and Commercialisation, ISSN 1470-6075, E-ISSN 1741-5284, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 132-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, offset contracts have become more complex. For the seller to carry through and review the effects and the demands of an offset contract, they need a framework.The paper identifies five main differences between outsourcing and related offset, which are translated into activities to be included in a suggested related offset framework. The paper is based on an in-depth case study of a related offset business at Saab, a Swedish military aircraft producer. The analysis compared the studied case with an existing outsourcing process identified in literature. The paper contributes by providing an overview of the activities taking place during a related offset process and showing the effect of the different hierarchical levels involved in the process on the efficiency of the fulfilment of the offset business. This paper is based on a single case study, and the suggested differences should be verified through further case studies.

  • 26.
    Gabela, Asmir
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatiserad monteringscell för tillverkning av adapterringar i kompositmaterial2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är en del av ett forskningsprojekt som är ett samarbete mellan RUAG Space och Linköpings Universitet. RUAG Space är ett företag inom rymdindustrin som tillverkar delar till satelliter och bärraketer. För detta examensarbete kommer enbart adapter - och separationssystemet att beröras. Vid en uppskjutning av satelliter är det viktigt att tänka på att vikten är så låg som möjligt. Därför ville företaget att en ny produkt skulle tas fram genom att använda kompositmaterial. Företaget tar fram komponenten medan examensarbetets fokus är tillverkningen av den.

    Produkten består av kolfiberformade laminatblock som limmas ihop för att skapa ett cirkelbågeformat segment. Eftersom flera block limmas ihop är det en tidskrävande tillverkningsprocess. Därför beslutade företaget att ett koncept för automatiserad monteringscell skulle kunna tas fram. Då examensarbetet är tidsbestämt angås det att ett virtuellt automatiserat monteringskoncept skulle räcka.

    I detta examensarbete har ett stort fokus lagts på konceptgenereringen som har tillämpats för att hitta lämpliga koncept för problemet. Konceptgenereringen delades i tre huvudfunktioner som var robot, fixtur-och limapplicering samt gripdon. Det visade sig att konstruktionen av fixturen som gjordes parallellt med limappliceringen var examensarbetes viktigaste del. Därför lades stor del av examensarbetes tid åt att framta lämplig fixtur - och limningskoncept. För att kunna avgöra vilket fixturkoncept som är mest lämplig användes en konceptvalsmetod.

    När ett fixturkoncept och dess limapplicering hade valts kunde resterande funktioner väljas utifrån fixturenskoncepts geometri och funktion. Det påvisades att en 6 axlar robot var den mest lämpade för monteringscellen medan det mest lämpade gripdonet var klämmande. Efter att alla huvudfunktioner hade valts kunde en processlayout tas fram som sedan användes som stöd vid programmering av roboten. Geometrisimuleringen består av att roboten hämtar blocken som sedan går igenom olika mellanliggande stationer innan det placeras i fixturkonceptet. Processen avslutas med en liminjicering i fixturen.

    Det har visat sig att det lättaste sättet att utforma ett segment har varit genom att fixturkonceptet har en cirkelbågeformad geometri. Den slutgiltiga geometrisimuleringen visade att det går att automatisera monteringscellen.

  • 27.
    Hochwallner, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On Motion Control of Linear Incremental Hydraulic Actuators2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear Incremental Hydraulic Actuators combine one or more short-stroke cylinders, and two or more engaging/disengaging mechanisms into one actuator with long, medium, or even unlimited stroke length. The motion of each single short-stroke actuator concatenated by the engaging/disengaging mechanisms forms the motion of the linear incremental hydraulic actuator.

    The patterns of how these motions are concatenated form the gaits of a specific linear incremental hydraulic actuator. Linear incremental hydraulic actuators may have more than one gait. In an application, the gaits may be combined to achieve optimal performance at various operating points.

    The distinguishing characteristic of linear incremental hydraulic actuators is the incremental motion. The term incremental actuator is seen as analogous to the incremental versus absolute position sensor. Incremental actuators realize naturally relative positioning. Incremental motion means also that the behavior does not depend on an absolute position but only on the relative position within a cycle or step.

    Incremental actuators may realize discrete incremental or continuous incremental motion. Discrete incremental actuators can only approach discrete positions, whereby stepper drives are one prominent example. In contrast, continuous incremental actuators may approach any position. Linear electric motors are one example of continuous incremental actuators. The actuator has no inherent limitation in stroke length, as every step or cycle adds only to the state at the beginning of the step or cycle and does not depend on the absolute position. This led to the alternative working title Hydraulic Infinite Linear Actuator.

    Linear incremental hydraulic actuator provides long stroke, high force, and linear motion and has the potential to

    • decrease the necessary resource usage,
    • minimize environmental impact, e.g. from potential oil spillage,
    • extend the range of feasible products: longer, stiffer, better, etc.

    This thesis presents an analysis of the characteristics and properties of linear incremental hydraulic actuators as well as the gaits and possible realizations of some gaits. The gait for continuous, smooth motion with two cylinders is comprehensively studied and a control concept for the tracking problem is proposed. The control concept encapsulates the complexity of the linear incremental hydraulic actuator so that an application does not have to deal with it. One other gait, the ballistic gait, which realizes fast, energy-efficient motion, enabling energy recuperation is studied.

  • 28.
    Jensen, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    DFM/A-metod för integrerade strukturdelar i kolfiberkomposit: Vidareutveckling av metodik för SAAB Aerostructures2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the fastest developing materials right now. Analogously to the material becoming cheaper and being used more widely in the aerospace industry the manufacturing methods have developed to follow the progress. How material and manufacturing method change the requirements and affect a product's design and performance can be hard to determine. This degree project has developed a Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFM/A) method to easier take into consideration the production process throughout the product development. The DFM/A method is developed for Saab Aerostructures and is based on their materials, production process and product development process. By studying literature and performing case studies a DFM/A method called Method 2015 (M2015) was developed. The method includes a work procedure, design guidelines and supporting DFM/A tools. By considering the production aspects throughout the development process this method of operation facilitate the development of CFRP products at Saab. In addition to the method itself the materials needed to use M2015 is compiled in a manual for the designer. By creating a better understanding of the production aspects of a design and providing the right tools the DFM/A method can contribute to several positive effects. The use of M2015 should lead to CFRP products that are easier to produce which in turn should minimize unnecessary costs, raise the quality and shorten lead times. However, the implementation of M2015 at Saab also creates demands to reach these targets

  • 29.
    Johansson, Glenn
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean and green product development: two sides of the same coin?2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, p. 104-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and contrasts the lean product development (LPD) and green product development (GPD) concepts through a systematic literature review including 102 journal publications. The review resulted in 14 findings that were organised according to four dimensions: general, process, people and tools/techniques. A number of similarities between the concepts were found. For example, implementation of both concepts calls for a systems perspective where the dimensions of process-people-tools/techniques are linked holistically. Differences between the LPD and GPD concepts lie in: their goal and focus, value construct, process structure, performance metrics, and tools/techniques used. The findings do not unambiguously support that "green thinking is thinking lean" and consequently it cannot be argued that LPD and GPD are two sides of the same coin, meaning that LPD automatically leads to greener products or that GPD ensures improvements and efficiency in the product development process. However, it is reasonable to conclude that LPD and GPD belong to the same "currency". That is, the concepts share a number of similarities that indicate a synergistic relationship. This synergistic relationship has been accentuated by a nine propositions where the potential for cross-field learning is shown.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Ricard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monteringsinstruktioner: innehåll, framtagning och presentation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of instructions is to pass a strategy or method for work on to a previously unexperienced person. For an instruction to be successful it must be designed in a manner that allows easy use and correct interpretation. The increasing demand for customer customization and flexibility leads to an ever increasing need for manufacturing companies to create and utilize instructions in an effective way.

    On the behalf of PartnerTech in Åtvidaberg, a project was conducted as a master thesis during the spring semester of 2014, with the target of facilitating the creation and revision of instructions. How information should be presented to best support the user was also a main objective of the project. Beside this, a method for categorizing the company’s products was requested, to facilitate the allocation of personnel at the assembly lines. PartnerTech as a contract manufacturer is continuously challenged with new products at various development stages. As a consequence, instructions needs to be created regularly. The initiative for the project originates from the dissatisfaction related to the current method.

    The master thesis has been conducted by a student at the mechanical engineering program at Linköping University. The initial part of the project involved a study of the current method and the company’s needs, as well as research within the concerned areas. Later the software SolidWorks Composer was evaluated to see which possible benefits it could hold. A proposal for a new layout of the instructions was developed, based on the found literature during the research. Instructions was established using the layout and principles, which then was tested on real products. Parallel to this a method for categorizing the products was developed.

    The project resulted in an alternative layout for instructions and a proposal for a new presentation method. The tool proposed for creating and maintaining the instructions is Microsoft PowerPoint, which was used during the project and showed several benefits compared to the current software. The evaluation of SolidWorks Composer showed that there is potential for more effective creation of images for instructions, given that some criteria is fulfilled. The method for categorizing products resulted in a checklist, based essentially on yes/no-questions.

  • 31.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Manufacturing Technology as an Enabler of Flexibility: Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling and Force-Controlled Robotics2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to survive in today’s global market many manufacturing companies seek flexibility to reduce product lead times and meet changing market demands. Manufacturing equipment forms the base of the production system and manufacturing technology with the capability to adapt to any changes in prerequisites is thus a key enabler of flexibility. Industrial robots and fixtures are common in all types of manufacturing. Robots are versatile re-programmable units capable of performing many tasks, such as welding, part transfer, etc. Industrial robots have traditionally been unable to handle disturbances and lack of constraints of input. This has led to manual operations often being preferred to automation when some level of flexibility is needed. One way to enhance manufacturing equipment’s capability to handle unknown events is to integrate different kinds of sensors to gain more knowledge of the manufacturing environment. Force sensors, for example, can be used to close the feedback loop and, together with an adequate control system, enable the robot to react to force stimuli. This is useful in manufacturing applications like assembly and deburring, which have previously been difficult to automate.

    Fixtures are devices that hold and position parts during a manufacturing process. Traditionally many fixtures have been dedicated, i.e. designed for a specific part and purpose. This means that fixtures have not been able to handle different products in the same unit, thus hindering flexibility. Sensors, like measurement systems, can be used together with fixtures to de-couple the structure of the fixture from the accuracy, which is the traditional approach to fixturing. This reasoning forms the base of the Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling (ART) concept, developed at Linköping University. The ART concept aims at increasing flexibility in manufacturing, while ensuring affordability and efficiency.

    This thesis explores how common manufacturing equipment, like industrial robots and fixtures, combined with sensor input, can enhance flexibility in manufacturing. The research shows that force-controlled robots, reacting to force stimuli, produce consistent results in assembly of compliant structures and in complex deburring. Force control also makes the system more robust, as it is able to handle variance in the assembled and deburred parts which adds to system flexibility. It also lessens the need for accuracy in other equipment used, such as grippers and fixtures, and makes programming easier and safer. Force control would, however, benefit if parameter tuning was simplified in order to fit an industrial environment and if presented user information is tailored for the intended user.

    Using measurement sensors to build fixtures, new ART devices aimed at increased flexibility in fixtures have been developed. These devices reduce the resources needed for fixture build and reconfiguring between products and also open up for making fixtures more active in manufacturing and similar to robots, while still being affordable. ART also reduces resources needed for design, as shown by the developed design aid programs. ART also supports concurrent design, as fixture specifications may be finalized before the product specifications are fully set.

    The overall results indicate that the explored sensors in combination with today’s emerging technologies can give additional benefits for applications like assembly and deburring and for fixtures. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to increase flexibility on different levels in a manufacturing system by using sensors in combination with industrial robots and fixtures.

    List of papers
    1. Fixture design using Configurators
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fixture design using Configurators
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2008 Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Lindberg, B.; Stahre, J., 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and manufacture of fixtures are among one of the major cost drivers in product industrialization. Modular or reconfigurable fixture solutions that may be adapted to encompass a large variety of parts or products have been researched and employed in applications ranging from machining to assembly. These solutions have not only the potential to reduce fixture manufacturing cost, but they also render it possible for different solutions to facilitate and speed up actual design work. The process of designing fixtures today is complicated, time consuming and require long experience by the tool designer. In this paper we present the Configurator approach - add on programs to the CAD-software which aids the designer in the design process. The Configurators are semi-automated and interactive, designed to use in compliance with the ART-concept, a reconfigurable fixture concept for assembly applications. The Configurator approach has been tested on industrial cases and parts of the results are presented in this paper.

    Keyword
    Fixture design, Reconfigurable fixtures, Configurators
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63187 (URN)
    Conference
    Swedish Production Symposium 2008, November 19-20, Stockholm, Sweden
    Projects
    Flexa
    Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2013-01-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Development of a new flexible fixturing device for Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a new flexible fixturing device for Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling
    2010 (English)In: 3rd CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems: Responsive, customer demand driven, adaptive assembly / [ed] Terje K. Lien, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2010, p. 103-108Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To use thin wedges of metal to adjust fixtures, i.e shimming, has been a common approach to achieve desired position and tolerance. To build a fixture using shims is time-consuming and results in a fixture that is difficult to modify. The newly developed ART (Affordable Reconfigurable Tooling) concept addresses the need for flexible fixturing by means of reconfigurable supports that are set to desired position by guidance from an outer measuring system. The ART concept can be realized by means of several different reconfigurable devices, among these is the newly developed “Mini Flexapod”. This small 6 degree of freedom reconfigurable device was designed to eliminate shimming and therefore has a small working envelope of approximately 4x4x4 mm. The Mini Flexapod is a result of working with several manufacturing cases  described in this paper.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2010
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63186 (URN)9788251926164 (ISBN)
    Conference
    3rd CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems (CATS2010), June 21-22, Trondheim, Norway
    Projects
    Fixture, Fixturing, RMS, FMS, Tooling; Assembly technology
    Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2016-05-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany / [ed] D. Spath, R Ilg and T. Krause, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixtures are used in manufacturing to hold and position products or workpieces. Linköping University has over a period of several years developed an approach to flexible fixturing that relies on an outer measuring system to ensure accuracy rather than the more common approaches of high internal accuracy or a built-in chain of tolerances. The Linköping system fuses modularity, a rebuildable framework, with reconfigurability, through the means of adjustable devices. To address the need for speed in reconfiguration an automated approach has been developed as a proof-ofconcept. The system consists of electrical motors attached to the legs of the Flexapod 6, a PC, controller cards and an external measuring system. The measuring system feeds information to the PC that is utilized to calculate desired leg length using a Visual Basic program that communicates with CATIA V5. This program then sets signals to the motor controller cards which run the actuators. Due to the motors used the accuracy achieved are in the range of +/-0.15 mm but this may be enhanced with other types of motors developed for higher strengthrather than speed. The system can be further developed by having the actuators as the actual legs of the Flexapod, making it a cheaper Hexapod robot. The paper presents the automated Flexapod 6 in the current system along with possible further development.

    Keyword
    Tooling, Hexapod, Reconfigurable, Manufacturing, RMS
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88172 (URN)3-8396-0293-9 (ISBN)978-3-8396-0293-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), Innovation in Product and Production, 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany
    Note

    Published in CD-ROM.

    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2013-01-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Aspects of reconfigurable and flexible fixtures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of reconfigurable and flexible fixtures
    2010 (English)In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 333-339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The design and manufacture of fixtures and other dedicated tooling for positioning of workpieces are among the major cost drivers in product industrialization. This has spurred research and commercial interest towards other fixturing solutions like reconfigurable fixtures, with the ability to be changed, or  reconfigured , to suit different parts and products. When reconfiguring, the product interface not only has to be moved but moved to a desired position and orientation. Several different approaches have been used to move and position these devices, all with their own advantages and disadvantages. This article presents different methods used to position and reconfigure flexible fixture devices using a parallel kinematic device as a case. Discussing the different ways to reconfigure a flexible device, the article aims to arrange the techniques according to their key features.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Heidelberg: Springer Berlin, 2010
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63174 (URN)10.1007/s11740-010-0256-z (DOI)
    Projects
    KooFixProFlexaFlexa
    Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2013-01-30
    5. Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of SEA AeroTech Congress and Exhibition 2011, 18th-21st October, Toulouse, France, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation in aerospace industry is often in the form of dedicated solutions and focused on processes like drilling, riveting etc. The common industrial robot has due to limitations in positional accuracy and stiffness often been unsuitable for aerospace manufacturing. One major cost driver in aircraft manufacturing is manual assembly and the bespoke tooling needed. Assembly tasks frequently involve setting relations between parts rather than a global need for accuracy. This makes assembly a suitable process for the use of force control. With force control a robot equipped with needed software and hardware, searches for desired force rather than for a position. To test the usefulness of force control for aircraft assembly an experimental case aligning a compliant rib to multiple surfaces was designed and executed. The system used consisted of a standard ABB robot and an open controller and the assembly sequence was made up of several steps in order to achieve final position. The result shows that the process is robust and repetitive and has the potential to reduce the need for bespoke jigs and fixtures.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88173 (URN)10.4271/2011-01-2734 (DOI)
    Conference
    SEA AeroTech Congress and Exhibition 2011, 18th-21st October, Toulouse, France
    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2014-10-14Bibliographically approved
    6. On force control for assembly and deburring of castings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On force control for assembly and deburring of castings
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional industrial robots have problems interacting with an uncalibrated, ill-dened environment where part geometry and position may vary. Active force control technology has therefore been suggested as a solution to add the extra sensory dimension needed to handle manufacturing tasks like assembly and deburring. The technology is proposed to give increased exibility compared to other solutions and force control systems are available commercially. Active force control installations however, are is still uncommon in industry. This paper presents two cases of force control applications; assembly of a compliant carbon ber structure and deburring/cleaning of iron castings. Based on these two cases, some issues are raised on how the technology can be further developed to t the industrial setting, and the proposed benets are re-examined and refined. The two cases show that programming, parameter setting and ease of use are critical components in lowering the industrial threshold, together with increased possibilities of application-specic compensation and filtering. Force control does however, show great potential in increasing the boundaries for variance in product and equipment like grippers and xtures as well as decreasing the need for calibration of for example virtual models used for programming compared to traditional automated solutions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2013
    Keyword
    Industrial robotics Machining Debur- ring Force Control Assembly
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88174 (URN)10.1007/s11740-013-0459-1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2014-02-24Bibliographically approved
    7. On emerging manufacturing technology as enablers of Lean
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On emerging manufacturing technology as enablers of Lean
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper discusses the impact of emerging automation technologies on the reduction of waste/muda in Lean manufacturing. Two industrial cases are used to highlight the increasing complexity of investment decisions and technology management.

    Design/methodology/approach - The 7 wastes are mapped along with their drivers in an automated manufacturing cell. Using two industrial cases; non-contact robotized scanning of car structures and force control de-burring, as illustrative examples their impact on drivers and waste reduction is established.

    Findings - Emerging technology has a high potential for reducing waste, not only on a cell level but also up-, and downstream the actual manufacturing process, for example on programming efforts. However, this increases the complexity of how technology impacts waste, and to what extent and scope.

    Research limitations/implications - New models for planning of manufacturing cells have to be researched that consider the possible impact of technology solutions to a wide aspect of the manufacturing organization.

    Practical implications - The identified drivers of waste in automation along with the presented waste reducers can be used by industry practitioners as a tool to evaluate and design manufacturing cells.

    Originality/value - This paper links new automation technologies with the waste concept and discusses the issues of increasing complexity in manufacturing, which is valuable for researchers and practitioners in technology management. It also lists drivers and summarizes possible technical solutions for waste reduction.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88176 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-30 Created: 2013-01-30 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
  • 32.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On emerging manufacturing technology as enablers of LeanManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper discusses the impact of emerging automation technologies on the reduction of waste/muda in Lean manufacturing. Two industrial cases are used to highlight the increasing complexity of investment decisions and technology management.

    Design/methodology/approach - The 7 wastes are mapped along with their drivers in an automated manufacturing cell. Using two industrial cases; non-contact robotized scanning of car structures and force control de-burring, as illustrative examples their impact on drivers and waste reduction is established.

    Findings - Emerging technology has a high potential for reducing waste, not only on a cell level but also up-, and downstream the actual manufacturing process, for example on programming efforts. However, this increases the complexity of how technology impacts waste, and to what extent and scope.

    Research limitations/implications - New models for planning of manufacturing cells have to be researched that consider the possible impact of technology solutions to a wide aspect of the manufacturing organization.

    Practical implications - The identified drivers of waste in automation along with the presented waste reducers can be used by industry practitioners as a tool to evaluate and design manufacturing cells.

    Originality/value - This paper links new automation technologies with the waste concept and discusses the issues of increasing complexity in manufacturing, which is valuable for researchers and practitioners in technology management. It also lists drivers and summarizes possible technical solutions for waste reduction.

  • 33.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murray, Tom
    Airbus UK, United Kingdom.
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of an automated reconfigurable device for affordable fixturing2011In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Production Research (ICPR2011), 31st July - 4th August, Stuttgart, Germany / [ed] D. Spath, R Ilg and T. Krause, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixtures are used in manufacturing to hold and position products or workpieces. Linköping University has over a period of several years developed an approach to flexible fixturing that relies on an outer measuring system to ensure accuracy rather than the more common approaches of high internal accuracy or a built-in chain of tolerances. The Linköping system fuses modularity, a rebuildable framework, with reconfigurability, through the means of adjustable devices. To address the need for speed in reconfiguration an automated approach has been developed as a proof-ofconcept. The system consists of electrical motors attached to the legs of the Flexapod 6, a PC, controller cards and an external measuring system. The measuring system feeds information to the PC that is utilized to calculate desired leg length using a Visual Basic program that communicates with CATIA V5. This program then sets signals to the motor controller cards which run the actuators. Due to the motors used the accuracy achieved are in the range of +/-0.15 mm but this may be enhanced with other types of motors developed for higher strengthrather than speed. The system can be further developed by having the actuators as the actual legs of the Flexapod, making it a cheaper Hexapod robot. The paper presents the automated Flexapod 6 in the current system along with possible further development.

  • 34.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stolt, Andreas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Murray, Tom
    Airbus UK, United Kingdom.
    Nilsson, Klas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib2011In: Proceedings of SEA AeroTech Congress and Exhibition 2011, 18th-21st October, Toulouse, France, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation in aerospace industry is often in the form of dedicated solutions and focused on processes like drilling, riveting etc. The common industrial robot has due to limitations in positional accuracy and stiffness often been unsuitable for aerospace manufacturing. One major cost driver in aircraft manufacturing is manual assembly and the bespoke tooling needed. Assembly tasks frequently involve setting relations between parts rather than a global need for accuracy. This makes assembly a suitable process for the use of force control. With force control a robot equipped with needed software and hardware, searches for desired force rather than for a position. To test the usefulness of force control for aircraft assembly an experimental case aligning a compliant rib to multiple surfaces was designed and executed. The system used consisted of a standard ABB robot and an open controller and the assembly sequence was made up of several steps in order to achieve final position. The result shows that the process is robust and repetitive and has the potential to reduce the need for bespoke jigs and fixtures.

  • 35.
    Jonsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stolt, Andreas
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Robertsson, Anders
    Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    von Gegerfelt, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Klas
    Department of Computer Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    On force control for assembly and deburring of castings2013In: Production Engineering, ISSN 0944-6524, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional industrial robots have problems interacting with an uncalibrated, ill-dened environment where part geometry and position may vary. Active force control technology has therefore been suggested as a solution to add the extra sensory dimension needed to handle manufacturing tasks like assembly and deburring. The technology is proposed to give increased exibility compared to other solutions and force control systems are available commercially. Active force control installations however, are is still uncommon in industry. This paper presents two cases of force control applications; assembly of a compliant carbon ber structure and deburring/cleaning of iron castings. Based on these two cases, some issues are raised on how the technology can be further developed to t the industrial setting, and the proposed benets are re-examined and refined. The two cases show that programming, parameter setting and ease of use are critical components in lowering the industrial threshold, together with increased possibilities of application-specic compensation and filtering. Force control does however, show great potential in increasing the boundaries for variance in product and equipment like grippers and xtures as well as decreasing the need for calibration of for example virtual models used for programming compared to traditional automated solutions.

  • 36.
    Karlsson Sundqvist, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Källmar, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Integration of Environmental Aspects in Product Development Process and Ship Design: a LEAP towards environmental awareness at Kockums AB2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish company Kockums AB, at the forefront within maritime and naval technology, is in need of a tool, document, and/or method to include environmental aspects in their product development process. This is mainly because of additional requirements put on Kockums AB from their main customer. Ship recycling is the major issue that has to be addressed and included in Kockums AB’sworking procedures. Moreover, ship recycling is a pressing issue to handle due to horrible conditions in South Asian countries, where most ship dismantling is taking place. For these reasons, the objective of this M.Sc. thesis was to integrate environmental aspects in the product development process at Kockums AB by designing and proposing a way of implementing a tool, document, and/or method.

    Environmental product requirements that Kockums AB is demanded to fulfill mainly derives from customers, classification societies, laws and legislations, and themselves. The Hong Kong Convention has been adapted, in 2009, but is yet to enter into force. Ship recycling is covered by the convention,and an ‘Inventory of Hazardous Materials’ has to be provided from the ship builder, and hence this is the main aspect for Kockums AB to consider. Naval ships are, however, excluded from the Hong Kong Convention.

    Kockums AB does not have a routine on how to handle environmental requirements nor are environmental aspects included in their product development process. Consequently, Kockums AB’senvironmental ambition should not be put too high and rather aim at follow laws. In an empiricalstudy, regarding environmental aspects at Kockums AB, difficulties were identified. Lack of environmental knowledge, communication problems, and misunderstandings regarding the ambiguous term environment showed to be most notable. The three most prominent success factors for asuccessful integration of ecodesign, from the conducted literature review and empirical findings, are education for employees, existence of an environmental champion, and top management support.

    A Long-term Environmental Action Plan (LEAP), which took the success factors into account and contains 18 Actions, was developed for Kockums AB, and is the ultimate result of this research. The LEAP was developed in accordance with ISO 14006, a new standard for incorporation of ecodesign in Environmental Management Systems, with the aim of reducing adverse environmental impactsthroughout a product’s lifecycle. Moreover, the proposed way of implementing the LEAP was based on a ”Plan, Do, Check, Act” methodology from Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS). POEMS focus on a product’s environmental efficiency throughout its lifecycle, by a systematic integration of ecodesign in the company’s strategies and practices, and hence continual improvements. This way of implementation should be familiar to Kockums AB because the company is certified according to ISO 14001, where continual improvement of environmental performance is a key factor.

    The proposed LEAP includes tools, documents, and methods that are to be used in daily work and product development at Kockums AB. It is a step towards environmentally conscious design and enhanced environmental knowledge at Kockums AB. Additionally, as a result of the LEAP, the expectation is that environmental conscious mindsets of employees arise.

  • 37.
    Kurilova, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3225-3236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-09 13:11
  • 38.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean Remanufacturing: addressing system challenges2015In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Environmental Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing (Eco-Design -15), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with remanufacturing is emphasized through delivering same or better than original product quality and prolonging physical product performance. However, remanufacturing faces challenges related to complex material and information flows. Therefore in order to sustain competitive some remanufacturers investigate opportunity to improve through lean production.

    The aim with this paper is to define remanufacturing challenges from a system perspective and investigate how these challenges can be addressed by lean production principles. Data is collected via focus group interviews at three remanufacturing companies. In addition, a literature study on lean principles and practices to deal with the identified challenges was conducted.

    The lean principles in remanufacturing: value, value stream, flow, pull and perfection are described and five remanufacturing system challenges: uncertainty, complexity, variability, inflexibility, lean waste were defined. As a result, a generic lean approach to deal with remanufacturing system challenges is developed with a focus on pull-based remanufacturing.

  • 39.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean Remanufacturing: Reducing Process Lead Time2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a product recovery option in which used products are brought back into useful life. While the remanufacturing industry stretches from heavy machinery to automotive parts, furniture, and IT sectors, it faces challenges. A majority of these challenges originate from the remanufacturing characteristics of having little control over the core (the used product or its part), high product variation, low product volumes, and a high proportion of manual work, when compared to manufacturing. Some remanufacturing challenges appear to be process challenges that prolong process lead time, making remanufacturing process inefficient.

    Lean is an improvement strategy with roots in the manufacturing industry. Lean helps to increase customer satisfaction, reduce costs, and improve company’s performance in delivery, quality, inventory, morale, safety, and other areas. Lean encompasses principles, tools and practices to deal with e.g. inefficient processes and long process lead times. Therefore, in this thesis lean has been selected as an improvement strategy to deal with long remanufacturing process lead times.

    The objective of this thesis is to expand knowledge on how lean can reduce remanufacturing process lead time. This objective is approached through literature studies and a case study conducted at four remanufacturing companies. There are five challenges that contribute to long process lead time: unpredictable core quality, quantity, and timing; weak collaboration, information exchange, and miscommunication; high inventory levels; unknown number of required operations in process and process sequence; and insufficient employee skills for process and product upgrade. When analysing the case companies’ process lead times it was found that there is a need to reduce waiting times, which account for 95 to 99 per cent of process lead times at three of the four companies.

    To improve remanufacturing process efficiency and reduce remanufacturing process lead time six lean practices are suggested: product families; kanban; layout for continuous flow; cross functional teams; standard operating procedures; and supplier partnerships. The suggested lean practices have a key focus on reducing waiting time since it prolongs the process lead time. This thesis contributes to lean remanufacturing research with the case study findings on lean practices to reduce remanufacturing process lead time and increase process efficiency.

    List of papers
    1. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 644-652Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Keyword
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Projects
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Keyword
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Conference
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Conference
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops
    2017 (English)In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

    Keyword
    Recovering, Laptops, Lean, Just-in-time solutions, Process efficiency
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142345 (URN)
    Conference
    3rd International Conference on Remanufacturing ICOR-17, Linköping, Sweden, October 24-26, 2017
    Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges
    2017 (English)In: QMOD proceedings, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

    Keyword
    Lean remanufacturing, Information flow, Challenges, Improvements
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142344 (URN)
    Conference
    20th QMOD conference, Copenhagen/Elsinore, Denmark and Helsingborg, Sweden, 5-7 August, 2017
    Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 29, p. 780-785Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing.

    Data was collected through workshops and interviews at five remanufacturing companies. An accumulated Sankey diagram illustrates product life-cycle information flow, losses and bottleneck. Based on the analysis, possible initiatives to facilitate efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing are presented.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Remanufacturing; Product life-cycle stackeholder; Feedback; Feed forward; Sankey diagram
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120761 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.162 (DOI)000356146100132 ()
    Conference
    22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), Univ New S Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, April 7-9, 2015
    Projects
    Återprodukt, KEAP2
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    7. Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3225-3236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    Keyword
    Remanufacturing; Circular economy; Lean production; Lead time
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144880 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.023 (DOI)000423002500020 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2013-03333]

    Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-05-17
  • 40.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 29, p. 780-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing.

    Data was collected through workshops and interviews at five remanufacturing companies. An accumulated Sankey diagram illustrates product life-cycle information flow, losses and bottleneck. Based on the analysis, possible initiatives to facilitate efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing are presented.

  • 41.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Permin, Eike
    Mannheim, Tom
    Buhse, K.
    Lorenz, M.
    Department of Mechanism Theory and Dynamics of Machines, RWTH Aachen, Germany.
    Schmitt, R.
    Corves, B.
    Department of Mechanism Theory and Dynamics of Machines, RWTH Aachen, Germany.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Industrial energy efficiency potentials: an assessment of three different robot concepts2017In: International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, ISSN 1939-7038, p. 1-12, article id TSUE 1284280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise in energy consumption and the associated costs instigate financial concerns among industrialenergy consumers. For industrial processes addressing heating and cooling as well as materialtransformation, a wide range of energy efficiency measures have been developed and successfullyimplemented. In contrast to that, most robot-based operations such as pick-and-place motions orassembly tasks still use inefficient standard concepts causing high-energy consumption and high-energycosts. Thanks to a rather low payload-to-weight ratio of new robot designs, such as parallel kinematic orhybrid robot manipulators, a high potential for energy savings is expected. This article identifies potentialsfor energy saving concerning industrial consumers by assessing three different robot concepts. Based on aliterature review, two existing designs for robots – the conventional serial robot and the parallel kinematicrobot are analysed and compared with respect to the energy utilised during a typical item placementtask. Afterwards, the concept of PARAGRIP, a hybrid of the two presented robot designs is introducedand examined based on simulation regarding its energy consumption. The final results demonstratesignificantly different energy consumptions between the robot concepts, identifying potential savings ofabout 40% in a selected industrial application scenario.

  • 42.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing2014In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 644-652Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

  • 43.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer2014In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

  • 44.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    MINIMUM TIME FOR MATERIAL AND INFORMATION FLOWS ANALYSIS (MINIMIFA): A METHOD TO IDENTIFY CHALLENGES AND IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES2014In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), Götegorg, Sweden, September 16-18; 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

  • 45.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remanufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities to be Lean2013In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lean philosophy, which denotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from Japanese car manufacturer Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean is not fully explored is remanufacturing, a business that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity.This paper has explored remanufacturing by revealing its challenges and opportunities to be lean. The identified challenges to work with lean do not overcome the advantages of a lean remanufacturing system. Even though some researches state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean to remanufacturing, this research recovers lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that not only works for manufacturing but also for remanufacturing.

  • 46.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops2017In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

  • 47.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

  • 48.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poksińska, Bonnie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges2017In: QMOD proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

  • 49.
    Kurilova-Pališaitienė, Jelena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Lean Remanufacturing: Challenges and Improvements in Material and Information Flows2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an environmentally sound material recovery option which is essential to compete for sustainable manufacturing. The aim with remanufacturing at a majority of companies is to prolong physical product performance by delivering the same or betterthan-original product quality. In general, remanufacturing is an industrial process that brings used products back to useful life by requiring less effort than is demanded by the initial production process. Consequently, from a product life-cycle perspective, remanufacturing generates great product value.

    Remanufacturers lag behind manufacturers since they often face complex and unpredictable material and information flows. Based on a review of remanufacturing research, remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows can be classified into three groups: insufficient product quality, long and unstable process lead times, and an unpredictable level of inventory. While some remanufacturing researchers state that manufacturing and remanufacturing are significantly different, they have more in common than many other processes operations. Therefore, to sustain competitive remanufacturing, companies investigate an opportunity for improvement through the employment of lean production that generates significant benefits for manufacturers.

    In order to investigate the potential to address remanufacturing challenges by lean production, a Minimum time for material and information flow analysis (MiniMifa) method was developed. This method originates from the value stream mapping (VSM) method, broadly practiced to bring lean to manufacturing companies. The focus of MiniMifa was to collect empirical data on the identified groups of remanufacturing challenges from the remanufacturing perspective, and to provide a basis for the development of improvements originating from lean principles.

    Lean production was selected for this research due to its system perspective on material and information flows. Among the defined lean principles in remanufacturing, a pull principle was investigated at the case companies. The suggested principle demonstrated a reduction in lead time, followed by improvements in inventory level and product quality. However, in order to become lean, remanufacturers have to overcome three levels of lean remanufacturing challenges: external and internal challenges as well as lean wastes.

    Finally, this research reduces the gap between academia and industry by contributing with a possible solution to the identified remanufacturing challenges in material and information flows.

    List of papers
    1. Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

    Keyword
    Remanufacturing, Lean, Material and Information Flows, Data collection workshop, Process map
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118270 (URN)
    Conference
    Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), September 16-18, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Remanufacturing, Product life-cycle, Lean, Pull, Kanban
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118272 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.187 (DOI)000360931800048 ()
    Conference
    12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing - Emerging Potentials, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 22–24 September 2014
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 644-652Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Fuji Technology Press, 2014
    Keyword
    lean, remanufacturing, product life cycle, continuous improvement
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120764 (URN)
    Projects
    ÅterProdukt, KEAP
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
  • 50.
    Källmar, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson Sundqvist, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integration of Environmental Aspects in Product Development and Ship Design2013In: Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013 / [ed] Andrew Y. C. Nee, Bin Song and Soh-Khim Ong, Singapore: Springer, 2013, p. 41-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ship recycling is a pressing issue to handle due to bad conditions in South Asian countries. The objective of this paper isto explore how to integrate environmental aspects, especially recycling, in the product development process of ships atKockums AB by developing and proposing an implementation of a tool, document and/or method. As a result, a Long-termEnvironmental Action Plan (LEAP) including 18 actions was developed. The proposed way of implementing LEAP wasthrough plan-do-act-check methodology by a systematic integration of ecodesign. LEAP includes tools, documents andmethods that are to be used in daily work and product development.

123 1 - 50 of 121
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf