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  • 1.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    A framework for PSS business models: formalization and application2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, p. 519-524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully move "from products to solutions", companies need to redesign their business model. Nevertheless, service oriented BMs in product-centric firms are under-investigated in the literature: very few works develop a scheme of analysis of such BMs. To provide a first step into closing this gap, we propose a new framework to describe service-oriented BMs, pointing out the main BM components and related PSS characteristics. Thus, the proposed framework aims to help companies to take into account the relevant elements that need to be designed to successfully implement a service-oriented BM and thus guide strategic decisions. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 2.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Vilo, Jyrki
    KINE Robot Solut, Finland.
    PSS business model conceptualization and application2017In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, no 15, p. 1251-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion about business models has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Business model frameworks have been developed in the literature as management methods helping companies to comprehend and analyse their current business logic and guide the deployment of new strategies. In response to calls for a deeper understanding of the application of a business model approach to product-service systems (PSS), this study develops a two-level hierarchical framework that (i) includes a set of components with pertinent, second-order variables to take into account when undergoing the shift from products to solutions; (ii) supports industrial companies, especially SMEs, in designing their future business model and in consistently planning the actions needed to implement it. The framework was applied and refined within real-life settings. The application to KINE - a robot solutions supplier - shows how key challenges faced by servitization firms may be thoroughly addressed through the adoption of a business model perspective.

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  • 3.
    Ahlgren-Moritz, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Alm, Anna-Karin
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Christersson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Eikelboom Sällström, Anette
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Esbjörnsson, Mattias
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle, Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Marell, Agneta
    Samverkan och innovation, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Persson, Jeanette
    Innovation och utveckling, Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Ramsten, Anna-Carin
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reinhold, Mats
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Sörensson, Victoria
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning. [1]: Metoder och strategier2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Universitet och högskolor bidrar till samhällsutvecklingen genom att forskningsbaserad kunskap tillämpas av olika aktörer i samhället. För att möta dagens och morgondagens samhällsutmaningar utgör således kunskapsutbyte och samverkan mellan lärosäten och samhället en värdefull möjlighet. Att ha starka relationer med samhällets aktörer identifieras också som viktigt i utvecklingen av ett internationellt starkt lärosäte.

    Samverkan i högre utbildning främjar samhällets förändringsförmåga och stärker utbildningens kvalitet, men samverkan förbereder också studenterna för ett livslångt lärande och underlättar övergången mellan utbildning och arbetsliv. Ett lärosäte i nära samverkan med aktörer i samhället är ett relevant lärosäte, det vill säga ett lärosäte som är till nytta för sin omvärld och för sina medarbetare och studenter.

    Ett grundläggande problem vad gäller möjligheterna att integrera samverkan i akademisk utbildning står att finna i statens fördelning av medel till lärosätena. De statliga medlen utgår nämligen i två separata anslag, ett vardera för de båda huvuduppdragen utbildning och forskning. Samverkan kan sägas ingå i bägge uppdragen. Till skillnad från forskningssamverkan finns det för utbildningssamverkan ingen särskild uppföljning och inte heller några ekonomiska incitament. Utvärdering av forskning och utbildning bör således breddas så att kvalitetsstärkande samverkansinslag också inkluderas i resursfördelningsprinciperna. Statens bristande strukturer för fördelning och uppföljning återspeglas i hur lärosätena fördelar resurser till och följer upp samverkan: lärare ges sällan resurser (i form av särskild tid) för att på ett pedagogiskt genomtänkt sätt kunna inkludera samverkansinslag i undervisningen; samverkan är sällan meriterande eller lönegrundande; och den utbildningssamverkan som bedrivs följs sällan upp – varken på institutions-, fakultets- eller lärosätesnivå. Samma sak kan sägas gälla på nationell nivå – det samverkande lärosätet erhåller inga extra anslag och det bestraffas ej heller för försummelse av detsamma. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen innebär att samverkan bör ingå i de pedagogiska modeller som lärare använder för att leda studenternas kunskapsutveckling mot de mål som finns angivna i kurs- och utbildningsplaner. Det betyder också att arbetet med samverkan bör inkluderas i processer för styrning, planering och uppföljning av utbildning och undervisning på såväl kurs- och programnivå som på institutions-, fakultets- och lärosätesnivå. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen är att sträva mot att externa aktörer ska bli en självklar del i den dagliga verksamheten – för studenter såväl som för medarbetare och för de organisationer man samverkar med. För att svenska lärosäten ska ges en realistisk möjlighet att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningsverksamheten krävs det framför allt följande:

    • att politiker och departement utformar ett fördelningssystem där framgångsrika samverkansinsatser inom utbildningen leder till en förstärkning av resursbasen på lärosätena;
    • att lärosätesledningar tar tydlig ställning för samverkansfrågan i sina strategiska styrdokument och att samverkan införs i lärosätenas kvalitetssäkringssystem för utbildning, samt att lärosätena inför system för att styra och följa upp samverkan i utbildningen på lärosätesövergripande nivå;
    • att ledningen för fakulteter, institutioner eller motsvarande omsätter lärosätets strategiska åtaganden i handlingsplaner och lokala styrdokument samt utformar system för dokumentation, styrning och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningsprogram;
    • att lärare samt kurs- och programansvariga inför samverkan i utbildningens styrande dokument (t.ex. kurs- och utbildningsplaner) samt i den ordinarie undervisningsverksamheten.

    Dessutom bör lärosätena – både gemensamt men också vart och ett för sig – införa system och karriärvägar där medarbetares insatser i det vardagliga samverkansarbetet uppmärksammas och belönas.

    Mot bakgrund av detta kan man konstatera att det är angeläget att lärosätenas strategiska arbete avseende utveckling och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningen vidareutvecklas. Men, med vilka verktyg, var i verksamheten och på vilka sätt?

    I följande skrift samlas erfarenheter och goda exempel gjorda inom ramen för ett flerårigt lärosätesövergripande samarbetsprojekt, Samverkanssäkrade utbildningsprogram, där utgångspunkten har varit att identifiera strategier och metoder för att integrera samverkan i utbildningsprogram. Målet har varit att undersöka och beskriva hur samverkan kan vara ett medel som bidrar till att stärka utbildningens kvalitet och relevans, samt ge förslag på hur vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning kan se ut.

    Den centrala slutsatsen är att samverkan, när den är en integrerad del av utbildningen, bidrar till kvalitet och säkerställer att utbildningen blir till nytta för samhället. Det finns också andra vinster med att bedriva ett systematiskt samverkansarbete, till exempel att det leder till pedagogisk utveckling för undervisande personal, att det ökar förutsättningarna för ett utmaningsbaserat lärande med studenten i centrum, att det underlättar övergången från studier till arbetsliv, och att det möjliggör fördjupade relationer med den värld lärosätet finns i. Resan mot samverkanssäkrad utbildning är, med andra ord, mödan väl värd.

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    Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning. [1]: Metoder och strategier
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  • 4.
    Ahlgren-Moritz, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Alm, Anna-Karin
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Christersson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Eikelboom Sällström, Anette
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Esbjörnsson, Mattias
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle, Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Marell, Agneta
    Samverkan och innovation, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Persson, Jeanette
    Innovation och utveckling, Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Ramsten, Anna-Carin
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reinhold, Mats
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Karin
    Malmö högskola, Sweden.
    Sörensson, Victoria
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning. [2]: Möjligheter och utmaningar2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Universitet och högskolor bidrar till samhällsutvecklingen genom att forskningsbaserad kunskap tillämpas av olika aktörer i samhället. För att möta dagens och morgondagens samhällsutmaningar utgör således kunskapsutbyte och samverkan mellan lärosäten och samhället en värdefull möjlighet. Att ha starka relationer med samhällets aktörer identifieras också som viktigt i utvecklingen av ett internationellt starkt lärosäte.

    Samverkan i högre utbildning främjar samhällets förändringsförmåga och stärker utbildningens kvalitet, men samverkan förbereder också studenterna för ett livslångt lärande och underlättar övergången mellan utbildning och arbetsliv. Ett lärosäte i nära samverkan med aktörer i samhället är ett relevant lärosäte, det vill säga ett lärosäte som är till nytta för sin omvärld och för sina medarbetare och studenter.

    Ett grundläggande problem vad gäller möjligheterna att integrera samverkan i akademisk utbildning står att finna i statens fördelning av medel till lärosätena. De statliga medlen utgår nämligen i två separata anslag, ett vardera för de båda huvuduppdragen utbildning och forskning. Samverkan kan sägas ingå i bägge uppdragen. Till skillnad från forskningssamverkan finns det för utbildningssamverkan ingen särskild uppföljning och inte heller några ekonomiska incitament. Utvärdering av forskning och utbildning bör således breddas så att kvalitetsstärkande samverkansinslag också inkluderas i resursfördelningsprinciperna. Statens bristande strukturer för fördelning och uppföljning återspeglas i hur lärosätena fördelar resurser till och följer upp samverkan: lärare ges sällan resurser (i form av särskild tid) för att på ett pedagogiskt genomtänkt sätt kunna inkludera samverkansinslag i undervisningen; samverkan är sällan meriterande eller lönegrundande; och den utbildningssamverkan som bedrivs följs sällan upp – varken på institutions-, fakultets- eller lärosätesnivå. Samma sak kan sägas gälla på nationell nivå – det samverkande lärosätet erhåller inga extra anslag och det bestraffas ej heller för försummelse av detsamma. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen innebär att samverkan bör ingå i de pedagogiska modeller som lärare använder för att leda studenternas kunskapsutveckling mot de mål som finns angivna i kurs- och utbildningsplaner. Det betyder också att arbetet med samverkan bör inkluderas i processer för styrning, planering och uppföljning av utbildning och undervisning på såväl kurs- och programnivå som på institutions-, fakultets- och lärosätesnivå. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen är att sträva mot att externa aktörer ska bli en självklar del i den dagliga verksamheten – för studenter såväl som för medarbetare och för de organisationer man samverkar med. För att svenska lärosäten ska ges en realistisk möjlighet att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningsverksamheten krävs det framför allt följande:

    • att politiker och departement utformar ett fördelningssystem där framgångsrika samverkansinsatser inom utbildningen leder till en förstärkning av resursbasen på lärosätena;
    • att lärosätesledningar tar tydlig ställning för samverkansfrågan i sina strategiska styrdokument och att samverkan införs i lärosätenas kvalitetssäkringssystem för utbildning, samt att lärosätena inför system för att styra och följa upp samverkan i utbildningen på lärosätesövergripande nivå;
    • att ledningen för fakulteter, institutioner eller motsvarande omsätter lärosätets strategiska åtaganden i handlingsplaner och lokala styrdokument samt utformar system för dokumentation, styrning och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningsprogram;
    • att lärare samt kurs- och programansvariga inför samverkan i utbildningens styrande dokument (t.ex. kurs- och utbildningsplaner) samt i den ordinarie undervisningsverksamheten.

    Dessutom bör lärosätena – både gemensamt men också vart och ett för sig – införa system och karriärvägar där medarbetares insatser i det vardagliga samverkansarbetet uppmärksammas och belönas.

    Mot bakgrund av detta kan man konstatera att det är angeläget att lärosätenas strategiska arbete avseende utveckling och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningen vidareutvecklas. Men, med vilka verktyg, var i verksamheten och på vilka sätt?

    I följande skrift samlas erfarenheter och goda exempel gjorda inom ramen för ett flerårigt lärosätesövergripande samarbetsprojekt, Samverkanssäkrade utbildningsprogram, där utgångspunkten har varit att identifiera strategier och metoder för att integrera samverkan i utbildningsprogram. Målet har varit att undersöka och beskriva hur samverkan kan vara ett medel som bidrar till att stärka utbildningens kvalitet och relevans, samt ge förslag på hur vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning kan se ut.

    Den centrala slutsatsen är att samverkan, när den är en integrerad del av utbildningen, bidrar till kvalitet och säkerställer att utbildningen blir till nytta för samhället. Det finns också andra vinster med att bedriva ett systematiskt samverkansarbete, till exempel att det leder till pedagogisk utveckling för undervisande personal, att det ökar förutsättningarna för ett utmaningsbaserat lärande med studenten i centrum, att det underlättar övergången från studier till arbetsliv, och att det möjliggör fördjupade relationer med den värld lärosätet finns i. Resan mot samverkanssäkrad utbildning är, med andra ord, mödan väl värd.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning. [2]: Möjligheter och utmaningar
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  • 5.
    Almqvist, Roland M.
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Graaf, Johan
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Jannesson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parment, Anders
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Skoog, Matti
    Företagsekonomi, Åbo akademi / Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Boken om ekonomistyrning2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok ger en bred introduktion till ämnet ekonomistyrning. Boken speglar ekonomistyrningens relevans för dagens organisationer inom näringsliv, offentlig sektor och civilsamhälle. Författarna går igenom de grundläggande modeller, verktyg och processer som traditionell ekonomistyrning erbjuder. Här märks ekonomiska ansvarsenheter, resultat- och balansräkning, kassaflödesanalys, nyckeltal, belöningssystem, budgetering, kalkylering på kort och lång sikt, internpriser samt avvikelseanalys.

    Boken om ekonomistyrning utgår från att ekonomistyrningen har en central roll i att skapa mer hållbara organisationer och lägger betydande vikt vid aspekter som sociala och miljömässiga kostnader, projektstyrning, miljöinvesteringar och humankapital. Boken har därmed ett tydligt hållbarhets- och samhällsperspektiv.

    Författarna betonar även vikten av att ekonomistyrningen utgör en välavvägd helhet genom den så kallade styrmixen. En genomtänkt styrmix ger verktyg för att motivera medarbetare att arbeta mot gemensamma mål och skapa konkurrenskraftiga organisationer. Till boken finns ett rikt övningsmaterial i form av en övningsbok.

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  • 6.
    Alsteryd, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Johansson, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Strategier för effektivisering av informationsflöden för företag med komplexa produkter: En fallstudie av informationsflödet på Siemens Energy2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste decenniernas globaliseringstrend och samhällsutveckling har fått företag att inse att hanteringen av sin supply chain är nödvändig för att bibehålla konkurrenskraft. Internet och ökad digitalisering har förändrat konkurrenssituation på marknaden och information om produkter samt tjänster är mer lättillgängligt än någonsin. Företag som tillverkar komplexa produkter behöver hantera oerhört stora mängder information och på grund av detta blir det väsentligt att företagen utvecklar strategier för att effektivt hantera informationsflöden. Tidigare litteratur har identifierats som begränsad kring hur företag med komplexa produkter och system går till väga för att effektivisera informationsflöden och denna studie syftar där med till att undersöka hur sådana företag använder strategi och styr verktyg för att effektivisera informationsflödet och genom detta minska hanteringskostnader och förbättra kvalité.

    Denna studie genomförs på ett kvalitativt och abduktivt sätt med fokus på två teoretiska områden, Strategi för effektivisering av informationsflödet och Aktiviteter inom Supplier Quality Management. Dessa två teoretiska områden kombineras för att skapa en analysmodell där barriärer och möjligheter för att effektivisera informationsflödet för företag som tillverkar komplexa produkter identifieras. Analysmodellen används sedan för att analysera insamlade empiriska data från intervjuer av personer på det studerade fallföretaget. Resultaten från analysen sammanställdes i ett ramverk där styrverktyg, barriärer och möjligheter sammanställs för varje identifierat strategiskt element, vilket besvarar hur strategiska element kan användas för att effektivisera informationsflödet hos företag med komplexa produkter.Vidare i ramverket presenteras hur aktiviteter inom Supplier Quality Management kan integreras i strategin för att effektivisera informationsflödet, samt identifierade barriärer som förhindrar integration av aktiviteterna med tillhörande möjligheter att lösa barriärerna.

    Som slutsats kan det konstateras att rapporten presenterar ett ramverk som besvara hur strategi kan utformas för att effektivisera informationsflödet. Ramverket kan även användas för att analysera strategier för att effektivisera informationsflödet hos företag med komplexa produkter.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Andersson, Agnes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Forsgren, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Ett intressentperspektiv på slow fashion-affärsmodellen: En multipel fallstudie om långsam konsumtion i modebranschen2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a reaction to the fast fashion movement and the irresponsible consumption patterns derived from it, slow fashion has emerged as a more sustainable option in the fashion industry. Slow fashion is often described as fashion of high quality with a timeless design that aims to slow down the product flows and reduce consumption. Although previous studies describe slow fashion as a concept and some of its general incentives and barriers, a concrete definition of the slow fashion business model and its components is missing. There is also a gap between the theoretical and practical application of the slow fashion business model. The practical application is greatly influenced by different stakeholders in the fashion industry, which makes it an interesting perspective to study. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of the possibilities with the slow fashion business model for fashion companies.

    The slow fashion business model is defined based on previous literature on business models and the slow fashion concept. This is presented in a model of four components: value proposition, value creation, value delivery, and value logic. The comparison between this definition and the business models of seven fashion companies, shows that there are many possibilities connected to the slow fashion value proposition. The extent to which the other slow fashion components are applied in practice depends on the company’s target customers, owner structure and how sustainability is embedded in the organization. Regarding the stakeholder perspective on the slow fashion business model, the study shows that public authorities and regulators have the largest possibilities to enable the slow fashion business model by influencing both the fashion industry and consumers. Due to the shareholders’ say in the long-term strategy of fashion companies, they could be a driving force if sustainability is prioritized among them. Other stakeholders could act as enablers to the application of slow fashion components, because of their potential interest in sustainability and reduced consumption. The aim of this study is answered with the following propositions:

    • Proposition 1: There is a market for the slow fashion value proposition but incentives for full application of the business model are missing.
    • Proposition 2: The competitiveness of the slow fashion business model lies in the value proposition, not the price.
    • Proposition 3: A strength in the slow fashion business model is its potential for profitability, which can benefit shareholders and investors.

    In conclusion, the study shows that there is potential regarding demand, competitiveness and profitability in the slow fashion business model. However, there are limited incentives for fashion companies to apply all of the components in their operations. Also, there are indications that the demand for more long-lasting clothing might increase in the future. At the time, however, it seems the need for variation will continue to be strong. 

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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Arwinge, Olof
    et al.
    Swedbank, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Intern styrning och kontroll med särskilt fokus på försäkringssektorn2015In: Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer / [ed] Peter Öhman, Heléne Lundberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 95-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De fem servicebranscherna bank, försäkring, pension, fastighet och revision har viktiga samhällsfunktioner och därmed behov av att skapa trovärdiga och förtroendefulla ekonomiska relationer. Detta förutsätter informationsutbyte, styrning, kontroll och samverkan. Formerna för detta, liksom för arbetssätt och beslutsfattande, har förändrats, och i Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer visas hur detta har skapat både problem och möjligheter.

    I boken diskuteras de fem servicebranschernas verksamhet såväl teoretiskt som praktiskt. Vi får ta del av både den historiska framväxten och de utmaningar branscherna står inför idag. Det ges också exempel på hur ökad reglering, teknikutveckling och globalisering kommit att påverka utvecklingen, på gott och ont. I ett summerande kapitel diskuterar representanter från branscherna de resultat som presenterats i bokens övriga delar.

    Boken vänder sig i första hand till universitets- och högskole­studenter i företagsekonomi och service management, men även till forskare samt yrkesverksamma inom de fem branscherna.

  • 9.
    Asgharian Bourkheili, Ehsan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancing SMEs competitive advantage by franchising2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is a large body of literature on franchising systems that are mainly produced from the franchisor's perspective, looking at franchising from the franchisee's point of view has remained largely uninvestigated. Creating and sustaining competitive advantage is the prerequisite for the franchisee's (as an SME) survival in today's competitive environment. This research's comprehensive literature review shows three major groups of factors influencing the franchisee’s competitive advantage, including the franchisor-related factors, the franchisee-related factors, and factors associated with the franchisor-franchisee relationship. Since the franchisor has a dominant role in the business, it can influence the franchisee in many ways. Therefore, it is crucial to put special emphasis on how the franchisor-related factors may influence the franchisee business success.

    In light of the discussion above, this study was carried out to understand how franchisor-related factors, through enhancing/creating competitive advantage, might influence the franchisee’s business success. According to the literature on competitive advantage, three clusters of literature as three perspectives were reviewed and discussed. These include the resource-based view, the industry structure view, and the relational view. In the resource-based view, the firm's resources are considered as a source of competitive advantage, but in the relational view, not only the firm's internal resources, but also the interfirm resources are the source of competitive advantage. Therefore, this perspective has a significant contribution to this study. In addition to services provided services by the franchisor, as the resources, franchisor organizational factors specifically entrepreneurial orientation, and absorptive capacity were found relevant in the franchisee's competitive advantage. Accordingly, an integrative theoretical/analytical framework was built and used throughout the study.

    Because of exploratory nature of the study, the qualitative method was chosen and applied. Along with the purpose of the study, a multiple-case study research strategy consisting of seven cases, in two franchising systems, was performed. The results of the analysis confirm that services provided by the franchisor, the franchisors’ entrepreneurial orientation, and the franchisees’ absorptive capacity have a significant role in enhancement of the franchisees’ competitive advantage. Other significant results of the franchisor-related factors enhancing competitive advantage were found to be: the speed of raw material supply, keeping consistency in quality, economy of scale and keeping prices competitive. Furthermore, the franchisor enhances the franchisee's competitive advantage by transferring business know-how and creating collective tacit knowledge, and as well improvement in the franchisee-specific human capital. Intellectual property in a franchise system through transferring the first mover advantage to the franchisee and creating the differentiated position affect the franchisee's competitive advantage. The franchisor’s entrepreneurial orientation creates the first-mover advantage for the franchisee. Similarly, the franchisor's absorptive capacity, through creating the first-mover advantage and improving the franchisee's social capital, enhances the franchisee's competitive advantage.

    List of papers
    1. Enhancing the franchisees’ performance: A resource-based view
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing the franchisees’ performance: A resource-based view
    2012 (English)In: The Business & Management Review, ISSN 2047-2854, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 220-232Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the influential factors in business’ performance is an important cornerstone in business research. Although the study of franchise failure and success has received significant attention among researchers, the lack of knowledge about influential factors on franchisees’ performance as an integral part of the franchise system, as well as the consequences of franchising, has resulted in a gap in the franchise literature. According to previous literature, business success and failure results from the three major elements of resources, capacity and competency. Given the firm’s resources have a considerable share in explaining the variation of firms’ performance, the resource-based view provides an outstanding theoretical explanation for varying performance of the firms, and it looks to be promising for analyzing the franchisee’s performance. In franchising systems, provided services by the franchisor have a crucial role in franchisees’ performance. Therefore, this research was conducted to show how provided services by the franchisor, through impact on product and services’ quality, consistency, price and customer awareness, could enhance the franchisee’s performance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Harrow, London, UK: The Academy of Business & Retail Management, 2012
    Keywords
    Franchising, franchisees’ performance, resource-based view, food industry
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103320 (URN)
    Conference
    International Trade & Academic Research Conference (ITARC), 7–8th November, 2012, London, UK
    Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2014-03-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship
    2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, franchising has turned into one of the fastest-growing business forms. Research in franchising has been viewed through the four major perspectives of economics, strategy, marketing and entrepreneurship. Although there is a consensus that the franchisors’ activities are considered as entrepreneurship, this notion is disputed with regard to franchisees. A paradox in entrepreneurial activities of the franchisee has caused doubt in considering franchisees’ activities as entrepreneurship. On the one hand, in a franchisee context, some believe opportunity is always identified and that the franchisor helps the franchisees in exploitation. On the other hand, the opposing view considers a franchisee as an entrepreneur who focuses on opportunity, risk and innovation. Ignoring the franchisees’ capabilities and abilities in innovation and introducing new products can prevent a franchise system from taking advantage of environmental change. Therefore, due to the importance of identification of unique aspects of entrepreneurship research rather than unique definition of entrepreneurship, and attention to entrepreneurial process as a core unit of analysis, this research will examine whether franchisees’ activities can be considered as entrepreneurship. According to the Shane model, the entrepreneurial process involves the existence of profitbased (objective) opportunities, risk-taking and some kind of innovation. Nature of opportunity in franchised outlets is closer to Kirznerian's view than Schumpeterian's  view. Sources of opportunities in franchised outlets are not so clear, like the introduction of a new restaurant in a storefront where none had existed before. In Schumpeter's view, according to different types of innovation, franchisees’ operations involve product-market  innovativeness to include market research, product design, and innovations in advertising and promotion. Regarding risk-taking as the third dimension of the entrepreneurial process, franchisees risk their capital. Although it seems in franchise systems that risk for the  franchisee is, to some extent, shared with the franchisor, no franchisor will be able to eliminate the financial, business and personal risk of the franchisees. The franchisor also transfers the risk of expanding into new markets to the franchisees. In sum, franchisees do almost all of the functions of other entrepreneurs, except generating new ideas in the initial step of running a business.

    Keywords
    Franchisee, entrepreneurship, innovation, entrepreneurial opportunities, risk-taking
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103321 (URN)
    Conference
    WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings, 94-104, January 14-16, 2013 , Antalya, Turkey
    Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2014-01-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets
    2013 (English)In: Journal of WEI Business and Economics, E-ISSN 2166-7918, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-71Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although in recent years the study of franchise systems has been the subject of many academic studies, most of them have studied franchise systems from the franchisor's point of view, and the franchisee point of view has received only limited attention. Researchers in business fields have adopted four main perspectives in the study of franchising: strategy, economics, marketing, and entrepreneurship. From an entrepreneurship perspective, while there is no doubt about considering a franchisor's business as an entrepreneurial firm, considering the franchisee's activities during the running and managing of an outlet as an entrepreneurial firm is disputed. An entrepreneurial firm includes involvement in product innovation, commitment to calculated risk, proactiveness and aggressiveness. While the diversity of definitions about entrepreneurship has caused a problem to understand what an entrepreneurial firm is, a process-focused approach offers much unexplored potential for understanding the nature of entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial firms. Therefore, due to the pivotal role of an entrepreneurial process in the nature of entrepreneurship, and considering the entrepreneurial process as the core unit of analysis in entrepreneurial firms, this article aims to study what happens during the entrepreneurial process in a franchised outlet. This study shows, although franchisees are restricted about product innovation, and franchisor reduces the risk of business for them, the franchisor never can omit the risk for franchisee. Moreover, many product innovations in the franchise system stem from the franchisee's ideas, and the franchisor will never be able to eliminate the risk for the franchisees. The franchisee's business also encompasses all dimensions of the entrepreneurial process as the unique features of entrepreneurial firms.

    Keywords
    Franchising, entrepreneurial firm, entrepreneurial opportunity, entrepreneurial process, risk-taking
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103322 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2017-04-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective
    2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the role of franchisees in the generation of new ideas and innovations in the franchise system, there are limited studies on the conduct of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the context of franchising and from the franchisee perspective. Although in a franchise system, the franchisor always tries to develop the standardization across the system to take advantage of cost minimization, different local environments require some flexibilities and adaptation in a franchisor policy (Falbe et al., 1999). Therefore, the franchisor should balance between standardization and adaptation, and display the entrepreneurial behaviors to take advantage of local market opportunities (Bradach, 1997). Given the important role of franchising in global wealth creation, understanding the extent to which an EO is desirable in franchise systems is an area which merits attention (Dada and Watson, 2012). Therefore, this study examines the entrepreneurial orientation in the franchised outlets. Findings from this study show that innovativeness in a franchise system is different in the core and peripheral elements of a product or service. The franchisor in a franchise system restricts the franchisees for innovation in "peripheral" elements of products. In addition, the franchisor concentrates on the innovation in the "core" elements. Both the franchisor and franchisee equally share the risk in a franchise system, and the franchisee takes even more risk in entering the new market and bearing the financial risk. The franchisee's autonomy in a franchise system is limited to the decision making about the peripheral elements. The franchisor almost always thinks about the future and seeks new opportunity in the industry; in fact, the franchisor in a system proactively looks for new opportunities. In contrast, the franchisees in a franchise system aggressively react to local competitors and apply the proper strategy to overcome them.

    Keywords
    Franchising, entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness, proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103323 (URN)
    Conference
    The European Entrepreneurship: How Entrepreneurs (Should) Act in Global Business Environment, Fifth Anniversary International Conference , 9 -11 September 2013, Albena, Varna, Bulgaria
    Available from: 2014-01-16 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2014-01-17Bibliographically approved
    Download (pdf)
    omslag
  • 10. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Asgharian Bourkheili, Ehsan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Performance in Franchise Systems: The Franchisee Perspective2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, franchising as an organizational form has received a lot of attention from researchers and practitioners alike. While many studies have examined various aspects of franchising from the franchisor's perspective, little research has taken the franchisee’s perspective. Therefore, given the importance of franchisees in a franchise system, the lack of research about consequences from the franchisee's perspective, and that many of the previous studies have taken a top-bottom view, this research concentrated on the franchisee's performance. This study focused on business format franchising in the restaurant industry in two countries, Iran and Sweden.

    In this study, the three perspectives of entrepreneurship, strategic management, and marketing were used to study the franchisee’s performance. Moreover, the resourcebased view, relational view, and relational exchange theory have been used to find the influential factors in a franchisee’s performance. Therefore, by considering franchising as a mutual relationship and examining the influential factors in a franchisee's performance, the related factors of both the franchisor and franchisee, as well as the relationship between them, were examined.

    According to the franchisee’s related factors, the franchisor's related factors, and the relationship and environmental factors, 12 main hypotheses and 9 sub-hypotheses were developed. In total, 191 usable questionnaires from Sweden and Iran, comprising a response rate of 22 percent, were returned from the franchisees. In this study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct measurement; to test the hypothesis, hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed. Moreover, the Chow test was conducted to integrate the data from these two countries.

    A primary contribution of this study is taking a bottom-top view in franchising research. This study also provided a detailed and holistic view about the consequences of franchising for franchisees. Moreover, this study, offers important contributions toward understanding entrepreneurial activities, as a controversial issue, in franchising outlets.

    The results provide interesting insights into the franchisee’s performance. While the franchisees’ related factors of absorptive capacity, Kirznerian entrepreneurial orientation, and social capital positively affected their performance, Schumpeterian entrepreneurial orientation and human capital did not affect their performance. Moreover, the franchisor’s related factors of system profitability, brand reputation, advertisement and providing raw material had a positive influence on the performance. However, training did not cause a difference in the franchisee’s performance. All relationship factors also positively affected the performance, and conflict and satisfaction mediated the relationship between trust and performance. Finally, the implications of this study and suggestions for further contributions in this stream of research are discussed.

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  • 11.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancing the franchisees’ performance: A resource-based view2012In: The Business & Management Review, ISSN 2047-2854, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 220-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the influential factors in business’ performance is an important cornerstone in business research. Although the study of franchise failure and success has received significant attention among researchers, the lack of knowledge about influential factors on franchisees’ performance as an integral part of the franchise system, as well as the consequences of franchising, has resulted in a gap in the franchise literature. According to previous literature, business success and failure results from the three major elements of resources, capacity and competency. Given the firm’s resources have a considerable share in explaining the variation of firms’ performance, the resource-based view provides an outstanding theoretical explanation for varying performance of the firms, and it looks to be promising for analyzing the franchisee’s performance. In franchising systems, provided services by the franchisor have a crucial role in franchisees’ performance. Therefore, this research was conducted to show how provided services by the franchisor, through impact on product and services’ quality, consistency, price and customer awareness, could enhance the franchisee’s performance.

  • 12.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the role of franchisees in the generation of new ideas and innovations in the franchise system, there are limited studies on the conduct of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the context of franchising and from the franchisee perspective. Although in a franchise system, the franchisor always tries to develop the standardization across the system to take advantage of cost minimization, different local environments require some flexibilities and adaptation in a franchisor policy (Falbe et al., 1999). Therefore, the franchisor should balance between standardization and adaptation, and display the entrepreneurial behaviors to take advantage of local market opportunities (Bradach, 1997). Given the important role of franchising in global wealth creation, understanding the extent to which an EO is desirable in franchise systems is an area which merits attention (Dada and Watson, 2012). Therefore, this study examines the entrepreneurial orientation in the franchised outlets. Findings from this study show that innovativeness in a franchise system is different in the core and peripheral elements of a product or service. The franchisor in a franchise system restricts the franchisees for innovation in "peripheral" elements of products. In addition, the franchisor concentrates on the innovation in the "core" elements. Both the franchisor and franchisee equally share the risk in a franchise system, and the franchisee takes even more risk in entering the new market and bearing the financial risk. The franchisee's autonomy in a franchise system is limited to the decision making about the peripheral elements. The franchisor almost always thinks about the future and seeks new opportunity in the industry; in fact, the franchisor in a system proactively looks for new opportunities. In contrast, the franchisees in a franchise system aggressively react to local competitors and apply the proper strategy to overcome them.

  • 13.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets2013In: Journal of WEI Business and Economics, E-ISSN 2166-7918, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-71Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although in recent years the study of franchise systems has been the subject of many academic studies, most of them have studied franchise systems from the franchisor's point of view, and the franchisee point of view has received only limited attention. Researchers in business fields have adopted four main perspectives in the study of franchising: strategy, economics, marketing, and entrepreneurship. From an entrepreneurship perspective, while there is no doubt about considering a franchisor's business as an entrepreneurial firm, considering the franchisee's activities during the running and managing of an outlet as an entrepreneurial firm is disputed. An entrepreneurial firm includes involvement in product innovation, commitment to calculated risk, proactiveness and aggressiveness. While the diversity of definitions about entrepreneurship has caused a problem to understand what an entrepreneurial firm is, a process-focused approach offers much unexplored potential for understanding the nature of entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial firms. Therefore, due to the pivotal role of an entrepreneurial process in the nature of entrepreneurship, and considering the entrepreneurial process as the core unit of analysis in entrepreneurial firms, this article aims to study what happens during the entrepreneurial process in a franchised outlet. This study shows, although franchisees are restricted about product innovation, and franchisor reduces the risk of business for them, the franchisor never can omit the risk for franchisee. Moreover, many product innovations in the franchise system stem from the franchisee's ideas, and the franchisor will never be able to eliminate the risk for the franchisees. The franchisee's business also encompasses all dimensions of the entrepreneurial process as the unique features of entrepreneurial firms.

  • 14.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, franchising has turned into one of the fastest-growing business forms. Research in franchising has been viewed through the four major perspectives of economics, strategy, marketing and entrepreneurship. Although there is a consensus that the franchisors’ activities are considered as entrepreneurship, this notion is disputed with regard to franchisees. A paradox in entrepreneurial activities of the franchisee has caused doubt in considering franchisees’ activities as entrepreneurship. On the one hand, in a franchisee context, some believe opportunity is always identified and that the franchisor helps the franchisees in exploitation. On the other hand, the opposing view considers a franchisee as an entrepreneur who focuses on opportunity, risk and innovation. Ignoring the franchisees’ capabilities and abilities in innovation and introducing new products can prevent a franchise system from taking advantage of environmental change. Therefore, due to the importance of identification of unique aspects of entrepreneurship research rather than unique definition of entrepreneurship, and attention to entrepreneurial process as a core unit of analysis, this research will examine whether franchisees’ activities can be considered as entrepreneurship. According to the Shane model, the entrepreneurial process involves the existence of profitbased (objective) opportunities, risk-taking and some kind of innovation. Nature of opportunity in franchised outlets is closer to Kirznerian's view than Schumpeterian's  view. Sources of opportunities in franchised outlets are not so clear, like the introduction of a new restaurant in a storefront where none had existed before. In Schumpeter's view, according to different types of innovation, franchisees’ operations involve product-market  innovativeness to include market research, product design, and innovations in advertising and promotion. Regarding risk-taking as the third dimension of the entrepreneurial process, franchisees risk their capital. Although it seems in franchise systems that risk for the  franchisee is, to some extent, shared with the franchisor, no franchisor will be able to eliminate the financial, business and personal risk of the franchisees. The franchisor also transfers the risk of expanding into new markets to the franchisees. In sum, franchisees do almost all of the functions of other entrepreneurs, except generating new ideas in the initial step of running a business.

  • 15.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tasavori, Misagh
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Andersen, Jim
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Should Fast-Food Franchisees Pursue Entrepreneurial Orientation?2021In: ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH JOURNAL, ISSN 2194-6175, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 185-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is widely accepted that entrepreneurial orientation (EO) improves firm performance, scholars have advised that particular attention should be paid to the context. In this research, we investigate a less explored context of franchising where business systems and procedures are usually dictated to franchisees by franchisors. Therefore, whether a franchisor should allow franchisees to pursue EO (innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking, competitive aggressiveness, and autonomy) is not clear. In the context of franchising, the majority of prior studies have mainly focused on the employment of EO as a unidimensional construct and at the franchisor level. In this research, we take a bottom-up perspective and evaluate the impact of different dimensions of EO on franchisees performance. Our analysis of a multi-group of 183 restaurant franchisees located in Sweden and Iran reveals that only the pursuit of proactiveness and competitive aggressiveness improves a franchisees performance and other dimensions do not play a significant role in improving performance in this context.

  • 16.
    Ax, Christian
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iveroth, Einar
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Strategisk prissättning: sambandet mellan strategi, prismodeller och kostnadskalkyler2016In: Strategisk ekonomistyrning: med dialog i fokus / [ed] Fredrik Nilsson, Carl-Johan Petri, Alf Westelius, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 123-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Benoit, Sabine
    et al.
    University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom; Australian National University (ANU), Canberra, Australia.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Intuitive pricing by independent store managers: Challenging beliefs and practices2020In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 115, p. 70-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Independent store managers—who constitute a substantial portion of the retailing sector—often have limited resources with which to practice the formalized, data-driven pricing processes prescribed in the literature. On that basis, this article addresses how independent convenience store managers arrive at prices and whether their practices are effective. To begin with, 33 interviews with independent convenience store managers identified six common beliefs and ten practices underlying managers’ intuitive decision making. Based on point-of-sale survey data from 1,504 customers of two convenience store chains at petrol stations, a second study compared market-oriented managerial beliefs with actual customer price perceptions and buying behaviors. The combined insights from these studies reveal that managers base their pricing decisions on beliefs that are only partially accurate and suggests how managers might benefit by altering their price-setting practices.

  • 18.
    Bergfeldt, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Brunander, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Facilitators and Inhibitors in Large-Scale Agile Transformations: A case study in a software organization in the automotive industry focusing on change management and cultural aspects2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many difficulties in agile transformations, and a majority of the transformation efforts fail. However, companies continue to pursue the agile path, pushed by forces, both in their environments and internally. The purpose of this study is to explore what facilitators and inhibitors are present in an agile transformation. This is to try and understand agile transformations better, and a lens of change management and culture will be utilized to focus on some essential aspects. To succeed in this, two research questions are to be answered: How does culture facilitate or inhibit change in agile transformations in a software organization in the automotive industry? And, how does change management facilitate or inhibit change in agile transformations in a software organization in the automotive industry?

    This thesis is a case study on a software organization in the automotive industry, and provides a retrospect on the transformation. The firm originates from the automotive industry, resulting in the industry-related culture to continue affecting the firm today, both internally and externally. To understand the organizational context, the history of the organization, and the culture, the case study try to go in depth by exploring solely a single case.

    The thesis results are that multiple facilitators and inhibitors are identified for each of the aspects. However, most facilitators and inhibitors relates to both change management and culture, touching upon the interplay between these aspects. Further, the transformation effort is identified to be dependent on both the organizational culture and the organizational context, implicating that transformations efforts are rather unique. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Lindegren, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Transformation towards strategic procurement: A multiple case study of companies undergoing a procurement transformation2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global business context has created an increased need for procurement to become strategic. Strategic procurement revolves around integrating procurement with the rest of the company and ensuring that its goals are in line with the company’s objectives. Strategic procurement requires it to be included in strategic planning and implementation. It must have a long-term focus and work proactively. Even though much literature agrees that strategic procurement has gotten an elevated status recently, there is still a gap between the current and the desired involvement at several companies according to those working with procurement. To create a strategic procurement, a transformation is needed. In this thesis procurement transformation describes the evolution toward a more strategic procurement. This thesis aims to investigate procurement transformation by examining the process of implementing a strategic procurement and which internal conditions affect the implementation. To emphasize the purpose, the Master’s thesis aims to answer the following research questions:• RQ1: What can the implementation process of strategic procurement, i.e., procurement transformation, look like?• RQ2: How can internal conditions affect procurement transformation? To be able to answer the research questions, a rigorous literature study was carried through. The empirical data was collected through interviews with eleven respondents working as purchasing managers or similar at their respective companies. All eleven companies have a pronounced procurement function and operate in Sweden. The empirical findings are analysed to determine the degree of strategic procurement within the eleven case companies to be able to conclude what has been done to achieve strategic procurement and thus identify what a procurement transformation can look like. Further, it is analysed how the internal conditions business strategy, management control, change management, and organisational structure can affect the transformation. The findings from this Master’s thesis show that a transformation can be compiled into four stages and starts with the initiative and will to transform. The transformation continues with increasing involvement. This includes that procurement should be included in the strategic planning, ensuring a connection between business strategy and procurement strategy. The third stage, develop, indicates that procurement must continually develop its capabilities. The last stage, sustain, revolves around sustaining and developing in line with the changing environment. Moreover, this Master’s thesis shows that the connection between business strategy and procurement strategy is vital for procurement to become strategic. Management control will affect procurement’s possibilities to search for new opportunities, take risks, and improve its way of working. The management control will affect procurement’s possibility to become strategic. Change requires change management and if the resistance towards a change is too big, it will be hard to implement. Although it can not be said with certainty that the organisational structure affects strategic procurement it has been established that the procurement structure has an impact. The analysis shows that the three most successful procurement functions, out of the eleven cases, have a centralised structure, which leads to closer collaboration with management.

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  • 20.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network identity and position2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 21. Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network position and identity2015In: Proceedings of the 31st IMP Conference, 2015, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 22.
    Björkemar, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hur de viktigaste faktorerna påverkar värdeskapande för marknadsintelligensprocesser åt företag i Kina2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China is a unique market that differs from the Western market in many ways. Companies are not required to publicize financial reports, and furthermore a heavy focus on business relationship building can make it hard for companies to have high quality streams of data to get insights about their markets. For a consultant company to successfully enter the Chinese market and helping producing and technological global firms improving their insights on the Chinese market, the consultant company needs to understand which the important factors are and how those factors can help in creating value for their potential customers. To help the analyzing and consultant firm called Kairos Future, a qualitative case study was conducted on 16 different global companies with focus on industrial production. The case study was mainly conducted through face to face interviews with decision makers who had a broad understanding of their respective companies. In order to find where value can be created, the study was first used to find out which level of autonomity the China part of the global firm hadand how it affects the value creation linked to Market Intelligence, meaning receiving market data and analyzing it in order to get powerful market insights. The study also focused on the level of dependancy on having a continuous stream of technological information from external sources, how the companies are finding other types of market data and how they are analyzing and getting insights from the data. The final part of the study was to understand the level ofmaturity of the Chinese market linked to Market Intelligence, and what aspects affect the value creation for the customers. The report´s findings show that it is important for a consultant firm to focus on customers with high level of autonomity, or the head quarter in those cases where the level of autonomity is low - this in order to best utilize the consultant firm´s resources.Even though the companies in the study were heavily focused on the technological know-how within their respective markets, this was the one aspect they found the least interest in receiving external help with from a consultat firm. Receiving insights about customers within existing and new market segments was instead valued much higher. To understand the competitors’ movements in the market was also of high interest, because of the difficulty of finding public data within a given market in China. In order to successfully enter the Chinese Market Intelligence market, a consultant firm like Kairos Future needs to choose the specific customer segments where they can contribute the most value though their product and service offering. The goal should be to focus on one segment at a time, getting satisfied customers that help Kairos Future get a good market reputation through the word-of-mouth effect, and thereby making future sales easier. When this is accomplished, the same strategy can be applied to a new customer segment.

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    Hur de viktigaste faktorerna påverkar värdeskapande för marknadsintelligensprocesser åt företag i Kina
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  • 23.
    Blomér, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Kallström, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Identifying Potential Effects of Using ERP-Connected Mobile Devices in Manufacturing Companies2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones and other mobile devices are a common sight in our daily lives. The improvement in technology has given us small and portable devices that have the performance only found in desktop computers and more high-end devices less than a decade ago. An industry that has been quick to adopt technologies in the past is the manufacturing industry, examples of these adoptions are the conveyor belt and robots, which both are innovations of their time. Aside from hardware technologies, there are software technologies that the manufacturing industry has been using, e.g. complex information systems to manage materials and resources in the production. With the developments in mobile technology, a question arises whether the information systems can be combined with it in the manufacturing companies.

    One of the technologies that has become popular in the past years is the use of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. These kinds of devices can improve communication and flexibility. This leads us to the purpose of identifying how the use of ERP-connected mobile and mobility-supporting devices can affect processes among shop floor and production management personnel in large manufacturing companies.

    Using a qualitative approach, case studies of eleven companies were conducted using semi-structured interviews and direct observations. Personnel with different roles were interviewed to identify applications and devices that would reduce execution time, improve quality, or improve the flexibility of processes and tasks. These eleven companies were analysed with a model that focus on the dimensions complexity, specificity, and dynamism of a company's production structure, as well as a model that focus on the same dimensions in the roles of production personnel.

    The result was six applications and corresponding devices that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of a process in a significant way. The analysis showed that the management in companies had similar needs in mobile or mobility-supporting devices. Similarly, the assemblers and machine operators also had similar needs. No connection was found between the production strategy and the need for mobile or mobility-supporting devices.

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  • 24. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Boström, Per Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resurstillväxt via innovationskapital2021Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, an increasing share of companies' resources have consisted of so-called invisible assets, intangible assets, such as holdings in development companies, investments in spin-off companies and development of ideas in incubators, while the resources under a company's legal control through collaborative projects. in R&D, has also relatively decreased. Resource growth is a central issue in the organizations studied in this dissertation, but there is often an `imbalance' in the relationship between identified tangible / intangible resources and unidentified intangible resources. With this starting point, the dissertation focuses on this change and how it affects companies' ability to act strategically around the development of their innovation capital and how their management control is then affected. 

    The result of the combined, systemic analysis of all `cases' in the dissertation indicates that the internal resource growth, that is generated and reported in various forms, is driven by conditions caused by external changes but has also been made possible by management's strategic priorities regarding the company's resource base. Although the literature argues in line with what the analysis shows, the cases indicate the need for developed guidelines for how innovation and business management in operations in a competitive development market can renew and modify a company's resource base. To address this, the dissertation points at the need to weigh opportunities and risks in strategic decisions, to apply a multidisciplinary approach and to use financial and technical tools that are adapted to the many issues of how to strengthen the company's innovation capital. 

    The research suggests that companies should focus on resources and capabilities that, in an expected and communicated situation, have the potential to streamline the company's long-term competitive positioning, while developing organizational processes to deal with short- and long-term challenges and uncertainties. Based on the empirical evidence of the dissertation, models are developed to support management's management of the resource base. Models that can contribute to both short-term and long-term changes in companies' innovation capital are discussed. The dissertation identifies a number of resource-based strategies that companies can choose for their tangible and intangible resources. The strategies support company-specific goals regarding innovation collaborations and, considering the company's managements time aspect, a long-term sustainable competitiveness and competitive advantage.  

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  • 25.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio Andres
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interdisciplinary Insights Found for Product/Service System Design2016In: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4, The Design Society, 2016, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service System (PSS) is a different way of fulfilling customer needs by providing a bundle of products and services. PSS is by nature an interdisciplinary field of research that needs collaboration across disciplines. This research paper investigates how much interdisciplinary research has been carried in terms of insights used between two important disciplines, namely, Engineering Design and Industrial Marketing. The results show that few insights have been used across disciplines which shows a gap for further research.

  • 26.
    Brandes, Ove
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Strategic Importance of Supplier Relationships in the Automotive Industry2013In: International Journal of Engineering Business Management, ISSN 1847-9790, Vol. 5, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyse longitudinally the development of purchasing strategies in the automotive industry during the last 20 years. The amplitude of the business cycle during this time frame hasbeen very high and includes periods of financial/automotive crisis as well as high sales and demand. Our empirical data is primarily drawn from a 1990–2010 longitudinal case study of the relationship between automaker Volvo Personal Cars and Autoliv, a supplier of seat belts andairbags, complemented with secondary data framing the development of the industry level. The theoretical focus is on outsourcing and purchasing strategies developed within long‐lasting buyer‐supplier relationships;theoretical pillars are found in transaction‐cost theories and the resource‐based view of the firm.

    Based on the longitudinal case study, our analysis pinpoints the importance of intimate cooperation between customer and supplier in areas close to the core values and core competences of the buyer (that is, the automaker). From an industry‐level perspective, the winners in the automobile industry from 2010 and onwards have been and will be those who can organize long‐term collaboration partnerships between the automakers, their suppliers, and the political stakeholders, and who can outsource a large part of the technical development to the suppliers in areas also close to the core competences. The automakers must accept that their suppliers have competing automakers as their customers and search for synergies in their product portfolio. Theoretically, there is a need for conceptual development through deeper studies of the firm’s relational capability and its implications.

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  • 27. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Brege, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring Proactive Market Strategies: How Proactivity Shapes Value-Creation2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In discussions of firm strategy, proactivity is often mentioned as an enabler of effective goal accomplishment and high performance. However, it is rarely explained what, more precisely, being more proactive actually entails, or even indeed defined what is meant by the term ‘proactivity’ in this particular context. This dissertation seeks to investigate proactivity and its role in shaping firms’ market strategies. From prior research on proactivity in the strategic marketing domain, we know that proactive firms, on average, develop more radical innovation, are better at managing complex and highly competitive environments, and seem to achieve higher business performance. However, few, if any, of these prior studies properly define proactivity and take a more holistic perspective on its impact on firms’ market strategies.

    In this dissertation I propose a definition of proactivity through three main proactive characteristics: being future-oriented, taking the initiative, and driving change. Thus, a proactive firm does not wait for things to happen and then react to those events. Instead, it keeps a long-term horizon on its scanning for market intelligence and takes action before things happen, in order to create the change needed to improve its situation. While certainly not all proactive actions are successes, particularly not if the firm lacks proper awareness of the situation or exceeds its capabilities in its striving to shape events, proactive firms do have access to a broader set of opportunities than their less proactive competitors.

    To understand how proactivity influences market strategies, it is first necessary to understand market strategy itself a bit closer. I define market strategies as firms’ strategies for creating customer value. According to the market orientation literature, the basis of achieving long-term high firm performance is to consistently provide customers with superior value to that of the competition. Thus, firms’ market strategies are squarely at the center of their efforts to become more successful. To study these strategies and the effects they have, it is necessary to go beyond strategy documents and study the actual activities that firms perform to implement them. A market strategy, in my conceptualization, can thus be perceived as a coherent set of activities aimed at fulfilling certain goals, leading to the creation of customer value. These activities can then be further categorized according to the strategic orientations that drive the firm’s strategy-making, with customer orientation, competition orientation and innovation orientation being the orientations that have the most impact on market strategies.

    From this conceptual foundation, the dissertation takes four different approaches to investigating proactive market strategies, each presented in one of the four appended papers. In the first paper, a conceptual typology of different types of market strategies based on different value-creation logics – which are the combinations of responsiveness and proactivity that influence a firm’s value-creation efforts – is presented. In the second paper, the market strategies of five proactive firms are investigated to find three generic proactive market strategies, each representing a typical way for firms to employ proactivity in their market strategies. The third paper uses fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to investigate the configurations of proactivity, market environment and different market strategies that consistently lead to high market-strategic effectiveness. Finally, the fourth paper goes more in-depth in exploring the activities that firms employ to create value for customers, with particular focus on the different activities that are performed during different stages of contact with a customer.

    Through this thorough investigation of proactive market strategies, this dissertation presents a holistic view of proactivity and its impact on firms’ market strategies and their associated activities. As this is the first proper holistic view of proactivity in market strategy and also the first attempt to properly define proactivity in the market-strategic context, the dissertation also provides directions for future research.

    List of papers
    1. Proactivity and responsiveness in value creation: a conceptual typology of market strategies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proactivity and responsiveness in value creation: a conceptual typology of market strategies
    2021 (English)In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 72-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To successfully create customer value, firms must use coherent market strategies and perform value-creating activities that enable them to develop solutions to customers needs. However, as firms exhibit differences in how they approach value creation, their market strategies will also differ. These differences among market strategies can be described through different combinations of proactivity and responsiveness, representing each firms value-creation logic. This study aims to increase understanding of how firms can improve the effectiveness of their market strategies by considering their associated value-creation logics. Design/methodology/approach The authors conceptualize market strategies as coherent sets of value-creating activities. While the types of activities within a market strategy are driven by a firms strategic orientations, how these activities are performed is influenced by its value-creation logic. With this as the foundation, the authors develop a conceptual typology of archetypal market strategies based on the different value-creation logics that influence them. Findings The authors propose four distinct market strategies - habitual, visionary, adaptive and ambidextrous - representing unique ways in which value-creation logics influence the formation of market strategies. Furthermore, the authors highlight the need for activities to reflect consistent value-creation logics to create coherent market strategies and the authors provide an exploration of the activities that enable firms to implement different types of market strategies. Originality/value The typology expands the concept of market strategy, introducing the idea of a value-creation logic of proactivity and responsiveness, and thus demonstrating the need for more in-depth consideration of the value-creating activities that constitute market strategies to better understand how firms can create superior customer value.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2021
    Keywords
    Strategic marketing; Proactivity; Typology; Market strategy; Value-creation logic
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168516 (URN)10.1108/JBIM-11-2019-0479 (DOI)000552107800001 ()
    Available from: 2020-08-28 Created: 2020-08-28 Last updated: 2022-10-28
    2. Exploring proactive market strategies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring proactive market strategies
    2020 (English)In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 84, p. 75-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Proactivity is an important driver of firm performance and for the creation of customer value on business-to-business markets. It is however not entirely clear what it is proactive firms actually do to achieve success. By investigating proactive firms' market strategies, i.e. the sets of activities they perform in order to create superior customer value, a holistic overview of the activities involved in proactive market strategies is provided. Through a case study of five proactive firms, proactive activities are identified. Using three strategic orientations—customer, competition, and innovation orientation—unique proactivity profiles are created, reflecting the patterns in the identified proactive activities. Through these profiles, three overarching proactive market strategies are forwarded: market shaping, customer engagement, and innovation leadership. These are proposed to act as generic proactive market strategies, representing coordinated proactive activities driven by multiple strategic orientations and aimed at creating customer value. These generic strategies help us understand of the role of proactivity in crafting high-performing market strategies by representing different routes to success.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2020
    Keywords
    Market strategy, Proactivity, Strategic orientations, Case study, Business-to-business marketing
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157466 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2019.05.005 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066286146 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P18-0588:1
    Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2020-10-29Bibliographically approved
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  • 28. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Brege, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring Proactive Market Strategies: Managing the Market to Create Value2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can firms become more successful and achieve higher business performance? How can they manage more complex and dynamic markets and maintain a high competitiveness? The answer is: through a more proactive approach to managing the market and creating customer value. This thesis explores proactive market strategies, which are firm’s proactive strategies for creating, communicating, and delivering superior value to their customers, thereby achieving superior business performance. Prior literature in market orientation has touched the area of proactiveness in firms’ approach to the market, but never properly defines proactiveness and lacks a clear connection to actual firm activities. Thus, in order to better understand how firms can gain the performance benefits from proactiveness, this thesis sets out to explore what proactiveness in a market-strategic context entails and what proactive activities firms perform in implementing their proactive market strategies.

    The research is based on two papers, each detailing one of the two complementary branches of the research. The first paper presents the conceptual work, focusing on a typology of marketoriented strategic behaviors, which are important for understanding how firms can gain the potential performance benefits of market orientation and how they can achieve behavioral fit among their activities. The second paper presents the empirical work, focusing on the qualitative case study performed and the themes of proactiveness that emerged from it. These papers are then synthesized into a holistic view of proactive market strategies in the thesis.

    The thesis finds that proactiveness at the firm level in a marketing context means a firm is future-oriented, initiative-taking, change-inducing, and creative. With a basis in this definition and the extensive literature on market orientation, the thesis presents conceptual developments that are important for understanding proactiveness in market strategy, such as a framework for understanding market strategies through firm activities and one for identifying and categorizing different types of proactive activities. Furthermore, the thesis gives more detailed descriptions of the case firms and how their proactive activities help them achieve success.

    This results in a thorough exploration of proactive market strategies, which contributes to the marketing and strategic management literatures by clearly defining proactiveness, conceptualizing and describing proactive market strategies, and delineating proactive firm activities to better understand how firms are being proactive. In doing so, the thesis provides interesting directions for future research and presents interesting implications for managerial practice.  

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  • 29.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hampusson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Value Creation from IT Systems Integration: A Benefits, Openness and Price Model Perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is aimed at finding out how integration of IT systems creates value for companies and is conducted as a qualitative case study, where six companies are interviewed about their integration solutions. The interviewees were five CIOs and one Managing Director. Four of the companies interviewed have genuine Application Integration solutions, where a middleware platform is the hub of the integration system, while the remaining two used solutions based around a system of point-to-point integrations.

    The value of an integration solution will be considered a combination of the benefits an integration solution provides, openness aspects, and the price models used to pay for the system. Value is defined as what the company gains, in monetary terms, in exchange for what it pays for an offering (Anderson, Kumar, & Narus, 2007). This definition further defines the attractiveness of an offering as the value minus the price. When discussing the value of an IT system, it is important to consider the difference between the potential value, which is the maximum the system can deliver with an ideal environment and usage, and the realised value, which is some fraction of the potential value that a company actually gains, of the system (Davern & Kauffman, 2000; Smith & Nagle, 2005). Affecting the realisation of potential value are certain factors, called conversion contingencies, which are things like preparation of implementation projects or efforts at using all aspects of a system.

    Benefits are analysed according to a framework that divides IT systems benefits into five categories: operational, managerial, strategic, IT infrastructure, and organisational benefits (Shang & Seddon, 2000). These categories are focused around, respectively, productivity gains, enhanced planning capabilities, new strategic capabilities, better IT administration, and process improvements. We conclude that most companies gain several large benefits in the operational and managerial types, while the other three types have fewer reported benefits. We conclude that there seems to be quite a lot of unrealised potential value in the integration solutions, if the view of the potential of integration from the technological side is used. We also conclude that companies in certain environments and with more complex organisational structures seem to have a larger value potential than others, meaning they have more to potentially gain from an integration solution.

    For openness, five aspects of open source software are studied: lock-in, cost, security, flexibility/modifiability, and community. These aspects are mainly derived from literature on open source. The first conclusion we make regarding openness is that most of the CIOs seems not to be fully aware of what the term truly entails. Companies’ opinions regarding open source can be seen on a range between two extremes: those who want to modify or develop software and those who only want to use standard systems. The former category has more to gain from the aspects of cost and modifiability than the latter, but both categories can gain from the lock-in, security, and community aspects.

    The combination of factors that creates the price of an offering can be described as a price model. To study the value of price models of integration solutions, the SBIFT model (Iveroth, et al., 2013) is used, where the price model is divided into five dimensions, scope, base, influence, formula and temporal rights. None of the interviewed companies were satisfied with the alternatives for price models currently on the market. It was concluded that the dissatisfaction mostly stemmed from the facts that the companies had little opportunity to affect the price model, meaning they could not adapt it to better fit their internal conditions, the complexity of the license agreements, and that it was hard to get vendors to cite a price for a system. Price models that would be more attractive are e.g. models with a larger variable part, like transaction-based ones, or models that affect the time scale of the contract, even though no single model seemed more attractive to all companies.

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  • 30.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring proactive market strategies2020In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 84, p. 75-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proactivity is an important driver of firm performance and for the creation of customer value on business-to-business markets. It is however not entirely clear what it is proactive firms actually do to achieve success. By investigating proactive firms' market strategies, i.e. the sets of activities they perform in order to create superior customer value, a holistic overview of the activities involved in proactive market strategies is provided. Through a case study of five proactive firms, proactive activities are identified. Using three strategic orientations—customer, competition, and innovation orientation—unique proactivity profiles are created, reflecting the patterns in the identified proactive activities. Through these profiles, three overarching proactive market strategies are forwarded: market shaping, customer engagement, and innovation leadership. These are proposed to act as generic proactive market strategies, representing coordinated proactive activities driven by multiple strategic orientations and aimed at creating customer value. These generic strategies help us understand of the role of proactivity in crafting high-performing market strategies by representing different routes to success.

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    Brege & Kindström - 2019 - Exploring Proactive Market Strategies
  • 31.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring Proactiveness in Market Strategies: A Market-Oriented Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being proactive in the approach to the market has been linked to higher business performance. It is still relatively unclear, however, exactly what market activities that a firm perform in order to achieve this proactivity. The goal of this research is to explore how successful proactive firms use proactiveness in their market strategies in order to achieve higher business performance. By using a qualitative case study approach, this study takes a starting point in five successfully proactive Swedish firms and how they develop their proactive market strategies. Findings indicate three proactive themes seen in the firms; proactiveness through customer engagement, through market shaping, and through innovation leadership. The main contributions of the study are (1) a description of how firms use proactiveness to achieve success, (2) a starting point for more detailed studies of proactiveness, and (3) insight for managers as to how to apply proactiveness in their firms.

  • 32.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Extending Market Orientation: Developing Proactive Strategies for Increased Performance2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research shows that firms implementing market orientation often exhibit above average business performance (Kumar et al., 2011). The core of the market orientation concept is the idea that firms create superior business performance by focusing on delivering superior customer value (Narver & Slater, 1990), which requires extensive gathering, as well as organizational dissemination, of market intelligence. However, the market environments for most firms are becoming increasingly more complex, through e.g. globalization, shorter product life-cycles, faster imitation cycles, and more fickle customers, just to mention a few influencing factors. Day (2011) describes the need for firms to become more vigilant and develop so-called adaptive capabilities, which refers to becoming better at discovering market developments earlier and being better prepared to respond and adapt to them, i.e. becoming more proactive in managing the market. Thus, market orientation in a more competitive environment must be complemented by even more refined, and proactive, approaches to the market, mirroring results by Frösén et al. (2016), who find that market orientation is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for high business performance. This points towards the need for an extended view of market orientation and proactiveness.

    Proactiveness in itself is, however, not a magic bullet for managing increasing market complexity and improving business performance; for example, Chan (2006) demonstrates how the performance of proactive actions is heavily moderated by the degree of awareness of the situation, which also is indicated by Day’s (2011) focus on the need for vigilance and organizational learning. Thus, firms must find the appropriate way to be proactive in order to match their situation, likely requiring different capabilities for different firms.

    This paper uses a contingency approach to investigate key factors, both internal and external, as firms reach for proactivity as a way to drive performance. The research is based on qualitative case studies of a number of Swedish firms in highly competitive environments that have been employing proactive market strategies to successfully improve business performance. The cases will be used to identify key factors, such as capabilities and business practices that have been important for these firms in becoming successful in their proactive approaches, and to identify the key challenges they have faced in doing so. The aim is to explore in what ways increased proactiveness in the market strategy of a firm can be used to improve business performance, and to investigate what factors have been deciding in enabling the firm to achieve such success.

    The preliminary analyses point toward two things in particular. First, the need for a clear, long-term strategy that provides guidance for managers and salespersons regarding how to work towards future goals, including the need for a well-developed market sensing. Second, the need to build good, long-term relationships, not only with customers, but also with potential customers and various institutional actors is emphasized.

  • 33.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How to Be Proactive? High-Performing Configurations of Proactivity and Market Strategies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into market orientation and market shaping shows the potential of proactive firm behavior in achieving superior firm performance. However, these rely on an implicit definition of proactivity, making it difficult to understand the exact role of proactivity in strengthening performance. This study will investigate the role of proactivity in enabling superior firm performance through firms’ market strategies, i.e. understanding how proactive market strategies create success. First, proactivity is delineated into three proactive characteristics: being future-oriented, taking the initiative, and creating change, thus providing a more nuanced view. By using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, this study then will investigate the configurations of different forms of proactivity and market strategies that consistently lead to high performance. Thus, the study will provide a starting point for future studies into the impact of proactivity in strategic marketing.

  • 34.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Proactivity and responsiveness in value creation: a conceptual typology of market strategies2021In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 72-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To successfully create customer value, firms must use coherent market strategies and perform value-creating activities that enable them to develop solutions to customers needs. However, as firms exhibit differences in how they approach value creation, their market strategies will also differ. These differences among market strategies can be described through different combinations of proactivity and responsiveness, representing each firms value-creation logic. This study aims to increase understanding of how firms can improve the effectiveness of their market strategies by considering their associated value-creation logics. Design/methodology/approach The authors conceptualize market strategies as coherent sets of value-creating activities. While the types of activities within a market strategy are driven by a firms strategic orientations, how these activities are performed is influenced by its value-creation logic. With this as the foundation, the authors develop a conceptual typology of archetypal market strategies based on the different value-creation logics that influence them. Findings The authors propose four distinct market strategies - habitual, visionary, adaptive and ambidextrous - representing unique ways in which value-creation logics influence the formation of market strategies. Furthermore, the authors highlight the need for activities to reflect consistent value-creation logics to create coherent market strategies and the authors provide an exploration of the activities that enable firms to implement different types of market strategies. Originality/value The typology expands the concept of market strategy, introducing the idea of a value-creation logic of proactivity and responsiveness, and thus demonstrating the need for more in-depth consideration of the value-creating activities that constitute market strategies to better understand how firms can create superior customer value.

  • 35.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindeberg, Fredrik
    Netnod.
    Deregulating net neutrality: Exploring the impact of increased participation of technical actors in business model networks2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern firms increase their digitalization to improve their potential to create customer value. However, as firms become increasingly digitalized, their business models become increasingly reliant on digital infrastructure for support. Business models can be perceived as systems of activities aimed at creating and capturing value, and these activities are often distributed over business model networks, containing a focal firm and all suppliers, partners, etc. they need to perform the core activities in the business model. Digitalization not only increases the potential value creation of the business model network, but also increases reliance on digital infrastructure, such as the Internet, thereby exposing the network to a set of technical actors involved in supporting this infrastructure. Deregulation of net neutrality opens the door for such technical actors to start taking a larger role in the business model network as they seek to capture a larger share of the value their infrastructure helps support. In this paper, we explore the possible effects deregulation of net neutrality can have on the business models of digitalized firms. We find that the level of interdependency among business model network actors and technical actors leads to different outcomes, and that this interdependency is largely based on the level of digitalization in the firm and the concentration of the market for Internet services in a particular location. This exploration can be used as the foundation for policy development as well as business development to manage or prepare for new market conditions.

  • 36.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindeberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Internet-Enabled Business Models: A Net Neutrality Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multiactor touchpoints in the customer journey2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how B2B firms can manage the value creation process at multi-actor touchpoints in the customer journey. We argue that B2B firms can benefit from opening up their touchpoints to multi-actor interactions between the customer, firm, partners and other customers, answering recent calls for broadening the scope of customer journeys to also include such multi-actor touchpoints. In our research we perceive the value creating process as the actors, activities and resources involved in the emergence of value through the customer journey. An ecosystem perspective is adopted to increase understanding of how firms can enhance the value creating process through the B2B customer journey. By empirically examining an industrial ecosystem, our tentative findings point towards the importance of balancing the number of touchpoints as well as designing touchpoints depending on the customer’s needs and requirements to manage the value creation process. 

  • 38.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public Procurement as a Change Agent: The Case of the Swedish Telecommunications Market Development2009In: The Journal of The Institute of Telecommunications Professionals, ISSN 1755-9278, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how public procurement can be used as a change agent to initiate and promote the development in the telecom industry. From the perspective of the buyers of telecommunication, four phases in the development of the telecom market are mapped; from full monopoly to full competition and from one specific solution for a specific function to competing technologies that can solve the same requirement. Five distinctive purchasing roles driving the development are identified based on three generic purchasing roles (rationalization, development and supplier base structuring). This longitudinal, from the 1980s to 2006, study is based on the situation in Sweden, which has been at the forefront of the transformation of the telecom sector in Europe. Obtaining a better understanding of the purchasing role beyond the actual contract in driving restructuring of the market and technological solutions is one of the important implications from this study.

  • 39.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sourcing, Insourcing and Outsourcing of Telecom for the Swedish Public Sector2010In: Strategic Outsourcing, ISSN 1753-8297, E-ISSN 1753-8300, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how and why the question of outsourcing or insourcing within a specific empirical context, telecommunications services, has been handled differently over time.

    Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal study on procurement of telecommunications for the Swedish public sector's organizations during the last 40 years. The empirical data were collected from three case studies and one research project.

    Findings – The paper identifies four phases: from a simple buying situations, via insourcing of equipment in order to produce some services in-house, to outsourcing of telecommunications in a first step and to outsourcing of combined data and telecommunications in a second step. Three major contextual determinants are identified for the public procurement of telecommunications services: de-monopolization, rapid technical development and pressure on public agencies from politicians, citizens and others. In addition to low cost, core competence, control and flexibility, the paper identifies business development as a new logic for outsourcing and insourcing.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to Sweden and public procurement of telecommunications services. Therefore, it would be of value to test if the development of public procurement of telecommunications in other countries passed through the same phases and with the same determinants.

    Practical implications – Many of the findings are valid for public procurement in other countries, especially in the European Union due to the common legislative base for public procurement.

    Originality/value – The paper fulfills an identified need to carry out a longitudinal study of changes in public procurement of telecommunications through the different phases of in/outsourcing.

  • 40.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Swedish furniture industry - a study of strategic groups and performance2022In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 488-501Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this article is a longitudinal strategic group study with a special focus on the strategic group-performance relationship. The empirical context is the Swedish Furniture Industry, a very heterogeneous industry well suited for this type of "middle-ground study" between industry and firm levels. The research questions are finding suitable strategic dimensions to use when in a next step splitting up into different strategic groups followed by an analysis of the strategic group-performance relationship. Finally, an explanatory approach is taken with the purpose of increasing our understanding of performance differences between strategic groups. The empirical investigation is a total population study of 143 companies (micro companies excluded) and the period of analysis is 2004 up to 2017. Empirical data consist of yearly income statements, public statistics, results from two questionnaires and multiple (firm) case descriptions. The explanatory part is of a qualitative nature and points out the major differences between the strategic groups regarding environmental forces and competitive advantage. Nine strategic groups are identified and stable performance differences between groups are noted which are mainly related to different demand conditions between three customer sectors - household, institutional and B2B - but also to the mix of micro product/customer segments within these sectors.

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  • 41.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holtström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Swedish wood manufacturing sector: findings from a contextually adapted structure-conduct-performance model2021In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 878-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this article is an inter-industry study of the Swedish Wood Manufacturing Sector (WMS), examined from the perspective of the Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) paradigm in the theoretical field of Industrial Organization. The four research questions are: (1) identify the industries within the sector, (2) construct a contextually adapted SCP model and form the basis for hypotheses of relationships between the different variables in the model, (3) establish quantitative correlations between the variables, and finally (4) present a basically qualitative, explanatory interpretive analysis. The empirical investigation is a total population study of 311 firms. Nine industries are identified, and an SCP model is presented including four explanatory variables - exposure to international competition, value-added scope, domestic demand growth potential and (domestic industry) seller concentration - and two performance variables - industry profitability (ROA) and industry growth. The combined qualitative and quantitative explanatory analysis identifies some important relationships in the SCP model. The most prominent findings are the strong negative relationships between exposure to international competition and industry profitability and industry growth. Another finding is that strong positive relationships are found between the degree of value-added scope and industry profitability and industry growth.

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  • 42.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Industriellt byggande i trä - nuläge och prognos mot 20252017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av samhälleliga utmaningar kopplade till demografi, klimat, sysselsättning och krav på resurseffektivitet kan industriellt träbyggande bidra med följande i ett tidsperspektiv fram till 2025:

    • Bygga upp en kapacitet för industriell träbyggande som kan leverera 50 % av flerbostadshusen som byggs på den svenska marknaden (17 500 lägenheter varav 15 000 producerade inom landet) och samtidigt nå en 30-35%-ig materialandel inom segmentet lokaler.
    • Därigenom skapa 8 000 nya jobb inom prefabricering i fabriksmiljö och bidra till att flytta 6 000 jobb från storstad till landsbygd. Detta kan vara en dellösning på bristen på inhemsk byggarbetskraft – att flytta ut jobben på landet och att ”göra om” snickare till maskinoperatörer. Detta kan även vara en möjlighet för integrering av nyanländ arbetskraft.
    • Utnyttja träets potential för minskad klimatbelastning jämfört med andra byggmaterial. Ett industriellt flerbostadshus har 40 % lägre CO2 utsläpp än ett jämförbart betonghus. Motsvarande siffra för lokaler är minus 35-40% (baserat på sammanfattande och nya analyser av Tyréns).
    • Minska klimatbelastningen med 0,7-0,8 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter genom att substituera från betong till trä – en besparing som utgör knappt 3 % av den totala mängd utsläpp som Sveriges handlande och icke handlande sektorer ska anpassa sig till för år 2030. Om träets kollagring adderas till substitutionseffekten så blir den kalkylmässiga besparingen 2-4 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter.
    • Bygga resurseffektivare med industriellt byggande och framförallt utnyttja den potential till fortsatta effektivitetsförbättringar som ligger i att öka volymerna. Detta sker genom högre nivåer på byggproduktionen i kombination med kraftigt ökade marknadsandelar. Industriellt byggande har bättre kontroll över processer som även inkluderar underentreprenörer och konsulter och kan genom bättre integration och partnerskap verka dämpande på en marknad som kännetecknas av stora svängningar i lägen präglade av överhettning respektive nedgång och stiltje.

    En avslutande kommentar gäller behovet av kapacitet på den svenska marknaden för bostadsbyggande. Svensk skogs- och träindustri verkar i dagsläget stiga in med stora kapacitetsutbyggnader i ett läge där det inte är särskilt troligt att svensk betongindustri fortsätter att expandera. Vi bedömer att osäkerheten vad gäller klimatfrågan är för stor för att man från betongsidan ska ge sig in på stora investeringar i nuläget. De stora byggbolagen verkar ägarmässigt frikoppla sig från betongbranschen och är därmed ännu mera obundna att gå över till en trästrategi när incitamenten blir tillräckligt stora och tydliga. Detta är en stor möjlighet för industriell träbyggande.

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    Industriellt byggande
  • 43.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business models in industrialized building of multi-storey houses2013In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-3, p. 208-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model construct has been widely used during the last decade, partly because of its potential to provide a holistic view of how companies do business. A test of how prefabrication could form the basis of a construction firm’s business model can lead to an understanding of the potential for the competitiveness and profitability of industrialized building. The aim is to adapt a general business model construct and use it to empirically identify the most frequently used and the most viable business model. The theoretical perspective is employed to examine how a company does business and which activities and resources are mobilized through the distinction between strategic and operational effectiveness. The multiple case studies include five major Swedish companies that produce prefabricated timber building systems and the analysis is grounded in pattern-finding. The business model construct includes: market position, offering, and operational platform. The result indicates five business model elements: prefabrication mode, role in the building process, end-user segments, system augmentation and complementary resources. Applying this construct to the five case companies revealed that one out of seven models was found to be viable in terms of both ‘market share’ and decision-makers’ opinions. One important conclusion is to take the prefabrication mode as the starting point for business model design and then adapt the other elements to a good fit.

  • 44.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Öjdemark, Christer
    Styrelseordförande i Envac. Hedersdoktor vid Linköpings universitet.
    Internationalisering i en global värld: från innovation till marknadsledare2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan man få företag att växa? Den här boken handlar om hur man tar små och medelstora företag till ”mindre storföretag” och hur man bygger upp en internationell verksamhet. Utgångspunkten är att skapa en robust affärsmodell runt en produkt- eller processinnovation – en affärsmodell som kan ge hävstångseffekter på lönsamheten när företaget växer. Boken tar upp fem hörnstenar i internationalisering:

    1. utveckla affärsportföljen och affärsmodellen för internationalisering
    2. expandera till olika geografiska marknader
    3. bygga en position på en ny marknad
    4. göra affärer på utländska marknader
    5. organisera och styra internationell verksamhet.

     Författarna väver samman konkreta fallbeskrivningar med en teoretisk referensram, och kompletterar med rekommendationer och en verktygslåda som stöd i arbetet med att styra en internationell verksamhet.

    En högaktuell bok om hur man utvecklas från talang till världsstjärna. Vi får följa bolag som Elekta, Envac och Systemair, alla med den gemensamma nämnaren att de tack vare skicklighet och tajming gick från lovande bolag till ledande i sin respektive bransch. Vi får också några ledtrådar till hur Sverige kan ta tillvara sina förutsättningar som bas för framtidens internationaliserade företag. Den här boken angår företagsledare, politiker och alla oss som vill förstå hur svenska småföretag kan växa och bli vinnare på världsmarknaden.

    Ylva Berg, VD Business Sweden

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  • 45.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Drivers for key account management programmes2014In: Handbook of Strategic Account Management: A Comprehensive Resource / [ed] Diana Woodburn, Kevin Wilson, London: John Wiley & Sons, 2014, 1, p. 53-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Breidbach, Christoph
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Choi, Sunmee
    Yonsei Univ, South Korea.
    Ellway, Benjamin
    Univ Canberra, Australia.
    Keating, Byron W.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Kormusheva, Katerina
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken Sch Econ, Finland.
    Lim, Chiehyeon
    Ulsan Natl Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Maglio, Paul
    Univ Calif Merced, CA USA.
    Operating without operations: how is technology changing the role of the firm?2018In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 809-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the history and future of service operations, with the goal to identify key theoretical and technological advances, as well as fundamental themes that can help to imagine the future of service operations in 2050. Design/methodology/approach A review of the service operations literature was undertaken to inform a discussion regarding the role that technology will play in the future of service operations. Findings The future of service operations is framed in terms of three key themes - complexity, orchestration, and elasticity. The paper makes three contributions to the service science literature by: reviewing key themes underpinning extant service operations research to frame future trajectories of service operations research; elaborating a vision of service operations in 2050 based on history and technology; and outlining a research agenda for future service operations. Practical implications The case of service automation is used to provide an illustration of how the three themes converge to define future service operations, and in particular, to show how technology is recasting the role of the firm. Originality/value Service operations in the next 30 years will be very different from what it was in the past 30 years. This paper differs from other review papers by identifying three key themes that will characterize and instill new insights into the future of service operations research.

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  • 47.
    Broman, Tor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Åkesson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Från produkt till tjänst: framtidens läkemedelsupphandling: En ökad tjänsteorientering och ett gemensamt värdeskapande är nyckeln till att möta dagens och framtidens utmaningar vid läkemedelsupphandling.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current public procurement process of pharmaceuticals is characterized by a lack of overall perspective and distrust between the pharmaceutical industry and buying Swedish county councils. This is due to the historical context between the two parties. There also exist cost inefficiencies due to a high cost focus and the lack of an overall cost perspective. These factors have affected how the parties on the pharmaceutical market interact and act in relation to each other. The public procurement situation is something both the studied pharmaceutical company (MSD Sverige AB) and the studied buyers (Region Östergötland, Region Jönköpings län and NT-rådet) are aware of and agree on has to change. Therefore, the way public procurement of pharmaceuticals is carried out has to change for it to the meet current challenges, and future demand, of the Swedish health care.The studied pharmaceutical company wishes to increase the service orientation in public procurement processes, something the county councils and NT-rådet are in favour of. Furthermore, the company wants to achieve a value co-creation between itself and the buyers, however, the possibility of achieving value co-creation is somewhat debatable among the buyers since they have different opinions of its feasibility. Nevertheless, the report assumes that value co-creation is possible in the studied system. At the same time interviews have demonstrated the existence of different opinions and thoughts regarding value adding services amongst the different buyers, i.e. there is a lack of consensus if sufficient resources exist to change the procurement process and what part the pharmaceutical company should play if the service orientation increases. Moreover, there exist divided opinions regarding how the interaction with the pharmaceutical company should take place since the majority of the buyers wishes to have a clear separation from the pharmaceutical industry, something making the development of value adding service more difficult.Since there exist disagreements regarding how a change to the procurement process practically should be carried out and there is a distrust between the parties, the aim of the report is to demonstrate similarities and dissimilarities between them within four key areas: business relationships, cost efficiency, strategies and service orientation. The purpose is also to illustrate how a changed procurement process could benefit all parties and the process as a whole. The authors do this by creating a strategic framework, which is based on the four presented key areas and scientific theories. It shows where the parties are today and where they theoretically should be in the future to improve the procurement process, meet today’s and future challenges. The buyers’ biggest challenge is to improve the cost efficiency and use of resources, for the studied pharmaceutical company the biggest challenge is to create new business opportunities. The basis for the report and strategic framework is that both parties should benefit from drawn conclusions since they are in a symbiotic/cooperative relationship due to the dependency between each other’s businesses. Therefore, the framework has to be developed with the aim of promoting value co-creation and render a positive change to the procurement process possible.The presented framework demonstrates that an increase service orientation, through the introduction of value adding services, is the key to value co-creation, improve use of resourcesIIand a more cost efficient procurements processes of pharmaceuticals. Yet, both the analysis and conclusion clearly shows that value co-creation between the parties is not possible today, but in the future, due to existing business relationships. These are affected negative because of the existing distrust between the parties, thus preventing the creation of better business relationships. Therefore, the negative business relationship prevents an increased service orientation and the introduction of value adding services in the procurement processes. This in its turn hinder the buying parties from improving their use of resources and increasing the cost efficiency. Bad business relationships also mean the studied pharmaceutical company will lose business opportunities. Consequently, both parties will fail to address their current and future challenges. Therefore, improving business relationships is a key factor for reaching value co-creation and increase the overall cost perspective in the public procurement process of pharmaceuticals. Better business relationships will also decrease the distrust and allow for increased service orientation, something that will improve cost efficiency and efficient use of resources in procurement processes and open up for new business opportunities.

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  • 48.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service flexibility: conceptualizing value creation in service2016In: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 868-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the subject-specific literature on service and flexibility and derive a conceptualization of the linkages between provider flexibility and customers value creation. Design/methodology/approach - The authors analyze existing perspectives on service and flexibility and propose linkages between provider flexibility and customer value creation. Findings - Drawing on the service logic literature, and utilizing real-world examples, this paper advances propositions and a conceptual model of how flexibility can contribute to value creation. Research limitations/implications - This paper establishes the basis for a practical and applicable flexibility perspective on value creation. It is particularly important for service-oriented providers and other firms operating in dynamic contexts. Practical implications - The propositions and conceptual model offer suggestions on the manner in which provider flexibility contributes to customer value creation. Contextual influences that moderate provider flexibility in value creation are also included. Originality/value - This paper contributes a novel perspective on service, which may serve as the starting point for the development of a more formal flexibility perspective on value creation.

  • 49. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Service Innovation and Realization in Manufacturing Firms2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is increasingly becoming a basis for manufacturing firms to reach and sustain competitive advantages. While traditional product innovation typically includes how new technology can be utilized in new products, service innovation spans a broader area that is not exclusively focused on new technology, but rather how resources can be developed into value propositions and then integrated in the customer’s process in order to support customer value creation through realization. However, manufacturing firms that infuse services struggle with service innovation; this becomes especially evident in the realization phase.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers discussing different aspects of service innovation realization and the inherited challenges. The study builds upon empirical data from four Swedish manufacturing firms that infuse services and develop new value propositions that include both products and services to support customer processes.

    The thesis illustrates realization as a phase in service innovation where the firm interacts with its customer in order to adjust, revise and further find new ways of improving the customer’s processes through for example customer training. Realization is characterized by a deployment phase and a post-deployment phase that represent the ongoing relationship between the customer and the firm.

    Depending on who has the competencies or ability to integrate the resources that are needed for service innovation, different interaction patterns are identified. Through indirect interaction, the firm facilitates the customer’s value creation through, for example, preventive maintenance, while through direct interaction the firm acts as a co-creator in the service innovation process and hence work jointly together with the customer in order to improve customer value creation.

    This thesis contributes to the literature by characterizing service innovation realization and by increasing the understanding for different interaction patterns in the service innovation process.

    List of papers
    1. The evolution of service innovation research: A critical review and synthesis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The evolution of service innovation research: A critical review and synthesis
    2014 (English)In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 373-398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2014
    Keywords
    service innovation, service development, product development, review article
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95805 (URN)10.1080/02642069.2013.780044 (DOI)000334060600001 ()
    Available from: 2013-07-24 Created: 2013-07-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. A lean approach to service productivity improvements: Synergy or oxymoron?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A lean approach to service productivity improvements: Synergy or oxymoron?
    2013 (English)In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 291-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Service productivity continues to receive ever-greater amounts of attention as service covers a greater portion of the economy. As competition increases, service productivity becomes increasingly important. This study aims to explore the applicability of lean principles in a service context and to conceptualize how these principles impact service productivity.

    Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the six most commonly used lean principles in manufacturing and their applicability to a service context for different types of services. Using this analysis, six propositions are developed to examine the influence of lean on service productivity.

    Findings – This study suggests promising synergies, as well as important obstacles, for applying lean principles in services. Standardizing services and increasing reliability in service processes through lean principles can increase efficiency. However, the customer's active role in certain services and, simultaneously, high diversity make the application of lean principles increasingly difficult. Also, customer satisfaction must be considered when improving service productivity, otherwise the positive long-term effects of a lean approach in service will be absent.

    Practical implications – These findings are useful for organizations aiming to improve their service productivity. Particularly, lean principles are invaluable to increase efficiency and customer satisfaction for services with low diversity and low customer participation. This paper suggests a direction for the proper use of lean principles for different service types, and how efficiency and customer satisfaction are affected through a lean approach.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to the research on service productivity and continues the discussion on prototypic characteristics of service and manufacturing orientations.

    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95804 (URN)10.1108/MSQ-04-2013-0052 (DOI)000321087100003 ()
    Available from: 2013-07-24 Created: 2013-07-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    3. Service process modularization and modular strategies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service process modularization and modular strategies
    2014 (English)In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 313-323Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the role of service modularity in developing and deploying efficient services, while at the same time meeting diverse customer needs. The analysis distinguishes between different service types and sets forth key issues for service modularization, identifying supporting resources (both internal and customer) and associated modular strategies for the different types. Design/methodology/approach - The study design used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on three Swedish manufacturing firms that are moving toward an increased service focus (service infusion). Data were collected through interviews and focus groups, and the collected data were analyzed independently, before being merged and synthesized in a cross-case analysis. Themes and patterns were extracted and linked to the theoretical framework following a systematic combining process. Findings - This study contributes insights to the emerging field of service modularity by investigating process modularization and modular strategies. A framework is put forward outlining modular strategies for four different service types covering both a passive and an active role for a customer. From a theoretical point of view, the role of the customer is added to the discussion to advocate for the necessity of a co-creative perspective in service modularity. Originality/value - This article contributes to the emerging research field of service modularity by providing empirical insights into how modularization and modular strategies can enable more efficient services. Depending on service type, different modular strategies are set forth. This study also highlights the need to recognize customer-specific activities, resources and competencies as pivotal parts of the modular service processes. Such insights are particularly relevant given the established view of service modules as functions of intra-firm activities.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald, 2014
    Keywords
    Service development; B2B services; Modular strategies; Modularization; Service deployment; Service modularity
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111304 (URN)10.1108/JBIM-08-2013-0170 (DOI)000341888300006 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-14 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2020-06-05
    4. Triadic value propositions: When it takes more than two for tango
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Triadic value propositions: When it takes more than two for tango
    2016 (English)In: Service Science, ISSN 2164-3962, E-ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 282-299Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Value propositions are reciprocal resource-integration promises and value alignment mechanisms, operating to and from actors seeking an equitable exchange. In a business triad any change between two of the actors will also affect the relationships with the third actor, thus influencing resource integration and value creation on a value constellation level. The objective of this paper is to conceptualize a triadic value proposition and analyze how service innovation changes the structural, economic, and social ties between the actors in the triad. Through a qualitative empirical enquiry, we study a six-year process in which a multinational industry incumbent enters the service business. Data comes primarily from interviews with respondents from the manufacturer, dealers, and users. As the value proposition evolves over time, the network ties and thus the interdependence between manufacturer, dealer, and user are strengthened. The findings provide firms a better understand of how to involve and collaborate with key actors in order to initiate a discontinuous change on a firm and network level. This is particularly timely given the major difficulties product firms face when intermediaries play a decisive role for the success of their service innovation initiatives.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), 2016
    Keywords
    Value proposition; network ties; relationship development; service innovation; longitudinal research
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117961 (URN)10.1287/serv.2016.0145 (DOI)000390566500004 ()
    Note

    Previous status of this article was Manuscript.

    Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    5. Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation
    2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Collaboration with customers and the involvement of a customer’s resources have been regarded as a key issues in the service innovation process. However, research that covers collaboration in service innovation tends to have a one-sided focus, as it especially concentrates on the involvement of customer resources in the firm’s development of the offering per se and hence foresees the firm’s involvement of resources in the later part of the service innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze resource involvement from both the firm and the customer in the service innovation process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on two Swedish manufacturing firms in a business-to-business context that add services to their core product offerings (service infusion). Data was collected through interviews and focus groups.

    Findings: The study found that different types of interaction modes are related to the integration of varying key resources from both the firm and the customer. A typology of interaction modes in service innovation, based on different levels of involvement, is developed.

    Managerial implications: Increased and more specific knowledge of the customer’s resources is required in order to manage and coordinate how and with what resources the customer and the firm should contribute to the service innovation process.

    Originality/Value: The previous service innovation literature tends to focus on how the customer can be involved in the firm’s development of offerings per se. This article suggests that focus should also include the firm’s involvement in the later phases of the service innovation process. The study contributes to the research on involvement in service innovation by showing how resources from both the customer and the firm are integrated in the service innovation process.

    Keywords
    Service innovation, involvement, resource integration, co-creation, B2B, reciprocity.
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117962 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2015-05-19Bibliographically approved
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  • 50.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Collaboration with customers and the involvement of a customer’s resources have been regarded as a key issues in the service innovation process. However, research that covers collaboration in service innovation tends to have a one-sided focus, as it especially concentrates on the involvement of customer resources in the firm’s development of the offering per se and hence foresees the firm’s involvement of resources in the later part of the service innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze resource involvement from both the firm and the customer in the service innovation process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on two Swedish manufacturing firms in a business-to-business context that add services to their core product offerings (service infusion). Data was collected through interviews and focus groups.

    Findings: The study found that different types of interaction modes are related to the integration of varying key resources from both the firm and the customer. A typology of interaction modes in service innovation, based on different levels of involvement, is developed.

    Managerial implications: Increased and more specific knowledge of the customer’s resources is required in order to manage and coordinate how and with what resources the customer and the firm should contribute to the service innovation process.

    Originality/Value: The previous service innovation literature tends to focus on how the customer can be involved in the firm’s development of offerings per se. This article suggests that focus should also include the firm’s involvement in the later phases of the service innovation process. The study contributes to the research on involvement in service innovation by showing how resources from both the customer and the firm are integrated in the service innovation process.

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