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  • 1.
    Abongo, D. A.
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, S. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, I. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    University of Wageningen and Research Centre, Netherlands.
    Naziriwo, B. B.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, V. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, G. A.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Nkedi-Kizza, P.
    University of Florida, FL USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. North West University, South Africa.
    Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015In: African Journal of Aquatic Science, ISSN 1608-5914, E-ISSN 1727-9364, Vol. 40, no 4, 373-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A baseline study was conducted of the occurrence of macroinvertebrates at 26 sites in the Nyando River catchment in 2005-2006. A total of 13 orders and 16 families of Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes and Annelida were collected, with the order Ephemeroptera being most abundant in the up- and mid-stream reaches, followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera respectively. The downstream sections of the river were dominated by Hirudinea and tubificids, as the water quality deteriorated mainly due to local land use, raw sewage effluent discharge and annual floods. Insects and annelids were the main invertebrates found and the extent of pollution increased from mid-section (Site 15) downwards as the river flowed into the Winam Gulf. Stringent management measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria.

  • 2.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi. Kenya.
    Jumba, Isac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Nazariwo, Betty
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, Godfrey
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nkedi-Kizza, Peter
    University of Florida, USA.
    Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015In: Africa Journal of Physical Sciences, ISSN 2313-3317, Vol. 2, no 1, 18-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil samples were collected from six locations representative of the Nyando River catchment area of the Lake Victoria over a period of two years. Sampling was done four times in the year in February, May, September and December 2005 and 2006 in farms where maize, tea, sugar cane, coffee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. This coincided with the effects of different seasons and farming activities on residue levels of the pesticides in use. The objective was to investigate levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides that have either been banned or are restricted for use in Kenya. Organochlorine pesticides investigated were DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin, endosulfan (both α- and β- isomers and endosulfan sulphate), the sum is called “total” or Σendosulfan and methoxychlor. Prior to the ban or restriction in use, these pesticides had found wide applications in public health for control of disease vectors and in agriculture for control of crop pests. The analysis revealed presence of all the targeted pesticides with the highest mean concentrations for methoxychlor 140 ± 1.5 μg/kg, Σendosulfan (30 ± 2.1 μg/kg), aldrin (18 ± 0.28 μg/kg), respectively. The results show the presence of these pesticides in soils in the basin and this could be impacting negatively on the ecosystem health of the area.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Improving methane production using hydrodynamic cavitation as pre-treatment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To develop anaerobic digestion (AD), innovative solutions to increase methane yields in existing AD processes are needed. In particular, the adoption of low energy pre-treatments to enhance biomass biodegradability is needed to provide efficient digestion processes increasing profitability. To obtain these features, hydrodynamic cavitation has been evaluated as an innovative solutions for AD of waste activated sludge (WAS), food waste (FW), macro algae and grass, in comparison with steam explosion (high energy pre-treatment). The effect of these two pre-treatments on the substrates, e.g. particle size distribution, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biodegradability rate, have been evaluated. After two minutes of hydrodynamic cavitation (8 bar), the mean fine particle size decreased from 489- 1344 nm to 277- 381 nm (≤77% reduction) depending of the biomasses. Similar impacts were observed after ten minutes of steam explosion (210 °C, 30 bar) with a reduction in particle size between 40% and 70% for all the substrates treated.  In terms of BMP value, hydrodynamic cavitation caused significant increment only within the A. nodosum showing a post treatment increment of 44% compared to the untreated value, while similar values were obtained before and after treatment within the other tested substrates. In contrast, steam explosion allowed an increment for all treated samples, A. nodosum (+86%), grass (14%) and S. latissima (4%). However, greater impacts where observed with hydrodynamic cavitation than steam explosion when comparing the kinetic constant K. Overall, hydrodynamic cavitation appeared an efficient pre-treatment for AD capable to compete with the traditional steam explosion in terms om kinetics and providing a more efficient energy balance (+14%) as well as methane yield for A. nodosum.

  • 4.
    Ackerfors, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hederén, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Transition in Municipalities: Identifying ways to assess transition processes through indicators2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has been recognised as one of the biggest challenges of our time. To prevent further climate change impacts, nations at COP21 further stressed the need to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions enough to prevent dangerous temperature rise and to adapt societies to become more resilient. Municipals have been found important actors in this transition due to their power to inflict change on a local level. However, there is a lack of methods to assess how transition is made due to the fact that transition is a fairly new approach to managing climate change combined with a lack of completed transitions in municipalities. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of indicators as a method to assess municipal transition processes. Focusing on two Swedish municipalities that have been deemed vulnerable but at the same time apt to combat climate change, this study uses a triangulation of methods that are divided into two phases. The first phase uses a literature review in order to create a scientifically based list of transition indicators. The second phase uses document analyses and interviews in order to test the indicators and analyse transition process on a local level. The study revealed that there are multiple barriers and triggers for transition such as conflicting interests, economic factors, political steering, knowledge building- and awareness and long term perspectives, but that there also exist important tools for municipal transition in the form of networks through multi-level collaborations and plans/objectives. The findings in this study also suggests that the use of indicators as a method to assess transition could be viable, but that it is limited due to its contextual nature and lack of successful transitions to compare with.

  • 5.
    Amars, Latif
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Independent Climate Researcher, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mathias, Fridahl
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Hagemann, Markus
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Röser, Frauke
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    The transformational potential of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Tanzania: assessing the concept’s cultural legitimacy among stakeholders in the solar energy sector2016In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 22, no 1, 86-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While energy-sector emissions remain the biggest source of climate change, many least-developed countries still invest in fossil-fuel development paths. These countries generally have high levels of fossil fuel technology lock-in and low capacities to change, making the shift to sustainable energy difficult. Tanzania, a telling example, is projected to triple fossil-fuel power production in the next decade. This article assesses the potential to use internationally supported Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to develop solar energy in Tanzania and contribute to transformational change of the electricity supply system. By assessing the cultural legitimacy of NAMAs among key stakeholders in the solar energy sector, we analyse the conditions for successful uptake of the concept in (1) national political thought and institutional frameworks and (2) the solar energy niche. Interview data are analysed from a multi-level perspective on transition, focusing on its cultural dimension. Several framings undermining legitimacy are articulated, such as attaching low-actor credibility to responsible agencies and the concept’s poor fit with political priorities. Actors that discern opportunities for NAMAs could, however, draw on a framing of high commensurability between experienced social needs and opportunities to use NAMAs to address them through climate compatible development. This legitimises NAMAs and could challenge opposing framings.

  • 6.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

    • between industry, academia and society,
    • between different perspectives, and
    • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

    BRC’s vision is:

    BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

    For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

    This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

    Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

    In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

    This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

    The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Kronman, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    ”Jag vill ju ha bra luft att andas”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie kring barns miljömedvetenhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of today's environmental problems are caused by a lack of environmental awareness and behavioral change is essential for reducing human impact. Knowledge of what shapes people's environmental awareness and environmental behavior is therefore necessary.  The aim of this study is to examine children’s environmental awareness and behavior with focus on age and gender. We want to increase the understanding of what affects children’s interest, commitment and understanding of environmental problems and pro-ecological behavior. We have conducted interviews with twenty children in the age groups of nine and twelve years as well as one teacher from each age group. The study highlights the children’s view on the concept of environment, environmental problems, pro-ecological behavior and the future of the environment as well as the children’s interest, commitment and knowledge about the environment. The results show that children’s environmental awareness varies and that there are individual differences which are affected by parents influence and school education. Differences caused by age are observed when it comes to the children’s commitment and interest to the environment as well as their thoughts of the future. Differences caused by gender are not as apparent but is displayed when discussing pro-ecological behavior and the children’s view of the future environment.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Van Well, Lisa
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Management & Organisation/Centre for International Business Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Gunn
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Farelius, Johanna
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Underlag till kontrollstation 2015 för anpassning till ett förändrat klimat2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the climate changes, actors on all levels and in all sectors will be affected. Thus it is imperative that authorities, municipalities, businesses and individual property owners all take action.

    Flooding, heat waves, landslides and erosion are only a few examples of the challenges that that society faces and needs to prepare for. Sweden must adapt to the impacts of a changing climate, as well as the indirect effects of climate change impacts in other parts of the world.

    The costs of adaptation can be high, but the European Commission, among others, has deemed that it still pays to adapt in relation to the costs incurred if no action is taken.

    Climate adaptation initiatives in Sweden have advanced significantly in recent years. Notable examples include governmental missions for a national elevation database, landslide risk mapping in the Göta Älv River Valley, the Swedish drinking water investigation, the County Administrative Boards’ regional climate change action plans, and the establishment of the National Knowledge Centre for Climate Adaptation.

    The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute’s mission to survey, analyse and follow-up on climate adaptation work in Sweden has shown that there is still a considerable need for further measures. This report provides proposals for a road map for climate adaptation in Sweden and concludes that climate adaptation is best conducted in a long-term manner, that roles and responsibilities should be made more transparent, and that better coordination among the many actors involved in climate adaptation is necessary.

    The most important conclusions for continued work are:

    • Laws and regulations need to be adapted; roles and responsibilities as well as strategies and goals should be made clearer.
    • Priority and funding should be given to research and development measures that fill an identified knowledge-gap, including long-term monitoring.
    • Knowledge and decision support as well as prognoses and warning systems should be more accessible.
    • There is a need to outline how the costs of adaptation should be distributed among actors and how resources for prioritised measures can be guaranteed.

    This mission has compiled knowledge of the current and future risks and consequences for society of a changing climate, such as effects on vital societal functions and human health. The mission has also surveyed the work that has been done since the publication of the final report of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability in 2007. From this background material our goal has been to describe the gaps and challenges and provide suggestions for how adaptation can be approached in various sectors of society. The EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change has been an important point of departure. The work has been performed in cooperation with national and regional authorities, municipalities, researchers, sectoral organisations and representatives of the private sector.

    This report is comprised of a main report and 18 annexes. Chapter 3 of the main report is a synthesis of all of the proposals made throughout the document and as such can be seen as a road map to ensure that Sweden adapts to a changing climate.

  • 9.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, MAP Unit, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    VTI Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Negotiating climate change responses: Regional and local perspectives on transport and coastal zone planning in South Sweden2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, 297-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Putting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit, due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climate change research has targeted the national-local interplay, less is known about the interface of regional and local perspectives. Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation between regional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone management in a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) and official planning documents. The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. In practice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the local spatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hampered the overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are few traces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related to integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Asplund, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Natural versus anthropogenic climate change: Swedish farmers joint construction of climate perceptions2016In: Public Understanding of Science, ISSN 0963-6625, E-ISSN 1361-6609, Vol. 25, no 5, 560-575 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While previous research into understandings of climate change has usually examined general public perceptions, this study offers an audience-specific departure point. This article analyses how Swedish farmers perceive climate change and how they jointly shape their understandings. The agricultural sector is of special interest because it both contributes to and is directly affected by climate change. Through focus group discussions with Swedish farmers, this study finds that (1) farmers relate to and understand climate change through their own experiences, (2) climate change is understood either as a natural process subject to little or no human influence or as anthropogenic and (3) various communication tools contribute to the formation of natural and anthropogenic climate change frames. The article ends by discussing frame resonance and frame clash in public understanding of climate change and by comparing potential similarities and differences in how various segments of the public make sense of climate change.

  • 11.
    Babatunde Adeleke, Solomon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research .
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mayowa Adeleye, Michael
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Geochemical control processes and potential sediment toxicity in a mine-impacted lake2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, no 3, 563-572 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geochemical parameters and major ion concentrations from sediments of a freshwater lake in the town of angstrom tvidaberg, southeastern, Sweden, were used to identify the geochemical processes that control the water chemistry. The lake sediments are anoxic, characterized by reduced sulfur and sulfidic minerals. The hypothesis tested is that in sulfidic-anaerobic contaminated sediments, the presence of redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulfide oxidation, resulting in the release of potentially toxic metals. The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) contents ranged from 5.5mol/g to 16mol/g of dry sediment. Comparison of total mine tailing metals (Sigma mine tailing metals) with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments indicates that up to 20% of the Sigma mine tailing metals are bound to the solid phase as AVS. Consequently, the AVS and SEM analysis classified all sediment samples as potentially toxic in terms of heavy metal concentrations (i.e., SEM to AVS ratio distribution>1). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that calcite dissolution, iron (III) oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite (H-jarosite) precipitation, hematite precipitation, and siderite precipitation are the most prevailing geochemical processes that control the geochemical interactions between the water column and sediment in a mine-impacted lake. The geochemical processes were verified and quantified using a chemical equilibrium modeling program, Visual MINTEQ, Ver 3.1, beta. The identified geochemical processes create an environment in which the characteristics of sulfate-rich waters and acidic-iron produce the geochemical conditions for acid mine drainage and mobilization of toxic metals. (c) 2015 SETAC

  • 12.
    Backstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kuyper, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. University of Oxford, England.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Non-state actors in global climate governance: from Copenhagen to Paris and beyond2017In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 26, no 4, 561-579 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 13.
    Baker, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Pedentchouk, Nikolai
    University of East Anglia, England.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Climatic variability in Mfabeni peatlands (South Africa) since the late Pleistocene2017In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 160, 57-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been postulated that a bipolar seesaw interhemispheric mechanism dominated the relationship between the Northern and Southern hemisphere climates since the late Pleistocene. A key test for this proposition would be to undertake palaeoenvironmental studies on terrestrial archives in climatically sensitive regions. Southern Africas contemporary C-3 and C-4 terrestrial plant distributions display a definitive geographical pattern dictated by different growing season rainfall and temperature zones; however, the region is generally archive poor due to its overall semi-arid climate and high relief topography. The Mfabeni peatland, with a basal age of c. 47 k yrs calibrated before present (kcal yr BP), is one of the oldest continuous coastal peat deposits in Southern Africa. Molecular leaf wax isotopes (delta C-13(wax)) were generated for a 810 cm long core, and combined with previously published bulk geochemical (delta C-13(bulk), %TOC), palynological, and stratigraphic data, to reconstruct the late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoenvironments. We interpreted environmental shifts associated with the Heinrich 4, Last Glacial Maximum, deglacial and Holocene periods, which are consistent with adjacent Indian Ocean sea surface temperature records. However, the other shorter climate perturbations during the Heinrich 5, 3, 2, 1, Antarctic cold reversal and Younger Dryas, were muted, most likely due to local hydrological overprinting on the Mfabeni record. A general anti-phase sequence was observed between the Mfabeni record and better established Northern Hemisphere events, underpinning the bipolar seesaw interhemispheric mechanism proposed for global climate forcing since the Late Pleistocene. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Baker, Andrea
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N
    Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Biomarker records of palaeoenvironmental variations in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene: Evidences from a coastal peatland2016In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 451, no 1, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Southern Africa's unique global position has given rise to a dynamic climate influenced by large sea surface temperature gradients and seasonal fluctuations in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Due to the semi-arid climate of the region, terrestrial palaeorecords are rare and our understanding of the long-term sensitivity of Southern African terrestrial ecosystems to climatic drivers is ambiguous. A 810 cm continuous peat core was extracted from the Mfabeni peatland with a 14C basal age of c. 47 thousand years calibrated before present (kcal yr BP), positioning it as one of the oldest known sub-tropical coastal peatlands in Southern Africa. This peat core provides an opportunity to investigate palaeoenvironmental changes in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene. Biomarker (n-alkane, n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol) analysis, in conjunction with previously published bulk geochemical data, was employed to reconstruct organic matter (OM) sources, rates of OM remineralisation and peatland hydrology. Our results showed that the principal OM source into the peatland was emergent and terrestrial plants with exception of shallow lake conditions when submerged macrophytes dominated (c. 44.5–42.6, 29.7, 26.1–23.1, 16.7–7.1 and 2.2 kcal yr BP). n-Alkane proxies suggest that local plant assemblages were predominantly influenced by peatland hydrology. By incorporating temperature sensitive n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol proxies, it was possible to disentangle the local temperature and precipitation changes. We report large variations in precipitation intensities, but subdued temperature fluctuations during the late Pleistocene. The Holocene period was characterised by overall elevated temperatures and precipitation compared to the preceding glacial period, interspersed with a millennial scale cooling event. A close link between the Mfabeni archive and adjacent Indian Ocean marine core records was observed, suggesting the regional ocean surface temperatures to be the dominant climate driver in this region since the late Pleistocene.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-03-17 14:49
  • 15.
    Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Aarhus University, Herning, Denmark.
    Climate change communication: what can we learn from communication theory?2016In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 7, no 3, 329-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The literature on climate change communication addresses a range of issues relevant

    to the communication of climate change and climate science to lay audiences

    or publics. In doing so, it approaches this particular challenge from a

    variety of different perspectives and theoretical frameworks. Analyzing the body

    of scholarly literature on climate change communication, this article critically

    reviews how communication is conceptualized in the literature and concludes

    that the fi eld of climate change communication is characterized by diverging and

    incompatible understandings of communication as a theoretical construct. In

    some instances, communication theory appears reduced to an ‘ad hoc’  toolbox,

    from which theories are randomly picked to provide studies with a fi tting framework.

    Inspired by the paradigm shift from transmission to interaction within

    communication theory, potential lessons from the fi eld of communication theory

    are highlighted and discussed in the context of communicating climate change.

    Rooted in the interaction paradigm, the article proposes a meta-theoretical

    framework that conceptualizes communication as a constitutive process of producing

    and reproducing shared meanings. Rather than operating in separate

    ontological and epistemological perspectives, a meta-theoretical conceptualization

    of communication would ensure a common platform that advances multiperspective

    argumentation and discussion of the role of climate change

    communication in society.

  • 16.
    Bardh, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”…economically and socially. And confidence and decision-making. Everything that we could not do before.”: A Minor Field Study on Fair Trade in India and Sri Lanka2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fair Trade is an international movement which aims to strengthen the livelihoods of producers in the South, and to give the opportunity for conscious customers in the North to buy socially and environmentally friendly products. The conventional trade system is criticised, as well as the efficiency of aid to support developing countries. The core idea of Fair Trade is therefore “Trade not Aid”, where marginalised producers are given the chance to improve their living conditions by fair wages, market access and improved working conditions. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the potential of Fair Trade to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment, which therefore also act as the theoretical frameworks for this thesis. Sustainable development is investigated by its division into economic, social and environmental sustainable development. Fair Trade is furthermore investigated through specific key elements connected to these theories, by performing interviews with managers and producers within five separate Fair Trade organisations in India and Sri Lanka.  The main findings within this study reveal how Fair Trade does have the potential to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment to a certain degree. It is specifically prominent regarding social development and empowerment, while economic development occurs mainly on an individual level. The contribution to environmental development is also possible to detect, even though it remains clear how the initiative to do so might not always be fully related to environmental causes.

  • 17.
    Baskar, Sushmitha
    et al.
    Indira Gandhi National Open University, India; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Baskar, Ramanathan
    Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, India.
    Kumar, Abhinav
    Indian Institute Science Educ and Research Kolkata, India.
    Miettinen, Hanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Itaevaara, Merja
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Evidences for Microbial Precipitation of Calcite in Speleothems from Krem Syndai in Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya, India2016In: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 33, no 10, 906-933 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speleothems from Krem Syndai, Meghalaya in Northeast India were studied for their microbial diversity using 16S rDNA-based phylogenetic approach and conventional microbiological techniques along with geochemistry, mineralogy and in vitro experiments to understand participation of microorganisms in CaCO3 precipitation. Speleothems imaged by scanning electron microscopy showed round coccoid-like, sporangia-like and spinose calcified structures, numerous broken cocci shells with spotted interiors inside a calcite crystal, honeycomb long reticulate, smooth, flat, twisted, ribbon-like, tubular, beaded, microbe-mineralized filaments and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Fourier spectroscopy indicated the presence of various organic compounds. C-13 and O-18 isotopic ratios of speleothems ranged from -4.65 to -7.34 parts per thousand and -3.06 to -6.80 parts per thousand, respectively. Total number of microbial cells using SYBR Gold was high. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated approximately 3x 10(5) to 5x 10(5) cells g sed(-1) in the speleothems out of which the number of microbes belonging to Eubacteria ranged from 1.8x 10(5) to 3.6x 10(5) cells, g sed(-1). FISH showed approximate to 45% active microbial cells of the total cell number in samples. DNA-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed 19 bacterial phyla in the speleothem. Approximately 42% of the sequences were similar to Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria: 22.4%, Betaproteobacteria: 8.9%, Gammaproteobacteria: 8.6%). Sequences similar to Nitrospiraceae (22.8%) had the highest proportion of sequences belonging to a single family. Bacterial strains isolated from the speleothems raised alkalinity and precipitated calcite in the laboratory cultures which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These isolates belonged to Bacillus spp., Actinomycetes spp., Streptomyces spp., Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Xanthobacter spp. and Arthrobacter spp. Overall, the results showed unequivocal evidence of bacterial fingerprints during CaCO3 precipitation in the cave.

  • 18.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Letter: Response: Inland water greenhouse gas emissions: when to model and when to measure? in GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, vol 21, issue 4, pp 1379-13802015In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 21, no 4, 1379-1380 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 19.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reyier, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technical Note: Cost-efficient approaches to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments using mini loggers2015In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, no 12, 3849-3859 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluxes of CO2 are important for our understanding of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas balances. Several significant CO2 fluxes in nature may still be unknown as illustrated by recent findings of high CO2 emissions from aquatic environments, previously not recognized in global carbon balances. Therefore, it is important to develop convenient and affordable ways to measure CO2 in many types of environments. At present, direct measurements of CO2 fluxes from soil or water, or CO2 concentrations in surface water, are typically labor intensive or require costly equipment. We here present an approach with measurement units based on small inexpensive CO2 loggers, originally made for indoor air quality monitoring, that were tested and adapted for field use. Measurements of soil-atmosphere and lake-atmosphere fluxes, as well as of spatiotemporal dynamics of water CO2 concentrations (expressed as the equivalent partial pressure, pCO(2aq)) in lakes and a stream network are provided as examples. Results from all these examples indicate that this approach can provide a cost- and labor-efficient alternative for direct measurements and monitoring of CO2 flux and pCO(2aq) in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  • 20.
    Bento, Luiz
    et al.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Shizue Moriga Masuda, Laura
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bittencourt Peixoto, Roberta
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Regulation in the Metabolism and Community Structure of a Tropical Salt Flat after Rainfall2017In: Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, E-ISSN 1551-5036, Vol. 33, no 2, 304-308 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical salt flats typically lack a water column for most of the year, which means that rainfall is probably one of the major factors that regulate benthic microalgae and metabolism in areas subjected to periodic drought. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of rainfall on the ecological function and community structure of a tropical mangrove salt flat area. This study showed that the highest primary production and respiration fluxes were recorded on the last day of sampling when it rained (-7.6 and 4.7 mmol C-CO2 m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Net primary production increased significantly compared with the dry period that preceded the rain event. The results also suggested that community structure was regulated by rainfall. After the rain event, abundance increased by one order of magnitude, but the diversity and evenness indices decreased. These results demonstrate that rain does have strong regulatory effects on the ecological function and structure of tropical salt flats.

  • 21.
    Bergfur, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Leaf-litter-associated fungi and bacteria along temporal and environmental gradients in boreal streams2014In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 73, no 3, 225-234 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic fungi and bacteria have long been recognized as key drivers in ecosystem processes such as leaf litter decomposition. We examined fungal and bacterial communities on decaying alder Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner leaves along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use and associated nutrient enrichment in 9 boreal streams during 4 separate seasons (fall 2003, spring 2005, fall 2005, and spring 2006). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) showed that agricultural land use had significant effects on both bacterial and fungal communities, and on the ratios of fungi to total microbes associated with decomposing leaf litter. Furthermore, landscape factors and fluvial geomorphology appeared to influence the community composition of fungi and bacteria. Seasonal effects were found for fungal community structure only, indicating a higher temperature sensitivity of fungi compared to bacteria.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Emelie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bilismen ur ett genusperspektiv: En kvantitativ studie i Norrköping om mänsoch kvinnors förhållande till fordonet bil ochexisterande normer kring kvinnor och män2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims is to look at car traffic, which contributes to a significant environmental impact, from a gender perspective. The purpose of the study is also to compare with previous studies and to analyze how this is corresponds with frame and situation of people living in Norrköping. In order to approach this suitably, a quantitative study in the form of surveys have been conducted - with a sample of 100 respondents to represent Norrkoping. This method assisted in the raised questions. To best get a perspective of correlation between the sexes and between different questions in the questionnaire, a chi-square test was applied.

    The results of the study showed that different expectations about men’s and women’s behavior and relationship to the usage of vehicles in society exists, in Norrköping, yet also that the habits around the usage reflects additional differences. Men and women have similar approaches to the usage of vehicles, with an environmental consciousness, with regards to the given car or such, in a comparable degree independent of their gender. This study has found that both men and women, to a notable degree, regard men to be more interested in cars and that they are more prone to drive one. It also shows that several of the respondents, regard women to be over-all more environmentally aware than men. This would align with the contemporary norms of society based on previous research. However, in contrast, the results also highlight that both genders, in Norrköping, spend the comparable amount of time driving a car and have similar awareness of environmental factors. The differences in the expectations around the given behavior of men and women are there but their reported behavior does not necessarily follow those predictions.

  • 23.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Sweden.
    Kucklick, John
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, South Carolina, USA.
    Letcher, Robert
    National Wildlife Research Centre, Canada.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Wong, Fiona
    Environment and Climate Change, Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN IN THE ARCTIC: AN ASSESSMENT OF HALOGENATED NATURAL PRODUCTS2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, 193-196 p., 8.4010Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan
    Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Armitage, James
    University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Brown, Tanya
    University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Danon Schaffer, Monica
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Canada.
    Hung, Haley
    Meteorological Services Canada .
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Li, Yi-Fan
    Environment, Canada.
    Loock, Daniela
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Luttmer, Carol
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Ma, Jianmin
    Lanzhou University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Macdonald, Robie
    Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Mackay, Don
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reid, Liisa
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reimer, Ken
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Chapter 2: Properties, sources, global fate and transport2013In: Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report III 2013: Persistent Organic Pollutants in Canada’ s North / [ed] Derek Muir, Perihan Kurt-Karakus and Peter Stow, Ottawa: Northern Contaminants Program, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada , 2013, 19-146 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part II of the second Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR-II) began with a section on “Physicochemical Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants”, which identified key physicochemical (pchem) properties, provided the rationale for their measurement or prediction and tabulated literature citations for chemicals that are of concern to the NCP (Bidleman et al. 2003). The section also discussed temperature dependence of pchem properties and their applications to describing partitioning in the physical environment.

    There is, and will continue to be, emphasis on predictive approaches to screening chemicals for persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic (PB&T)properties, as well as long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) potential (Brown and Wania 2008, Czub et al. 2008, Fenner et al. 2005, Gouin andWania 2007, Howard and Muir 2010, Klasmeier et al. 2006, Matthies et al. 2009, Muir and Howard 2006). This has created the need for determining pchem properties of new and emerging chemicals of concern.

    Predicting gas exchange cycles of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and new and emerging chemicals of concern places a high demand on the accuracy of pchem properties, particularly the air/water partition coefficient, KAW. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Arctic Ocean surface waters are close to air-water equilibrium, with excursions toward net volatilization or deposition that vary with location and season (Hargrave et al. 1993, Jantunen et al. 2008a, Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) and some current use pesticides (CUPs) (Wong et al. 2011) are undergoing net deposition. The predicted Arctic Contamination Potential (ACP) for persistent organic chemicals is strongly influenced by ice cover due to its effect on air-water gas exchange (Meyer and Wania 2007).

    Many advances have taken place and numerous papers have been published since CACAR-II, which present new measurements and predictions of pchem properties. This section does not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the field, or to compile pchem properties from the many studies. The approach taken is to highlight the reports which are most relevant to polar science, particularly in areas of improving reliability of pchem properties for POPs, improving experimental techniques and comparing predictive methods. The section ends with a discussion of polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs), which goes beyond partitioning descriptions based on single pchem properties by taking into account specific chemical interactions that can take place in airsurface and water-surface exchange processes. A detailed list of chemical names and nomenclature are provided in the Glossary.

  • 25.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borgström, Ylva
    Pöyry Sweden AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Pöyry Sweden AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaporduktion : Syntes av möjligheter och begränsningar samt teknisk utvärdering: Bilaga 2 Etablering/effektivisering av biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaindustri2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Linköpings Universitet har tillsammans med Pöyry och Scandinavian Biogas Fuels drivit projektet ”Etablering/effektivisering av  biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaproduktion”. Potentialen hos det organiska materialet i avloppsvatten från svensk pappers- och massaindustri (PMI) till biogasproduktion skattades vid projektstart till 100 milj. Nm3 metan per år (1 TWh). Denna rapport är en syntes av resultaten från projektet med syfte att ge visa hur de genererade resultaten kan omsättas i teknisk praktik med tillhörande ekonomiska insatser. Syftet är att ge underlag och stöd till PMI-branschen och externa intressenter, som överväger att implementera biogasproduktion inom PMI.

    Substraten för biogasproduktion som återfinns i pappers- och massaindustrins avloppsvatten och slam kännetecknas av stora volymer med låga COD-halter. Detta kräver rötningstekniker, som tillåter mycket korta uppehållstider jämfört med mer traditionellt utformade biogasanläggningar för att inte tankstorleken ska bli för stor. Två tekniker, som utvecklats inom projektet, klarar detta: EGSB (expanded granular sludge bed) och CSTR (completely stirred tank reactor) med slamåterföring. Dessa tekniker har därför utvärderats för tre olika typbruk, ett CTMP-bruk, ett TMP-bruk och ett sulfatmassabruk. Resultaten från dessa experimentella studier är utgångspunkten för i utvärderingen i föreliggande rapport. För varje processkoncept har en grov kostnadsuppskattning (±20 %) gjorts för den investering som krävs för biogasproduktion.

    En EGSB på ett TMP-bruk med ett totalavlopp på 1500 m3/h, där hela blekeriavloppet från peroxidblekningen och en del av det övriga avloppet behandlas i en 4000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 2,5 milj Nm3 metan/år. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 75 milj. SEK (±20 %).

    En EGSB på ett CTMP-bruk med ett totalavlopp på 170 m3/h där hela avloppet behandlas i en 3000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 1,8 milj Nm3 metan/år. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 64 milj. SEK (±20%).

    En CSTR med slamåterföring som körs på bioslam från ett sulfatmassabruk där ett bioslamflöde på 46 m3/h behandlas i en 4000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 1,0 milj Nm3 metan/år. I denna design är strategin för den aeroba bioreningen ändrad för att producera ett bioslam optimerat för att ge högsta möjliga biogaspotential. Detta innebär produktion av större mängd slam, som i största mån kan rötas till metan, dvs mängd metan per mängd rötat organiskt material samtidigt som COD-reduktionen i vattenreningen bibehålls. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 32 milj. SEK (±20%).

    Baserat på de COD-kvantiteter som når de luftade dammarna inom PMIs vattenreningssystem förbrukas årligen ca 0,8 TWh el. Införande av biogasproduktion i massaindustrins spillvattenrening skulle reducera mängden COD med mellan 30-50%, vilket får till följd att den årliga elförbrukningen i samband med den aeroba reningen går ner med ca 0,2-0,4 TWh. Detta innebär alltså ett energitillskott av 0,9 – 1,1 TWh givet att hela den tillgängliga biogaspotentialen skulle byggas ut. Till detta kommer eventuella vinster relaterade till slamhanteringen.

  • 26.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mersiowsky, Ivo
    Hamburg, Germany.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of temperature on the leaching of organotin compounds from poly(vinyl chloride) plastics – A study conducted under simulated landfill conditions. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2007In: Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology, ISSN 0193-7197, E-ISSN 1548-0577, Vol. 13, no 4, 176-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether organotin-stabilized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) products could contribute to the pool of organotins observed in landfill leachates, and if the possible release could be related to different temperatures and landfill degradation phases. Small-scale anaerobic reactors filled with generic household waste, a mixture of inocula, and different PVC plastics were used in the study and incubated at 20, 37, 55, and 70°C. The reactor units incubated at temperatures of 20–55°C underwent the anaerobic degradation phases that are characteristic for the aging of landfilled waste material. There were, however, differences in the duration of the phases as well as in the total biogas production among the units. Under methanogenic conditions greater losses of organotin compounds were observed as compared to acidogenic conditions. It was shown that the release of organotin stabilizers increases considerably at temperatures above the glass transition of the PVC products. A dealkylation from di- into monoalkyltin species was observed, as well as a possible methylation of inorganic tin. However, the main part of the organotins was adsorbed into the solid waste matrix. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 13:176–188, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers

  • 27.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    I vått och torrt? : En studie av nationell vattenkatastrofgrupp VAKA: Underlag till den statliga dricksvattenutredningen2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten har studerat VAKA-gruppens verksamhet med speciellt fokus på hur de som larmat VAKA upplevt hjälpen, vilka konsekvenser som kunnat undvikas genom VAKA:s stöd samt hur insatserna skulle kunna organiseras och finansieras framöver. Studien utgår från 26 intervjuer med aktörer som larmat VAKA någon gång mellan 2010 och 2015.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan det konstateras att de intervjuade kommunerna upplever att VAKA erbjuder en synnerligen effektiv och professionell hjälp som bidragit till att olycksförloppen kunnat både mildras och förkortas avsevärt. Man har bistått med kvalificerad experthjälp vad gäller lägesanalys, provtagningar och analyser, bistått i organisationen av krisledningen och även förmedlat erfarenheter och kunskaper gällande media hantering samt kommunikation gentemot allmänheten. VAKA har dessutom tillgång till ett brett kontaktnät och har i de fall då man själv inte besitter rätt expertis snabbt kunnat förmedla kontakt med rätt person/instans. De intervjuade kommunerna har framhållit att man fått mental stöttning av VAKA i situationer som varit belastande för krisledningen. Att ha tillgång till erfarna människor som bollplank och som en part i diskussionen i ett kritiskt läge framhålls som otroligt viktigt för de inblandade.

    Flertalet av de intervjuade bedömer att det kan finnas en viss betalningsvilja för VAKA:s tjänster på kommunal nivå men ser en överhängande risk med att vissa kommuner eventuellt avvaktar en kontakt om denna är avgiftsbelagd. I sammanhanget bör man också beakta att andra aktörer än kommuner i dagsläget är berättigade att nyttja VAKA:s tjänster varför en exklusiv kommunavgift inte framstår som en optimal lösning framgent.

    Ingen av de intervjuade ser någon fördel med att VAKA verksamhet skulle organiseras på privat konsultbasis alternativt ersättas med regional kompetensutveckling. Det senare alternativet menar man känns inte realistiskt med tanke på att VAKA besitter vad som måste betraktas som nationell spetskompetens och att det skulle vara svårt att sprida denna till alla regioner.

    Förslag på verksamhetens utveckling som framkommit gäller bl.a. tillgången till nödvattenutrustning där tillgängligheten skulle kunna förbättras både via tätare avstånd mellan lagren samt en koordinering av samutnyttjande av resurser mellan kommuner. Man tror även att kännedomen om VAKA skulle kunna förbättras via informationsinsatser.

    Ytterligare ett förslag på verksamhetens utveckling gäller tillgång till laboratorier där man föreslår att VAKA alternativt Livsmedelsverket skulle administrera en central upphandling för att säkerställa att det alltid finns tillgång till laboratorieresurser.

    Baserat på rapportens samlade bedömning rekommenderas det att VAKA gruppens verksamhet även fortsättningsvis bör bedrivas i sin nuvarande form men med en fast finansiering från näringsdepartementet som möjliggör en mer långsiktig planering av verksamheten.

    Avslutningsvis bör det återigen understrykas att effekterna av framtida klimatförändringar medför att riskerna för dricksvattenförsörjningen ökar och att antalet incidenter kopplat till dricksvattenförsörjning med stor sannolikhet kommer att öka. Behovet av VAKA-gruppens tjänster blir därmed större i framtiden.

  • 28.
    Bohman, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöström, Åsa
    Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut, SMHI.
    Förslag till en metod för uppföljning av det nationella klimatanpassningsarbetet: Redovisning av ett regeringsuppdrag2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SMHI har fått i uppdrag att senast den 20 december 2016 redovisa ett förslag på hur det nationella arbetet med klimatanpassning fortlöpande kan följas upp. Uppföljningen ska bland annat ge svar på effekten av det nationella arbetet kopplat till identifierade problem och behov och kunna användas för rapportering till EU och andra internationella organisationer.

    Den föreslagna utvärderingsmodellen består av tre olika delar/block som kan användas var för sig i olika syften men som tillsammans ger en bredare helhetsbild av det svenska klimatanpassningsarbetet. De tre olika delarna är avsedda att svara på tre olika typer av övergripande frågeställningar:

    1. Finns de processer som är nödvändiga för att kunna arbeta med klimatanpassning på plats? I vilken utsträckning har frågan om anpassning integrerats i det svenska förvaltningssystemet?
    1. Vilka åtgärder har implementerats för att minska de negativa effekterna/sårbarheten? Vilka sektorer har man arbetat med och vilka centrala utmaningar och klimateffekter har adresserats/har inte adresserats?
    1. Vilka framsteg kan vi se i arbetet med att minska de negativa effekterna?

    Dessa frågor besvaras med hjälp av processindikatorer, åtgärdsuppföljning och effektindikatorer. Data samlas in via enkäter riktade till nationella myndigheter, länsstyrelser och kommuner. Ett omfattande utvecklingsarbete återstår för att ta fram effektindikatorer för olika sektorer/verksamheter. SMHI föreslår därför att uppdrag utdelas till nationella myndigheter att i samverkan med berörda aktörer utarbeta förslag på effektindikatorer för dessas respektive verksamheter.

    Det är vår slutsats att ett strategiskt nationellt ramverk för klimatanpassning, som sätter uppföljningsprocessen i ett sammanhang, krävs för att säkerställa effektivitet och kontinuitet i det svenska klimatanpassningsarbetet. SMHI föreslår därför, i linje med EU:s klimatanpassningsstrategi, att en nationell policycykel för det svenska klimatanpassningsarbetet etableras. Ett exempel på hur ett sådant ramverk skulle kunna se ut presenteras.

  • 29.
    Bohman, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Geography, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Rød, Jan-Ketil
    Department of Geography, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Decision support for Adaptive Action: Assessing the potential of Geographic Visualization2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 12, 2193-2211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the role of geographic visualization for supporting theimplementation of climate change adaptation. Interviews and group discussions withplanners and decision makers indicate that geographic visualization bears primarypotential for communicative purposes. In order to respond to analytical needs a highlevel of interactivity including the exploration of background data and the ability tolink the tools with own databases were some of the key requirements made by theparticipants. The study concludes that more than better climate predictions, awarenessand involvement may be precisely what is needed to narrow the implementation gapin climate change adaptation

  • 30.
    Borneke, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oldensjö, Emelie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From Farm to Fabric: A Measurement of the Sustainability in a Textile Production in Northern India2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A value chain for a textile production can be described as transforming a crop into a textile, then turn the textile into a fabric, then create a product from that fabric - a horizontal chain from farm to fabric. This paper analyses the different activities within a value chain of a sustainable textile production in India to understand where, and how, sustainable value is added at each stage. The transformation from farm to fabric involves many stages such as farming, yarn manufacturing, dyeing, fabric manufacturing, finishing and storage. The case study was performed as a) explaining the triple bottom line theory (3BL) and how it is used as a theoretical framework b) defining the key processes of Avani’s textile production in India c) visualising the value chain of Avani’s textile production based on semi-structured interviews and d) discussing the global textile industry with the 3BL to measure sustainability. The social bottom line in Avani’s textile production is the most sustainable dimension and the economic sustainability is not far behind. The environmental dimension is the weakest measured due to the lack of information to the employees. Future research with long-term measurement with dimensions as environmental, economic and social need to be done in able to refine and define sustainability in textile production but most of all to the counteraction of environmental devastation. 

  • 31.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West Uniersity, South AFrica.
    Evans, Steven
    University of Venda, South Africa.
    Cole, Nik
    Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Isles, UK.
    Choong Kwer Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The flip-or-flop boutique: Marine debris on the shores of St Brandon’s Rock, an isolated tropical atoll in the Indian Ocean2016In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 114, 58-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolated coral atolls are not immune from marine debris accumulation. We identified Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent, and the countries on the Arabian Sea as most probable source areas of 50 000 items on the shores of St. Brandon’s Rock (SBR), Indian Ocean. 79% of the debris was plastics. Flip-flops, energy drink bottles, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) were notable item types. The density of debris (0.74 m-1 shore length) is comparable to similar islands but less than mainland sites. Intact CFLs suggests product-facilitated long-range transport of mercury. We suspect that aggregated marine debris, scavenged by the islands from currents and gyres, could re-concentrate pollutants. SBR islets accumulated debris types in different proportions suggesting that many factors act variably on different debris types. Regular cleaning of selected islets will take care of most of the accumulated debris and may improve the ecology and tourism potential. However, arrangements and logistics require more study.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-01-04 04:57
  • 32.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bornman, Riana
    University of PRetoria, South Africa.
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF DDT USED IN SOUTH AFRICAFOR MALARIA CONTROL2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, 1015-1017 p., 2.4001Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West University, South Africa.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bornman, Riana
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Is Indoor Residual Spraying broken and what should be fixed?2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Toxicology Symposium in Africa, 2015, 2-3 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) has been and is still a very successful method to controlmalaria. We are concerned that not enough research attention is given to improvingIRS and that most funding goes towards modern but seemingly still ineffectualmethods. We believe that there is ample scope for improving IRS, while reducinginsecticide exposure

  • 34.
    Brodén Gyberg, Veronica
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aiding Science: An analysis of Swedish Research Aid Policy 1973 – 20082015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to summarize my dissertation on the topic of Swedish research aid policy. The dissertation investigated how Swedish official aid policy constructed the role of research for development in low-income countries between 1973 and 2008. The overarching purpose of the study was to contribute to an understanding of how science has been conceived of as a tool for progress in the post-World War II period. Questions that I asked included: How was the role of research for development constructed? How are individual researchers and universities seen to contribute to development? How is the role of the aid actor portrayed? I sought to identify trends and patterns as a way to analyse the kind of futures that were imagined in the policy documents with respect to the role of science.

  • 35.
    Brodén Gyberg, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Aiding science? Past and present discourses of Swedish research aid policy.2016In: Panel 2: Where are we now? The past and the future of Swedish development research collaboration (conveners: David Nilsson and Sverker Sörlin), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of research aid is to contribute to development in different ways through the use of research. Sarec (the Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries) was one of the pioneers within state research aid, and existed between 1975 and 2008. One of the central questions asked in my dissertation on Sarec’s policy history is how the view of the relationship between research and development has changed over time. One of the conclusions is that there are two main policy discourses that can be traced throughout the entire period studied. They share the starting point that modern science can contribute to development and that national research capacity is an important component in this. The localist discourse represents a more multifaceted view of how research can contribute to development, and what that development consist of. It is more explicitly anti-colonialist and to a greater degree prioritizes the local context as basis for decisions regarding support. The universalist discourse places less emphasis on where knowledge is produced since it can be used anywhere, as long as the right structures and priorities are in place. This historical perspective will be complemented with reflections on current developments in Swedish science aid policy, focusing on the issue of how science aid can contribute to the sustainable development goals and transitions to sustainability (work in progress).

  • 36.
    Brodén Gyberg, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University.
    Aiding transitions: climate and environment in Swedish research aid policy 1988-20162017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong local scientific research capacities remain a central piece of the puzzle when it comes to producing relevant knowledge and solutions to various development challenges. There is still great inequality concerning resources for higher education and research globally, however, and in order to be able to tackle climate change – international aid and collaboration is often upheld as key. The amount of aid that is classified as climate and environment related is on the rise, but similar support related to the sustainable use and management of resources and the environment have constituted part of Swedish (and other) aid for many decades. This paper focuses on Swedish aid and takes its empirical point of departure in 1988, when the environment was included among the aid goals. Using discourse analysis, I will narrow in on the case of research aid policy and analyze in what ways changing environments and climate change have been portrayed as important for development between 1988 and 2016. What can we learn from the recent past and how does it compare to today? What is sustainable development in this context; how have problems and solutions been described and what is perceived to be the role of scientific research in creating transitions from less to more “sustainable”?

  • 37.
    Brodén Gyberg, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University.
    Climate and environment in Swedish research aid policy 1973-2017: discursive trends2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to global development challenges often involve scientific research but there is still great inequality concerning resources for research globally and many of the countries that are vulnerable to climate change. International aid directed towards universities is one way by which this inequality is being counteracted. Using discourse analysis, I focus on the pioneer case of Swedish research aid policy and analyze in what ways the environment and climate change have been portrayed as important for development between 1973 and 2017. How have problems and solutions been described and what is perceived to be the role of scientific research in creating transitions from less to more “sustainable”? Environment and climate has been central to the research aid discourse from the start, but the focus was mainly on natural resource management and efficiency in the first decades. In the 1990s and 2000s, the level of urgency and priority increases and the focus is on the negative and unequally distributed consequences of climate change.

  • 38.
    Brodén Gyberg, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvecklingens forskningspolitik: Sveriges forskningsbiståndspolicy 1973–20082016In: Det forskningspolitiska laboratoriet: Förväntningar på vetenskapen 1900–2010 / [ed] Anna Tunlid, Sven Widmalm, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2016, 1, 101-127 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förväntningarna på naturvetenskaplig, medicinsk och teknisk forskning är högt ställda i dagens samhälle. Statliga och privata finansiärer, näringsliv och allmänhet förväntar sig att de stora resurser som satsas på forskningen ska ge ny grundläggande kunskap men även skapa ekonomisk tillväxt och förbättra livskvalitet och hälsa.

    Även om förväntningarna har skruvats upp är dessa tankegångar inte nya. Sedan andra världskriget har staten försökt styra vetenskapen så att den kan uppnå sina dubbla syften. I arbetet har politiken samverkat med ledande forskare och representanter för det svenska näringslivet.

    Det forskningspolitiska laboratoriet diskuterar en grupp forskare hur förväntningarna på vetenskapen har utvecklats från 1900-talet tills idag. Bokens fallstudier beskriver den parallella utvecklingen av forskning och forskningspolitik och fokuserar på på förväntningarnas betydelse. Boken ger dessutom en översikt över forskningspolitikens utveckling och synliggör därigenom de långa linjerna i dess historia.

  • 39.
    Brown, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identification of Chlorinated Fatty Acids in Standard Samples and Fish Lipids: Verification and Validation of Extraction, Transesterification and GC-MS/XSD2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine gas bleaching was a common method used in pulp industries. As a consequence, significant amounts of chlorine were discharged into surrounding aquatic ecosystems, affecting the biota. Chlorinated organic pollutants are formed when chlorine react with organic material.

    Octadecanoic acid (stearic acid) is one of the most common saturated fatty acids in aquatic biota. In a naturally occurring process two and four chlorine atoms, respectively, are added over the unsaturated bonds, forming 9,10-dichloro octadecanoic acid and 9,10,12,13-tetrachloro octadecanoic acid. These are the chlorinated fatty acids (ClFA) under investigation in this Bachelor’s Thesis.

    The methodological framework for measuring ClFA is investigated in this essay. The scope is to evaluate the method of isolating and quantifying the compounds as described in Åkesson-Nilsson’s (2004) dissertation. The method includes: extraction of the lipid, transesterification (where the fatty acids, including the ClFAs, are separated from the lipids and transformed into their respective methyl esters through two methods, acidic catalysis with BF3 or H2SO4), separation (by solid phase extraction) and determination of ClFA concentration with a halogen specific detector (GC-XSD/MS). Furthermore, the scope is to investigate collected fish samples (from Norrsundet) with the abovementioned method.

    By making a dilution series with known concentrations it was possible to establish calibration curves, to give in an indication of the effectiveness of the method. BF3 is in need of updating due to being experienced as slower and less stable than the H2SO4-method. However, it was concluded that the H2SO4-method was more effective on the standard samples and that the BF3-method was more effective on the fish lipid samples.

    In one of the lipid samples (lavaret transesterified with BF3) a detectable concentration of 9,10,12,13-tetrachloro octadecanoic acid was discovered. Therefore, we question SEPAs decision to cancel investigations in Norrsundet. Our results could indicate that ClFAs are still an issue that could affect the ecosystem’s biota. 

  • 40.
    Brown, Sally
    et al.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Nicholls, Robert J.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Hanson, Susan
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Brundrit, Geoff
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Dearing, John A.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Dickson, Mark E.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Gallop, Shari L.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Gao, Shu
    Nanjing University, China.
    Haigh, Ivan D.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Hinkel, Jochen
    Global Climate Forum eV, Berlin, Germany.
    Jimenez, Jose A.
    University of Politecn Cataluna, Spain.
    Klein, Richard
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Environm Institute, Sweden.
    Kron, Wolfgang
    Munich Reinsurance Company, Germany.
    Lazar, Attila N.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Freitas Neves, Claudio
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Newton, Alice
    University of Algarve, Portugal; Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway; NILU-IMPEC, Kjeller, Norway.
    Pattiaratachi, Charitha
    University of Western Australia.
    Payo, Andres
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Pye, Kenneth
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Sanchez-Arcilla, Agustin
    University of Politecn Cataluna, Spain.
    Siddall, Mark
    University of Bristol, UK.
    Shareef, Ali
    Ministry of Environment and Energy, Maldives.
    Tompkins, Emma L.
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Vafeidis, Athanasios T.
    University of Kiel, Germany.
    van Maanen, Barend
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Ward, Philip J.
    Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Woodroffe, Colin D.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Shifting perspectives on coastal impacts and adaptation2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 9, 752-755 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports reflect evolving attitudes in adapting to sea-level rise by taking a systems approach and recognizing that multiple responses exist to achieve a less hazardous coast.

  • 41.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate governance after Copenhagen : research trends and policy practice: Introduction2015In: Research handbook on climate governance / [ed] Karin Bäckstrand, Eva Lövbrand, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, xvii-xxx p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lövbrand, EvaLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Research Handbook on Climate Governance2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Lövbrand, EvaLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Research handbook on climate governance2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2009 United Nations climate conference in Copenhagen is often represented as a watershed in global climate politics, when the diplomatic efforts to negotiate a successor agreement to the Kyoto Protocol failed and was replaced by a fragmented and decentralized climate governance order. In the post-Copenhagen landscape the top-down universal approach to climate governance has gradually given way to a more complex, hybrid and dispersed political landscape involving multiple actors, arenas and sites. The Handbook contains contributions from more than 50 internationally leading scholars and explores the latest trends and theoretical developments of the climate governance scholarship.

  • 44.
    Bäckstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University .
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The road to Paris: contending climate governance discourses in the post-Copenhagen era2016In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, 1-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we advance discourse analysis to interpret how the state and direction of climate governance is imagined or interpreted by the multitude of actors present at UN climate conferences. We approach the annual Conferences of the Parties (COP) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as active political sites that project ideas, assumptions and standards for the conduct of global politics. This paper examines to what extent the discourses of green governmentality, ecological modernization and civic environmentalism identified by Bäckstrand and Lövbrand [(2006). Planting trees to mitigate climate change. Contested discourses of ecological modernization, green governmentality and civic environmentalism. Global Environmental Politics, 6(1), 51–71; Bäckstrand, K., & Lövbrand, E. (2007). Climate governance beyond 2012. Competing discourses of green governmentality, ecological modernization and civic environmentalism. In M. Pettenger (Ed.), The social construction of climate change. Ashgate] a decade ago still inform how climate governance is imagined and enacted in the post-Copenhagen era. After reviewing scholarship on climate governance and International Relations, we introduce our discursive framework and systematically compare three contending discourses of climate governance articulated at COP 17 in Durban (2011), COP 19 in Warsaw (2013) and COP 20 in Lima (2014). We end by discussing whether the discursive struggles played out at UN climate conferences represent a shift in the ways in which climate governance was imagined and enacted on the road to Paris, and to what extent our findings may help to extend scholarship in this field.

  • 45.
    Cameron, Lachlan
    et al.
    Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN).
    Harms, Natalie
    Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN).
    van Tilburg, Xander
    Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN).
    Gardiner, Ann
    Ecofys, Germany.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Davis, Stacey
    Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP).
    Pitt, Hannah
    Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP).
    von Luepke, Heiner
    GIZ, Germany.
    Herrmann, Lisa
    GIZ, Germany.
    Zachow, Inga
    GIZ, Germany.
    Day, Thomas
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Röser, Frauke
    NewClimate Institute, Germany.
    Levin, Kelly
    WRI, the USA.
    Vener, James
    UNDP.
    NAMAs and INDCs: Interactions and opportunities2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries representing more than 90 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions and population have submitted intendednationally determined contributions (INDCs) in anticipation of the 21st COP in Paris. In parallel, developing countries are designing at least 152 nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and 13 have secured implementation funding. Connecting these two concepts, more than a third of developing countries communicate a role for NAMAs in their INDCs. 

    It is therefore vital to understand the potential role of NAMAs (here understood as specific actions) with respect to INDCs (which are often broader targets) and vice versa. This paper explores the links between NAMAs and INDCs with regard to various elements central to their implementation, including: access to finance; stakeholder engagement; sustainable development impacts; measurement, reporting and verification (MRV); and institutional frameworks.

    To avoid delaying mitigation action any further, it is important to keep momentum behind NAMAs. They represent one of the few tools at our disposal for countries to undertake mitigation actions, be recognised for these efforts, and mobilise climate finance and investment. The skills and learning on NAMA development can be seen more fundamentally as capacity for the design of bottom-up actions. Attention should be paid now to ensure that this capacity is maintained in the future. To do this, continued attention must be paid to NAMAs in Paris, as a key implementation tool for INDCs and, therefore, a key element of the success of a new global climate agreement.

  • 46.
    Carlsen, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm Environm Institute, Sweden.
    Klein, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Stockholm Environm Institute, Germany.
    Wikman-Svahn, Per
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Letter: Transparent scenario development in NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, vol 7, issue 9, pp 613-6132017In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 7, no 9, 613-613 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 47.
    Cederberg, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Behavioural determinants and their interaction: A qualitative interview study of environmentally friendly behaviour2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to environmental degradation caused by humans, there is a need for a behavioural change towards more sustainable behaviours. Although many studies have been made investigating environmentally friendly behaviours’ dependence on different factors, the results are inconsistent which partly can be explained by methodological weaknesses. Rather than following the footpath of previous research and using a statistical method, qualitative interviews are used in this study. The aim is to answer what determines environmentally friendly behaviour, how it is affected by situational influences, and how these factors interact. Five behaviours were investigated, and they are food consumption, energy consumption, everyday travel, long distance travel, and recycling. In the analysis, the four determinants health, comfort, economy, and environmental were identified. The behaviours are further affected by situational influences, such as distances and costs, that create barriers for environmentally friendly behaviours. In this study it was found that no factor is the only influence of a behaviour, but there is always an interaction. Either the factors work together and encourage an environmentally friendly behaviour, or they work against each other and discourage an environmentally friendly behaviour.

  • 48.
    Chmiel, Hannah E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kokic, Jovana
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Einarsdottir, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Koehler, Birgit
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isidorova, Anastasija
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ferland, Marie-Eve
    University of Quebec, Canada.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The role of sediments in the carbon budget of a small boreal lake2016In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 61, no 5, 1814-1825 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the role of lake sediments as carbon (C) source and sink in the annual C budget of a small (0.07 km(2)) and shallow (mean depth, 3.4 m), humic lake in boreal Sweden. Organic carbon (OC) burial and mineralization in the sediments were quantified from Pb-210-dated sediment and laboratory sediment incubation experiments, respectively. Burial and mineralization rates were then upscaled to the entire basin and to one whole year using sediment thickness derived from sub-bottom profiling, basin morphometry, and water column monitoring data of temperature and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, catchment C import, open water metabolism, photochemical mineralization as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions to the atmosphere were quantified to relate sediment processes to other lake C fluxes. We found that on a whole-basin and annual scale, sediment OC mineralization was three times larger than OC burial, and contributed about 16% to the annual CO2 emission. Other contributions to CO2 emission were water column metabolism (31%), photochemical mineralization (6%), and catchment imports via inlet streams and inflow of shallow groundwater (22%). The remainder (25%) could not be explained by our flux calculations, but was most likely attributed to an underestimation in groundwater inflow. We conclude that on an annual and whole-basin scale (1) sediment OC mineralization dominated over OC burial, (2) water column OC mineralization contributed more to lake CO2 emission than sediment OC mineralization, and (3) catchment import of C to the lake was greater than lake-internal C cycling.

  • 49.
    Cossio, Vladimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A paradigm confronting reality: The river basin approach and local water management spaces in the Pucara Basin, Bolivia2017In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, E-ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 10, no 1, 181-194 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current Bolivian water policy incorporates the IWRM paradigm adopting the river basin as the space for water management in the country. The linkage of water management with communal territories in the Andes challenges the application of the river basin approach, bringing water spaces into the discussion. Considering the example of the Pucara River Basin, the article uses space theory to identify characteristics of local spaces for water management and to contrast them with the river basin concept. The river basin concept is applied by water professionals, mostly taking the perceived dimension of this space into consideration and sometimes in abstract terms. In contrast, the lived dimension of space is more important in local water management spaces and it is not represented in abstract terms. Local water spaces are flexible and strongly related to local organisations, which allows them to respond appropriately to the needs and demands of peasant society in the area, characteristics that cannot be found in the river basin space.

  • 50.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    et al.
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Ghavanini, Ali Alavian
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Cederbrant, Karin
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Forsby, Anna
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Förare, Jonas
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Åke
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Hellmond, Heike
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Johan
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lupu, Diana
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Rüegg, Joelle
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Tang, Mandy
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Jin
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Swetox.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Swetox.
    Lindh, Christian
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    UMR CNRS/ MNHN 7221 Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris France.
    Knudsen, Lisbeth
    Department of Public Health, Section of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Denmark.
    Pyriproxifen and microcephaly: an investigation of potential ties to the ongoing "Zika epidemic"2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Swetox mission to react to emerging concerns in chemical health and environmental safety, a preliminary litterature investigation was undertaken to gather all readily available scientific information on PPF with respect to safety assessment, in order to better understand potential links between chemical exposure and the devopment of microcephaly in affected areas. Therefore the contents of the report do not constitute an attempt at either questioning the use of existing regulatory data in the manner prescribed by international regulatory proceedures, or as a new risk assessment, based on the scientific information and concepts discussed. Here we report our findings, with particular emphasis on exisiting regulatory information, potential for lack of translation of results from regulatory animal testing to humans, lack of human exposure data and suggestions on plausible mode(s) of action of PPF in human neurodevelopmental adversities such as microcephaly.

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