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  • 1.
    Aaltio, Iiris
    et al.
    School of Economics and Business University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kyrö, PaulaHelsinki School of Economics, Finland.Sundin, ElisabethLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Women, Entrepreneurship and Social Capital: A Dialogue and Construction2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book explores social capital as the multiple relationships between gender, management and entrepreneurship. Human resources are the social capital of a firm and business life, based on trust as well as on expertise, values and cultural diversity. This calls for cross-cultural knowledge and an understanding of gender issues and individual differences in the social capital of the firm and society. The dialogue between women entrepreneurship and social capital theory and research has its special place among other women entrepreneurship books, the number of which has lately increased. It strengthens still in some respect the fragmented voice of women entrepreneurship research by providing a landscape of women entrepreneurs as creators of, and created by, social capital. It indicates how women entrepreneurs appear to have a special position in forming, developing and reorganizing the social capital in the business world. In its eleven chapters, twenty-six researchers representing a variety of disciplines from different parts of the world are presenting findings on diverse aspects of the dialogue between women entrepreneurship and social capital. As a consequence the central concepts, social capital, entrepreneurship and gender, are given a variety of meanings. Women entrepreneurs and business owners regardless of their cultural context, branch and education provide interesting ideas to the global debate on equality and social capital.

  • 2.
    Aalto Hagman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Sonde, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Innovation Crowdsourcing: Exploring the Use of an Innovation Intermediary2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With the Open Innovation paradigm come new hopes for innovating companies. The ability to tap a global network of experts can, at least in theory, have a significant impact on an organization’s competitive strength. Before such a ‘network of experts’ can be used to its full potential however, a number of challenges related to knowledge markets seem to need solutions. About 10 years ago however, we could witness the entry of a new breed of company – calling themselves innovation intermediaries. These companies are built to profit from delivering the usefulness of knowledge networks to client (Seeker) companies. Though the use of such networks and markets have so far been uncommon outside of high-tech fields they are now starting to be seen used by companies in more mature environments.Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine the collaboration between SCA (a large Swedish corporation) and the innovation intermediary InnoCentive in order to create a better understanding of what kind of benefits can be derived from the use of an innovation intermediary, and how these benefits are best utilized. We also set out to identify relevant limitations of innomediary use and to seek to better understand how using an innomediary can fit a client company’s higher-order activities such as exploration and exploitation.Completion and Results: Our findings include that SCA are using InnoCentive mainly as a tool to solve highly specific problems and/or problems with a low degree of complexity that they encounter in their everyday activities. The challenges related to knowledge markets, we find, are avoided by keeping problem complexity low and problem modularity high for the problems sent out to the network. In addition, InnoCentive’s business model seems to eliminate costly negotiations between Seekers and Solvers. Using this kind of ‘market solution’ however, we argue, will put bounds on the usefulness of the network and makes it mainly suited as a tool for improving an organization’s exploitation capacity.

  • 3.
    Aarnio, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kimber, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Talent Management & Strategy: Identifying Patterns through a Multiple Case Study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Exploring the Talent Management literature to understand the importance of Talent Management to strategy and the role the view on talent plays in consideration to Talent Management.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the empirical research on Talent Management to enable a creation of a conceptual framework.

    Methodology

    A multiple case study approach was taken, as 11 companies from diverse industries, sizes, backgrounds etc. was studied in order to gain a broader picture on the research topic. Furthermore, qualitative data collection method was used and main source of empirical data was interviews conducted with HR professionals of each case company.

    Findings

    The empirical findings indicated there to be a relationship between the strategy and the view on talent. There was further an indication that this relationship has an effect on the focus of the Talent Management activities. 

  • 4.
    Abebe, Meaza Eshetu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Kalinina, Ekaterina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Coordination of inter-organizational projects within creative industries: A contextual perspective2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organizational projects have become common forms of organizing in various industries such as construction, advertising, music, film making etc. The unique structural nature of Inter-organizational projects coupled with the fact that they carried out through the participation of multiple organizations, raises issues of coordination. Particularly when it comes to creative industries, coordination is challenged by demand and transactional uncertainties. In order to understand how inter-organizational projects achieve coordination in such situations, it is important to study their interior processes putting in consideration their environmental context. 

    The aim of this research is to study how network embeddedness enhances coordination in inter-organizational projects within creative industries.

    Inter-organizational projects: are projects that are carried out through the collaboration of multiple legally independent organizations

    Inter-organizational networks: refer to sets of long-term ties among independent organizations that are engaged in continuous exchange relations.

    Embeddedness: refers to the continuous interaction of individuals, organizations, projects etc. with their environmental context.

    Macrocultures: refer to the shared beliefs, norms values rules and practices with in inter- organizational networks that guide members on their actions.

    A qualitative approach using a multiple comparative case study was conducted. Accordingly four projects chosen from creative industries were studied using both primary and secondary data.

    Macrocultures that are embedded inter-organizational networks facilitate coordination within inter-organizational projects. Further projects that differ in their constituents task nature, time duration and team composition relied on different types of embeddedness for coordination.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Media - makt att sätta företags agenda?: En kvantitativ studie om medias makt att påverka företags hållbarhetsredovisningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Lately, there has been a significant increase in sustainability related issues in media, while companies increasingly are reporting on sustainability. Media has a central role in today's society, and sustainability is emerging as one of the most contemporary issues in the business industry. Studies with a combination of media and sustainability are a fruitful field for future research.

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explain the relationship between medias sustainability exposure of companies and these companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report.

    Method This quantitative study is pursued through a deductive approach in which the hypotheses are formulated with a background in existing theories. A cross-sectional design is used to measure the presence and the variation of a given phenomena at a certain time. Secondary data is used as the empirical basis. The study focuses on companies listed at Nasdaq Stockholm.

    Conclusion The results of this study indicate that medias' sustainability exposure of companies affects companies' establishment and extent of a sustainability report. Size, industry, profitability and number of subsidiaries are also significant factors. We have found that media is a primary factor in explaining why companies choose to report on sustainability issues. For every news story about a given company in a sustainability context – the likelihood of that company establishing a sustainability report is increased by 2,491. This study also proves that increased media exposure leads to a more extensive sustainability reporting.

  • 6.
    Abring, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden: En kvalitativ studie om hur styrdokument reglerar den praktiska hanteringen av transaktionsexponerade kassaflöden2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As a result of increased international trading, adequate management of transaction exposure has become more important. Foreign currency cash flows are associated with different risks and thus give cause to distinct transaction exposure with overseas trading. Previous research advocates that management of transaction exposure is controlled through policy documents and we have identified a lack of research in how policy documents of Swedish firms are designed.

    Problem: To what extent is previous research agreeing with how Swedish firms have developed policy documents for managing transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows?

    Aim: The aim of the study is, compared to what previous research advocates, to examine and analyze how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed within the Swedish firms. The study also aims to analyze the differences in the policy document for the transaction exposure in different foreign currency cash flows, as well as the factors that give reasons to possible deviations.

    Conclusions: The findings of the study indicate a clear congruence between previous research and established practices of how policy documents for managing transaction exposure are designed in Swedish firms. Policy documents are comprehensive in their design; regulate the risk management strategy but not the management procedures. Even though the actual management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows indicates significant discrepancies, the policy document doesn’t regulate any of them. Giving reason for a different management are: factors related to the foreign exchange market characteristics, company-specific factors and other influencing market factors.Contribution: The study contributes to a better understanding and clearer differentiation of how Swedish firms control the management of transaction exposure, from a business perspective. Moreover, the study intends to give rise to the interest in how and on which grounds companies differently control the management of transaction exposure of different foreign currency cash flows.

  • 7.
    Adero, Gloria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Liu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Maintaining Competitiveness Through Strategic Alliances: Case Study of Equity Bank Kenya2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Kenyan financial sector has recently been growing at high rate due to the inclusion of individuals who previously were unable access banking services. This has led to a competitive situation where banks and micro finance institutions are searching for ways to manage in this competitive sector. In addition, mobile phone companies are now considered as a competitive threat.

    Aim:

    This study will look into how strategic alliances between banks and mobile phone companies can be used to overcome these challenges with a specific focus on the recent alliance between Equity Bank (Kenya), and Safaricom Ltd. The study will also focus on the management of strategic alliances within different industries.

    Method:

    The analysis of this study is based on qualitative research including the use of interviews with members of both organizations and secondary data which includes written documentation and analysis of previously recorded discussions about the alliance with different members of both organizations.

    Results:

    The authors found strategic alliances can be used as a tool which enables firms to overcome threats from their competitors while gaining additional benefits. In terms of alliance management, the use of separate teams was found to be an effective management tool in cross industry alliances.

  • 8.
    Adrian, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Kinnunen, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Aktieindexobligationer: För vem är aktieindexobligationer en passande investering?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the introduction in the early 1990s, the volume of newly issued equity index bonds overall had a positive development. This increase indicates that the product has become a popular form of savings among Swedes. Together with the fact that there are few studies done on equity index bonds as a savings product. A wider perspective has been taken into account which makes the subject interesting to study.

    Aim: Purpose of this study is to identify and analyze for who private investors equity index bonds fit as a savings product on lifecycle thought based on (i) professional and consulting practices, (ii) financial risk management theory, focusing on portfolio theory, and (iii) historical data on risk and return.

    Completion: The study was completed using interviews with private consultants, capital advisors and people working with structured products at major banks and of small players. In addition, five stereotypes were used as a basis for discussion during the interviews. In order to conduct a deeper analysis of the product as a form of saving for private investors, a portfolio optimization carried out taking the historical data on risk and return into account.

    Conclusion: The study determines that the product is suitable for private investors who are in the latter part of the consolidation phase and mainly not prone to risk. The study suggests that equity index bonds primarily are associated with credit- and market risk, while the risk of the product is assessed as low. The study also indicates that the properties that are added to investors’ portfolios are low risk and a potential aspect.

  • 9.
    Afrim, George
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekdahl, Ludvig
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Riktkursers träffsäkerhet: En studie om kassaflödens och andra variablers samband med träffsäkerheten2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies show that recommendations accuracy partly can be explained by numerous variables. Prior research leave out several variables, which based on theoretical support, may have a connection with accuracy, such as the cash flows’ volatility. Based on the DCF-model’s structure, accuracy of target prices is assumed to have a positive relationship with companies that have stable cash flows.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the accuracy of stock analysts' target prices and their connection with stable cash flows. The purpose of the study is also to analyze the role of less highlighted variables’ relationship with the accuracy of target prices, in combination with earlier investigated variables.

    Completion: Including less highlighted variables is supported by theory about corporate valuation, where cash flows’ volatility is the main focus of this study. The accuracy of the target prices is analyzed by regression analysis for three time horizons, where the dependent variable is the absolute margin of error and the dependent variables are represented by the explanatory factors that the study examines. The relationships are estimated by OLS, due to the fact that data are unbalanced.

    Conclusion:  Stock analysts’ target prices present relationships with numerous of the variables examined in the study. The strongest relationships with the accuracy of target prices are shown by cash flows’ variation, the number of stock analysts, goodwill in terms of total capital and companies’ size. The results show that companies with stable cash flow have a positive relationship with the accuracy of target prices, which supports the theories of the DCF-model for valuation of companies with stable cash flow. The estimations show that the accuracy of target prices also is explained by other factors than those this very study investigates. The results show that the accuracy is higher for shorter time horizons.

  • 10.
    Agevall, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Broberg, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Umans, Timurs
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    The new generation of auditors meeting praxis2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an exploratory study of whether and in what way ‘double-edged learning’ can develop from understanding the relationship between structure and judgment and thus capture students’ experience of the audit profession. The study is based on a focus group/individual interviews conducted with students performing their work-integrated learning assignments where they interact with auditors. Identifying two themes defined as Perceiving the profession and auditing and Entering into and forming in the audit profession derived from the data, it appears that when positioned within a work-integrated learning context, students develop awareness of the use of standards and checklists on one hand as well as the importance of discretional judgment on the other. Based on these results, we theorise as to how double-edged learning manifests itself in students’ experiences and understanding of the relationship between structure and judgment.

  • 11.
    Ahad, Diana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Jusic, Anisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Kommunikationsprocessen av strategiska frågor: En studie av fyra storbanker2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: The interest of the organization as a social system has increased the attention of the organization's internal relationships and internal communication. In many organizations management often spend much time on formulation strategic issues, which is not communicated sufficiently and thus not used by employees. In order that employees shall not perceive strategies as vacuous, it is important that the communication process clarifies and concretes the strategy. The process of work has been developed and today there is a high demand of knowledge among employees, which in turn need increased information. This means that it has become increasingly important that employees are involved in the organization's goals and approaches to different issues. Most organizations are complaining of poor communication ability, managers are complaining that the information does not reach the employees and that these do not follow the guidelines, while employees are complaining that decisions and information are not sufficiently communicated to them. The view of communication often gives a picture of communication being something simple, where the send and the received message is identical to one another. This leads to an over-reliance of the communication effectiveness in the organization.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the internal communication process of strategic issues and to assess its effectiveness.

    Method: This is a study of four universal banks, which is based on a qualitative approach, where four interviews have taken place at management level and four interviews at local level.

    Conclusion: The study has concluded that very little attempt is made to communicate strategic issues from management level to local level. Communication takes place through simple channels, primarily through the intranet, with the condition that employees will correctly understand the message. Because of the complexity of the message and the channels used, there is a risk that the message will be misinterpreted at the local level. Motivation in the communication process plays an important role, but unfortunately the banks motivate their employees to a limited extent. The communication process of strategic issues represents today a linear communication, which needs to be more effective. To make the communication process more effective requires other communication channels, clearer message and more motivation. A network approach of communication is needed.

     

     

     

     

  • 12.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Karin
    Stockholm University School of Business, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tillmar, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.2016In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, 369-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

  • 13.
    Ahlers, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilms, Maximilian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ambidextrous Leadership in Innovation: A multiple case study of innovation leaders on the alignment of opening and closing leader behaviors2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relatively new concept of ambidextrous leadership in innovation with the opposing yet complementary opening and closing leader behaviors has been proven to be positively related to fostering explorative and exploitative behaviors respectively among subordinates. The initiators of this concept propose that leaders in innovation need a ‘temporal flexibility to switch’ between opening and closing leader behaviors, which implies a sequential alignment of these behaviors. This proposition has yet remained theoretically and empirically unexplored and is initially questioned in this thesis with respect to related theoretical concepts.

    Therefore, this thesis aims to explain how innovation leaders align the recently defined opening and closing leader behaviors throughout the innovation process. By following a qualitative and inductive research approach, a multiple case study of five innovation leaders in German manufacturing companies was conducted. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The empirical data reveal that the initiators’ proposition of a sequential alignment is not sufficient to explain the complex alignment of opening and closing leader behaviors. Accordingly, a model which illustrates a predominantly simultaneous alignment of the two leader behaviors was developed. However, this model also considers that urgent situations or specific project phases and times of the year require innovation leaders to sequentially demonstrate one behavior at a time.

  • 14.
    Aichigui, Victor
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karlstad University, SWEDEN.
    Servitization in SME manufacturing firms: A one-way road2015In: 13th International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management, Shanghai, June 19-21, 2015, 2015, 965-968 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance for manufacturing firms to add services to their offerings has been asserted over and over again (Neu and Brown 2005). Adding services to product sales require manufacturing firms to develop other types of offerings such as maintenance services, hybrid offerings or integrated solutions. This implies using new and often unknown practices to be able to provide services. Previous research has focused on the benefits of servitization (Gebauer, Gustafsson, and Witell 2011), albeit in larger firms. Hence, similar research on Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) has been scarce. Furthermore, servitization as a unidirectional transition process can be questioned as researchers argue that manufacturing firms might offer different types of services simultaneously and might not have the intention to take the next step that a transition process suggests (Kowalkowski et al. 2015). Moreover, previous research shows that the step from offering after-sales services and repair to offering more advanced services, e.g. process-related services, is rather big. For those services different mindsets are required within the organization; more advanced services would require a service oriented mindset, whereas after-sales services only requires the firm to have a product oriented mindset (Löfberg 2014).

  • 15.
    Akanda, Md Mahmudul Alam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dzeko, Jasmin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Customers’ Perception on their Satisfaction about the Private Banks in a Developing Country: A perspective of Private Banks in Bangladesh2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customers’ satisfaction is a decisive factor in the development process of business which has also an effective impact on contributing a country's GDP. Private banks have been emerged over the time in developing countries where customers’ satisfaction is the driven force of banking industry investigated in Bangladesh. In this study a conventional American Customer Satisfaction Index model has been used over Bangladesh to compare overall performance of banking industry. Customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh has been measured from the different angle of customers’ perception based on their portfolio. This research has been designed on a quantitative approach followed by survey research method. Questionnaire was administered to collect data through objective list as well as physical interaction with the respondents from different locations in the capital city of Bangladesh named Dhaka. Collected data had been analyzed applying Partial Latent Square (PLS) software program. The study outcomes showed that the perceived quality is the main determinant factor on customer satisfaction towards banks in Bangladesh. It also revealed that significant relationship exists between customers’ satisfaction and customers’ loyalty. The revised model in 2016 represents the benchmark scores of customers’ satisfaction in Bangladesh lagged behind consecutively 18 and 13 scores than that of USA and Taiwan. Considering the study results, we summed the quality of service leads to satisfied customers in turns towards customers loyalty. Banks also can get competitive advantage by evaluating all classes of customers equally through providing superior services to them.

  • 16.
    Albertsson, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Attar, Housam
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Små företag och offentlig upphandling2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The law involving public procurement specifies that suppliers cannot be discriminated against on size, background, financial resources etc. Through a thorough literature review we found variables that were problematic for SME´s in an international context, that we wanted to further investigate within a Swedish context. Based on our investigation it can be concluded that some of the variables identified have a greater impact than others. Furthermore, our investigation showed that several variables affect the smallest companies to a greater degree than the larger companies. Finally, our survey also showed that barriers differ depending on the companies' level of participation in the procurement process.

  • 17.
    Ali Rashed, Chra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Mouyiasis, George
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Negative Unintended Consequences of Innovation- a case study regarding innovation and sustainability: The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the SNE SFI GS-framework2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is often related to positive outcomes for the majority to enjoy that enhances welfare and facilitates everyday activities. In different fields of study (economics, management, sociology, history and science and technology) it is becoming a field of magnitude (Malerba and Brusoni, 2007). Fagerberg and Verspagen (2009) discuss the emerging interest of innovation in the field of social science. Although the interest within the subject of innovation is high, very little research has been done regarding the aim to contribute to the design innovation policy, developed by scholars studying the field of innovation. One often so neglected study within innovation is in the field of negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) (Sveiby et al, 2012). One main contributor of innovative activities is organizational operations leading to value for end customers. While firms often have the aim to create value with innovation for the greater benefit in society, sometimes these value-creating mechanisms may create unintended negative consequences in addition to the positive effects. While innovations are increasing in rapidness and numbers of output produced, the effects on society and the natural environment needs to be highlighted. With assumptions regarding vague CSR implementation in corporations (Newell, 2005), this research tries to grasp understanding on how NUCoI is perceived from the managerial perspective in organizations regarding their stakeholder viewpoint. As a starting point, the authors use Charlie Chaplin’s famous quote “More than machinery, we need humanity” from the movie “The Great Dictator” indicating the importance of caring for various stakes.

    Purpose: The aim of this research is to highlight the new field of study in social science; Negative unintended consequences of innovation (NUCoI) in relation to the societal natural environment (society and the natural environment). The research contributes to the existing frameworks on organizational value creation mechanisms in innovation policy to incorporate the aspect of negative consequences of innovation (NCoI), in terms of sustainability to highlight the importance of secondary stakeholders.

    Results: The new Extended Value Creation Mechanism for Global Sustainability, the Societal-Natural-Environment Stakeholder Framework of Innovation and Global Sustainability framework (SNE SFI GS-framework), aims to contribute in the long-term perspective for research in innovation policy by highlighting one aspect of a field of the often so neglected societal natural environment perspective, when competing rivalry becomes too fierce. The framework highlights the importance of secondary stakeholders, where primary stakeholders may act as a “link” between the organization and secondary stakeholders. Additionally, the authors suggest going to basic practices regarding sustainability with valuating the natural resources for a prospering sustainable society. The aspects in the research include stakeholder-theory, value-creation in terms of the societal natural environment, and innovation as a field of social science, negative consequences and organizational sense-making.

  • 18.
    Alin, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornell, Benjamin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The individual Controller role: And how the role is affected by increased information and complex report relations2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research of the controller role is extensive and has been studied in several sectors, whichprovides a wide range of definitions of the controller role. These definitions have contributed to an ambiguous controller role in regards to what work assignments are most important and to whom the controller should report. This thesis aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the controller role based on work assignments within a decentralised organisation working with complex financial products. This thesis also contributes to an understanding of how controllers perceive that their role is affected by their work with handling information and their report relations. This has generated three research questions: What role does the controller have in a Swedish universal bank based on work assignments? What are the eventual differences in the controller role depending on department in the organisation? How do the controllers perceive that their role is affected by their work with handling information and by their report relations? Delimitation was made to analyse controllers at various levels in Handelsbanken. In order to create an understanding of the controller role in this context, an abductive approach as been used in order to combine existing theories with empirical findings. Based on a qualitative approach, triangulation was chosen to combine assembled empirical data with semi- structured interviews. The result of this study implies that controllers mainly lean towards the role as a Business partner as they work as a support function to provide local or higher managers with relevant analysis for decision-making. Based on work processes with information, the controllers lean towards an Analyst and Coach as they generally handle all business related information. From this case study, controllers in decentralised organisations possess the role as a Specialist as they  are  situated in separate departments with a clear focus. Results also show that more automated work assignments due to technological development do not increase the controllers’ opportunity to dedicate more time on analysis. Instead, increased information flows require controllers to allocate resources towards assembling information. In terms of report relations, close adherence towards the local managers does not affect the controller’s objective reporting to higher management and the controller can arguably bemore independent within their report relations than what is described by literature.

  • 19.
    Altkvist, Mikaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Richardsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i stålbranschen: Att börja hållbarhetsredovisa med intressenternas behov i fokus2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Following an increased awareness concerning social and environmental aspectsin society, more enterprises establish sustainability reports in order to inform theirstakeholders about the company’s sustainability duties. A previous study indicates that themetal sector is enjoying relatively limited increases in business opportunities and/or financialvalue of corporate responsibility. Another study suggests that there is a gap in expectationsbetween producers and users of sustainability reports due to an uncertainty regarding whatinformation such reports should contain and what audience such reports should target. Thequestion is whether or not a gap in expectations concerning sustainability reporting is acontributing factor to the limited increases in financial value in the metal sector?

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine how a sustainability report should becarried out by a company in the steel industry given what information the company and thestakeholders consider as essential in a sustainability report.

    Methodology: To accomplish the purpose of the study, a deductive approach was used due tothe availability of suitable theories. We conducted semi-structured interviews in order toenable a deeper analysis of the subject. Interviews were carried out with employees at thesteel company Ovako in order to investigate what information they aim to communicate, themotivations for sustainability reporting, to whom the information is addressed and howcommunication with stakeholders is carried out. Four interviews with different stakeholders inthe Swedish steel industry were also conducted in order to study what information theyrequire for. The purpose was to highlight potential differences between the company and thestakeholders.

    Results: The study indicates the importance of clarifying the motives behind sustainabilityreporting and to identify which stakeholders to target. The importance stems from the fact thatthese factors decide what information to include. The case company identifies thestakeholders' expectations as their main motive and these should therefore form the basis forthe sustainability report. Both internal stakeholders such as employees and externalstakeholders as investors, customers and society are identified as important stakeholders bythe case company. The study further indicates that financial stakeholders without specificsustainability criteria do not place emphasis on the content of sustainability reports. Financialstakeholders with such criteria on the other hand, demand in particular informationconcerning environmental aspects, while non-financial stakeholders also requests informationon social aspects such as employee responsibility and business ethics. The case companydoes, however, show skepticism on whether social aspects such as employee responsibilityare relevant to include in the report due to the information's subjective nature and narrowaudience. The study indicates that the lack of stakeholder dialogues results in a sustainabilityreport that excludes information requested by stakeholders to whom the report is addressed.For a company in the steel industry, information concerning impact on the environment mayseem more relevant, but given the non-financial stakeholders demand the company shouldalso report on their social impact.

  • 20.
    Alvesson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Företagsekonomi Lunds universitet.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Transaction Costs, Clans and Corporate Culture.2004In: The International Library of the New Institutional Economics / [ed] Claude Ménard, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2004, -666 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Andersen, E. S.
    et al.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Vaagaasar, A.
    BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Projects and politics: exploring the duality between action and politics in complex projects2010In: International Journal of Management and Decision Making, ISSN 1462-4621, Vol. 11, no 2, 121-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional research and literature on project management and organisation theory tend to view project organisations as non-political bodies and purely action-oriented endeavours. In contrast, this paper presents an alternative analysis drawing on the idea of projects as political and emergent processes. Based on in-depth, case-study findings of a complex development and implementation project, we suggest an analytical framework that focuses on the interrelatedness of action and political processes and which explains how project management deals with the two processes simultaneously. We identify and analyse three separate but nested organisational logics applied by the project management team to cope with the dual challenges of politics and action. The general idea is to illustrate the notion of projects as emergent processes involving both politics and action. The three logics are: 1) balancing openness and closure; 2) reformulating tasks to seek solutions; 3) relating to improve action capacity. Our findings add to the literature on the role and practice of project management in complex projects that entail both stakeholder and technological challenges.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    BRACE-modellen: Ett företagsspecifikt avkastningskrav för mindre onoteradebolag2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In ten to twelve years, 40 % of Sweden's 500 000 family- and owner led firms will be up for sale according to an estimation done by PwC in 2012. Many small and medium sized firms will therefore need to be valued within the near future. The models and theories used in todays' business valuations are not applicable for small private firms why the authors chose to conduct this study.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design a practically useful model in terms of assessing the owners' required rate of return in a small private firm. The model should include the firm-specific risks that are linked to private firms.

    Methodology: This study uses a qualitative research method where data is collected through interviews with people who on a daily basis, work with, value and advise small private firms. From the data collected through the interviews as well as theories regarding the subject the authors have designed a practical model with the intentions to support private firm valuations.

    Conclusion: The BRACE-model (Business Risk Adjusted Cost of Equity) consists of two main components, a CAPM-premium and a firm-specific risk premium. The firm-specific risk premium is derived from the firm's size and illiquidity and is further quantified with a point system where a small private firm's specific risks are considered.

  • 23.
    Andersson, David E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekeström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Economic effects and social implications of a dual currency and exchange rate system: A study of the Cuban case2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1994 the Cuban regime started a gradual introduction of a new currency, the convertible peso (CUC), which could be exchanged for USD at par. In the beginning the circulation of CUC was limited, but in 2003 the CUC replaced the USD in state owned enterprises and in 2004 the USD was replaced by the CUC in all transactions made by the population and foreigners in Cuba. Two exchange rates also exist between these currencies, one for the population (unofficial exchange rate of 24:1) and one for companies and institutions (official exchange rate of 1:1). Both currencies suffer from a lack of convertibility and have created an unusual and segmented monetary environment in Cuba.

    The aim of the study is to analyze the effects of the dual currency and exchange rate in the economy in terms of economic costs and in terms of how the capabilities of the population are affected. In order to do this, a Minor Field Study was conducted in Havana where different agents of the Cuban economy were interviewed and available data collected.

    The results show that the dual monetary system creates several distortions in the Cuban economy. The dual exchange rate implicitly subsidizes imports and at the same time creates an indirect tax on exports. A system of converting both domestic currencies to one “unique currency” further complicates calculation of the productivity and profitability of state owned companies. Additionally, capital controls and segmentations of markets weaken the connections between foreign and Cuban companies and also decrease much needed inflow of foreign currency. Capital controls also leads to Cuban companies being restricted diachronically in the use of their capital in that way hampering necessary investment.

    Furthermore, the dual monetary system affects the Cuban people’s capabilities, which to a large extent depend on the direct access to CUC. Direct access to CUC in turn does not depend on productivity but on factors outside of a person’s control, such as having family abroad or being self-employed. Cuban’s with only a salary in CUP and without access to CUC has difficulties reaching a reasonable standard of living. This creates the perception that someone with direct access to CUC is richer than someone without, which leads to rent-seeking activities with people trying to work in the CUC sector even if they are highly educated and qualified for important occupations in the CUP sector.

  • 24.
    Andersson, David E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teknologimarknader: idéer som ekonomiska tillgångar2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 95-109 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Andersson, Emilie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Johansson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Värdering av goodwill: - En studie av företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Background: Since January 1st 2005 all public companies in Sweden must apply the international rules IFRS in their annual reports. That means that goodwill is no longer amortized with the same amount every year over its useful life, but is instead considered to have an indefinite life and should be tested at least annually for impairment. Due to this rule transition, the rules for accounting in Sweden have converged with the international rules and one aim is to increase the comparability between companies in different countries. A study made by Gauffin and Thörnsten (2010) showed that the impairments made by American public companies composed by 30 percent of the total value of goodwill in 2008, while the corresponding percentage in Sweden the same year was only 1,5. 2008 was the year when the financial crisis began, which affected companies in both the US and in Sweden. Despite of that, and that the rules for goodwill accounting are basically the same, there is still a significant difference between the two countries in regard to impairment charges of goodwill.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explain the relatively low impairment charges of goodwill among companies listed at Stockholmsbörsen in the year of 2008, and to explain how Swedish companies view on goodwill.

    Completion: This study includes a review of the annual reports for 2007-2009 from all companies listed on Stockholmsbörsen, where data related to the companies goodwill and impairment tests has been collected. Also, interviews have been done with six different companies and three experts.

    Results: The study has generated several possible explanations for the relatively low impairment charges in Sweden in 2008. The main explanation seems to be related to the fact that there is a lack of scrutiny for public companies in Sweden. Goodwill and impairment test is something that the companies doesn´t want to put much time and effort into, in order to make a reliable valuation. This behaviour would most reasonably change if the Swedish companies were more scrutinized, like the American companies are. In that way, an inaccurate valuation of goodwill would lead to consequences for the companies, which pressures them to apply the rules as it is supposed to.

     

  • 26.
    Andersson Granberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenberg, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kaspersson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tåla: Trygghetsskapande åtgärder för landsbygden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I april 2010 gav regeringen i uppdrag till Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) att i ett projekt öka säkerheten på landsbygden genom nya former för räddning och respons. Inom ramen för ovanstående uppdrag, vilket benämns ”Samhällsviktig samverkan i landsbygd” har CARER – Centrum för respons- och räddningssystem – vid Linköpings universitet fått i uppdrag av MSB att inventera vilka behov och resurser för säkerhet och trygghet som existerar på lands- och glesbygd, samt undersöka vilka andra projekt och initiativ som föregått detta, nationellt och internationellt. CARERs projekt, som görs inom ramen för regeringsuppdraget, benämns Trygghetshöjande åtgärder för landsbygden (TÅLA).

    TÅLA har genomförts som fyra sammanhängande delstudier där de två första delstudierna använder kvalitativ metodik, främst intervjuer, och syftar till att skapa en förståelse för den upplevda tryggheten på lands- och glesbygden, samt utröna vad den består i och hur den kan stärkas. Delstudie 3 syftar till att kvantitativt uttrycka behov och resurser för säkerhet och trygghet på landsoch glesbygd genom ett urval av indikatorer. Delstudie 4 syftar till att ge en överblick över tidigare forskning och utveckling på området.

    Några generella slutsatser som kan dras från TÅLA-projektets olika delstudier är att det finns en god medvetenhet hos boende i land- och glesbygd för att det kan ta tid innan hjälp kan fås ifrån de traditionella räddningssystemen (som till exempel polis eller räddningstjänst), ett faktum som också kan bekräftas numerärt. Vissa indikatorer tyder dessutom på att boende på lands- och glesbygden är mer drabbade av olyckor än boende i tätort, vilket ger ett ökat behov av de aktuella resurserna. Detta har lett till att nya typer av lösningar har utvecklats, oftast av de boende, för att bistå vid olyckor, många baserade på självhjälp och frivillighet.

    Tydligt är också att trygghet omfattar mer än bara blåljusverksamheter och stöd från det allmänna. Här inkluderas också behov som el, vatten och möjligheten att handla mat. En stor del av den upplevda tryggheten hos befolkningen kommer från det sociala nätverk som finns i respektive by. Möjligheter till kommunikation är centralt och det är när individen är ensam utan möjlighet till kontakt med omvärlden som den största otryggheten infinner sig.

    Det framkom under projektet flera exempel på samverkan och de som medverkar framhåller vikten av att känna varandra innan insatsen, för att bästa möjliga resultat ska uppnås. Såväl de båda kvalitativa studierna som kunskapsöversikten pekar på att en trolig väg till framgång för en ökad säkerhet och trygghet på landsbygden bygger på att de lokala resurserna och strukturerna nyttjas i samverkan med de traditionella räddningsresurserna. Detta innebär att det bör vara möjligt att stärka dels de boendes möjligheter att hjälpa sig själva och att hjälpa varandra, men också att nyttja organisationer som idag inte tillhör blåljusmyndigheterna för att i samverkan med räddningstjänsten, sjukvården och polisen kunna bistå vid olyckor, akuta sjukdomsförlopp och andra relevanta händelser. Viktigt att beakta i detta sammanhang är då att använda de befintliga strukturer som existerar bland såväl boende som olika organisationer, för att på bästa sätt kunna dra nytta av den lokala kunskap, de resurser och det engagemang som existerar.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Birgit Nilsson: entreprenör besjälad av förbättring2004In: Den offentliga sektorns entreprenörer: en porträttbok / [ed] Elisabeth Sundin, Stockholm: Kommentus , 2004, 107-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Competence development projects in R&D2008In: Nationell workshop i HRM 2008,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 29.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Critical Realism and Product development: a perfect match?2003In: 19:th EGOS Colloquium,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 30.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Leveraging inventors' skills for exploitative and explorative purposes in large firms' R&D departments2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organisering för individualitet: transparenta och opaka aspekter i utvecklingsprocesser2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The doctoral dissertation 'Organising for individuality - transparent and opaque aspects of development processes' deals with the relationship between a company's ability to develop new products and its ability to change the way it organises its product development activities. The dissertation is based on a real time study of two product development and two organizational change processes at Orrefors Kosta Boda AB.

    The company has a tradition of innovative product development based on a high degree of individuality. In this study, individuality refers to situations where differences between individuals' (i.e. designers') distinctive features are important for a company's success and not to individuals talents or capabilities per se.

    In studying and analysing the product deveopment processes an (opaque) underlying thought structure appears in terms of a tension between 'a separating and a unifying logic of effectiveness'. The two logics of effectiveness constituted underlying assumptions and answers to the question of how to be an innovative and commercially successful company in the high quality glass industry.

    The product development was conducted in an "inescapable" tension of separating and unifying, indicating that the separating and unifying logics of effectiveness should - in the context of product development - be viewed as a 'neccessary relation of incompatibility' rather than mutually exclusive.

    In spite of two attempts to change the organising of the product development in the company, the measures taken did not alter any fundamental conditions of the product development within the company, and therefore not the problems the change initiatives were designed to address.

    In the literature on product development and innovation scholars require research with an approach that links structural conditions to action and interaction. Using Archer's (1995) morphogenetic perspective to relate product development to organizational change, this dissertation is an attempt to do this.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    The role of patenting and patent departments in new product development work2008In: 15th International Product Development Mangement Conference, Hamburg July 2008, Hamburg: EIASM , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

           

  • 33.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    The role of patenting knowledge in new product development work2008In: RADMA Workshop on Knowledge Integration,2008, 2008, 1-14 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 34.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Individual Inventors in the R&D Factory2007In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, Vol. 16, no 4, 437-446 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inventors as innovators and knowledge integrators2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kreativitet och patentering i storföretag: Om de innovativa individernas betydelse för att skapa och bedöma nya idéer2012In: Innovationsledning och kreativitet i svenska företag / [ed] Anders Richtnér & Johan Frishammar, VINNOVA , 2012, 86-97 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokens syfte är att ge kunskap och inspiration åt chefer, ledare och medarbetare med intresse för kreativitet och innovation. Den baseras på forskning och tar upp exempel hämtade från många av Sveriges ledande företag. Avsikten är att belysa hur organisatoriska förhållanden påverkar förutsättningarna för kreativitet och innovation samt att ge uppslag till hur företags innovationsförmåga kan utvecklas.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berggren, ChristianLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Sussex.
    Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften presenterar ett urval resultat och texter från forskningsprogrammet ”Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi” (Knowledge Integration and Innovation in Transnational Enterprise, KITE) som finansierats av Riksbankens Jubileumsfond i två faser under åren 2007–2015. I programmet har vi analyserat hur företag, speciellt i tekniktunga industrier, påverkas av den allt mer globala konkurrensen om nya produkter och tjänster, hur nya specialiserade kunskaper växer fram och tas tillvara, och hur de kan förenas med existerande kunskapsbas. I denna skrift finns studier på tre olika nivåer: branschnivån, med analyser av innovationsprocesser och kunskapsutmaningar i industriella sektorer; företagsnivån, med skildringar av förändringar i företagens interna organisering av kunskapsbildande processer och undersökningar av nya former för utbyte och samspel mellan företag; samt mikronivån, med undersökningar av samspelet mellan individuella specialister inom företag. Skriften vänder sig både till den intresserade allmänheten och till forskare med annan vetenskaplig bakgrund. Fokus är på internationellt konkurrerande branscher och företag, men analyserna av kunskapens delning och sammanflätning, separation och integration, har bäring också på andra kunskapsintensiva sektorer och verksamheter, från statliga verk till sjukvård.

    En vetenskaplig presentation av programmets forskning under de första fyra åren finns i boken Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms (redigerad av Berggren, Bergek, Bengtsson, Hobday & Söderlund och utgiven av Oxford University Press 2011). En uppföljande volym, Managing Knowledge Integration Across Boundaries, planeras av samma förlag 2016 (redigerad av Tell, Berggren, Brusoni & Van de Ven). I den medverkar ett antal internationella författare vilket visar kunskapsområdets globala tyngd och intresse. Under programmets drygt åtta år har deltagarna publicerat ett mycket stort antal artiklar, konferensbidrag, bokkapitel och liknande. För dessa hänvisar vi till programmets hemsida www.liu.se/kite.

    Vi har under hela programperioden arbetat intensivt med att diskuteraoch konstruktivt kritisera och utveckla varandras bidrag. Därför har det varit naturligt att denna skrift inbegriper många programdeltagares medverkan. En presentation av samtliga medverkande finns i slutet av denna skrift. Följande KITE-forskare har medverkat i nedan angivna kapitel:

    Hans Andersson (kapitel 4)

    Lars Bengtsson (kapitel 7)

    Marie Bengtsson (kapitel 3)

    Anna Bergek (kapitel 2)

    Christian Berggren (kapitel 1)

    Karin Bredin (kapitel 6)

    Cecilia Enberg (kapitel 5, 7)

    Mattias Johansson (kapitel 4)

    Nicolette Lakemond (kapitel 7)

    Lars Lindkvist (kapitel 3)

    Thomas Magnusson (kapitel 1)

    Camilla Niss (kapitel 6)

    Jonas Söderlund (kapitel 6)

    Fredrik Tell (kapitel 5)

    Vi vill också tacka Jenny Björkman på Riksbankens Jubileumsfond och Makadam förlag för deras engagerade arbete med redigering och produktion av slutresultatet.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leveraging inventors' creativity2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While creativity is often understood as the generation of valuable novelty, we extend that view into a framework based on well-known and established models from the creativity literature. In addition to generation of novelty which forms our frameworks first dimension, we add selection of novelty, and type of creative contribution.  

    Based on interviews with inventors and managers in three large, patent-intensive firms, representing completely different industries, we show how the framework can be employed in order to better understand in what ways different practices exploit and/or support the inventors’ creative abilities. By relating the practices not to creativity in general but to components of creativity (c.f Amabile 1997) the paper enriches the discussion of how inventors’ can be leveraged in technology-based firms.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring and exploiting inventors at Westco: a case of ambidexterity in R&D2010In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 2, no 3, 254-266 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving both exploration and exploitation at the same time has become an increasingly important success factor for both firms and units within firms. Based on a single case study, this paper addresses how R&D units, traditionally regarded as responsible for firms’ explorative activities, work to also increase exploitation in R&D. The results suggest that in a project intensive context such as R&D, the role of project management becomes more important to achieve ambidexterity. It is, however, not an easy task for project managers to take on, and the Westco case provides illustrative examples of both pitfalls and structures designed to help the managers.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Role of Patent Engineer - Inventor Interaction for Research and Development Creativity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patents as a strategic tool has been much in focus lately, both in research and in the corporate world. Considering this, there has been surprisingly little interest paid to the process in which patents are generated within firms. Based on interviews with patent engineers and inventors who have been involved in interaction with each other in patenting processes, plus their patent managers, this study describe and discuss the patent drafting process as one (partly) driven by interaction. The patent drafting process is described as a process of asymmetrical collaboration delivering two distinct, but related outcomes – a refined invention and a patent application that most likely is better than it would have been otherwise. These outcomes are not cases of collective creativity as patent engineers do not invent and inventors do not (normally) define patent claims. This does not diminish the importance of the collaboration. Three roles - “opportunity recognizer”,“konstruktiver opponent”, and “enabling bureaucrat” – are identified and used to frame the patent engineers’ work and contributions to creativity.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Värdet av konstruktiva opponenter: om uppfinnare och patentingenjörer i kreativ samverkan2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson, Christian Berggren, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, 51-61 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nehler, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strategi och styrning2012In: Styrning: med projekt och kunskap i fokus / [ed] Jonas Söderlund och Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, 39-68 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design as Change - From Teleology to Guided Evolution?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is connected to change. Whether we start from Herbert Simon’s often cited “the transformation of existing conditions into preferred ones” (1996 p.111) or design as linked to innovation (Brown 2008, Verganti 2006) or even Heskett’s (2002) ‘betterment of the human condition’, design is a future oriented (Buchanan 2001), change inducing activity. But how is design thinking (in a wide sense) different from traditional managerial thinking in terms of the concept of change? What of the process(es) by which the existing conditions are transformed into the preferred ones, i.e. how may the change process be conceptualized in design? How does the general concern of change in the design community relate to the advances in strategic and organizational change theories? Our aim is to begin an exploration of how design may be conceptualized in relation to change.

    We do this by using two out of Pettigrew’s (1987) three related aspects of change: ‘process’, how something changes, and ‘content’, i.e. what is changed, to frame design as change (the third is ‘context’, the why of change). We make an attempt to explore and identify change perspectives, explicit or implicit, in design by using Van de Ven and Poole’s (1995) synthetic model of four “basic types of process theories” (p. 511): teleology, evolution, life cycle, and dialectic, all driven by different generative mechanisms or ‘motors of change’. Van de Ven & Poole’s ideal process types do though not handle the content aspect. To capture design content, we therefore use Heskett’s (2002) division of the designed artifacts’ function into two concepts, ‘utility’ and ‘significance’.

    Design processes are normally described as either of a teleological kind, i.e. driven by a goal set at the beginning of the process, or as similar to an evolutionary process. Some elements of the evolutionary model are frequent in descriptions of design processes, e.g. iterativity, prototyping and gradual development. However, the uncontrollability and slowness of evolution are less salient. A better way to frame design processes as evolutionary may therefore be to see them as guided (Lovas and Ghoshal 2000), i.e. driven not only by random mutation and competition but also by intent.

    By using Heskett’s distinction between utility and significance it is possible to further dissect the design process/design processes. Processes aiming for ‘utility’ eventually must converge into a solution, but is it necessarily the same when it regards the process by which ‘significance’ is designed, created and maintained? By analytically separating (c.f. Archer 1995) the by definition integrative design process, we argue that discussing design as process and content expands previous views of design as change.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Design as change - from teleology to guided evolution?2014In: Proceedings of the 19th DMI: AcademicDesign Management Conference / [ed] Erik Bohemia, Alison Rieple, Jeanne Liedtka, Rachel Cooper, Boston, USA: Design Management Institute , 2014, 1948-1971 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design is connected to change. Whether we start from Herbert Simons often cited ’the transformation of existing conditions into preferred ones’ (1996, p.111), or design as linked to innovation, design is a future oriented, change inducing activity. But how is design thinking (in a wide sense) different from traditional managerial thinking in terms of change? This paper explores and identifies change perspectives in design literature, very selectively represented by ‘classic views’, design thinking, and C-K theory. By using Van de Ven and Poole’s (1995) four ‘basic types of process theories that explain how and why change unfolds’; Life Cycle, Dialectics, Teleology, and Evolution, and Pettigrew’s (1987) distinction between process and content of change, we find that design processes are commonly described as similar to an evolutionary process with gradual development (divergence), combined with some characteristics of teleology (convergence), that together constitute the motor(s) of the process. By using Heskett’s (2002) distinction between ‘utility’ and ‘significance’ it is possible to further dissect design processes. Processes aiming for ‘utility’ eventually must converge into a solution, but is it necessarily the same for processes by which ‘significance’ is designed, created and maintained? Further, the uncontrollability and emergence aspects of evolutionary processes are interesting challenges from a managerial viewpoint. A generative way to frame design processes may be to see them as guided evolutionary processes (Lovas and Ghoshal, 2000). ‘Guided’ maintains manageability, while ‘evolutionary’ provides essential variety.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge integration of and by industrial design2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jan Carlzon, the Scandinavian airline SAS’ CEO during the successful eighties, tells a little story in his recently written comment to the 2008 Swedish re-issue of his 1985 book “Moments of Truth” [Swedish title: “Riv pyramiderna!” (2008)]. Carlzon describes how NOKIA’s CEO in the early 2000’s had told him that they worked like dogs to fill their mobile phones with values people were willing to pay for in order to keep the margins required. A short time later the telecom company Ericsson had its annual shareholder meeting and during the meeting a young girl asked: “Why does not Ericsson make phones that people want?” The chairman ignored the question – according to Carlzon the only relevant question asked – and instead he talked about lowering costs.

    Was there something that Ericsson had not understood at the time? Their phones’ technical functionality was good so why did not people want them? Roughly ten years later we would like to, somewhat simplified, say that Ericsson had not quite understood the need for beauty in their sophisticated high-tech products. They managed to integrate everything apart from a sense of beauty, i.e. the aesthetic and symbolic aspect that made the young girl and others prefer other brands. Even if Ericson had been aware, had they able to integrate beauty and knowledge about “beauty aspects” in their products? No doubt had Ericsson been able to integrate a number of more or less related, complementary technological knowledge bases, but can knowledge about aesthetic and symbolic aspects, what we call “beauty”, be dealt with in the same way?

    The contemporary need for depth of knowledge leads to increasing specialization and subsequently companies’ need for increasingly sophisticated means for integration of knowledge has increased. This is reflected in the field of knowledge integration (KI) which empirically has explored integration of knowledge bases from a rather technical, rationalistic perspective, and outputs of KI processes have in earlier research been framed in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and innovation (Tell, 2011). This is a limitation it shares with strategic management research (Dalpiaz et al 2010). However, we argue that the complexity in today’s products and services may extend beyond what the KI field have hitherto acknowledged.

    A future development of the KI field could be to explore the user perspective on, and role in, the value creation and appropriation system, and to include the aesthetic and symbolic nature of products and services. This paper aims to contribute to the KI field, by exploring some consequences of extending the scope of knowledge integration to include integration of and by Industrial design.

    Industrial design is a practice and a field of knowledge that spans the divide between rationalistic problem-solving and the seeming irrationality of the aesthetic and the socio-cultural (Verganti 2003). Industrial design is interesting in this context both for its content, i.e. as a field of knowledge to be integrated, and because of its process view that may be seen as an approach on how to integrate. This paper thus aims to discuss integration of and by design in order to broaden the dominating technological empirical scope of KI. We will relate integration of and by design to previous understandings of KI as a way to explore the hierarchy of capabilities (Grant 1996a).

    The coming section gives a very brief introduction to KI and its relative neglect of the increasingly important knowledge about what makes people want and desire things apart from their technical functionality or use value. Then follows a section on Design and especially Industrial design where we use Grant’s (1996a) characteristics of KI to discuss how industrial design can contribute to competitive advantage from a KI view. The following section “Integration of and by design” somewhat artificially separates the content of industrial design as a field of knowledge from the view that industrial design may be a leading function pushing the envelope of technological knowledge, and thus a way of integration knowledge(s). Finally there is a discussion summarizing our arguments and findings and proposing how to go on.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose? Design, knowledge, diversity2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Contrasting as a research strategy for highlighting polyphonic sensemaking in stories of organizational life2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field work is a phenomenal but unpredictable source of material for those of us interested in stories of organizing and sensemaking about organizational life. When entering the field we meet people engaged in work and in organizations, who are often keen to tell us what’s going on. These meetings can be both stunning and overwhelming. Where do I start to listen, and where should I stop? The stories of the organization never stop, as new and reoccurring activities needs to be made sense of in the discussions with other organizational actors (Boje, 1991). By relating ongoing events to stories, life in the organization is made meaningful (Czarniawska, 1999). Not all stories of day-to-day life are told with a clear beginning, plot and end, though. The fieldworker interested in narrating the organization becomes a collector of fragmented story parts, and needs to reassemble these parts into a comprehensive whole that can make sense to a reader. The stories possible to tell often become numerous, especially with a longitudinal field study approach. Then how do we choose which stories to tell and how to tell them? One approach is to reassemble several stories told by different actors but relating to the same issue and contrast them against each other. In this paper, experiences of using contrasting as a research strategy for story construction and analysis within one single case study are highlighted and discussed from a sensemaking approach to organizing. The paper illustrates how contrasting can be a used both as a means of embracing polyphony and for avoiding the pitfall of drawing too much attention to consensus building and shedding too little light on conflict, a critique voiced against sensemaking research (Skålén, 2002). Up until now, only a modest amount of empirical research has been done on sensemaking and this is an important research agenda (Weick et al., 2005). This paper contributes to problematizing how empirical research can contribute to the understanding of sensemaking in organizations.

  • 48.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Deconstructing the Motives of Constructing an Intermediary between Public Services and Private Entrepreneurs2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermediary organisations constructed as a link between public service providers and business entrepreneurs is a phenomena which we know very little of. Given the difficulty of relating concrete effects to investments made in business support ventures, we need to know more about the specific arguments behind this organisational construction. When deconstructing the arguments behind one particular venture, several lines of reasoning unfold, revealing motives founded on miscellaneous legitimating elements. The analysis reveals a situation where striving for legitimacy is sometimes more important than actual results and where the private entrepreneur is both the target and the role model.

  • 49.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Hybrid aspects in a public collaboration project - A sensemaking approach to understanding hybridization2008In: Latin American European Meeting on Organization Studies Colloquium,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrids are often thought of as mixtures of organizational models. This paper explores a case that shows how hybridization can occur along several dimensions and discusses how people handle and make sense of hybridity in several aspects. The case of -C to C- is interpreted in terms of an organizational process embedded in a hybrid setting characterized by hybridity in terms of strategic alliances, project organizing in a bureaucratic organizations, and company ideals in public settings. All these characteristics have in common that they imply hybridization between supposed opposites (c.f. Courpasson & Clegg, 2006). The paper displays how a sensemaking approach can be used to further the understanding of hybridization, through directing attention to how people handle uncertainty and ambiguousness in hybrid situations. The paper also point to aspects of hybridity not often discussed in the literature on hybrids; such as hierarchical power relations.   

  • 50.
    Andersson Högberg, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Interprenörskap - Ett FöretagsNära entreprenörskap i det offentligas regi2008In: Perspektiv på förnyelse och entreprenörskap i offentlig verksamhet, Örebro: Forum för Småföretagsforskning , 2008, 1, 107-121 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet diskuteras samverkanssatsningen FöretagsNära som ett exempel på förnyelse av verksamhet i offentlig sektor på tre olika sätt. Frågan jag ställer är om dessa tre aspekter går att förstå med hjälp av entreprenörskapsteori. Det finner jag att de gör. För det första är satsningen förnyande genom sättet att organisera verksamheten på. Detta kan förstås som en form av organisatoriskt entreprenörskap. För det andra innebär satsningen också förnyelse i och med att det handlar om en satsning på en tidigare förbisedd målgrupp för kommunens verksamhet. Detta kan förstås som en form av samhällsentreprenörskap. För det tredje är verksamheten nydanande genom att dess huvudsakliga syfte är att koppla ihop företag med andra företag och även med samhällsorganisationer som kan stötta dem i utveckling och tillväxt. Fokus på den här aspekten av entreprenörskap har inte en framskjuten position inom entreprenörskapslitteraturen. Jag föreslår därför begreppet interprenörskap för att förtydliga och förstå de här aspekterna.  

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