liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 1269
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, Mushtaque
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Decoration of ZnO nanorods with coral reefs like NiO nanostructures by the hydrothermal growth method and their luminescence study2014In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 7, no 1, 430-440 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO on n-type ZnO nanorods have been decorate on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy,  high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation has shown that the adopted synthesis has led to high crystalline quality nanostructures. Morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures were dominated by a near band gap emission at 380 nm and by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence originates mainly from the ZnO nanorods.

  • 2. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Comini, E.
    Dipto. di Chim. e Fis. dei Materaili, INFM, Università di Brescia, Via Valotti 9, I-251 33 Brescia, Italy.
    Sberveglieri, G.
    Dipto. di Chim. e Fis. dei Materaili, INFM, Università di Brescia, Via Valotti 9, I-251 33 Brescia, Italy.
    Finnegan, N.
    Ctr. for Microanalysis of Materials, Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Petrov, I.
    Ctr. for Microanalysis of Materials, Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Erikssion, M.
    Experimental evidence for a dissociation mechanism in NH3 detection with MIS field-effect devices2003In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 89, no 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas response mechanism of ammonia detection with Pt-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field-effect sensors was investigated. An experimental model system was designed which compares the responses of thick continuous Pt layers with controlled morphology and surface chemical composition, with the response of thin, discontinuous layers. The surface of a thick, continuous sputter-deposited Pt film is modified, either by (i) the deposition of a thin SiO2 overlayer, (ii) reactive sputter deposition of PtOx, or (iii) co-deposition of Pt with SiO2 in Ar + O2 atmospheres. We show that the ammonia response is caused by the formation of atomic hydrogen through the dissociation of NH3 at temperatures <200 °C. It is found that the modified surfaces exhibit increased ammonia selectivity compared to a pure Pt film. Results from this work indicate that the reason for the changed selectivity is the appearance of an oxidized PtOx phase or triple phase boundaries between Pt, SiO2 and the ambient gas, rather than for solely morphological reasons. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Comini, E.
    Sberveglieri, G.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Thin oxide films as surface modifiers of MIS field effect gas sensors2002In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 85, no 1-2, 109-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic activity at the surface of Pt based MIS field effect gas sensors is modified by the deposition of thin films of SnO2, Al2O3 and SiO2, grown by reactive sputtering. It is found that a very thin layer (<10 nm) of SiO2 and SnO2 changes the catalytic activity towards higher NH3 selectivity, but with thicker films the sensor response vanishes. Since the response mechanism for these sensors is dependent on dissociation of molecules, it is likely that at low temperatures (140 °C), neither dissociation on nor transport/diffusion through the thicker films takes place. However, with Pt in conjunction with SiO2 or SnO2, the surface reactions will be altered, with enhanced NH3 selectivity as a result. A thin film of Al2O3, on the other hand, has a much smaller influence on the gas response to the test gases used in this work. Furthermore the sputtering process is found to strongly influence the sensor responses, and specifically reduce the sensitivity of the sensor. A thin intermediate layer of evaporated Pt does not completely protect the underlying structure from sputter induced damage. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Haasch, R.T.
    Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Hellgren, N.
    Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Finnegan, N.
    Frederick Seitz Mat. Res. Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Characterization of the metal-insulator interface of field-effect chemical sensors2003In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 93, no 12, 9760-9768 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metal-insulator interface of hydrogen-sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors, with SiO2 as the insulator and Pt as the metal contact, was discussed. It was found that the difference in hydrogen response between differently prepared devices was explained by a difference in concentration of available adsorption sites. The analysis showed that the concentration of Pt atoms in contact with the oxide affected both the hydrogen response and the metal-oxide adhesion.

  • 5. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Influence of gate metal film growth parameters on the properties of gas sensitive field-effect devices2002In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 409, no 2, 233-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of Pt have been grown as gate metals on the oxide surface of gas sensitive field-effect devices. Both electron beam evaporation and dc magnetron sputtering has been used. The energy of the impinging Pt atoms, the substrate temperature and the thickness of the Pt film were used as parameters in this study. The influence of the growth parameters on the gas response has been investigated and compared with the properties of the films, studied by transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The conditions during growth of the Pt film are found to have a large impact on the properties of the device. As expected, crystallinity, morphology and the metal/substrate interfacial structure are also affected by processing parameters. Three different growth processes stand out as the most promising from gas sensor considerations, namely room temperature evaporation, sputtering at high pressures and sputtering at high temperatures. The correlation between gas responses and properties of the gas sensitive layer is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Abrasonis, Gintautas
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Oates, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovacs, Gyoergy J
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Grenzer, Joerg
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heinig, Karl-Heinz H
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Martinavicius, Andrius
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Jeutter, Nicole
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Baehtz, Carsten
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Tucker, Mark
    University of Sydney.
    Bilek, Marcela M M
    University of Sydney.
    Moeller, Wolfhard
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Nanoscale precipitation patterns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite thin films: Period and tilt control via ion energy and deposition angle2010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, no 4, 043503- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic precipitation patterns in C:Ni nanocomposites grown by energetic ion codeposition are investigated. Films were grown at room temperature by ionized physical vapor deposition using a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc. We reveal the role of the film composition, ion energy and incidence angle on the film morphology using transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering. Under these growth conditions, phase separation occurs in a thin surface layer which has a high atomic mobility due to energetic ion impacts. This layer is an advancing reaction front, which switches to an oscillatory mode, producing periodic precipitation patterns. Our results show that the ion induced atomic mobility is not random, as it would be in the case of thermal diffusion but conserves to a large extent the initial direction of the incoming ions. This results in a tilted pattern under oblique ion incidence. A dependence of the nanopattern periodicity and tilt on the growth parameters is established and pattern morphology control via ion velocity is demonstrated.

  • 7.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultberg, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu Mosyagin, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Moscow, Russia.
    Lugovskoy, Andrey V.
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Russia.
    Barannikova, Svetlana A.
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia; Department of Physics and Engineering, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Finite Temperature, Magnetic, and Many-Body Effects in Ab Initio Simulations of Alloy Thermodynamics2013In: TMS2013 Supplemental Proceedings, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, 617-626 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio electronic structure theory is known as a useful tool for prediction of materials properties. However, majority of simulations still deal with calculations in the framework of density functional theory with local or semi-local functionals carried out at zero temperature. We present new methodological solution.s, which go beyond this approach and explicitly take finite temperature, magnetic, and many-body effects into account. Considering Ti-based alloys, we discuss !imitations of the quasiharmonic approximation for the treatment of lattice vibrations, and present an accurate and easily extendable method to calculate free ,energies of strongly anharmonic solids. We underline the necessity to going beyond the state-of-the-art techniques for the determination of effective cluster interactions in systems exhibiting mctal-to-insulator transition, and describe a unified cluster expansion approach developed for this class of materials. Finally, we outline a first-principles method, disordered local moments molecular dynamics, for calculations of thermodynamic properties of magnetic alloys, like Cr1-x,.AlxN, in their high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our results unambiguously demonstrate importance of finite temperature effects in theoretical calculations ofthermodynamic properties ofmaterials.

  • 8.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase Stability and Elasticity of TiAlN2011In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 4, no 9, 1599-1618 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which is of importance when the coating is used as a protective coating on metal cutting inserts.

  • 9.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Ponomareva, A. V.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barannikova, S. A.
    National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia; National Research Tomsk State University, Russia; SB RAS, Russia.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Recent progress in simulations of the paramagnetic state of magnetic materials2016In: Current opinion in solid state & materials science, ISSN 1359-0286, E-ISSN 1879-0348, Vol. 20, no 2, 85-106 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review recent developments in the field of first-principles simulations of magnetic materials above the magnetic order disorder transition temperature, focusing mainly on 3d-transition metals, their alloys and compounds. We review theoretical tools, which allow for a description of a system with local moments, which survive, but become disordered in the paramagnetic state, focusing on their advantages and limitations. We discuss applications of these theories for calculations of thermodynamic and mechanical properties of paramagnetic materials. The presented examples include, among others, simulations of phase stability of Fe, Fe-Cr and Fe-Mn alloys, formation energies of vacancies, substitutional and interstitial impurities, as well as their interactions in Fe, calculations of equations of state and elastic moduli for 3d-transition metal alloys and compounds, like CrN and steels. The examples underline the need for a proper treatment of magnetic disorder in these systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-04-01 13:15
  • 10.
    Adamovic, Dragan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Greene, J.E.
    Materials Science Department and the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Kinetic pathways leading to layer-by-layer growth from hyperthermal atoms: A Multibillion time step molecular dynamics study2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 76, 115418-115425 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ multibillion time step embedded-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the homoepitaxial growth of Pt(111) from hyperthermal Pt atoms (EPt=0.2–50eV) using deposition fluxes approaching experimental conditions. Calculated antiphase diffraction intensity oscillations, based on adatom coverages as a function of time, reveal a transition from a three-dimensional multilayer growth mode with EPt<20eV to a layer-by-layer growth with EPt≥20eV. We isolate the effects of irradiation-induced processes and thermally activated mass transport during deposition in order to identify the mechanisms responsible for promoting layer-by-layer growth. Direct evidence is provided to show that the observed transition in growth modes is primarily due to irradiation-induced processes which occur during the 10ps following the arrival of each hyperthermal atom. The kinetic pathways leading to the transition involve both enhanced intralayer and interlayer adatom transport, direct incorporation of energetic atoms into clusters, and cluster disruption leading to increased terrace supersaturation.

  • 11.
    Adamovic, Dragan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joe
    University of Illinois.
    Enhanced intra- and interlayer mass transport on Pt(111) via 5 - 50 eV Pt atom impacts on two-dimensional Pt clusters2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, 2235-2243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the effects of low-energy (5–50 eV) normally-incident self-ion irradiation of two-dimensional compact Pt3, Pt7, Pt19, and Pt37 clusters on Pt(111). We follow atomistic pathways leading to bombardment-induced intra- and interlayer mass transport. The results can be described in terms of three impact energy regimes. With E ≤ 20 eV, we observe an increase in 2D island dimensions and negligible residual point defect formation. As the impact energy is raised above 20 eV, we observe an increase in irradiation-induced lateral mass transport, a decrease in island size, and the activation of interlayer processes. For E ≥ 35 eV, this trend continues, but point defects, in the form of surface vacancies, are also formed. The results illustrate the richness of the dynamical interaction mechanisms occurring among incident energetic species, target clusters, and substrate atoms, leading to island preservation, reconfiguration, disruption and/or residual point defects formation. We discuss the significance of these results in terms of thin film growth.

  • 12.
    Adamovic, Dragan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joe
    University of Illinois.
    Low-energy ion irradiation during film growth: Kinetic pathways leading to enhanced adatom migration rates2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 86, 211915- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded-atom molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the effects of low-energy self-ion irradiation of Pt adatoms on Pt(111). Here, we concentrate on self-bombardment dynamics, i.e., isolating and monitoring the atomic processes, induced by normally incident Pt atoms with energies E ranging from 5 to 50 eV, that can affect intra- and interlayer mass transport.. We find that adatom scattering, surface channeling, and dimer formation occur at all energies. Atomic intermixing events involving incident and terrace atoms are observed at energies 15  eV, while the collateral formation of residual surface vacancies is observed only with E>40  eV. The overall effect of low-energy self-ion irradiation is to enhance lateral adatom and terrace atom migration. ©2005 American Institute of Physics

  • 13.
    Ahmad, Mohammed Metwally Gomaa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boshta, M.
    National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Farag, B. S.
    National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Osman, M. B. S.
    Ain Shams University, Egypt.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of precursor solutions on the structural and optical properties of sprayed NiO thin films2017In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 64, 32-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel oxide thin films were deposited by a simple and low-cost spray pyrolysis technique using three different precursors: nickel nitrate, nickel chloride, and nickel acetate on corning glass substrates. X-ray diffraction show that the NiO films are polycrystalline and have a cubic crystal structure, although predominantly with a preferred 111-orientation in the growth direction and a random in-plane orientation. The deconvolution of the Ni 2p and O 1s core level X-ray photoelectron-spectra of nickel oxides produced by using different precursors indicates a shift of the binding energies. The sprayed NiO deposited from nickel nitrate has an optical transmittance in the range of 60-65% in the visible region. The optical band gap energies of the sprayed NiO films deposited from nickel nitrate, nickel chloride and nickel acetate are 3.5, 3.2 and 3.43 eV respectively. Also, the extinction coefficient and refractive index of NiO films have been calculated from transmittance and reflectance measurements. The average value of refractive index for sprayed films by nickel nitrate, nickel chloride and nickel acetate are 2.1, 1.6 and 1.85 respectively. It is revealed that the band gap and refractive index of NiO films by using nickel nitrate corresponds to the commonly reported values. We attribute the observed behavior in the optical band gap and optical constants as due to the change of the Ni/O ratio.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-03-16 17:22
  • 14.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aijaz, Asim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide2011In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 20, 4828-4831 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of peak power in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) reactive deposition of TiO(2) films has been studied with respect to the deposition rate and coating properties. With increasing peak power not only the ionization of the sputtered material increases but also their energy. In order to correlate the variation in the ion energy distributions with the film properties, the phase composition, density and optical properties of the films grown with different HiPIMS-parameters have been investigated and compared to a film grown using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). All experiments were performed for constant average power and pulse on time (100W and 35 mu s, respectively), different peak powers were achieved by varying the frequency of pulsing. Ion energy distributions for Ti and O and its dependence on the process conditions have been studied. It was found that films with the highest density and highest refractive index were grown under moderate HiPIMS conditions (moderate peak powers) resulting in only a small loss in mass-deposition rate compared to DCMS. It was further found that TiO2 films with anatase and rutile phases can be grown at room temperature without substrate heating and without post-deposition annealing.

  • 15.
    Aiempanakit, Montri
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Petter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides2011In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 22, 7779-7784 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the further development of reactive sputter deposition, strategies which allow for stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and compound modes, elimination of the process hysteresis, and increase of the deposition rate, are of particular interest. In this study, the hysteresis behavior and the characteristics of the transition zone during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Al and Ce targets in an Ar-O(2) atmosphere as a function of the pulsing frequency and the pumping speed are investigated. Comparison with reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) reveals that HiPIMS allows for elimination/suppression of the hysteresis and a smoother transition from the metallic to the compound sputtering mode. For the experimental conditions employed in the present study, optimum behavior with respect to the hysteresis width is obtained at frequency values between 2 and 4 kHz, while HiPIMS processes with values below or above this range resemble the DCMS behavior. Al-O films are deposited using both HiPIMS and DCMS. Analysis of the film properties shows that elimination/suppression of the hysteresis in HiPIMS facilitates the growth of stoichiometric and transparent Al(2)O(3) at relatively high deposition rates over a wider range of experimental conditions as compared to DCMS.

  • 16.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Louring, Sascha
    Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Synthesis of amorphous carbon thin films using acetylene-based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are synthesized using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) based Ne-Ar/C2H2 discharges. Plasma properties and film growth are investigated under different gas phase composition and operating pressures. Film mass densities, H content, hardness and compressive stresses are measured. Mass densities in the order of 2.2 g/cm3, hardness close to 25 GPa and H content as low as 11% are obtained. The film properties manifest a dependence on energy and flux of the depositing species and energetic ion bombardment driven structural changes in the films are found to govern the resulting film properties.

  • 17.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Louring, Sascha
    Aarhus University, Denmark; Danish Technology Institute, Denmark.
    Lundin, Daniel
    University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon thin films using neon-acetylene based high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges2016In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, no 6, 061504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogenated diamondlike carbon (DLC:H) thin films exhibit many interesting properties that can be tailored by controlling the composition and energy of the vapor fluxes used for their synthesis. This control can be facilitated by high electron density and/or high electron temperature plasmas that allow one to effectively tune the gas and surface chemistry during film growth, as well as the degree of ionization of the film forming species. The authors have recently demonstrated by adding Ne in an Ar-C high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge that electron temperatures can be effectively increased to substantially ionize C species [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 23, 1 (2012)]. The authors also developed an Ar-C2H2 HiPIMS process in which the high electron densities provided by the HiPIMS operation mode enhance gas phase dissociation reactions enabling control of the plasma and growth chemistry [Aijaz et al., Diamond Relat. Mater. 44, 117 (2014)]. Seeking to further enhance electron temperature and thereby promote electron impact induced interactions, control plasma chemical reaction pathways, and tune the resulting film properties, in this work, the authors synthesize DLC: H thin films by admixing Ne in a HiPIMS based Ar/C2H2 discharge. The authors investigate the plasma properties and discharge characteristics by measuring electron energy distributions as well as by studying discharge current characteristics showing an electron temperature enhancement in C2H2 based discharges and the role of ionic contribution to the film growth. These discharge conditions allow for the growth of thick (amp;gt;1 mu m) DLC: H thin films exhibiting low compressive stresses (similar to 0.5 GPa), high hardness (similar to 25 GPa), low H content (similar to 11%), and density in the order of 2.2 g/cm(3). The authors also show that film densification and change of mechanical properties are related to H removal by ion bombardment rather than subplantation. (C) 2016 American Vacuum Society.

  • 18.
    Aijaz, Asim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raza, Mohsin
    Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface (ChIPS), University of Mons, Belgium.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Principles for designing sputtering-based strategies for high-rate synthesis of dense and hard hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films2014In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 44, 117-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we contribute to the understanding that is required for designing sputtering-based routes for high rate synthesis of hard and dense amorphous carbon (a-C) films. We compile and implement a strategy for synthesis of a-C thin films that entails coupling a hydrocarbon gas (acetylene) with high density discharges generated by the superposition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). Appropriate control of discharge density (by tuning HiPIMS/DCMS power ratio), gas phase composition and energy of the ionized depositing species leads to a route capable of providing ten-fold increase in the deposition rate of a-C film growth compared to HiPIMS Ar discharge (Aijaz et al. Diamond and Related Materials 23 (2012) 1). This is achieved without significant incorporation of H (< 10 %) and with relatively high hardness (> 25 GPa) and mass density (~2.32 g/cm3). Using our experimental data together with Monte-Carlo computer simulations and data from the literature we suggest that: (i) dissociative reactions triggered by the interactions of energetic discharge electrons with hydrocarbon gas molecules is an important additional (to the sputtering cathode) source of film forming species and (ii) film microstructure and film hydrogen content are primarily controlled by interactions of energetic plasma species with surface and sub-surface layers of the growing film.

  • 19.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Jon M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase tailoring of Ta thin films by highly ionized pulsed magnetron sputtering2007In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 515, no 7-8, 3434-3438 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ta thin films were grown on Si substrates at different inclination angles with respect to the sputter source using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), an ionized physical vapor deposition technique. The ionization allowed for better control of the energy and directionality of the sputtered species, and consequently for improved properties of the deposited films. Depositions were made on Si substrates with the native oxide intact. The structure of the as deposited films was investigated using X-ray diffraction, while a four-point probe setup was used to measure the resistivity. A substrate bias process-window for growth of bcc-Ta was observed. However, the process-window position changed with changing inclination angles of the substrate. The formation of this low-resistivity bcc-phase could be understood in light of the high ion flux from the HIPIMS discharge.

  • 20.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wilhelmsson, O.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, U.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering of Ti-Si-C thin films from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, 1731-1736 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have deposited Ti-Si-C thin films using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) from a Ti3SiC2 compound target. The as-deposited films were composite materials with TiC as the main crystalline constituent. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that they also contained amorphous SiC, and for films deposited on inclined substrates, crystalline Ti5Si3Cx. The film morphology was dense and flat, while films deposited with dc magnetron sputtering under comparable conditions were rough and porous. Due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered species obtained in HIPIMS, it is possible to control the film composition, in particular the C content, by tuning the substrate inclination angle, the Ar process pressure, and the bias voltage.

  • 21.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Plasma dynamics in a highly ionized pulsed magnetron discharge2005In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 14, no 3, 525-531 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on electrostatic probe measurements of a high-power pulsed magnetron discharge. Space- and time-dependent characteristics of the plasma parameters are obtained as functions of the process parameters. By applying high-power pulses (peak power of ~0.5 MW), with a pulse-on time of ~100 µs and a repetition frequency of 20 ms, peak electron densities of the order of ~1019 m− 3, i.e. three orders of magnitude higher than for a conventional dc magnetron discharge, are achieved soon after the pulse is switched on. At high sputtering gas pressures (>5 mTorr), a second peak occurs in the electron density curve, hundreds of microseconds after the pulse is switched off. This second peak is mainly due to an ion acoustic wave in the plasma, reflecting off the chamber walls. This is concluded from the time delay between the two peaks in the electron and ion saturation currents, which is shown to be dependent on the chamber dimensions and the sputtering gas composition. Finally, the electron temperature is determined, initially very high but decreasing rapidly as the pulse is turned off. The reduction seen in the electron temperature, close to the etched area of the cathode, is due to cooling by the sputtered metal atoms.

  • 22.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion-assisted Physical Vapor Deposition for enhanced film properties on non-flat surfaces2005In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, Vol. 23, no 2, 278-280 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized Ta thin films on Si substrates placed along a wall of a 2-cm-deep and 1-cm-wide trench, using both a mostly neutral Ta flux by conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and a mostly ionized Ta flux by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS). Structure of the grown films was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The Ta thin film grown by HPPMS has a smooth surface and a dense crystalline structure with grains oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas the film grown by dcMS exhibits a rough surface, pores between the grains, and an inclined columnar structure. The improved homogeneity achieved by HPPMS is a direct consequence of the high ion fraction of sputtered species.

  • 23.
    Albani, Giorgia
    et al.
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Perelli Cippo, Enrico
    CNR, Italy.
    Croci, Gabriele
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Muraro, Andrea
    CNR, Italy.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, England.
    Scherillo, Antonella
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, England.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Sweden; Mittuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Kanaki, Kalliopi
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Sweden.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. European Spallat Source ERIC, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Claps, Gerardo
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Murtas, Fabrizio
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Rebai, Marica
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    CNR, Italy.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    University of Milano Bicocca, Italy; CNR, Italy; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Italy.
    Evolution in boron-based GEM detectors for diffraction measurements: from planar to 3D converters2016In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 27, no 11, 115902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called He-3-crisis has motivated the neutron detector community to undertake an intense Ramp;D programme in order to develop technologies alternative to standard He-3 tubes and suitable for neutron detection systems in future spallation sources such as the European spallation source (ESS). Boron-based GEM (gas electron multiplier) detectors are a promising He-3-free technology for thermal neutron detection in neutron scattering experiments. In this paper the evolution of boron-based GEM detectors from planar to 3D converters with an application in diffraction measurements is presented. The use of 3D converters coupled with GEMs allows for an optimization of the detector performances. Three different detectors were used for diffraction measurements on the INES instrument at the ISIS spallation source. The performances of the GEM-detectors are compared with those of conventional He-3 tubes installed on the INES instrument. The conceptual detector with the 3D converter used in this paper reached a count rate per unit area of about 25% relative to the currently installed He-3 tube. Its timing resolution is similar and the signal-to-background ratio (S/B) is 2 times lower.

  • 24.
    Alemon, B.
    et al.
    University of Guadalajara, Mexico .
    Flores, M.
    University of Guadalajara, Mexico .
    Canto, C.
    Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, Mexico.
    Andrade, E.
    Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, Mexico.
    de Lucio, O.G.
    Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, Mexico.
    Rocha, M.F.
    ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CNx multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering2014In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, Vol. 331, 134-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel TiAlCN/CNx, multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CNx periods with a top layer 0.5 mu m of CNx, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti0.5Al0.5 and C targets respectively in a N-2/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

  • 25.
    Alemon, B.
    et al.
    University of Guadalajara, Mexico; Tecnol Monterrey, Mexico.
    Flores, M.
    University of Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Ramirez, W.
    University of Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Huegel, J. C.
    Tecnol Monterrey, Mexico.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tribocorrosion behavior and ions release of CoCrMo alloy coated with a TiAlVCN/CNx multilayer in simulated body fluid plus bovine serum albumin2015In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 81, 159-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the CoCrMo biomaterial is currently employed in artificial joints, there are medical concerns regarding its metal ion release and material loss caused by tribocorrosion. In this work, a TiAlVCN/CNx multilayer coating has been employed to improve the tribocorrosion-resistance of the CoCrMo substrate. During the tribocorrosion test, with the sample immersed in a simulated body fluid containing bovine serum albumin, open-circuit potential measurements showed more noble potential as well as a reduction of both the friction coefficient and wear-rate during the sliding phase. Inductive coupled plasma results demonstrate that the multilayer coating effectively blocked the emigration of metallic ions.

  • 26.
    Alexandrou, I
    et al.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England Fraunhofer Inst Mat & Beam Technol, D-01277 Dresden, Germany Univ Cambridge, Dept Engn, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, England Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Scheibe, HJ
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England Fraunhofer Inst Mat & Beam Technol, D-01277 Dresden, Germany Univ Cambridge, Dept Engn, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, England Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kiely, CJ
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England Fraunhofer Inst Mat & Beam Technol, D-01277 Dresden, Germany Univ Cambridge, Dept Engn, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, England Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Papworth, AJ
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England Fraunhofer Inst Mat & Beam Technol, D-01277 Dresden, Germany Univ Cambridge, Dept Engn, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, England Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Amaratunga, GAJ
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England Fraunhofer Inst Mat & Beam Technol, D-01277 Dresden, Germany Univ Cambridge, Dept Engn, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, England Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    HREM and EELS analysis of fullerene-like carbon films1999In: Institute of Physics Conference Series, ISSN 0951-3248, no 161, 369-372 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon thin films were grown by Laser-Arc deposition and their structure and bonding were examined using High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Through focal series of HREM images reveal that the film consists of curved graphene sheets forming swirls and concentric rings with a diameter of 4-6 nm. The sheet spacing was determined by selected area diffraction to be 0.363 nm. Contrast transfer function calculations are used to explain why the pattern formed by the curved sheets is more evident at Gaussian focus rather than at Scherzer defocus, Although the films demonstrate high microhardness and elastic recovery, qualitative assessment of the EELS spectra reveals that the film consists primarily of sp(2) hybridised carbon. A model is proposed to describe how such a material made of graphene sheets can exhibit such remarkable mechanical properties.

  • 27.
    Ali, M.
    et al.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Svensk, Olle
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Zhen, Z.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Suihkonen, S.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Törmä, P.T.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Lipsanen, H.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Sopanen, M.
    Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Micronova, Department of Micro and Nanosciences, P.O. Box 3500, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland.
    Hjort, Klas
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reduced photoluminescence from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures following 40 MeV iodine ion irradiation2009In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 404, no 23-24, 4925-4928 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects following ion irradiation of GaN-based devices are still limited. Here we present data on the photoluminescence (PL) emitted from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures, which have been exposed to 40 MeV I ion irradiation. The PL is reduced as a function of applied ion fluence, with essentially no PL signal left above 1011 ions/cm2. It is observed that even the ion fluences in the 109 ions/cm2 range have a pronounced effect on the photoluminescence properties of the MQW structures. This may have consequences concerning application of InGaN/GaN MQW’s in radiation-rich environments, in addition to defect build-up during ion beam analysis.

  • 28.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden; Corning Inc, NY 14831 USA.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and characterization of the mechanical and optical properties of Ca-Si-O-N thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering2017In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 315, 88-94 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ca-Si-O-N thin films were deposited on commercial soda-lime silicate float glass, silica wafers and sapphire substrates by RF magnetron co-sputtering from Ca and Si targets in an Ar/N-2/O-2 gas mixture. Chemical composition, surface morphology, hardness, reduced elastic modulus and optical properties of the films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that the composition of the films can be controlled by the Ca target power, predominantly, and by the reactive gas flow. Thin films in the Ca-Si-O-N system are composed of N and Ca contents up to 31 eq. % and 60 eq. %, respectively. The films thickness ranges from 600 to 3000 nm and increases with increasing Ca target power. The films surface roughness varied between 2 and 12 nm, and approximately decreases with increasing power of Ca target. The hardness (4-12 GPa) and reduced elastic modulus (65-145 GPa) of the films increase and decrease with the N and Ca contents respectively. The refractive index (1.56-1.82) is primarily dictated by the N content. The properties are compared with findings for bulk glasses in the Ca-Si-(Al)-O-N systems, and it is concluded that Ca-Si-O-N thin films have higher values of hardness, elastic modulus and refractive index than bulk glasses of similar composition. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-02-13 13:58
  • 29.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Novel transparent Mg-Si-O-N thin films with high hardness and refractive index2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for glass materials with better mechanical and optical properties for display and electronic applications. This paper describes the deposition of novel thin films of Mg-circle divide-Si-O-N onto float glass substrates. Amorphous thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system with high nitrogen and magnesium contents were deposited by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from Mg and Si targets in Ar/N-2/O-2 gas mixtures. The thin films studied span an unprecedented range of compositions up to 45 at% Mg and 80 at% N out of cations and anions respectively. Thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system were found to be homogeneous and transparent in the visible region. Mechanical properties like hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) show high values, up to 21 GPa and 166 GPa respectively. The refractive index (1.87-2.00) increases with increasing magnesium and nitrogen contents. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-24 15:07
  • 30.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metal to semiconductor transition and phase stability of Ti1-xMgxNy alloys investigated by first-principles calculations2014In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 89, no 8, 085112- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium nitride based materials are applied in several technological applications owing to their stability at high temperatures, mechanical and optical properties, as well as good electrical conductivity. Here, I use theoretical first-principles methods to investigate the possibilities for a semiconducting state as well as the phase stability of Ti1-x MgxNy ternary alloys and compounds. I demonstrate that B1 (NaCl) solid solutions of Ti1-xMgxN with x less than= 0.5 are thermodynamically stable with respect to all previously reported phases in the Ti-Mg-N system. For the composition x = 0.5, an ordered TiMgN2 phase with an L1(1)-type order of Ti and Mg on the metal sublattice is predicted to be the configurational ground state at low temperatures. Other ordered phases present in neighboring materials systems are considered but are found to be unstable. The electronic origin of the stability of the B1 structure solid solutions is identified. A metal to semiconductor transition is observed as the Mg content is increased to x = 0.5. TiMgN2 as well as disordered Ti0.5Mg0.5N solid solution are investigated with hybrid functional calculations and predicted to be semiconductors with band gaps of 1.1 eV and around 1.3 eV, respectively, the latter depending on the details of the Ti and Mg configuration.

  • 31.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultberg, L
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strong electron correlations stabilize paramagnetic cubic Cr1-xAlxN solid solutions2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of rock salt structure cubic Cr1-xAlxN solid solutions at high Al content and high temperature has made it one of the most important materials systems for protective coating applications. We show that the strong electron correlations in a material with dynamic magnetic disorder is the underlying reason for the observed stability against isostructural decomposition. This is done by using the first-principles disordered local moments molecular dynamics technique, which allows us to simultaneously consider electronic, magnetic, and vibrational degrees of freedom.

  • 32.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armiento, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary (M1-xMxB2)-M-1-B-2 alloys with AlB2 type structure2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary (M1-xMxB2)-M-1-B-2 alloys comprising (MB2)-B-i (M-i = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1-xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at E-F in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2.

  • 33.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hall-Wilton, R.
    European Spallat Source ESS AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mixing thermodynamics of TM(1-x)Gd(x)N (TM=Ti, Zr, Hf) from first principles2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 24, 241911- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mixing thermodynamics of GdN with TiN, ZrN, and HfN is studied using first-principles methods. We find that while Ti(1-x)Gd(x)N has a strong preference for phase separation due to the large lattice mismatch, Zr(1-x)Gd(x)N and Hf(1-x)Gd(x)N readily mix, possibly in the form of ordered compounds. In particular, ZrGdN(2) is predicted to order in a rocksalt counterpart to the L1(1) structure at temperatures below 1020 K. These mixed nitrides are promising candidates as neutron absorbing, thermally and chemically stable, thin film materials.

  • 34.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isaev, Eyvas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Metastability of fcc-related Si-N phases2008In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 78, no 13, 132103-132103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of superhardening in TiN/SiNx nanocomposites and the prediction of extreme hardness in bulk gamma-Si3N4 have attracted a large interest to this material system. Attempts to explain the experimental findings by means of first-principles calculations have so far been limited to static calculations. The dynamical stability of suggested structures of the SiNx tissue phase critical for the understanding of the nanocomposites is thus unknown. Here, we present a theoretical study of the phonon-dispersion relations of B1 and B3 SiN. We show that both phases previously considered as metastable are dynamically unstable. Instead, two pseudo-B3 Si3N4 phases derived from a L1(2)- or D0(22)-type distribution of Si vacancies are dynamically stable and might explain recent experimental findings of epitaxial SiNx in TiN/SiNx multilayers.

  • 35.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Karimi, A.
    Institute of Physics of Complex Matter.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    First-principles study of the effect of nitrogen vacancies on the decomposition pattern in cubic Ti1-xAlxN1-y2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 92, 071903-1-071903-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      The effect of nitrogen substoichiometry on the isostructural phase stabilities of the cubic Ti1−xAlxN1−y system has been investigated using first-principles calculations. The preferred isostructural decomposition pattern in these metastable solid solutions was predicted from the total energy calculations on a dense concentration grid. Close to the stoichiometric Ti1−xAlxN1 limit, N vacancies increase the tendency for phase separation as N sticks to Al while the vacancies prefers Ti neighbors. For nitrogen depleated conditions, N sticks to Ti forming TiN (0<<1) while Al tends to form nitrogen-free fcc-Al or Al–Ti alloys.

  • 36.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khatibi, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theoretical investigation of cubic B1-like and corundum (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions2013In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are employed to investigate the stability and properties of cubic rock-salt-like (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions, stabilized by metal site vacancies as recently reported experimentally. It is demonstrated that the metal site vacancies can indeed be ordered in a way that gives rise to a suitable fourfold coordination of all O atoms in the lattice. B1-like structures with ordered and disordered metal site vacancies are studied for (Cr0.5Al0.5)2O3 and found to have a cubic lattice spacing close to the values reported experimentally, in contrast to fluorite-like and perovskite structures. The obtained B1-like structures are higher in energy than corundum solid solutions for all compositions, but with an energy offset per atom similar to other metastable systems possible to synthesize with physical vapor deposition techniques. The obtained electronic structures show that the B1-like systems are semiconducting although with smaller band gaps than the corundum structure.

  • 37.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khatibi, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theoretical investigation of cubic B1-like and corundum (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are employed to investigate the stability and properties of cubic rock-salt like (Cr1−xAlx)2O3 solid solutions, stabilized by metal site vacancies as recently reported experimentally. It is demonstrated that the metal site vacancies can indeed be ordered in a way that gives rise to a favorable coordination of all O atoms in the lattice. B1-like structures with ordered and disordered metal site vacancies are studied for (Cr0.5Al0.5)2O3 and found to a have cubic lattice spacing close to the values reported experimentally, in contrast to fluorite-like and perovskite structures. The obtained B1-like structures are higher in energy than corundum solid solutions for all compositions, but with an energy offset per atom similar to other metastable systems possible to synthesize with physical vapor deposition techniques. The obtained electronic structures show that the B1-like systems are semiconducting although with smaller band gaps than the corundum structure.

  • 38.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Koermann, F.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany; Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Grabowski, B.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Glensk, A.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia.
    Neugebauer, J.
    Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Strong impact of lattice vibrations on electronic and magnetic properties of paramagnetic Fe revealed by disordered local moments molecular dynamics2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 93, no 22, 224411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of lattice vibrations on magnetic and electronic properties of paramagnetic bcc and fcc iron at finite temperature, employing the disordered local moments molecular dynamics (DLM-MD) method. Vibrations strongly affect the distribution of local magnetic moments at finite temperature, which in turn correlates with the local atomic volumes. Without the explicit consideration of atomic vibrations, the mean local magnetic moment and mean field derived magnetic entropy of paramagnetic bcc Fe are larger compared to paramagnetic fcc Fe, which would indicate that the magnetic contribution stabilizes the bcc phase at high temperatures. In the present study we show that this assumption is not valid when the coupling between vibrations and magnetism is taken into account. At the gamma-delta transition temperature (1662 K), the lattice distortions cause very similar magnetic moments of both bcc and fcc structures and hence magnetic entropy contributions. This finding can be traced back to the electronic densities of states, which also become increasingly similar between bcc and fcc Fe with increasing temperature. Given the sensitive interplay of the different physical excitation mechanisms, our results illustrate the need for an explicit consideration of vibrational disorder and its impact on electronic and magnetic properties to understand paramagnetic Fe. Furthermore, they suggest that at the gamma-delta transition temperature electronic and magnetic contributions to the Gibbs free energy are extremely similar in bcc and fcc Fe.

  • 39.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pressure enhancement of the isostructural cubic decomposition in Ti1−xAlxN2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 95, no 181906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pressure on the phase stabilities of Ti1−xAlxN solid solutions has been studied using first principles calculations. We find that the application of hydrostatic pressure enhances the tendency for isostructural decomposition, including spinodal decomposition. The effect originates in the gradual pressure stabilization of cubic AlN with respect to the wurtzite structure and an increased isostructural cubic mixing enthalpy with increased pressure. The influence is sufficiently strong in the composition-temperature interval corresponding to a shoulder of the spinodal line that it could impact the stability of the material at pressures achievable in the tool-work piece contact during cutting operations

  • 40.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ruban, A. V.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Material Science and Engineering.
    Karimi, A
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, IPMC.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A unified cluster expansion method applied to the configurational thermodynamics of cubic TiAlN2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 83, no 10, 104203- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a study of the cubic Ti1−xAlxN system to illustrate a practical way of combining the major methodologies within alloy theory, the Connolly-Williams cluster expansion and the generalized perturbation method, in order to solve difficult alloy problems. The configurational, concentration dependent, Hamiltonian is separated into a fixed-lattice and a local lattice relaxation part. The effective cluster interactions of the first part is obtained primarily with a GPM-based approach while the later is obtained using cluster expansion. In our case the impact on the isostructural phase diagram of considering short range clustering beyond the mean field approximation, obtained from the mixing enthalpy and entropy of the random alloy, is rather small, especially in the composition region x ≤ 0.66, within reach of thin film growth techniques.

  • 41.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ruban, A. V.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Karimi, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL).
    Peil, O. E.
    Uppsala University.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mixing and decomposition thermodynamics of c-Ti1-xAlxN from first-principles calculations2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, no 045123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wedescribe an efficient first-principles method that can be used tocalculate mixing enthalpies of transition metal nitrides with B1 structureand substitutional disorder at the metal sublattice. The technique isbased on the density functional theory. The independent sublattice modelis suggested for the treatment of disorder-induced local lattice relaxationeffects. It supplements the description of the substitutional disorder withinthe coherent potential approximation. We demonstrate the excellent accuracy ofthe method by comparison with calculations performed by means ofthe projector augumented wave method on supercells constructed as specialquasirandom structures. At the same time, the efficiency of thetechnique allows for total energy calculations on a very finemesh of concentrations which enables a reliable calculation of thesecond concentration derivative of the alloy total energy. This isa first step towards first-principles predictions of concentrations and temperatureintervals where the alloy decomposition proceeds via the spinodal mechanism.We thus calculate electronic structure, lattice parameter, and mixing enthalpiesof the quasibinary alloy c-Ti1−xAlxN. The lattice parameter follows Vegard'slaw at low fractions of AlN but deviates increasingly withincreasing Al content. We show that the asymmetry of themixing enthalpy and its second concentration derivative is associated withsubstantial variations of the electronic structure with alloy composition. Thephase diagram is constructed within the mean-field approximation.

  • 42.
    Alling, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Steneget, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tholander, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Configurational disorder effects on adatom mobilities on Ti1-xAlxN(001) surfaces from first principles2012In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 85, no 24, 245422- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use metastable NaCl-structure Ti0.5Al0.5N alloys to probe effects of configurational disorder on adatom surface diffusion dynamics which control phase stability and nanostructural evolution during film growth. First-principles calculations were employed to obtain energy potential maps of Ti and Al adsorption on an ordered TiN(001) reference surface and a disordered Ti0.5Al0.5N(001) solid-solution surface. The energetics of adatom migration on these surfaces are determined and compared to isolate effects of configurational disorder. The results show that alloy surface disorder dramatically reduces Ti adatom mobilities. Al adatoms, in sharp contrast, experience only small disorder-induced differences in migration dynamics.

  • 43.
    Almer, Jonathan
    et al.
    IKP, Konstruktionsmaterial Linköpings universitet.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Håkansson, Greger
    Tixon Brukens Sverige AB Linköping.
    Microstructural evolution during tempering of arc-evaporated Cr-N coatings2000In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, Vol. 18, no 1, 121-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr-N coatings were arc-deposited at 50 and 300 V. The changes in the coating microstructure and phase content during tempering were monitored. As a result, the phase stability and activation energies for defect diffusion were determined as a function of ion energy.

  • 44.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chey, Chan Oeurn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods2015In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 5, no 8, 087180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 degrees C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (mu-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  • 45.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, no 16, 165702- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5M exhibit stronger yellow emission (similar to 575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 46.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seed layer synthesis effect on the concentration of interface defects and emission spectra of ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light-emitting diode2017In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, no 1, 1600333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the low-temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS), holds great promises for the synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructure-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and hence require parameter tuning for optimal performance. N-ZnO nanorods (NRs)/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs have been synthesized by the LT-ACS using ZnO nanoparticle (NPs) seed layers prepared with different precursor solutions. The effect of these seed layers on the interface defect properties and emission intensity of the as-synthesized n-Zn/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs has been demonstrated by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) and electroluminescence (EL) measurements, respectively. A significant reduction of the interface defects in the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure synthesized from a seed layer prepared from zinc acetate (ZnAc) with a mixture of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) (donated as ZKH seed) compared with those prepared from ZnAc and KOH (donated as ZK seed) is observed as revealed by spatially resolved CL. Consequently, the LEDs based on n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN prepared from ZKH seed show an improvement in the yellow emission (approximate to 578nm) compared to that based on the ZK seed as deduced from the electroluminescence measurements. The improvement in the yellow EL emission on the ZKH LED probably attributed to the low presence of the non-radiative defect as deduced by light-output current (L-I) characteristics analysis.

  • 47.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Savoyant, Adrien
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An effective low-temperature solution synthesis of Co-doped [0001]-oriented ZnO nanorods2017In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 121, no 21, 215102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate an efficient possibility to synthesize vertically aligned pure zinc oxide (ZnO) and Co-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) using the low-temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (90 degrees C). Two different mixing methods of the synthesis solutions were investigated for the Co-doped samples. The synthesized samples were compared to pure ZnO NRs regarding the Co incorporation and crystal quality. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements confirmed the substitution of Co2+ inside the ZnO NRs, giving a highly anisotropic magnetic Co2+ signal. The substitution of Zn2+ by Co2+ was observed to be combined with a drastic reduction in the core-defect (CD) signal (g similar to 1.956) which is seen in pure ZnO NRs. As revealed by the cathodoluminescence (CL), the incorporation of Co causes a slight red-shift of the UV peak position combined with an enhancement in the intensity of the defect-related yellow-orange emission compared to pure ZnO NRs. Furthermore, the EPR and the CL measurements allow a possible model of the defect configuration in the samples. It is proposed that the as-synthesized pure ZnO NRs likely contain Zn interstitial (Zn-i(+)) as CDs and oxygen vacancy (V-O) or oxygen interstitial (O-i) as surface defects. As a result, Co was found to likely occupy the Zn-i(+), leading to the observed CDs reduction and hence enhancing the crystal quality. These results open the possibility of synthesis of highly crystalline quality ZnO NRs-based diluted magnetic semiconductors using the low-temperature aqueous chemical method. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 48.
    Amini, Shahram
    et al.
    Drexel University.
    Cordoba Gallego, Jose M
    Los Alamos National Laboratory.
    McGhie, Andrew R
    University of Pennsylvania.
    Ni, Chaoying
    University of Delaware.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oden, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the Stability of Mg Nanograins to Coarsening after Repeated Melting2009In: NANO LETTERS, ISSN 1530-6984, Vol. 9, no 8, 3082-3086 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we report on the extraordinary thermal stability of similar to 35 nm Mg-nanograins that constitute the matrix of a Ti2AlC-Mg composite that has previously been shown to have excellent mechanical properties. The microstructure is so stable that heating the composite three times to 700 degrees C, which is 50 degrees C over the melting point of Mg, not only resulted in the repeated melting of the Mg, but surprisingly and within the resolution of our differential scanning calorimeter, did not lead to any coarsening. The reduction in the Mg melting point due to the nanograins was similar to 50 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and neutron spectroscopy results suggest that thin, amorphous, and/or poorly crystallized rutile, anatase, and/or magnesia layers separate the Mg nanograins and prevent them from coarsening. Clearly that layer is thin enough, and thus mechanically robust enough, to survive the melting and solidification stresses encountered during cycling. Annealing in hydrogen at 250 degrees C for 20 h, also did not seem to alter the grain size significantly.

  • 49.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Chen, K. H.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ~1-5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to -22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies justify the three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers.! The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ~3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = -15.5 meV.

  • 50.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Thaksin University, Thailand.
    Karlsson, K. Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin O
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Academia Sinica, Taiwan .
    Chen, K. H.
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan; National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centers2014In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 25, no 49, 495702- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ∼1–5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to −22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies are only justified by a three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers. The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ∼3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = −15.5 meV. 

1234567 1 - 50 of 1269
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf