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  • 1.
    Alarcon, Emilio I
    et al.
    University of Ottawa.
    Udekwu, Klas
    Karolinska Institute.
    Skog, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pacioni, NataliL
    University of Ottawa.
    Stamplecoskie, Kevin G
    University of Ottawa.
    Gonzalez-Bejar, Maria
    University of Ottawa.
    Polisetti, Naresh
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wickham, Abeni
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Scaiano, Juan C
    University of Ottawa.
    The biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of collagen-stabilized, photochemically prepared silver nanoparticles2012In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 33, no 19, p. 4947-4956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spherical 3.5 nm diameter silver nanoparticles (AgNP) stabilized in type I collagen (AgNP@collagen) were prepared in minutes (5-15 min) at room temperature by a photochemical method initiated by UVA irradiation of a water-soluble non-toxic benzoin. This biocomposite was examined to evaluate its biocompatibility and its anti-bacterial properties and showed remarkable properties. Thus, while keratinocytes and fibroblasts were not affected by AgNP@collagen, it was bactericidal against Bacillus megaterium and E. coli but only bacteriostatic against S. epidermidis. In particular, the bactericidal properties displayed by AgNP@collagen were proven to be due to AgNP in AgNP@collagen, rather than to released silver ions, since equimolar concentrations of Ag are about four times less active than AgNP@collagen based on total Ag content. This new biocomposite was stable over a remarkable range of NaCl, phosphate, and 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid concentrations and for over one month at 4 degrees C. Circular dichroism studies show that the conformation of collagen in AgNP@collagen remains intact. Finally, we have compared the properties of AgNP@collagen with a similar biocomposite prepared using alpha-poly-L-Lysine and also with citrate stabilized AgNP; neither of these materials showed comparable biocompatibility, stability, or anti-bacterial activity.

  • 2.
    Austeng, Dordi
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Blennow, Mats
    Karolinska University Hospital .
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University.
    Fellman, Vineta
    Lund University.
    Fritz, Thomas
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Hellstrom-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University.
    Hellstrom, Ann
    University Gothenburg.
    Holmgren, Per Åke
    Umea University Hospital.
    Holmstrom, Gerd
    Uppsala University.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Jeppsson, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Kent
    Umeå University.
    Kallen, Karin
    Lund University.
    Lagercrantz, Hugo
    Astrid Lindgren Childrens Hospital.
    Laurini, Ricardo
    Bodo Central Hospital.
    Lindberg, Eva
    University of Örebro.
    Lundqvist, Anita
    Lund University.
    Marsal, Karel
    Lund University.
    Nilstun, Tore
    Lund University.
    Norden-Lindeberg, Solveig
    Uppsala University.
    Norman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute.
    Olhager, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Oestlund, Ingrid
    University of Örebro.
    Serenius, Fredrik
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Simic, Marija
    Karolinska University Hospital .
    Sjors, Gunnar
    Uppsala University.
    Stigson, Lennart
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Stjernqvist, Karin
    Lund University.
    Stromberg, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Tornqvist, Kristina
    Lund University.
    Wennergren, Margareta
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Wallin, Agneta
    Karolinska University.
    Westgren, Magnus
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Incidence of and risk factors for neonatal morbidity after active perinatal care: extremely preterm infants study in Sweden (EXPRESS)2010In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 99, no 7, p. 978-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of neonatal morbidity in extremely preterm infants and to identify associated risk factors. Methods: Population based study of infants born before 27 gestational weeks and admitted for neonatal intensive care in Sweden during 2004-2007. Results: Of 638 admitted infants, 141 died. Among these, life support was withdrawn in 55 infants because of anticipation of poor long-term outcome. Of 497 surviving infants, 10% developed severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), 5.7% cystic periventricular leucomalacia (cPVL), 41% septicaemia and 5.8% necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC); 61% had patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and 34% developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) stage andgt;= 3. Eighty-five per cent needed mechanical ventilation and 25% developed severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Forty-seven per cent survived to one year of age without any severe IVH, cPVL, severe ROP, severe BPD or NEC. Tocolysis increased and prolonged mechanical ventilation decreased the chances of survival without these morbidities. Maternal smoking and higher gestational duration were associated with lower risk of severe ROP, whereas PDA and poor growth increased this risk. Conclusion: Half of the infants surviving extremely preterm birth suffered from severe neonatal morbidities. Studies on how to reduce these morbidities and on the long-term health of survivors are warranted.

  • 3.
    Austeng, Dordi
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Kallen, Karin B M
    Lund University.
    Ewald, Uwe W
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Holmstrom, Gerd E
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants Born Before 27 Weeks Gestation in Sweden2009In: ARCHIVES OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, ISSN 0003-9950, Vol. 127, no 10, p. 1315-1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 27 weeks gestation in Sweden during a 3-year period. Methods: A national, prospective, population-based study was performed in Sweden from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2007. The ophthalmologic part of the study was separately organized, and screening for ROP was performed beginning postnatal week 5. The criteria for the treatment of ROP agreed with the recommendations of the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group. Results: During the study, 506 of 707 live-born infants survived until the first eye examination. Of these, 368 (72.7%) had ROP: 37.9% had mild ROP and 34.8% had severe ROP. Ninety-nine infants (19.6%) were treated. Gestational age at birth was a stronger predictor of ROP than was birth weight. A log-linear relationship between severe ROP and gestational age at birth was found in the present cohort, and the risk of ROP was reduced by 50% for each week of increase in gestational age at birth. Conclusions: Today, extremely preterm infants are surviving, and this population-based study with ROP as a primary outcome shows a higher incidence of this condition than in previously reported national cohorts.

  • 4.
    Austeng, Dordi
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Kallen, Karin B M
    Lund University.
    Hellstrom, Ann
    University of Gothenburg.
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Johansson, Kent
    Norrlands University Hospital.
    Tornqvist, Kristina
    Lund University Hospital.
    Wallin, Agneta
    St Eriks Eye Hospital.
    Holmstrom, Gerd E
    Uppsala University.
    Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants Born Before 27 Weeks Gestation in Sweden2011In: ARCHIVES OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, ISSN 0003-9950, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during a 3-year period in a national cohort of infants born before 27 weeks gestation. Methods: A national prospective study of neonatal morbidity in extremely preterm infants was performed in Sweden between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007. Screening for ROP was to start in the fifth postnatal week and to continue weekly until complete vascularization of the retina or until regression of ROP. Results: The first eye examination was performed no later than the sixth postnatal week in 84.8% of 506 infants, and the last examination was performed at postmenstrual age (PMA) of 38 weeks or later in 96.2% of infants. The mean and median numbers of days between examinations in the total cohort were 8.6 and 7.9 days, respectively (range, 1-27.8 days), and the mean and me-dian numbers of examinations were 12 and 10, respectively. Most infants were treated during a limited period (eg, at PMA of 39 weeks, 75.0% of infants had been treated). Conclusions: The objective of screening for ROP is timely detection of ROP before reaching treatment of criteria, ie, type 1 ROP, according to the Early Treatment for ROP recommendations. In our population of infants born before 27 weeks gestation, the first examination could safely be postponed until PMA of 31 weeks because the onset of ROP stage 3 did not occur before then and criteria for treatment were not reached before PMA of 32 weeks. Gestational age at birth and PMA at the time of examination should be considered when deciding when and where the next examination should be performed.

  • 5.
    Blake, Jessie A
    et al.
    University of Ottawa.
    Bareiss, Bettina
    University of Ottawa.
    Jimenez, Liliana
    University of Ottawa.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Scaiano, J C
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Design of xanthone propionate photolabile protecting group releasing acyclovir for the treatment of ocular herpes simplex virus2012In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 539-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have attached the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) to a xanthone photolabile protecting group (or photocage) through the O6 position of acyclovir, a procedure designed for the treatment of ocular herpes simplex virus infections. Acyclovir is photoreleased from the photocage, under physiological conditions, with a quantum yield (Phi(ACV release)) of 0.1-0.3 and an uncaging cross section (Phi.epsilon) of 450-1350 M cm(-1). We demonstrate that this photorelease method outcompetes alternative reaction pathways, such as protonation. Furthermore, complete release of the drug is theoretically possible given a sufficient dose of light. Surprisingly the acyclovir photocage, also showed some antiviral activity towards HSV-1.

  • 6.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Angiogenesis from a new perspective2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiogenesis is the emergence of new blood and lymph vessels from existing ones. In the pathologic form it contributes to the onset and progression of numerous different human disorders such as cancer, inflammation, atherosclerosis and blinding eye diseases. There exist a number of models to study angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, but there is no single perfect model so far. Consequently there is a need to develop new angiogenesis assays for evaluating blood and lymph vessel behaviour in different physiologic settings.

    The aim of this thesis was to gain insight into in vivo angiogenesis introducing a new technique in an inflammatory corneal model. The method involved in vivo examination of the cornea and subsequent comparison of in vivo findings with ex vivo immunohistochemical analysis of the same tissue samples. An existing suture model for inflammatory angiogenesis in the cornea was modified for in vivo observations with a clinically-approved corneal confocal microscope.

    In this thesis, corneal lymph vessels were characterized for the first time in vivo and findings from the experimental bench could be applied in a clinical setting, where presumed lymphatics were observed in a corneal transplant patient with rejection. Furthermore, the technique was extended to investigate time-lapse processes in sprouting and regressing capillaries, and led to a number of new observations. CD11b+ myeloid cells constitute the first bulk of infiltrating inflammatory cells and contribute to inflammatory sprouting and regression in numerous ways including pre-patterning of the corneal stroma and guiding of capillary sprouts. Newly formed hemangiogenic sprouts are perfused with a slow-moving fluid and have a lumen. In blood vessel regression, capillary remodeling occurred by abandonment of sprout tips in close association with macrophages and vascular loops formed by presumed intussusceptive angiogenesis. In addition, a network of pericyte- and endothelium-free basement membrane tubes was formed after desertion or degradation of vascular endothelium in former corneal capillaries.

    In conclusion, we introduce a new in vivo technique for investigating angiogenesis in a corneal model were in vivo findings can be interpreted with ex vivo definitions of specific cell types by immunohistochemistry. Findings from pre-clinical experiments have been possible to apply in a clinical setting when examining patients with corneal pathology.

    List of papers
    1. Cellular-Level Characterization of Lymph Vessels in Live, Unlabeled Corneas by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellular-Level Characterization of Lymph Vessels in Live, Unlabeled Corneas by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy
    2010 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 830-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To determine whether in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the cornea can be used for the label-free detection and monitoring of lymph vessels in live corneas.

    METHODS. Parallel corneal hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis was induced by the placement of a single suture in one cornea of male Wistar rats. Fourteen days after suture placement and under general anesthesia, laser-scanning IVCM was performed in the vascularized region. Corneas were subsequently excised for flat-mount double immunofluorescence with a pan-endothelial marker (PECAM-1/CD31) and a lymphatic endothelial specific marker (LYVE-1). Using the suture area and prominent blood vessels as points of reference, the identical microscopic region was located in both fluorescent and archived in vivo images. Additionally, vessel diameter, lumen contrast, and cell diameter and velocity within vessels were quantified from in vivo images.

    RESULTS. Comparison of identical corneal regions in fluorescence and in vivo revealed prominent CD31(+)/LYVE-1(3+) lymph vessels that were visible in vivo. In vivo, corneal lymph vessels were located in the vascularized area in the same focal plane as blood vessels but had a darker lumen (P andlt; 0.001) sparsely populated by highly reflective cells with diameters similar to those of leukocytes in blood vessels (P = 0.61). Cell velocity in lymph vessels was significantly reduced compared with blood particle velocity (P andlt; 0.001). Morphologic characteristics enabled subsequent identification of corneal lymphatics in live, vascularized rat corneas before immunofluorescence labeling.

    CONCLUSIONS. IVCM enabled the nondestructive, label-free, in vivo detection of corneal lymphatics. IVCM provides the possibility of observing lymphatic activity in the same live corneas longitudinally and, as a clinical instrument, of monitoring corneal lymphatics in live human subjects.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Rockville, MD, United States: , 2010
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53820 (URN)10.1167/iovs.09-4407 (DOI)000273704700030 ()
    Available from: 2010-02-05 Created: 2010-02-05 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Letter: In vivo confocal microscopy visualization of presumed lymph vessels in a case of corneal transplant rejection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letter: In vivo confocal microscopy visualization of presumed lymph vessels in a case of corneal transplant rejection
    2011 (English)In: Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, ISSN 1442-6404, E-ISSN 1442-9071, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 832-834Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72259 (URN)10.1111/j.1442-9071.2011.02557.x (DOI)000296913900016 ()
    Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-11-24 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Time-Lapse In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Angiogenesis: The Role of Inflammatory Cells in Capillary Sprouting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-Lapse In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Angiogenesis: The Role of Inflammatory Cells in Capillary Sprouting
    2011 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 3060-3068Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To elucidate the temporal sequence of events leading to new capillary sprouting in inflammatory corneal angiogenesis.

    METHODS. Angiogenesis was induced by corneal suture placement in Wistar rats. The inflamed region was examined by time-lapse in vivo confocal microscopy for up to 7 days. At 6 and 12 hours and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, corneas were excised for flat mount immunofluorescence with primary antibodies for CD31, CD34, CD45, CD11b, CD11c, Ki-M2R, NG2, and alpha-SMA. From days 0 to 4, the in vivo extravasation and expansion characteristics of single limbal vessels were quantified.

    RESULTS. Starting hours after induction and peaking at day 1, CD45(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells extravasated from limbal vessels and formed endothelium-free tunnels within the stroma en route to the inflammatory stimulus. Limbal vessel diameter tripled on days 2 to 3 as vascular buds emerged and transformed into perfused capillary sprouts less than 1 day later. A subset of spindle-shaped CD11b(+) myeloid-lineage cells, but not dendritic cells or mature macrophages, appeared to directly facilitate further capillary sprout growth. These cells incorporated into vascular endothelium near the sprout tip, co-expressing endothelial marker CD31. Sprouts had perfusion characteristics distinct from feeder vessels and many sprout tips were open-ended.

    CONCLUSIONS. Time-lapse in vivo corneal confocal microscopy can be used to track a temporal sequence of events in corneal angiogenesis. The technique has revealed potential roles for myeloid cells in promoting vessel sprouting in an inflammatory corneal setting.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Research in Vision and Opthalmology, 2011
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69178 (URN)10.1167/iovs.10-6101 (DOI)000291100800026 ()
    Note
    Original Publication: Beatrice Bourghardt Peebo, Per Fagerholm, Catharina Traneus-Rockert and Neil Lagali, Time-Lapse In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Angiogenesis: The Role of Inflammatory Cells in Capillary Sprouting, 2011, INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY and VISUAL SCIENCE, (52), 6, 3060-3068. http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6101 Copyright: Research in Vision and Opthalmology http://www.arvo.org/Available from: 2011-06-17 Created: 2011-06-17 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved
    4. Cellular level characterization of capillary regression in inflammatory angiogenesis using an in vivo corneal model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cellular level characterization of capillary regression in inflammatory angiogenesis using an in vivo corneal model
    2011 (English)In: Angiogenesis, ISSN 0969-6970, E-ISSN 1573-7209, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 393-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we introduce a technique for repeated, microscopic observation of single regressing capillaries in vivo in inflamed murine corneas. Natural capillary regression was initiated by removal of inflammatory stimulus during an active pro-angiogenic phase, while the additional impact of anti-angiogenic treatment with triamcinolone or bevazicumab was investigated. Capillaries regressed naturally within 1 week and treatments did not further enhance the natural regression. Morphologically, early-phase regression was characterized by significant lumen narrowing and a significant reduction in CD11b+ myeloid cell infiltration of the extracellular matrix. By 1 week, vascular remodeling occurred concomitant with CD11b+CD68+KiM2R+ mature macrophage localization on capillary walls. Empty conduits without blood flow, positive for collagen IV and devoid of vascular endothelium and pericytes, were apparent in vivo and by 3 weeks were more numerous than perfused capillaries. By 3 weeks, macrophages aggregated around remaining perfused capillaries and were observed in apposition with degrading capillary segments. Abrupt termination of capillary sprouting in our regression model further revealed vascular endothelial abandonment of sprout tips and perfused capillary loop formation within a single angiogenic sprout, possibly as an intussusceptive response to cessation of the stimulus. Finally, we observed lumen constriction and macrophage localization on capillary walls in vivo in a clinical case of corneal capillary regression that paralleled findings in our murine model.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2011
    Keywords
    Inflammation, Capillary regression, In vivo confocal microscopy, Cornea
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70325 (URN)10.1007/s10456-011-9223-3 (DOI)000293922300015 ()
    Note
    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Beatrice Bourghardt Peebo, Per Fagerholm, Catharina Traneus-Rockert and Neil Lagali, Cellular level characterization of capillary regression in inflammatory angiogenesis using an in vivo corneal model, 2011, Angiogenesis, (14), 3, 393-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10456-011-9223-3 Copyright: Springer Verlag (Germany) http://www.springerlink.com/Available from: 2011-09-02 Created: 2011-09-02 Last updated: 2018-01-22
  • 7.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    An in Vivo Method for Visualizing Flow Dynamics of Cells within Corneal Lymphatics2013In: Lymphatic Research and Biology, ISSN 1539-6851, E-ISSN 1557-8585, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Monitoring the trafficking of specific cell populations within lymphatics could improve our understanding of processes such as transplant rejection and cancer metastasis. Current methods, however, lack appropriate image resolution for single-cell analysis or are incompatible with in vivo and longitudinal monitoring of lymphatics in their native state. We therefore sought to achieve high-resolution live imaging of the dynamic behavior of cells within lymph vessels in the rat cornea.

    Methods/Results: Inflammatory angiogenesis was induced by suture placement in corneas of Wistar rats. Pre- and up to 3 weeks post-induction, corneas were noninvasively examined by laser-scanning in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) using only endogenous contrast. Lymph vessels and the cells harbored therein were documented by still images, real-time video, and 3D confocal stack reconstruction of live tissue. In vivo, conjunctival and corneal lymphatics were morphologically distinct, those with corneal location being one-quarter the diameter of those in the conjunctiva (p<0.001). Cells were recruited to initially empty pre-existing lymph vessels during the first day of inflammation and maintained a dense occupation of vessels for up to 7 days. A diverse population of cells (diameter range: 1.5–27.5 μm) with varying morphology was observed, and exhibited variable flow patterns and were transported singly and in clusters of at least 2–9 adherent cells.

    Conclusions: The in vivo microscopic technique presented enables lymph vessels and cell trafficking to be studied in high resolution in a minimally-perturbed physiologic milieu.

  • 8.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Letter: In vivo confocal microscopy visualization of presumed lymph vessels in a case of corneal transplant rejection2011In: Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, ISSN 1442-6404, E-ISSN 1442-9071, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 832-834Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 9.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Transient Anterior Corneal Deposits in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient2010In: CORNEA, ISSN 0277-3740, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1323-1327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To report findings of pigmented anterior corneal deposits in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Methods: Case report. A 49-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient was examined after the appearance of pigmented corneal deposits. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy, fundus photography, and laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy were performed to visually document the ocular condition. Results: The patient had a history of Mycobacterium avium infection and was suspected to have recovery uveitis from a cytomegalovirus infection. Small, rounded, light brown-colored deposits were distributed across the anterior cornea from limbus to limbus, bilaterally. In vivo confocal microscopy revealed the deposits to be confined to the basal epithelium and Bowman layer, whereas the posterior stroma, Descemet membrane, and the endothelium appeared normal. Systemic steroid treatment was administered, and 2 weeks later, the deposits had vanished on slit-lamp examination, whereas remnants were observed at the microscopic level. Conclusions: The deposits were unusual for their anterior corneal location and pancorneal distribution. The response to systemic steroid treatment remains unexplained and illustrates the complexity of the underlying conditions, their treatment, and the associated pathways of ocular manifestation.

  • 10.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Traneus-Rockert, Catharina
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Cellular level characterization of capillary regression in inflammatory angiogenesis using an in vivo corneal model2011In: Angiogenesis, ISSN 0969-6970, E-ISSN 1573-7209, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 393-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we introduce a technique for repeated, microscopic observation of single regressing capillaries in vivo in inflamed murine corneas. Natural capillary regression was initiated by removal of inflammatory stimulus during an active pro-angiogenic phase, while the additional impact of anti-angiogenic treatment with triamcinolone or bevazicumab was investigated. Capillaries regressed naturally within 1 week and treatments did not further enhance the natural regression. Morphologically, early-phase regression was characterized by significant lumen narrowing and a significant reduction in CD11b+ myeloid cell infiltration of the extracellular matrix. By 1 week, vascular remodeling occurred concomitant with CD11b+CD68+KiM2R+ mature macrophage localization on capillary walls. Empty conduits without blood flow, positive for collagen IV and devoid of vascular endothelium and pericytes, were apparent in vivo and by 3 weeks were more numerous than perfused capillaries. By 3 weeks, macrophages aggregated around remaining perfused capillaries and were observed in apposition with degrading capillary segments. Abrupt termination of capillary sprouting in our regression model further revealed vascular endothelial abandonment of sprout tips and perfused capillary loop formation within a single angiogenic sprout, possibly as an intussusceptive response to cessation of the stimulus. Finally, we observed lumen constriction and macrophage localization on capillary walls in vivo in a clinical case of corneal capillary regression that paralleled findings in our murine model.

  • 11.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Traneus-Rockert, Catharina
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Lagali, Neil
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cellular-Level Characterization of Lymph Vessels in Live, Unlabeled Corneas by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy2010In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 830-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To determine whether in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the cornea can be used for the label-free detection and monitoring of lymph vessels in live corneas.

    METHODS. Parallel corneal hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis was induced by the placement of a single suture in one cornea of male Wistar rats. Fourteen days after suture placement and under general anesthesia, laser-scanning IVCM was performed in the vascularized region. Corneas were subsequently excised for flat-mount double immunofluorescence with a pan-endothelial marker (PECAM-1/CD31) and a lymphatic endothelial specific marker (LYVE-1). Using the suture area and prominent blood vessels as points of reference, the identical microscopic region was located in both fluorescent and archived in vivo images. Additionally, vessel diameter, lumen contrast, and cell diameter and velocity within vessels were quantified from in vivo images.

    RESULTS. Comparison of identical corneal regions in fluorescence and in vivo revealed prominent CD31(+)/LYVE-1(3+) lymph vessels that were visible in vivo. In vivo, corneal lymph vessels were located in the vascularized area in the same focal plane as blood vessels but had a darker lumen (P andlt; 0.001) sparsely populated by highly reflective cells with diameters similar to those of leukocytes in blood vessels (P = 0.61). Cell velocity in lymph vessels was significantly reduced compared with blood particle velocity (P andlt; 0.001). Morphologic characteristics enabled subsequent identification of corneal lymphatics in live, vascularized rat corneas before immunofluorescence labeling.

    CONCLUSIONS. IVCM enabled the nondestructive, label-free, in vivo detection of corneal lymphatics. IVCM provides the possibility of observing lymphatic activity in the same live corneas longitudinally and, as a clinical instrument, of monitoring corneal lymphatics in live human subjects.

  • 12.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Traneus-Rockert, Catharina
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Time-Lapse In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Angiogenesis: The Role of Inflammatory Cells in Capillary Sprouting2011In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 3060-3068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To elucidate the temporal sequence of events leading to new capillary sprouting in inflammatory corneal angiogenesis.

    METHODS. Angiogenesis was induced by corneal suture placement in Wistar rats. The inflamed region was examined by time-lapse in vivo confocal microscopy for up to 7 days. At 6 and 12 hours and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, corneas were excised for flat mount immunofluorescence with primary antibodies for CD31, CD34, CD45, CD11b, CD11c, Ki-M2R, NG2, and alpha-SMA. From days 0 to 4, the in vivo extravasation and expansion characteristics of single limbal vessels were quantified.

    RESULTS. Starting hours after induction and peaking at day 1, CD45(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells extravasated from limbal vessels and formed endothelium-free tunnels within the stroma en route to the inflammatory stimulus. Limbal vessel diameter tripled on days 2 to 3 as vascular buds emerged and transformed into perfused capillary sprouts less than 1 day later. A subset of spindle-shaped CD11b(+) myeloid-lineage cells, but not dendritic cells or mature macrophages, appeared to directly facilitate further capillary sprout growth. These cells incorporated into vascular endothelium near the sprout tip, co-expressing endothelial marker CD31. Sprouts had perfusion characteristics distinct from feeder vessels and many sprout tips were open-ended.

    CONCLUSIONS. Time-lapse in vivo corneal confocal microscopy can be used to track a temporal sequence of events in corneal angiogenesis. The technique has revealed potential roles for myeloid cells in promoting vessel sprouting in an inflammatory corneal setting.

  • 13.
    Crafoord, Sven
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology .
    Experimental transplantation of retinal and iris pigment epithelial cells into the subretinal space2001In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 102Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 14.
    Crafoord, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology .
    Algvere, Peep
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Seregard, S
    Orebro Med Ctr Hosp, Dept Ophthalmol, S-70185 Orebro, Sweden St Eriks Eye Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dafgard-Kopp, E
    Orebro Med Ctr Hosp, Dept Ophthalmol, S-70185 Orebro, Sweden St Eriks Eye Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Cellular migration into neural retina following implantation of melanin granules to the subretinal space.2000In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 4545B492-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Czajka, Marcin P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stopa, Marcin
    Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
    Sosnowski, Piotr
    Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
    Wasilewicz, Robert
    Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
    Kocięcki, Jarosław
    Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
    Letter: New insight into the pathology of macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit2010In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 88, no 6, p. e241-e242Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Dilip Deb, Kaushik
    et al.
    DiponEd BioIntelligence LLP, Bangalore, India.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    De Muinck, Ebo
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Regenerative Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Regenerative Medicine (IGEN) .
    Nanotechnology in stem cells research: advances and applications2012In: Frontiers in Bioscience, ISSN 1093-9946, E-ISSN 1093-4715, Vol. 17, p. 1747-1760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings suffer from a myriad of disorders caused by biochemical or biophysical alteration of physiological systems leading to organ failure. For a number of these conditions, stem cells and their enormous reparative potential may be the last hope for restoring function to these failing organ or tissue systems. To harness the potential of stem cells for biotherapeutic applications, we need to work at the size scale of molecules and processes that govern stem cells fate. Nanotechnology provides us with such capacity. Therefore, effective amalgamation of nanotechnology and stem cells - medical nanoscience or nanomedicine - offers immense benefits to the human race. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role and importance of nanotechnology in stem cell research by focusing on several important areas such as stem cell visualization and imaging, genetic modifications and reprogramming by gene delivery systems, creating stem cell niche, and similar therapeutic applications.

  • 17.
    Eden, U
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Pathologic epithelial and anterior corneal nerve morphology in congenital aniridic keratopathy in ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, vol 88, issue , pp 52-522010In: ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2010, Vol. 88, p. 52-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 18.
    Eden, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Danyali, Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Pathologic Epithelial and Anterior Corneal Nerve Morphology in Early-Stage Congenital Aniridic Keratopathy2012In: Ophthalmology (Rochester, Minn.), ISSN 0161-6420, E-ISSN 1549-4713, Vol. 119, no 9, p. 1803-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To document the clinical and morphologic corneal findings in the early stages of congenital aniridic keratopathy in Swedish families. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign: Prospective, observational, comparative case series. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticipants: A total of 16 eyes of 16 subjects with congenital aniridic keratopathy and a clear central cornea, and 6 eyes from 6 healthy controls (unaffected relatives). Nine of the 16 eyes with aniridia came from 5 families with a documented familial history of aniridia. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Detailed ophthalmic examinations included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), tear film production, tear break-up time (BUT), corneal touch sensitivity, intraocular pressure measurement, ultrasound pachymetry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMain Outcome Measures: Confirmed stage of aniridic keratopathy, clinical parameters of cornea and tear film (visual acuity, sensitivity, corneal thickness, tear production, and BUT), and the morphologic status of corneal epithelium, sub-basal nerves, and limbal palisades of Vogt. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: In early-stage aniridic keratopathy, BSCVA and tear BUT were reduced relative to controls (P andlt; 0.001 for both), and corneal thickness was increased (P = 0.01). Inflammatory dendritic cells were present in the central epithelium in aniridia, with significantly increased density relative to controls (P = 0.001). Discrete focal opacities in the basal epithelial region were present in 5 of 11 aniridia cases with an otherwise clear cornea. Opacities were associated with dendritic cells and harbored structures presumed to be goblet cells. Sub-basal nerves were extremely dense in 3 aniridia cases, and a prominent whorl pattern of nerves and epithelial cells was observed in 1 case. Normal limbal palisade morphology was absent in aniridia but present in controls. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Early-stage aniridic keratopathy is characterized by the development of focal opacities in the basal epithelium, altered sub-basal nerves, infiltration of the central epithelium by dendritic cells, tear film instability, and increased corneal thickness and degradation of limbal palisade architecture. These findings may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of aniridic keratopathy. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFinancial Disclosure(s): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  • 19.
    Fagerholm, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL.
    Eckerlund, Ingemar
    Statens beredning för medicinsk utvärdering Stockholm.
    Refractive surgery. An Allert report from SBU2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 26-27, p. 1926-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Fagerholm, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Gan, Lisha
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology .
    Palmblad, J
    Expression of VEGF and its receptor VEGFR-2/flk-1 following rabbit corneal alkali burn in the presence and absence of granulocytes2002In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 43, p. 4210-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Fagerholm, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil S
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, David J
    Natl Res Council Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada.
    Merrett, Kimberley
    Univ Ottawa, Inst Eye, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada.
    Griffith, May
    Univ Ottawa, Inst Eye, Ottawa, ON K1H 8L6, Canada.
    Corneal Regeneration Following Implantation of a Biomimetic Tissue-Engineered Substitute2009In: CTS-CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE, ISSN 1752-8054, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 162-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 22.
    Fagerholm, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil S
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Merrett, Kimberley
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Jackson, W Bruce
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Munger, Rejean
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Liu, Yuwen
    CooperVision Inc, Pleasanton, USA .
    Polarek, James W
    FibroGen Inc, San Francisco.
    Söderqvist, Monica
    Synsam Opticians, Linköping.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A biosynthetic alternative to human donor tissue for inducing corneal regeneration: 24-month follow-up of a phase 1 clinical study2010In: Science translational medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, Vol. 2, no 46, p. 46-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corneas from human donors are used to replace damaged tissue and treat corneal blindness, but there is a severe worldwide shortage of donor corneas. We conducted a phase 1 clinical study in which biosynthetic mimics of corneal extracellular matrix were implanted to replace the pathologic anterior cornea of 10 patients who had significant vision loss, with the aim of facilitating endogenous tissue regeneration without the use of human donor tissue. The biosynthetic implants remained stably integrated and avascular for 24 months after surgery, without the need for long-term use of the steroid immunosuppression that is required for traditional allotransplantation. Corneal reepithelialization occurred in all patients, although a delay in epithelial closure as a result of the overlying retaining sutures led to early, localized implant thinning and fibrosis in some patients. The tear film was restored, and stromal cells were recruited into the implant in all patients. Nerve regeneration was also observed and touch sensitivity was restored, both to an equal or to a greater degree than is seen with human donor tissue. Vision at 24 months improved from preoperative values in six patients. With further optimization, biosynthetic corneal implants could offer a safe and effective alternative to the implantation of human tissue to help address the current donor cornea shortage.

  • 23.
    Frennesson, C.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, S.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eccentric viewing: Author's reply2008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 24.
    Frennesson, Christina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL.
    Ranibizumab--effective, but expensive in macular degeneration2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, no 32-33, p. 2161-2161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 25.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Bek, Toke
    Aarhus University Hospital.
    Jaakkola, Aino
    Helsinki University Hospital.
    Erik Nilsson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prophylactic laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy: a prospective, randomized Nordic study2009In: ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, ISSN 1755-375X, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 720-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether mild laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy might reduce the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and/or significantly reduce loss of visual acuity compared with outcomes in a control group. Methods: A total of 135 patients (mean age 70.4 years) were randomized into a treatment group of 67 subjects and a control group of 68 subjects. The treatment group was subdivided into a group of 54 subjects with bilateral soft drusen and a group of 13 subjects with unilateral soft drusen in the study eye and advanced AMD in the fellow eye. The control group was subdivided into a bilateral group of 54 subjects and a unilateral group of 14 subjects. Sub-threshold or barely visible laser spots were scattered on and between drusen in the posterior pole. Inclusion of patients was stopped prematurely as other studies did not show any benefit from the treatment. Mean follow-up time was 3.7 years. Results: More CNVs developed in the treated group (4/54 eyes in the bilateral group, 3/13 eyes in the unilateral group; 7/67 eyes in total) than in the control group (3/54 eyes in the bilateral group, 2/14 eyes in the unilateral group; 5/68 eyes in total) but these differences were not statistically significant for either the bilateral or unilateral groups (p = 0.20-0.32). No CNV developed in the bilateral treated group before 4 years of follow-up. Visual acuity was significantly reduced from baseline to the last follow-up in all groups (p andlt; 0.0001-0.02) except the unilateral control group (p = 0.08), but there were no significant differences between the treated and control groups for either the bilateral or unilateral groups (p = 0.17-0.97). Conclusions: Mild prophylactic laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy was neither beneficial nor harmful and cannot be recommended.

  • 26.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Larsson, R
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Nilsson, SG
    Drusen and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with dense deposit disease (membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type II). Favourable effect of photodynamic treatment (PDT)2003In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 44, p. 1774-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Nilsson, Sven Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology .
    Encouraging results with photodynamic treatment (PDT) in a clinical patient material of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other diagnoses: Leakage stopped with fewer treatments than in the Tap and Vip studies2002In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 43, p. 593-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Nilsson, Sven Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology .
    The superior retina performs better than the inferior retina when reading with eccentric viewing: A comparison in normal volunteers2007In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 85, no 8, p. 868-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Patients with an absolute central scotoma, such as in age-related macular degeneration, need to use eccentric viewing for reading. In the present study, we investigated whether there are differences in reading performance between the superior and inferior retina. Methods: Twelve volunteers with normal vision, aged 25-58 years and able to maintain stable eccentric viewing, were studied in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope while reading a line of text, 6 degrees above or below a fixation line (series A). The text, properly magnified above threshold, was scrolled at a speed of 60 words/min. The number of words missed or incorrectly read in 1 min as well as words read when occasionally fixating the text was counted. In series B, a random letter text was superimposed upon the fixation line (i.e. at 6 degrees from the original line of text) to see whether this would disturb reading. In series C, the random letter text was moved away from the fixation line to a distance of 12 degrees from the original line of text. The entire programme was repeated in reverse order, and the mean value of the two series was used for calculations, which were carried out using Student's two-sided t-test. Results: In all series of experiments, the number of errors was significantly lower when using the superior retina compared with the inferior retina (A: p = 0.006, B: p = 0.042, C: p = 0.009). The addition of the random letter line of text at 6 or 12 degrees did not disturb reading performance significantly. There was no significant difference between the superior and inferior retina in terms of visual acuity. Conclusions: In eccentric viewing, reading performance was significantly better when using the superior retina compared with the inferior retina. A line of random letter text at a distance of 6 or 12 degrees from the original line of text did not disturb reading significantly. © 2007 The Authors Journal Compilation © 2007 Acta Ophthalmol Scand.

  • 29.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Nilsson, Ulla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Nilsson, Sven Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Significant improvements in near vision, reading speed, central visual field and related quality of life after ranibizumab treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration2010In: ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, ISSN 1755-375X, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 420-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the effects on near visual acuity, reading speed, central visual field and related quality of life of ranibizumab treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: The study was a prospective, non-comparative consecutive case series, followed for 3 months and investigator-driven. Thirty eyes of 30 patients with wet AMD were included, mean age 75 years (range 69-95 years). In addition to a full ophthalmological examination - including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; Early Treatment Diabetic Research Study chart), fundus biomicroscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography (occult cases) and ocular coherence tomography - near visual acuity, reading speed, central visual field and quality of life for related activities were also investigated at baseline and at 3 months after ranibizumab treatment. Results: Mean BCVA increased from 62 +/- 11 to 66 +/- 14 letters at 3 months (7%; p = 0.018). Near vision improved from 9 +/- 5 to 6 +/- 3 points (33%; p = 0.0006) and reading speed increased from 59 +/- 40 to 85 +/- 50 words/min (44%; p andlt; 0.0001). The mean deviation from normal of the visual field improved from -9 +/- 7 to -6 +/- 5 dB (33%; p andlt; 0.0001). Quality of life improved for distance activities from 54 +/- 28 to 63 +/- 28 points (17%; p andlt; 0.0001) but significantly (p = 0.024) more for near activities, from 49 +/- 26 to 63 +/- 26 points (29%; p andlt; 0.0001). Reading newspaper text in the group in which the better eye was treated showed the highest increase in quality of life score of all: 116%. Conclusion: The increase in BCVA after ranibizumab treatment is well established. The present study also showed significant improvements in other important visual qualities, such as near visual acuity, reading speed, central visual field and several activities influencing quality of life. The improvement was greater for near activities than for distance activities. Therefore, the beneficial effects of ranibizumab treatment shown here are more extensive than those reported previously.

  • 30.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Weingeist, D
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Nienhaus, H
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Mullins, RF
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Hageman, GS
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Vitronectin distribution in the choroidal stroma and Bruch's membrane as related to age and age-related macular degeneration.2000In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 120B120-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Friström, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma2002In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 405Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 32.
    Friström, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Uusitalo, Hannu
    University of Tampere.
    A randomized, 36-month, post-marketing efficacy and tolerability study in Sweden and Finland of latanoprost versus non-prostaglandin therapy in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension2010In: ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, ISSN 1755-375X, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the effect of time on therapy, efficacy, tolerability and resource utilization of latanoprost or non-prostaglandin analogues (non-PGs) in patients who required a change in intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering monotherapy. Methods: This open-label, multicentre study (Sweden, 19 sites; Finland, seven sites) included adults with glaucoma or ocular hypertension with mean diurnal IOP andgt;= 21 mmHg on ocular hypotensive monotherapy. Patients were randomized to latanoprost monotherapy or non-PG therapy (commercially available therapy other than a PG) and followed for 36 months. End-points included: time to treatment failure (baseline to visit with a change in/addition to treatment); diurnal IOP (mean of 08.00, 12.00 and 16:00 hr measurements) at months 6, 12, 24 and 36; tolerability; and resource utilization, where analyses used Swedish and Finnish 2006 unit costs. Results: Three hundred and twenty-six patients received andgt;= 1 dose of latanoprost (n = 162) or non-PGs (n = 164). Median time to treatment failure was longer for latanoprost (36 months) than for non-PGs (12 months; p andlt; 0.001); 51% and 24% of patients remained on randomized therapy after 36 months, respectively (p andlt; 0.001). Decreases in mean diurnal IOP from baseline were significantly greater for latanoprost than for non-PGs at months 6 and 12 (p andlt; 0.01). No serious adverse events were judged to be treatment-related. Mean total 36-month direct costs were similar in patients initiated with latanoprost and non-PGs. Conclusion: Patients who failed previous monotherapy remained on therapy longer when switched to latanoprost. Latanoprosts IOP-reducing effect and tolerability were sustained over the long term. Resource utilization and costs were generally similar in those initiating latanoprost or non-PG therapy.

  • 33.
    Gan, Lisha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology .
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Blalock, TD
    Schultz, GS
    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the alkali wounded corneas2002In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 43, p. 4207-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Gan, Lisha
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology .
    Hakim, M
    Mintsioulis, G
    Griffith, M
    Human corneal cellular response to the synthetic stromal matrix replacements2003In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 44, p. 4693-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Ganesh, Anuradha
    et al.
    Sultan Qaboos University.
    Pirouznia, Saeid
    Uddevalla Central Hospital.
    Ganguly, Shyam S
    Sultan Qaboos University.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lithander, Joan
    Uddevalla Central Hospital.
    Consecutive exotropia after surgical treatment of childhood esotropia: a 40-year follow-up study2011In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 89, no 7, p. 691-695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of consecutive exotropia (XT) following successful surgical correction of childhood esotropia (ET) and identify factors associated with its development. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMaterial and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 85 patients with ET, aged 2-24, who underwent strabismus surgery by a single surgeon between 1958 and 1969 in Sweden, until they were successfully aligned to ET within 10 prism dioptre, after primary or reoperation(s). The charts of these patients were reviewed, and data regarding age at onset of strabismus, surgery performed and outcome were recorded. The patients were recalled for a complete orthoptic examination in 2001-2003. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: The incidence of consecutive XT in this cohort was 21% (18/85). Patients who had undergone multiple surgeries had a higher risk of developing consecutive XT compared to those successfully aligned with one surgery (p = 0.00036). Restriction of adduction and convergence postoperatively was associated with a high risk of consecutive XT (p = 0.0437). The incidence of consecutive XT did not vary with the level of visual acuity in the operated eye (p = 0.6428). Age of onset, age at surgery and amount of surgery did not appear to influence the risk for developing consecutive XT (p andgt; 0.05). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: This 40-year postoperative follow-up of patients with childhood ET who underwent strabismus surgery by a single surgeon in Sweden showed that multiple surgeries and presence of postoperative adduction deficit were the most important factors influencing the incidence of consecutive XT after surgery. Presence of uncorrected amblyopia did not alter the prognosis for long-term development of consecutive XT.

  • 36.
    Germundsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Phototherapeutic keratectomy in Salzmann's nodular degeneration2004In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 148-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe the outcome in vision and refraction of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in Salzmann's nodular degeneration (SND). Methods: Five eyes of four patients underwent PTK with the objective of restoring an acceptable refractive status and improving visual acuity. This surgical technique aims to make the nodules level with the corneal surface using an excimer laser. Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in all five eyes. Astigmatism was reduced in four eyes and increased somewhat in one. During the observation period one eye suffered a late recurrence that required a penetrating graft. Conclusion: Salzmann's nodular degeneration is a rare disease that is sometimes difficult to diagnose as it has some resemblance to other diseases. The aetiology of the disease is unknown. Phototherapeutic keratectomy is a safe and effective mode of treatment. Recurrences occur with time. Copyright © Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2004.

  • 37.
    Germundsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Koulikovska, Marina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    An Accurate Method to Determine Bowmans Layer Thickness In Vivo in the Human Cornea2012In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 2354-2359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To determine an accurate value for Bowmans layer (BL) thickness in vivo in humans. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS. Seventeen corneal transplant patients were examined preoperatively by laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and corneal buttons were removed post-operatively and sectioned for light microscopy (LM). Nine corneas with uniformly thick BL by LM were used for thickness measurement. In the uniformly thick samples, probable overestimation of BL thickness in vivo by a first in vivo method (Method 1) led to the development of a revised in vivo method (Method 2). Method 2 was used to measure BL thickness in 20 healthy volunteers. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS. In nine patients, mean BL thickness prior to transplantation was 13.7 +/- 1.6 mu m by IVCM (Method 1) while BL thickness of the removed corneal button was 9.7 +/- 1.7 mu m by LM (P andlt; 0.001). The correlation of BL thickness between IVCM (Method 1) and LM was poor (P = 0.226). In 20 right eyes of 20 normal corneas, both in vivo methods were used to determine BL thickness. Mean BL thickness by Method 1 was 13.2 +/- 1.6 mu m and by Method 2 was 9.1 +/- 1.4 mu m (P andlt; 0.001). BL thickness measurements by both in vivo methods were highly correlated (P andlt; 0.001). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSION. BL thickness by a revised in vivo method was close to LM values in this study and to values reported in fixed tissue in other studies. The authors believe this revised method provides the most accurate estimates of BL thickness in vivo to date.

  • 38.
    Germundsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Clinical Outcome and Recurrence of Epithelial Basement Membrane Dystrophy after Phototherapeutic Keratectomy A Cross-sectional Study2011In: OPHTHALMOLOGY, ISSN 0161-6420, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 515-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) treatment of epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD) patients and to examine clinical and morphologic signs of recurrent dystrophy. Design: Cross-sectional, clinic-based study. Participants: Fifty-two eyes of 39 patients diagnosed with EBMD who underwent PTK between 2001 and 2008. Methods: Preoperative symptoms, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and refraction data were collected. At follow-up, refraction and BSCVA were measured, symptoms were noted, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) were performed. Main Outcome Measures: Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity and signs of recurrent EBMD based on symptoms and morphologic features. An assessment of EBMD severity after PTK additionally was considered. Results: Mean follow-up time was 43 months (range, 7-100 months). After PTK, BSCVA remained unchanged or improved in 49 (98%) of 51 eyes. Twenty-four (46%) of 52 eyes had recurrence of some form, and recurrence was correlated positively with postoperative time (P andlt; 0.001). Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 7 eyes (13%), whereas morphologic recurrence occurred in 21 eyes (40%). Symptoms were coupled with positive IVCM findings in 3 (43%) of 7 cases and with slit-lamp findings in 1 (14%) of 7 cases. Of 17 eyes with morphologic recurrence by IVCM, 9 eyes (53%) were classified as having grade 1 recurrence, 8 eyes (47%) were classified as having grade 2 recurrence, and none were classified as having grade 3 recurrence. Morphologic recurrence was associated with epithelial removal by laser ablation before PTK. Conclusions: Although PTK is an effective method of alleviating the clinical symptoms of EBMD, the dystrophy can recur with time. The relationship between the postoperative development of clinical symptoms and the corneal morphologic features is complex and requires further investigation.

  • 39.
    Germundsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Letter: Corneal Dystrophy Recurrence Reply2011In: BMC Ophthalmology, ISSN 1471-2415, E-ISSN 1471-2415, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 1223-1224Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Gottvall, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Textorius, A
    Concentration-dependent effects of dopamine on the direct current electroretinogram of pigmented rabbits during prolonged intermittent recording2003In: Documenta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 0012-4486, E-ISSN 1573-2622, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 161-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct-current (DC) electroretinogram (ERG) was studied in 24 pigmented rabbits. Four experiments were performed, each including six animals. One eye was injected intravitreally with 0.1 ml dopamine (DA) with an estimated concentration in the vitreous body of 0.0025 mM, 0.025 mM, 0.25 mM and 2.5 mM, respectively. The contralateral eye was injected with the same amount of saline. Following the injection the animals were dark adapted for 30 min and then exposed to repeated light stimuli of low intensity for almost 3 hours (series I: 1 stimulus per 3 min, 10 s duration, light intensity 6.8 x 10(2) lux). After another 30 min period of dark adaptation repeated light stimuli of high intensity were presented to the eyes (series II: 1 stimulus per 70s, 10 s duration, light intensity 6.8 x 10(4) lux) for 33 min. In the control eyes, a slow increase with time of the a-, b-and c-wave amplitudes was observed during series I. During series II, the a- b-and c-wave amplitudes were markedly reduced between the first and the second light stimulus, but subsequently grew to a peak. The behavior of the ERG in the eyes injected with dopamine was not different from that observed in the control eyes at the lowest concentration of the drug. At higher concentrations the b-and c-wave amplitudes were reduced compared with the control eyes, and did not show the slow increase with time observed in these eyes during series I. Peak responses observed during series II in the control eyes was increasingly suppressed in the eyes treated with dopamine. Results of ERG recordings suggest that dopamine influences retinal adaptation in rabbits in a dose dependent manner.

  • 41.
    Gottvall, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Textorius, Ola
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Long-term behavior and intra-individual stability of the direct current electroretinogram and of the standing potential in the albino rabbit eye2003In: Documenta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 0012-4486, E-ISSN 1573-2622, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 195-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct current electroretinogram (ERG) and the standing potential (SP) were studied in seven albino rabbits under general anesthesia. Identical experiments were performed on 2 consecutive days. After 30 min of dark adaptation. repeated light stimuli of maximal intensity of the system were presented to the eyes. The interstimulus interval was 70 s. and stimulus duration 10 s. Each experiment lasted for almost 3 h. In the first experiment, the b- and c-wave amplitudes measured in response to the second light stimulus were markedly reduced compared to those recorded in response to the first stimulus. Both amplitudes then recovered. The b-wave attained a peak about 20 min after the start of light stimulation. The peak was followed by a trough about 20 min later, and the amplitude then slowly increased. Following the minimum recorded during the second light stimulus, the c-wave amplitude reached a peak about 14 min after the start of stimulation. A trough in the amplitude occurred 20 min later. The amplitude then slowly increased to the end value, which was higher than the initial level. The a-wave behaved similarly to the b-wave, but the changes in most cases did not attain statistical significance. A minimum in the SP occurring at the second light stimulus was followed by a peak about 13 min after the start of light stimulation, and then by a trough about 17 min later. In the second experiment, performed one day after the first, the development of the a-. b-, and c-wave amplitudes and of the SP was similar to that observed during the first experiment, and no statistically significant differences between the two experiments were found. The reactions of the ERG and the SP were thus very stable between identical experiments performed on two consecutive days.

  • 42.
    Griffith, May
    et al.
    University of Ottawa.
    Jackson, W B
    University of Ottawa.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Merrett, K
    University of Ottawa.
    Li, F
    University of Ottawa.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Artificial corneas: a regenerative medicine approach2009In: EYE, ISSN 0950-222X, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 1985-1989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corneal substitutes are being developed to address the shortage of human donor tissues as well as the current disadvantages in some clinical indications, which include immune rejection. In the past few years, there have been significant developments in bioengineered corneas that are designed to replace part or the full thickness of damaged or diseased corneas that range from keratoprostheses that solely address the replacement of the corneas function, through tissue-engineered hydrogels that permit regeneration of host tissues. We describe examples of corneal substitutes that encourage regeneration of the host tissue. We also contend that it is unlikely that there will be a single "one-size-fits-all corneal substitute for all indications. Instead, there will most likely be a small range of corneal substitutes ranging from prostheses to tissue-engineered matrix substitutes that are tailored to different clusters of clinical indications. The tissue-engineered matrices can either be produced as sterile acellular matrices, or complete with functional cells, ready for implantation.

  • 43.
    Griffith, May
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Polisetti, Naresh
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kuffova, Lucia
    University of Aberdeen, Scotland .
    Gallar, Juana
    University of Miguel Hernandez, Spain .
    Forrester, John
    University of Aberdeen, Scotland .
    Vemuganti, Geeta K
    University of Hyderabad, India .
    Armin Fuchsluger, Thomas
    University of Hyderabad, India University of Dusseldorf, Germany .
    Regenerative Approaches as Alternatives to Donor Allografting for Restoration of Corneal Function2012In: The Ocular Surface, ISSN 1542-0124, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 170-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of alternatives to human donor tissue for corneal transplantation are being developed to address the shortfall of good quality tissues as well as the clinical conditions for which allografting is contraindicated. Classical keratoprostheses, commonly referred to as artificial corneas, are being used clinically to replace minimal corneal function. However, they are used only as last resorts, as they are associated with significant complications, such as extrusion/rejection, glaucoma, and retinal detachment. The past few years have seen significant developments in technologies designed to replace part or the full thickness of damaged or diseased corneas with materials that encourage regeneration to different extents. This review describes selected examples of these corneal substitutes, which range from cell-based regenerative strategies to keratoprostheses with regenerative capabilities via tissue-engineered scaffolds pre-seeded with stem cells. It is unlikely that one corneal substitute will be best for all indications, but taken together, the various approaches may soon be able to supplement the supply of human donor corneas for transplantation or allow restoration of diseased or damaged corneas that cannot be treated by currently available techniques.

  • 44.
    Hackett, Joanne M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Merrett, Kimberley
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Edelhauser, Henry
    Emory University School of Medicine.
    Sun, Yifei
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gan, Lisha
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Biosynthetic corneal implants for replacement of pathologic corneal tissue: performance in a controlled rabbit alkali burn model2011In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 651-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of structurally reinforced, stabilized recombinant human collagen-phosphorylcholine (RHCIII-MPC) hydrogels as corneal substitutes in a rabbit model of severe corneal damage.

    Methods: One eye each of 12 rabbits received a deep corneal alkali wound. Four corneas were implanted with RHCIII-MPC hydrogels. The other eight control corneas were implanted with either allografts or a simple crosslinked RHCIII hydrogel. In all cases, 6.25 mm diameter, 350 µm thick buttons were implanted by anterior lamellar keratoplasty to replace damaged corneal tissue. Implants were followed for nine months by clinical examination and in vivo confocal microscopy, after which implanted corneas were removed and processed for histopathological and ultrastructural examination.

    Results: Alkali exposure induced extensive central corneal scarring, ocular surface irregularity, and neovascularization in one case. All implants showed complete epithelial coverage by four weeks post-operative, but with accompanying suture-induced vascularization in 6/12 cases. A stable, stratified epithelium with hemidesmosomal adhesion complexes regenerated over all implants, and subbasal nerve regeneration was observed in allograft and RHCIII-MPC implants. Initially acellular biosynthetic implants were populated with host-derived keratocytes as stromal haze subsided and stromal collagen was remodeled. Notably, RHCIII-MPC implants exhibited resistance to vascular ingrowth while supporting endogenous cell and nerve repopulation.

    Conclusion: Biosynthetic implants based on RHC promoted cell and nerve repopulation in alkali burned rabbit eyes. In RHCIII-MPC implants, evidence of an enhanced resistance to neovascularization was additionally noted.

  • 45.
    Hammar, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Two New Corneal Diseases Characterized by Recurrent Erosions2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent corneal erosions are a common complication of superficial corneal wounds. They most commonly arise following a trauma, in association with various corneal dystrophies, or are idiopathic.

    The main aim of this thesis was to investigate two hereditary corneal diseases with recurrent erosions in order to find out if they had been described before, and more specifically to describe the clinical picture and the morphological changes, differentiate them from other known autosomal dominant corneal dystrophies with a clinical resemblance, and to exclude genetic linkage to known corneal dystrophies with autosomal-dominant inheritance and a clinical resemblance.

    The thesis is based on two families of subjects belonging to different phenotypes. The subjects from Småland (Dystrophia Smolandiensis) belonged to a six-generation family, which included 171 individuals of whom 44 were affected individuals, and the family from Hälsingland (Dystrophia Helsinglandica) included sevengenerations of 342 individuals, of whom 84 were affected. The individuals in both families were investigated by collection of medical history through medical records and questionnaires assessing different aspects of the diseases, pedigree analysis, and from clinical examination. Haplotype analysis was used to exclude genetic linkage of both diseases to known autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophies with a clinical resemblance. The morphological changes in Dystrophia Smolandiensis were investigated by examining affected individuals with in-vivo confocal microscopy and/or slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and examining corneal tissue samples using histopathology and immunohistochemistry. In Dystrophia Helsinglandica, the morphological changes were described using in-vivo confocal microscopy and/or slit-lamp biomicroscopy, but also using videokeratography and corneal sensitivity measurement.

    The main results were the findings of two new corneal disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterized by recurrent corneal erosions.

    In Dystrophia Smolandiensis the symptoms often started within the first year of life. The number of recurrences per year was highest from the onset and for about 30-40 years, and the duration of recurrence could stretch up to 21 days. The frequency of recurrences was variable in the disease from continuous symptoms to once a year and tended to decrease later in life. The risk of having recurrences did not disappear completely with age. Typical precipitating factors of recurrence were draught and a common cold. About two thirds of the affected individuals responded well to oral vitamin B treatment, but no other therapy has so far been successful. In Dystrophia Smolandiensis development of corneal opacifications or secondary scarring of varying type and degree was seen in about half of the subjects. Opacifications were first noted at the age of about 7 years, but usually first seen at the age of 20-40 years. Corneal grafting was performed in nine individuals, and recurrences were seen in all grafts. The corneal buttons showed epithelial hyperplasia, partial or total loss of Bowman’s layer, and subepithelial fibrosis in the light microscope. The deeper stroma, Descement’s membrane, and endothelium were normal. Confocal microscopy confirmed loss of Bowman’s layer and revealed that the corneal nerves either were normal in their sub-basal plexa or showed signs of regeneration. None of the morphological findings were specific. We believe that the opacifications are reactive corneal changes to repeated erosive events.

    The onset in Dystrophia Helsinglandica was usually at the age of 4-7 years and late-developing subepithelial fibrosis not significantly affecting visual acuity was seen in all affected individuals over the age of 37 years. The number of recurrences per year was highest from the onset and for about 20-30 years, and the duration of recurrence was usually up to about a week. The frequency of recurrences tended to decrease in the disease with increasing age, but did not cease completely. The precipitating factor of recurrence was typically a minor trauma. No therapy has so far been successful in the family. The corneal changes of affected individuals were classified into different stages from a nearly normal cornea to progressive fairly discrete subepithelial fibrosis of the central cornea. Discrete localized Subepithelial fibrosis in the periphery or mid-periphery (stage I) was the sole finding in 12% of the individuals. A more widespread subepithelial fibrosis, mainly in the mid-periphery, was found in 31% of the individuals (stage II). In stage III, the subepithelial fibrosis engaged the central cornea but did not affect the vision to a significant degree. In late phases of stage III small jellylike corneal irregularities could be seen. We believe that the opacifications are reactive changes to repeated erosive events.

    In conclusion this thesis describes two new corneal disorders – Dystrophia Smolandiensis and Dystrophia Helsinglandica.

    List of papers
    1. A new corneal disease with recurrent erosive episodes and autosomal-dominant inheritance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new corneal disease with recurrent erosive episodes and autosomal-dominant inheritance
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, Vol. 86, no 7, p. 758-763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype in a large family with autosomal-dominant recurrent corneal erosions, and also to exclude genetic linkage to known autosomal-dominant inherited corneal dystrophies with clinical resemblance.

    Methods: We describe the medical history and clinical findings in patients from a six-generation family with recurrent corneal erosions. A total of 28 individuals were evaluated by ophthalmological examination. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood and analysed with polymorphic microsatellite markers close to known genes causing autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophies.

    Results: The patients had erosive symptoms that usually lasted from 1 to 7 days. The symptoms were described as early as at 8 months of age, and by the age of 5 the majority of the affected individuals suffered from recurrent corneal erosions. The attacks generally declined in frequency and intensity with age, and 52% of the patients developed central keloid-like corneal opacities. Nine patients received corneal grafts, and recurrences were seen in all grafts. The affected patients did not share haplotypes for genetic microsatellite markers surrounding known genes causing autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophies.

    Conclusion: We describe a new hereditary disease with recurrent corneal erosions. Attacks of symptoms similar to recurrent erosions dominate the phenotype, but half of those affected also developed corneal, keloid-like, central opacities. This disorder was not genetically linked to any clinically resembling corneal dystrophies with autosomal-dominant inheritance.

    Keywords
    Cornea, corneal dystrophies, hereditary, keloid, recurrent erosion
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16132 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0420.2007.01123.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-01-08 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2009-08-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Dystrophia Smolandiensis - recurrent corneal erosions with a novel morphological picture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dystrophia Smolandiensis - recurrent corneal erosions with a novel morphological picture
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 394-400Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe morphological changes in a new corneal disease, Dystrophia Smolandiensis, characterized by recurrent corneal erosive episodes and formation of central corneal keloid-like opacities in approximately half of those affected.

    Methods: The corneas of seven affected individuals were examined using in-vivo confocal microscopy. Specimens of one primary corneal graft, one regraft, and one biopsied keloid-like region, obtained from members of a large family with the disease, were re-examined with a light microscope, and sections were stained with Congo red and immunohistochemically analyzed for fibronectin and S100A4.

    Results: Light microscopic examination revealed epithelial hyperplasia, absence of Bowman’s layer and subepithelial fibrosis. Fibronectin was expressed in the area of subepithelial fibrosis, and the keratocytes in this area generally expressed S100A4. The biopsy specimen stained positive for Congo red, suggesting an amyloid deposit. In-vivo confocal microscopy confirmed epithelial abnormalities, loss of Bowman’s layer, and significant alterations of the subbasal nerve plexus in affected individuals.

    Conclusion: The morphologic picture in Dystrophia Smolandiensis is novel for a condition dominated by recurrent corneal erosions at the clinical level. Although no single morphologic feature unique to the disease could be found, the general morphologic pattern of pathology (true keloid formation, an absence of Bowman’s layer, subepithelial fibrosis, and abnormal subbasal nerves) likely reflects a novel phenotypic expression of the healing response to recurrent erosion of the corneal epithelium. The pathogenesis of Dystrophia Smolandiensis, however, remains to be fully elucidated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Blackwell, 2010
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17485 (URN)10.1111/j.1755-3768.2009.01548.x (DOI)000278182000003 ()19681763 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-03-26 Created: 2009-03-26 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Dystrophia Helsinglandica: a new type of hereditary corneal recurrent erosions with late subepithelial fibrosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dystrophia Helsinglandica: a new type of hereditary corneal recurrent erosions with late subepithelial fibrosis
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Acta ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 659-667Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe the phenotype of an autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophy with an early onset of recurrent corneal erosions and development of subepithelial fibrosis in the cornea, and also to exclude genetic linkage to known corneal dystrophies with autosomal-dominant inheritance and clinical resemblance.

    Methods: We describe the medical history and clinical findings in individuals from a seven-generation family with recurrent corneal erosions. A total of 43 individuals were evaluated by ophthalmological examination. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood and polymorphic microsatellite markers were analysed to study haplotypes surrounding genes causing corneal dystrophies with similar phenotypes.

    Results: Erosive symptoms usually lasted for between 1 and 10 days. By the age of 7 almost all of the affected individuals suffered from recurrent corneal erosions. The attacks generally declined in frequency and intensity from the late 20s, but all examined individuals had developed subepithelial fibrosis by the age of 37. The fibrosis generally started in the mid periphery and was followed in some family members by central fibrosis and the development of gelatinous superficial elevations. Only a marginal reduction of visual acuity was seen in a few individuals. The affected individuals did not share haplotypes for genetic microsatellite markers surrounding genes that are known to cause autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophies.

    Conclusion: We describe a new type of autosomal-dominant corneal disorder with recurrent corneal erosions and subepithelial fibrosis not significantly affecting visual acuity.

    Keywords
    Cornea, corneal dystrophies, corneal opacities, hereditary, recurrent erosion
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17487 (URN)10.1111/j.1755-3768.2008.01308.x (DOI)18700883 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-03-26 Created: 2009-03-26 Last updated: 2009-09-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Dystrophia Helsinglandica: corneal morphology, topography and sensitivity in a hereditary corneal disease with recurrent erosive episodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dystrophia Helsinglandica: corneal morphology, topography and sensitivity in a hereditary corneal disease with recurrent erosive episodes
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the morphology, corneal topography and sensitivity in individuals with Dystrophia Helsinglandica. This autosomal dominant corneal disease is characterized by recurrent corneal erosive episodes and progressive subepithelial fibrosis not significantly affecting visual acuity.

    Methods: The corneas of nine affected and nine unaffected individuals were examined using slit‐lamp biomicroscopy, in‐vivo confocal microscopy, and videokeratography. Corneal mechanical sensitivity was also measured using a noncontact esthesiometer.

    Results: Slit‐lamp biomicroscopy revealed that the affected individuals represented different stages of corneal changes, from a nearly normal cornea to subepithelial fibrosis of the central cornea. Corneal changes in affected individuals did not significantly decrease the best spectacle‐corrected visual acuity. In‐vivo confocal microscopy detected morphological changes in the epithelium and stroma. Subepithelial opacity formation including altered keratocytes could be found in the anterior stroma in all affected eyes. With the exception of two eyes (one affected and one unaffected), all videokeratographies showed irregular astigmatism. Corneal sensitivity was significantly lower in affected individuals (p ≤0.01). Age and corneal sensitivity showed no correlation.

    Conclusion: The main morphological findings in affected individuals were discrete and progressive subepithelial fibrosis, in the in‐vivo confocal microscope corresponding to optically dense extracellular matrix and activated keratocytes. Subbasal nerve morphology was changed in the affected family members who also showed a decreased corneal sensitivity. The findings were per se not specific to the disease. The changes probably reflect a healing response to erosive events on the corneal surface influenced by the genotype.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17489 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-03-26 Created: 2009-03-26 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
  • 46.
    Hammar, Björn
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björck, Erik
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lind, Helena
    Hudiksvall Hospital, Hudiksvall, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Kristina
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dellby, Anette
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Dystrophia Helsinglandica: a new type of hereditary corneal recurrent erosions with late subepithelial fibrosis2009In: Acta ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 659-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe the phenotype of an autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophy with an early onset of recurrent corneal erosions and development of subepithelial fibrosis in the cornea, and also to exclude genetic linkage to known corneal dystrophies with autosomal-dominant inheritance and clinical resemblance.

    Methods: We describe the medical history and clinical findings in individuals from a seven-generation family with recurrent corneal erosions. A total of 43 individuals were evaluated by ophthalmological examination. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood and polymorphic microsatellite markers were analysed to study haplotypes surrounding genes causing corneal dystrophies with similar phenotypes.

    Results: Erosive symptoms usually lasted for between 1 and 10 days. By the age of 7 almost all of the affected individuals suffered from recurrent corneal erosions. The attacks generally declined in frequency and intensity from the late 20s, but all examined individuals had developed subepithelial fibrosis by the age of 37. The fibrosis generally started in the mid periphery and was followed in some family members by central fibrosis and the development of gelatinous superficial elevations. Only a marginal reduction of visual acuity was seen in a few individuals. The affected individuals did not share haplotypes for genetic microsatellite markers surrounding genes that are known to cause autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophies.

    Conclusion: We describe a new type of autosomal-dominant corneal disorder with recurrent corneal erosions and subepithelial fibrosis not significantly affecting visual acuity.

  • 47.
    Hammar, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Björk, Erik
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Kristina
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dellby, Anette
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    A new corneal disease with recurrent erosive episodes and autosomal-dominant inheritance2008In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, Vol. 86, no 7, p. 758-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype in a large family with autosomal-dominant recurrent corneal erosions, and also to exclude genetic linkage to known autosomal-dominant inherited corneal dystrophies with clinical resemblance.

    Methods: We describe the medical history and clinical findings in patients from a six-generation family with recurrent corneal erosions. A total of 28 individuals were evaluated by ophthalmological examination. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood and analysed with polymorphic microsatellite markers close to known genes causing autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophies.

    Results: The patients had erosive symptoms that usually lasted from 1 to 7 days. The symptoms were described as early as at 8 months of age, and by the age of 5 the majority of the affected individuals suffered from recurrent corneal erosions. The attacks generally declined in frequency and intensity with age, and 52% of the patients developed central keloid-like corneal opacities. Nine patients received corneal grafts, and recurrences were seen in all grafts. The affected patients did not share haplotypes for genetic microsatellite markers surrounding known genes causing autosomal-dominant corneal dystrophies.

    Conclusion: We describe a new hereditary disease with recurrent corneal erosions. Attacks of symptoms similar to recurrent erosions dominate the phenotype, but half of those affected also developed corneal, keloid-like, central opacities. This disorder was not genetically linked to any clinically resembling corneal dystrophies with autosomal-dominant inheritance.

  • 48.
    Hammar, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lagali, Neil
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ek, Stefan
    Department of Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Seregard, Stefan
    St Eriks Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dellby, Anette
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Dystrophia Smolandiensis - recurrent corneal erosions with a novel morphological picture2010In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 394-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe morphological changes in a new corneal disease, Dystrophia Smolandiensis, characterized by recurrent corneal erosive episodes and formation of central corneal keloid-like opacities in approximately half of those affected.

    Methods: The corneas of seven affected individuals were examined using in-vivo confocal microscopy. Specimens of one primary corneal graft, one regraft, and one biopsied keloid-like region, obtained from members of a large family with the disease, were re-examined with a light microscope, and sections were stained with Congo red and immunohistochemically analyzed for fibronectin and S100A4.

    Results: Light microscopic examination revealed epithelial hyperplasia, absence of Bowman’s layer and subepithelial fibrosis. Fibronectin was expressed in the area of subepithelial fibrosis, and the keratocytes in this area generally expressed S100A4. The biopsy specimen stained positive for Congo red, suggesting an amyloid deposit. In-vivo confocal microscopy confirmed epithelial abnormalities, loss of Bowman’s layer, and significant alterations of the subbasal nerve plexus in affected individuals.

    Conclusion: The morphologic picture in Dystrophia Smolandiensis is novel for a condition dominated by recurrent corneal erosions at the clinical level. Although no single morphologic feature unique to the disease could be found, the general morphologic pattern of pathology (true keloid formation, an absence of Bowman’s layer, subepithelial fibrosis, and abnormal subbasal nerves) likely reflects a novel phenotypic expression of the healing response to recurrent erosion of the corneal epithelium. The pathogenesis of Dystrophia Smolandiensis, however, remains to be fully elucidated.

  • 49.
    Holmström, Gerd E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hellström, Ann
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Jakobsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Ophthalmology UHL/MH.
    Lundgren, Pia
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Tornqvist, Kristina
    Lund University Hospital, Sweden .
    Wallin, Agneta
    St Eriks Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Swedish National Register for Retinopathy of Prematurity (SWEDROP) and the Evaluation of Screening in Sweden2012In: Archives of ophthalmology (1960), ISSN 0003-9950, Vol. 130, no 11, p. 1418-1424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Sweden and to investigate possible modifications of the present screening guidelines. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Infants in Sweden with a gestational age (GA) of 31 weeks + 6 days or less are screened for ROP. Data from the Swedish national register for ROP (SWEDROP) during 2008 and 2009 were extracted and compared with a national perinatal quality register. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: In SWEDROP, there were 1791 infants born before a GA of 32weeks from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2009. Another 70 infants were registered in the perinatal quality register but not in SWEDROP (drop-out rate, 3.8% [70 of 1861 infants]). Seven infants died before termination of screening. In the final study cohort (1784 infants), 15.6% had mild ROP and 8.5% had severe ROP. Treatment was performed in 4.4% of the infants, none of whom had a GA at birth of more than 28 weeks. Nine infants with a GA of more than 28 weeks at birth developed stage 3 ROP, which regressed spontaneously. The total number of examinations was 9286 (964 in infants with a GA of 31 weeks), and the mean (range) number of examinations of each infant was 5.2 (1-30). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The SWEDROP, a quality register for ROP, has a national coverage (ie, participation) of 96%. Data from 2008 to 2009 show that it seems possible to reduce the upper limit for screening in Sweden by 1 week, including only infants with a GA of 30 weeks + 6 days or less. However, such a change should be combined with a strong recommendation to neonatologists to refer also severely ill and more "mature" infants.

  • 50.
    Ihnatko, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Edén, Ulla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Dellby, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Analysis of protein composition and protein expression in the tear fluid of patients with congenital aniridia2013In: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, Vol. 94, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aniridia is a rare congenital genetic disorder caused by haploinsuffiency of the PAX6 gene, the master gene for development of the eye. The expression of tear proteins in aniridia is unknown. To screen for proteins involved in the aniridia pathophysiology, the tear fluid of patients with diagnosed congenital aniridia was examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Two-dimensional map of tear proteins in aniridia has been established and 7 proteins were differentially expressed with P less than 0.01 between aniridia patients and control subjects. Five of them were more abundant in healthy subjects, particularly alpha-enolase, peroxiredoxin 6, cystatin S, gelsolin, apolipoprotein A-1 and two other proteins, zinc-alpha 2-glycoprotein and lactoferrin were more expressed in the tears of aniridia patients. Moreover, immunoblot analysis revealed elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in aniridia tears which is in concordance with clinical finding of pathological blood and lymph vessels in the central and peripheral cornea of aniridia patients. The proteins with different expression in patients tears may be new candidate molecules involved in the pathophysiology of aniridia and thus may be helpful for development of novel treatment strategies for the symptomatic therapy of this vision threatening condition. Biological significance This study is first to demonstrate protein composition and protein expression in aniridic tears and identifies proteins with different abundance in tear fluid from patients with congenital aniridia vs. healthy tears.

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