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  • 1.
    Akerstedt, Anita
    et al.
    Child and Youth Habilitat, Eksjo, Sweden .
    Risto, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Ödman, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Evaluation of single event multilevel surgery and rehabilitation in children and youth with cerebral palsy - A 2-year follow-up study2010In: DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION, ISSN 0963-8288, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 530-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Method. A prospective single-subject study with AB design and 2-year follow-up, included 11 children between 8 and 18 years old with CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System I-III. Visual analyses were used to present physical function with Physical Cost Index (PCI). Descriptive statistics were used to present number of children with a clinically important change in Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), self-reported walking ability, and HRQOL with child health questionnaire (CHQ). Results. PCI showed a trend of lower energy cost during gait in six children and GMFM was unchanged for 10 children and improved for one child. Walking ability was improved in 10 children. Gait distance increased in all 11. Both physical and psychosocial dimensions of CHQ improved in six of nine (two missing data). Expectations of outcomes were fulfilled in seven and partly fulfilled in four. Satisfaction with care was fulfilled in 10 of 11. Conclusion. Self-reported walking ability improved after multilevel surgery and intensive rehabilitation. This result was partly supported by lower energy cost and improved HRQOL. Expectations and satisfaction were fulfilled for the majority of children.

  • 2.
    Ali, L
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Sweden Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Ahlstrom, B H
    Gothenburg University, Sweden Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden University of West, Sweden .
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skarsater, I
    Gothenburg University, Sweden Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Daily life for young adults who care for a person with mental illness: a qualitative study2012In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 610-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessible summary The burden of caring for a person with mental illness has been transferred to families and close friends. Daily life for young informal carers is unpredictable and they need to stay alert and prepared for events beyond their control. Young informal carers are concerned young adults who support a family member or friend unconditionally. Supporting a friend is related to as a great a sense of individual responsibility as supporting a family member. Abstract This study describes the daily life and management strategies of young informal carers of family members or friends with mental illness. Twelve young adults (three men and nine women; 1625 years old) in Sweden were voluntarily recruited between February and May 2008. Data collected through eight individual semi-structured interviews and one focus group interview were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings revealed nine subthemes that were further grouped into three main themes: showing concern, providing support and using management strategies. Participants lived in constant readiness for something unexpected to happen to the person they cared for, and their role in the relationship could change quickly from family member or friend to guardian or supervisor. Supporting a friend was considered as large a personal responsibility as supporting a family member. Their management strategies were based on individual capacities and their ability to step aside should the situation become too demanding. These young informal carers need support in caring for the mentally ill. As the internet becomes increasingly fundamental to daily life, support could be provided most effectively through person-centred web sites.

  • 3.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perception and significance of an assistive technology intervention - the perspectives of relatives of persons with dementia2013In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 35, no 18, p. 1519-1526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine relatives' perception of an assistive technology intervention aimed at persons with dementia (PwDs) and their relatives, and to examine whether, and how, experiences of the intervention process differed between relatives valuing the intervention to be of high, and relatives perceiving it to be of low significance. Method: A total of 47 relatives of PwDs within the Swedish Technology and Dementia project were interviewed telephonically using a modified version of the Patient perspective on Care and Rehabilitation process instrument. A total of 46 participants were divided into two groups depending on whether they valued the intervention to be of great significance (GS group; N = 33) or of some/no significance (SNS group; N = 13). Results: Several aspects of the intervention were perceived as highly important, e.g. being shown consideration and respect, and having somewhere to turn. The results indicate that relatives in the GS group perceived certain aspects of the intervention process as highly fulfilled to a larger extent than did relatives in the SNS group. Conclusions: This study illustrates how process evaluations can be used to increase the understanding and to identify improvement aspects of interventions.

  • 4.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Teknik för personer med demens: En utvärderingsstudie av teknikintervention för personer med demenssjukdom och deras närstående2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to study costs and effects of an assistive technology intervention that included assistive technology, support and strategies for persons with dementia and their relatives. Further, the aim was to study the quality of the intervention process and how it was perceived by the participants in the project.

    This assessment study was performed within a project called “Technology and Dementia – development work, create methods and increase competence”. This project was coordinated by the Swedish Institute of Assistive Technology in collaboration with the Alzheimer Society in Sweden and the Dementia Association and was funded by the Swedish Inheritance Fund, Linköping University and the County Council of Östergötland. Two national resource centres were appointed within the project. These developed the assistive technology intervention.

    The study was designed as a pre/post study. Data was collected at three different occasions of measurement: baseline, first follow-up (four weeks after the intervention) and second follow-up (twelve weeks after the intervention). Different outcome measures were used to study the effect of the intervention: health related quality of life (HRQoL), support/caregiving situation, quality of sleep, perception of time and ability to perform everyday life activities. The costs in the study had a societal perspective. A process oriented instrument was used to study the quality of the intervention process. Persons with dementia as well as their relatives answered questionnaires and interviews in the study.

    Data was collected via interviews at the resource centres, via self ratings and through telephone interviews from the research team. The total population included in the analyses was 48 persons with dementia and 47 relatives.

    The results showed that there were no significant differences in effects between baseline and the two follow-ups, except for ability to perform everyday activities where data indicated deterioration during the study period. In one dimension of HRQoL for the relatives there was also a significant difference; the relatives rated greater difficulties at the second follow-up. Cognitive ability was used as a measure for disease stability during the study, and showed no significant differences. There was, however, a rather large drop-out at the second follow-up (15 %) in data on cognitive ability, therefore this result should be interpreted with caution; the persons with dementia may have deteriorated during the study period. This could be reflected in the deterioration in the ability to perform everyday life activities measure.

    The persons with dementia rated their HRQoL higher than the relatives’ proxy ratings (i.e. relatives’ ratings of the HRQoL of the persons with dementia), the differences between the proxy ratings and the persons’ own ratings were significant at all three occasions of measurement. The relatives rated their own HRQoL somewhat higher than the persons with dementia rated their own HRQoL. There were no significant differences between baseline and the followups.

    The intervention included many different types of assistive technologies. The cost of the intervention was 16 000 SEK/person with dementia and relative. There were no significant differences in costs of formal care during the study period. Many relatives performed informal care many hours of the day. Even though the differences in informal caregiving between baseline and the second follow-up were not significant there was a tendency of a slight increase in informal care time of everyday life activities and there was also a decrease in time spent supervising, a little less than one hour per day.

    An evaluation of the quality of the intervention process and how it was perceived was performed. Most relatives perceived that their needs were well fulfilled during the intervention process. Some aspects were brought forward where the intervention process could be improved. Seventy-two percent of the relatives rated the intervention as of great importance, 28 percent rated the intervention as of some importance or of no importance. The persons with dementia had higher expectations on the intervention than the relatives and most persons with dementia perceived the intervention as of great importance.

    Technology and Dementia was a trial project where potential effects and costs were studied. The study was explorative and contributes to increasing the knowledge on use of assistive technology in dementia and also on assessment methodology within this field. There were limitations in the study regarding size of the study population and lack of a comparison group.

    Assessing assistive technology for persons with dementia and their relatives from a socioeconomic perspective entails certain methodological challenges. A model for assessment of assistive technology interventions was developed and tried in this study. Results and methodology are discussed in relation to the assessment model. From this assessment study, areas have been identified for future studies. Future studies will be performed through subgroup analyses to identify groups where the intervention was successful and groups where the intervention was not successful.

     

  • 5.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Support/services among family caregivers of persons with dementia - perceived importance and services received2010In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 25, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that there is almost no difference between groups of caregivers experiencing higher and lower NI regarding their perception of what are important types of support/services. The caregivers rated different types of support/services within the areas of information, relief and counselling as very important.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Månsson, Linda
    Health care and social welfare costs in home-based and hospital-based rehabilitation after stroke2002In: Vol. 16, no 4, p. 386-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s most western European and Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries experienced financial difficulties and were forced to cut back on or restrain health care expenditures. Home rehabilitation has received attention in recent years because of its potential for cost containment. Often forgotten, however, is the redistribution of costs from one caregiver to another. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a redistribution of costs occurs between health care providers (the County councils) and social welfare providers (the municipalities) in a comparison of home-based rehabilitation and hospital-based rehabilitation after stroke. The study population included 123 patients, 53 in the home-based rehabilitation group and 68 in the hospital-based rehabilitation group. The patients were followed up at 6 and 12 months after onset of stroke. Resource use over a 12-month period included acute hospital care, in-hospital rehabilitation, home rehabilitation and use of home-help service as well as nursing home living. The hospital-based rehabilitation group had significantly fewer hospitalization days after a decision was made about rehabilitation at the acute care ward and consequently the cost for the acute care period was significantly lower. The cost for the rehabilitation period was significantly lower in the home-based rehabilitation group. However, the cost for home help service was significantly higher in the home-based rehabilitation group. The total costs for the care episode did not differ between the two groups. The main finding of this study is that there seems to occur a redistribution of costs between health care providers and social welfare providers in home rehabilitation after stroke in a group of patients with mixed degree of impairment.

  • 7.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Co-morbidity and health care utilisation five years prior to diagnosis for depression: A register-based study in a Swedish population2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 552-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Depressive disorders have been associated with a number of co-morbidities, and we   hypothesized that patients with a depression diagnosis would be heavy users of health   care services, not only when first evaluated for depression, but also for preceding   years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased health care utilisation   and co-morbidity could be seen during five years prior to an initial diagnosis of   depression.

    Methods

    We used a longitudinal register-based study design. The setting comprised the general   population in the county of Östergötland, south-east Sweden. All 2470 patients who   were 20 years or older in 2006 and who received a new diagnosis of depression (F32   according to ICD-10) in 2006, were selected and followed back to the year 2001, five   years before their depression diagnosis. A control group was randomly selected among   those who were aged 20 years or over in 2006 and who had received no depression diagnosis   during the period 2001-2006.

    Results

    Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female   gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status.

    Patients who received a diagnosis of depression used twice the amount of health care   (e.g. physician visits and hospital days) during the five year period prior to diagnosis   compared to the control group. A particularly strong increase in health care utilisation   was seen the last year before diagnosis. These findings were supported with a high   level of co-morbidity as for example musculoskeletal disorders during the whole five-year   period for patients with a depression diagnosis.

    Conclusions

    Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female   gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status. To find early signs   of depression in the clinical setting and to use a preventive strategy to handle these   patients is important.

  • 8.
    Balducci, C
    et al.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Mnich, E
    Hamburg university, Germany.
    McKee, K
    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Lamura, G
    INRCA, Anacona, Italy.
    Beckmann, A
    Hamburg university, Germany.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy.
    Wojszel, B
    University of Bialystok, Poland.
    Noland, M
    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Prouskas, C
    Sextant Group, Athens, Greece.
    Bien, B
    University of Bialystok, Poland.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Negative impact and positive value in caregiving: Validation of the COPE index in a six-country sample of carers2008In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The present study attempts to further validate the COPE Index on a large sample of carers drawn from six European countries. Design and Methods: We used a cross-sectional survey, with approximately 1,000 carers recruited in each of six countries by means of a common standard evaluation protocol. Our saturation recruitment of a designated quota of carers occurred by means of several channels, in identified geographical zones within countries. Interviews were carried out with primary informal carers by use of a common assessment tool. We subjected items of the COPE Index to principal component analysis and we assessed emergent components through the use of Cronbach's alpha reliability procedures. We examined factor components as summative scales for confirmatory correlations with caregiving and psychological variables. Results: Three components emerged, which we identified as the negative impact of caregiving, the positive value of caregiving, and the quality of support for caregiving. Internal consistency was good for negative impact and satisfactory for positive value and quality of support. Negative value was most consistently and strongly correlated with caregiving and psychological variables, although we did find diverse associations between these variables and the COPE Index subscales. Implications: The COPE Index is a brief, first-stage assessment of some sophistication that can enable health and social care professionals to develop appropriately targeted interventions to enhance the positive aspects of the caregiving experience and quality of support, as well as reduce the negative impacts of caregiving. Copyright 2008 by The Gerontological Society of America.

  • 9.
    Bjuremark, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dufvenberg, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kursutvärdering som incitament till förändring2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    En kursutvärdering får inte bli ett självändamål. Syftet är istället att med hjälp av den feedback man som lärare får, återkoppla och förbättra en kurs/utbildning. Fry et al., (2000) anser att lärare ibland kan ha nytta av att få hjälp med analys av utvärderingarna, för att på ett nyanserat sätt kunna ta emot den kritik som annars lätt skulle kunna avfärdas och bortses ifrån. Det kan vara jobbigt att ta in negativ kritik.

  • 10.
    Björnsson Hallgren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren, Theresa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    A specific exercise strategy for patients with subacromial pain significantly reduced the need for surgery: one-year results of a randomised controlled studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A specific exercise strategy focusing on eccentric exercises, for treating sbacromial pain has in a previous study been found effective at three-month followup.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the positive short-term results were maintained after one year. A further aim was to examine if baseline clinical score, rotator cuff status and radiological findings influenced the choice of surgery.

    Methods: 97 patients on the waiting-list for arthroscopic subacromial decompression were in the first study randomized to a three-month specific exercise strategy or unspecific exercises (controls). Patients were examined with radiology, ultrasound and assessed with clinical scores: primary Constant-Murley score. After three months of exercises the patients were asked if they still wanted surgery and this option was available until the one-year follow-up. All patients were re-assessed with clinical scores one year after inclusion or one year after surgical intervention and the number of patients that had chosen surgery in each group was compared. The baseline Constant-Murley score and the status of subacromial structures were analyzed in relation to patient's choice of surgery.

    Results: The positive short-term effect (improved shoulder function and pain) of the specific exercises was maintained after one-year. Compared to the three-month followup all patients had improved significantly (p < 0.0001) in Constant-Murley score. The number of patients that had chosen surgery in the control exercise group (63%) was significantly larger (p < 0.0001) than in the specific exercise group (24%). Patients that had chosen surgery had a significantly lower baseline Constant-Murley score and significantly more often a full-thickness tear. Patients with partial-thickness tears did not differ from those with intact cuff tendons.

    Conclusions: The positive short-term outcomes after specific exercises were maintained after one year and reduced the need of surgery significantly more than the unspecific control exercises. Patients with low baseline clinical score and/or a full-thickness tear significantly more often chose surgery.

    Level of evidence: I, Randomized controlled trail according to Consort statement.

  • 11.
    Björnsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Norlin, Rolf
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    The influence of age, delay of repair, and tendon involvement in acute rotator cuff tears Structural and clinical outcomes after repair of 42 shoulders2011In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Few authors have considered the outcome after acute traumatic rotator cuff tears in previously asymptomatic patients. We investigated whether delay of surgery, age at repair, and the number of cuff tendons involved affect the structural and clinical outcome. Patients and methods 42 patients with pseudoparalysis after trauma and no previous history of shoulder symptoms were included. A full-thickness tear in at least 1 of the rotator cuff tendons was diagnosed in all patients. Mean time to surgery was 38 (6-91) days. Follow-up at a mean of 39 (12-108) months after surgery included ultrasound, plain radiographs, Constant-Murley score, DASH score, and western Ontario rotator cuff (WORC) score. Results At follow-up, 4 patients had a full-thickness tear and 9 had a partial-thickness tear in the repaired shoulder. No correlation between the structural or clinical outcome and the time to repair within 3 months was found. The patients with a tendon defect at follow-up had a statistically significantly lower Constant-Murley score and WORC index in the injured shoulder and were significantly older than those with intact tendons. The outcomes were similar irrespective of the number of tendons repaired. Interpretation A delay of 3 months to repair had no effect on outcome. The patients with cuff defects at follow-up were older and they had a worse clinical outcome. Multi-tendon injury did not generate worse outcomes than single-tendon tears at follow-up.

  • 12.
    Broberg, C.
    et al.
    Inst. of Occup. Therapy/Physiother., Sahlgrenska Acad. at Goteborg Univ., P.O. Box 455, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Aars, M.
    School of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsø University College, Tromsø, Norway.
    Beckmann, Kristina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy.
    Emaus, N.
    School of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsø University College, Tromsø, Norway.
    Lehto, P.
    Degree Programme in Physiotherapy, Pirkanmaa Polytechnic, Tampere, Finland.
    Lahteenmaki, M.-L.
    Lähteenmäki, M.-L..
    Licentiate, A.
    Degree Programme in Physiotherapy, Pirkanmaa Polytechnic, Tampere, Finland.
    Thys, W.
    Department of Physiotherapy, Arteveldehogeschool, Gent, Belgium.
    Vandenberghe, R.
    Department of Physiotherapy, Arteveldehogeschool, Gent, Belgium.
    A conceptual framework for curriculum design in physiotherapy education - An international perspective2003In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 161-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization is having a significant impact on healthcare and physiotherapy education, among other sectors, can benefit from this trend. The main aim of this work was to develop and describe a conceptual framework for physiotherapy curriculum design and, in doing so, to stimulate international debate on physiotherapy education. The framework was developed through an international collaboration and was tried out in the participating schools in order to refine it further. The current framework consists of three elements to be taken into account in physiotherapy curriculum design: (1) The content aspect or the knowledge base of physiotherapy, (2) the learning aspect or the student's learning process, and (3) the socio-cultural context aspect, which concerns the way in which physiotherapy is experienced and practised. The content aspect includes a description of core concepts of physiotherapy: body, movement and interaction, and acknowledges that physiotherapy should be science-based. The learning aspect and the socio-cultural context aspect form separate parts of the framework. Nonetheless, all aspects are intertwined and reflect theory-practice integration. This framework is offered for critical reflection and as the basis for a debate on the development and evaluation of physiotherapy programmes. Further work is needed in testing the relevance of this framework for curriculum design in different countries and setting.

  • 13.
    Carstensen, John
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    André, Malin
    Landstinget i Uppsala län.
    Engström, Sven
    Landstinget i Jönköpings län.
    Magnusson, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    How does comorbidity influence healthcare costs? A population-based cross-sectional study of depression, back pain and osteoarthritis2012In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, p. e000809-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To analyse how comorbidity among patients with back pain, depression and osteoarthritis influences healthcare costs per patient. A special focus was made on the distribution of costs for primary healthcare compared with specialist care, hospital care and drugs.

    Design Population-based cross-sectional study.

    Setting The County of Östergötland, Sweden.

    Patients Data on diagnoses and healthcare costs for all 266 354 individuals between 20 and 75 years of age, who were residents of the County of Östergötland, Sweden, in the year 2006, were extracted from the local healthcare register and the national register of drug prescriptions.

    Main outcome measures The effects of comorbidity on healthcare costs were estimated as interactions in regression models that also included age, sex, number of other health conditions and education.

    Results The largest diagnosed group was back pain (11 178 patients) followed by depression (7412 patients) and osteoarthritis (5174 patients). The largest comorbidity subgroup was the combination of back pain and depression (772 patients), followed by the combination of back pain and osteoarthritis (527 patients) and the combination of depression and osteoarthritis (206 patients). For patients having both a depression diagnosis and a back pain diagnosis, there was a significant negative interaction effect on total healthcare costs. The average healthcare costs among patients with depression and back pain was SEK 11 806 lower for a patient with both diagnoses. In this comorbidity group, there were tendencies of a positive interaction for general practitioner visits and negative interactions for all other visits and hospital days. Small or no interactions at all were seen between depression diagnoses and osteoarthritis diagnoses.

    Conclusions A small increase in primary healthcare visits in comorbid back pain and depression patients was accompanied with a substantial reduction in total healthcare costs and in hospital costs. Our results can be of value in analysing the cost effects of comorbidity and how the coordination of primary and secondary care may have an impact on healthcare costs.

  • 14.
    Cherkin, Daniel
    et al.
    Group Health Centre for Health Studies.
    Kovacs, Francisco M
    Federation of Kovacs & Spanish Back Pain Research Network.
    Croft, Peter
    Keele University.
    Borkan, Jeffrey
    Brown University.
    Foster, Nadine E
    Keele University.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Urrutia, Gerard
    Spanish Back Pain Research Network.
    Zamora , Javier
    Hospital Ramon & Cajal.
    The Ninth International Forum for Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain2009In: SPINE, ISSN 0362-2436 , Vol. 34, no 3, p. 304-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design. Review of oral and poster presentations and of workshop summaries from the Ninth International Forum for Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain held in Majorca, Spain, October 4-6, 2007.

    Objective. Summarize highlights of the conference.

    Summary of Background Data. The International Forum for Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain has become the primary conference for presenting research on the advances in primary care for back pain.

    Methods. Distillation of the key themes and findings of the research presented at the Forum.

    Results. Presentations at the forum included intervention studies, psychosocial aspects of low back pain, and epidemiological, clinical, and pathologic studies.

    Conclusion. The research presented at the forum has contributed to the advancement of understanding of how to improve primary care for low back pain. The Tenth International Forum will occur on June 14-17, 2009, in Boston.

  • 15.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis.
    What supports physiotherapists’ use of research in clinical practice? A qualitative study in Sweden2013In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Evidence-based practice has increasingly been recognized as a priority by professional physiotherapy organizations and influential researchers and clinicians in the field. Numerous studies in the past decade have documented that physiotherapists hold generally favorable attitudes to evidence-based practice and recognize the importance of using research to guide their clinical practice. Research has predominantly investigated barriers to research use. Less is known about the circumstances that actually support use of research by physiotherapists. This study explores the conditions at different system levels that physiotherapists in Sweden perceive to be supportive of their use of research in clinical practice.

    Methods

    Patients in Sweden do not need a referral from a physician to consult a physiotherapist and physiotherapists are entitled to choose and perform any assessment and treatment technique they find suitable for each patient. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted with 45 physiotherapists, each lasting between 90 and 110 minutes. An inductive approach was applied, using topics rather than questions to allow the participants to generate their own questions and pursue their own priorities within the framework of the aim. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    Analysis of the data yielded nine favorable conditions at three system levels supporting the participant’s use of research in clinical practice: two at the individual level (attitudes and motivation concerning research use; research-related knowledge and skills), four at the workplace level (leadership support; organizational culture; research-related resources; knowledge exchange) and three at the extra-organizational level (evidence-based practice guidelines; external meetings, networks, and conferences; academic research and education).

    Conclusions

    Supportive conditions for physiotherapists’ use of research exist at multiple interdependent levels, including the individual, workplace, and extra-organizational levels. Research use in physiotherapy appears to be an interactive and interpretative social process that involves a great deal of interaction with various people, including colleagues and patients.

  • 16.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krevers , Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    In pursuit of QALY weights for relatives: Empirical estimates in relatives caring for older people2008In: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 285-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimates quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) weights for relatives caring for an older person. The data used are from the Swedish part of the EUROFAMCARE study. A new measure is introduced called the R-QALY weight, defined as the effect on a relative’s QALY weight due to being a relative of a disabled or sick individual. R-QALY weights were created by comparing relatives’ QALY weights with population-based QALY weights. They were also created by comparing with QALY weights reassessed for a hypothetical situation in which the older person needed no care. The results indicate that R-QALY weights are small when compared with population-based weights, but large when compared with QALY weights reassessed for the hypothetical situation. Moreover, R-QALY weights were affected by relatives’ age, sex, and subjective perception of positive and negative aspects of the caregiving situation. These aspects should therefore be taken into account in health economics evaluations using a societal approach.

  • 17.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Identification and Estimation of Relatives' QALY Weights for Use in Health Economic Evaluations2006In: ECHE, 6th European Conference in Health Economics,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Dionne, Clermont E
    et al.
    Laval University, Québec, Canada and Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.
    Dunn, Kate M
    Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.
    Croft, Peter R
    Keele University, Staffordshire, UK.
    Nachemson, Alf L
    Buchbinder, Rachelle
    Walker, Bruce F
    Wyatt, Mary
    Cassidy, J David
    Rossignol, Michel
    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
    Hartvigsen, Jan
    Leino-Arjas, Päivi
    Latza, Ute
    Reis, Shmuel
    Gil Del Real, Maria Teresa
    Kovacs, Francisco M
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cedraschi, Christine
    Bouter, Lex M
    Koes, Bart W
    Picavet, H Susan J
    van Tulder, Maurits W
    Burton, Kim
    Foster, Nadine E
    Macfarlane, Gary J
    Thomas, Elaine
    Underwood, Martin
    Waddell, Gordon
    Shekelle, Paul
    Volinn, Ernest
    Von Korff, Michael
    A consensus approach toward the standardization of back pain definitions for use in prevalence studies2008In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 95-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: A modified Delphi study conducted with 28 experts in back pain research from 12 countries.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify standardized definitions of low back pain that could be consistently used by investigators in prevalence studies to provide comparable data.

    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Differences in the definition of back pain prevalence in population studies lead to heterogeneity in study findings, and limitations or impossibilities in comparing or summarizing prevalence figures from different studies.

    METHODS: Back pain definitions were identified from 51 articles reporting population-based prevalence studies, and dissected into 77 items documenting 7 elements. These items were submitted to a panel of experts for rating and reduction, in 3 rounds (participation: 76%). Preliminary results were presented and discussed during the Amsterdam Forum VIII for Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain, compared with scientific evidence and confirmed and fine-tuned by the panel in a fourth round and the preparation of the current article.

    RESULTS: Two definitions were agreed on a minimal definition (with 1 question covering site of low back pain, symptoms observed, and time frame of the measure, and a second question on severity of low back pain) and an optimal definition that is made from the minimal definition and add-ons (covering frequency and duration of symptoms, an additional measure of severity, sciatica, and exclusions) that can be adapted to different needs.

    CONCLUSION: These definitions provide standards that may improve future comparisons of low back pain prevalence figures by person, place and time characteristics, and offer opportunities for statistical summaries.

  • 19.
    Eckerblad, Jeanette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pulmonary Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Respiratory Medicine UHL.
    Kentsson, Magnus
    Landstinget i Jönköpings län.
    Skargren, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tödt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Theander, Kersti
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Symptom Prevalence And Symptom Distress In Patients With COPD2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Is Mobility in the Labor Market a Solution to Sustainable Return to Work for Some Sick Listed Persons?2011In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 355-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study aims to identify characteristics associated with long-term expectations of professional stability or mobility among recently sick-listed workers, and to study whether expectations of professional mobility and turnover intentions were associated with duration of sick leave.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on baseline measures in a prospective cohort study of patients who were granted sick leave due to musculoskeletal (MSD) or mental (MD) disorders. A total of 1,375 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A baseline questionnaire was sent by mail within 3 weeks of their first day of certified medical sickness; 962 individuals responded (70%). The main diagnosis was MSD in 595 (62%) individuals and MD in 367 (38%).

    Results: Expectations of ability to remain in the present profession in 2 years was associated with better health and health-related resources, younger age, higher education, and better effort-reward balance. Effort-reward imbalance, MD, high burnout scores, and better educational and occupational position were associated with turnover intentions. Low expectations of ability to remain in the present profession defined two vulnerable groups with regard to RTW, those with no turnover intentions were older, had lower personal resources, more often had MSD, and slower RTW rate. Those with turnover intentions had a clear effort-reward imbalance and high burnout scores.

    Conclusions: The results of this explorative study underline the importance of differentiating RTW-interventions based on knowledge about the sick-listed person's resources in relation to the labor market and the work place, and their expectations of future employment and employability.

  • 21.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Is mobility in the labor market a solution to sustainable return to work for some sicklisted persons?: Poster presentation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Eklund, Jorgen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sorting and disposing of waste at recycling centres - A users perspective2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 355-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates Swedish recycling centres from the users perspective. The aim was to describe the characteristics and experiences of the users and their activities when sorting and disposing of waste, and to identify improvements for the users. The typical recycling centre user is a recently retired man, living in a house with a garden, having travelled 5 km alone in his own car. The users requested longer opening hours and better information available at home and at the recycling centre. The major difficulty for the users is to understand which fraction their waste belongs to, and consequently into which container they should throw it. The most important sources of sorting information, in addition to experience from earlier visits, are signs and asking the personnel. Although the service at recycling centres is perceived positively by a majority of users. substantial improvements can still be made, and a number of such suggestions are given.

  • 23.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fuller, C.W
    Centre for Sports Medicine, University of Nottingham, UK.
    Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players. 2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 824-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare incidences and patterns of injury for female and male elite teams when playing football on artificial turf and grass. Twenty teams (15 male, 5 female) playing home matches on third-generation artificial turf were followed prospectively; their injury risk when playing on artificial turf pitches was compared with the risk when playing on grass. Individual exposure, injuries (time loss) and injury severity were recorded by the team medical staff. In total, 2105 injuries were recorded during 246 000 h of exposure to football. Seventy-one percent of the injuries were traumatic and 29% overuse injuries. There were no significant differences in the nature of overuse injuries recorded on artificial turf and grass for either men or women. The incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours) of acute (traumatic) injuries did not differ significantly between artificial turf and grass, for men (match 22.4 v 21.7; RR 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.2); training 3.5 v 3.5; RR 1.0 (0.8–1.2)) or women [match 14.9 v 12.5; RR 1.2 (0.8–1.8); training 2.9 v 2.8; RR 1.0 (0.6–1.7)]. During matches, men were less likely to sustain a quadriceps strain (P=0.031) and more likely to sustain an ankle sprain (P=0.040) on artificial turf.

  • 24.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Epidemiology of Muscle Injuries in Professional Football (Soccer)2011In: American Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0363-5465, E-ISSN 1552-3365, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1226-1232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Muscle injuries constitute a large percentage of all injuries in football.

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and nature of muscle injuries in male professional footballers.

    Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

    Methods: Fifty-one football teams, comprising 2299 players, were followed prospectively during the years 2001 to 2009. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. The first-team squads of 24 clubs selected by the Union of European Football Associations as belonging to the best European teams, 15 teams of the Swedish First League, and another 15 European teams playing their home matches on artificial turf pitches were included. A muscle injury was defined as “a traumatic distraction or overuse injury to the muscle leading to a player being unable to fully participate in training or match play.”

    Results: In total, 2908 muscle injuries were registered. On average, a player sustained 0.6 muscle injuries per season. A squad of 25 players can thus expect about 15 muscle injuries per season. Muscle injuries constituted 31% of all injuries and caused 27% of the total injury absence. Ninety-two percent of all muscle injuries affected the 4 major muscle groups of the lower limbs: hamstrings (37%), adductors (23%), quadriceps (19%), and calf muscles (13%). Sixteen percent of the muscle injuries were reinjuries. These reinjuries caused significantly longer absences than did index injuries. The incidence of muscle injury increased with age. When separated into different muscle groups, however, an increased incidence with age was found only for calf muscle injuries and not for hamstring, quadriceps, or hip/groin strains.

    Conclusion: Muscle injuries are a substantial problem for players and their clubs. They constitute almost one third of all time-loss injuries in men’s professional football, and 92% of all injuries affect the 4 big muscle groups in the lower limbs.

  • 25.
    Ekstrand, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hägglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waldén, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football - the UEFA injury study2011In: British journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 553-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. SETTING: European professional men's football. PARTICIPANTS: The first team squads of 23 teams selected by UEFA as belonging to the 50 best European teams. Main outcome measurement: Injury incidence. RESULTS: 4,483 injuries occurred during 566,000 hours of exposure, giving an injury incidence of 8.0 injuries/1,000 hours. The injury incidence during matches was higher than in training (27.5 v 4.1, p<0.0001). A player sustained on average 2.0 injuries per season and a team with typically 25 players can thus expect about 50 injuries each season. The single most common injury subtype was thigh strain, representing 17% of all injuries. Re-injuries constituted 12% of all injuries and they caused longer absences than non re-injuries (24 v 18 days, p<0.0001). The incidence of match injuries showed an increasing injury tendency over time in both the first and second halves (p<0.0001). Traumatic injuries and hamstring strains were more frequent during the competitive season, while overuse injuries were common during the pre-season. Training and match injury incidences were stable over the period with no significant differences between seasons. CONCLUSIONS: The training and match injury incidences were stable over seven seasons. The risk of injury increased with time in each half of matches.

  • 26.
    Elf, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden Vardalinst Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden .
    Rystedt, Hans
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Lundin, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Young carers as co-designers of a web-based support system - the views of two publics2012In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 203-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to reveal young carers views of design of a web-based support system (WBSS) directed to them and the differences between their views and the views of project representatives (PRs), in a participatory design process. Methods: Eight young people, 17-24 years, were involved in either a work or a test group. The work group participated in video-recorded design meetings with representatives of the project. Content analysis and Deweys concept of public were applied on the data. The test group worked from their homes and data were collected via test forms and used as supplemental data. Results: Four themes were revealed, constituting key parts in the design of the WBSS: Communicating the message, Ideational working principles, User interaction and User interface. Furthermore, decisive differences between the views of participants and PRs were found. Conclusion: The four key parts should be considered in a WBSS directed to young carers. The study also suggests that early user involvement and critical reflection in the design process itself may be crucial to discern differences in perspective between designers and users.

  • 27.
    Elf, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Skarsater, Ingela
    Swedish Institute Health Science.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The web is not enough, its a base - an explorative study of what needs a web-based support system for young carers must meet2011In: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 206-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the specific needs that a web-based support system for young carers (YCs) must meet. Twelve young people with experience of caring for and supporting a close friend, partner or relative with mental illness (MI) were interviewed about their life situation, support needs and opinions about a hypothetical web-based support system. The transcribed interviews were analysed using content analysis. The analysed data were organised into three themes relating to support needs, each including a number of sub-themes: knowledge - understanding MI, managing the mentally ill person and self-care; communication - shared experiences, advice and feedback, and befriending; and outside involvement - acute relief, structured help and health care commitments. Web-based support for YCs may be a suitable way to meet the need for knowledge and to meet some of the needs for communication. We have outlined a concept of a geographically anchored web support to meet the need for befriending, facilitate connections to health and social care, and increase understanding and interaction between the parties involved. Further research is needed to corroborate the results.

  • 28.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy.
    Back injuries among nurses - A comparison of the accident processes after a 10-year follow-up2008In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prospective dynamic-population-based study was conducted to investigate whether factors involved in the accident process preceding over-exertion back injuries among nursing personnel had changed compared with 10 years earlier. The study covers all reported occupational over-exertion back injuries due to accident among nurses in the hospitals of Stockholm County during the years 1992-1993 and 2002-2003. The assumption was that several factors and events interact in the accident process causing a back injury. Detailed information about the accident process was obtained for each injury by interviews with the injured person. During the two study periods, interviews were conducted with 130 and 132 nurses, respectively. In both studies, most accidents occurred during ordinary planned patient transfers, and the distributions of the type of patient transfer were very similar. Mostly, draw sheets and walking belts were used as transfer equipment, although in about half of the cases, the patients had both physical and psychological limitations, which restricted their cooperation in the transfer. In 2002-2003, the nurses were older and had longer experience of the specific task they were doing, fewer had been given instructions on how to perform the specific task, they were more stressed and rated their RPE higher compared with nurses in 1992-1993. In 2002-2003, the injury more often led to sick leave and to longer sick leave, furthermore, the nurses more often sought medical care and more often took analgesics compared with 10 years earlier. There were no relation between age and if the injury led to a sick-leave or not or the length of sick-leave. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy.
    Nurses' expectations, experiences and attitudes towards the intervention of a 'No Lifting Policy'2007In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate expectations and attitudes towards a No Lifting Policy programme, the "No Lift system", among nurses at hospitals where an introduction of the intervention was planned (PreNLS hospitals), and to make a comparison with nurses' experiences and attitudes at one hospital where the intervention had already been implemented (NLS hospital). A cross-sectional study of nurses at two PreNLS hospitals and one NLS hospital was performed. Most nurses at both the PreNLS hospitals and the NLS hospital were positive or very positive to the intervention. The expected and experienced obstacles differed between nurses at the PreNLS hospitals and the NLS hospital, however, there was more agreement concerning benefits. The most frequently expected obstacles at the PreNLS hospitals were organisational issues and obstacles related to the facilities, while most obstacles identified at the NLS hospital concerned specific transfers or were patientrelated. A decrease in the number of injuries was the most often considered benefit among most nurses. Nurses at the NLS hospital rated their physical exertion as lower in seven out of nine specific patient transfers compared with nurses at the PreNLS hospitals. They also reported increased well-being at work and an improved ability to manage their daily work. The comprehensive approach and participatory design, including all levels of staff and extensive support from the nurses' own union and management, is probably one important explanation for the positive attitudes and successful introduction of the intervention.

  • 30.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral.2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Waste and recycling - A challenge for society2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 335-335Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Working conditions at recycling centres in Sweden - Physical and psychosocial work environment2010In: APPLIED ERGONOMICS, ISSN 0003-6870, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of jobs at recycling centres are increasing, at the same time as there are indications of work environment problems. The aim of this paper was to investigate physical and psychosocial working conditions for employees at recycling centres in Sweden, to describe how they were perceived, to compare differences between subgroups, and further to identify proposals for improvement. Employees at 42 recycling centres (n = 122) responded a postal questionnaire. Of these 32 employees from 16 recycling centres were interviewed, as also their employer (n = 16). The work at recycling centres was reported to be a meaningful service job comprising many social interactions with users, but also substantial physical strain. There was a high frequency of injuries and minor injuries. Several risks were identified. There is a need for several preventive actions, e.g. better planning when building recycling centres, including better machines and equipment and more training, especially in handling hazardous waste.

  • 33.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Återvinningscentralen: sorteringsplats-arbetsplats-mötesplats2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är populärvetenskaplig och vänder sig till personal vid återvinningscentraler, arbetsledare, chefer, konsulter, projektledare och planerare/designers av återvinningscentralen samt till företagshälsovården. Vidare till aktörer i den efterkommande leden av avfallshanteringen samt övriga intresserade. Den baserar sig på resultat från forskningsprojektet ”Framtidens återvinningscentral” som är ett multidiciplinärt forskningsprogram som drivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007.

  • 34.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 35.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Industriell ergonomi, KTH.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok baserar sig på de forskningsresultat och erfarenheter som kommit fram inom forskningsprogrammet ”Framtidens återvinningscentral” som är ett multidiciplinärt forskningsprogram som drivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007.Boken vänder sig till alla som är involverade vid planering, byggnation, ombyggnation och drift av återvinningscentraler. Dessa kan vara ansvariga inom kommuner, arkitekter, konsulter, arbetsledare på återvinningscentral, skyddsombud, fackliga förtroendemän med flera.

  • 36.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reported occupational injuries at Swedish recycling centres – based on official statistics2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection. There is no special category in the official injury statistics for employees at recycling centres, which precludes a straightforward analysis of reported occupational injuries. This study aimed at identifying the frequency of reported accidents and diseases and the type of events that contribute to such injuries at recycling centres, based on official injury statistics. The employees were identified as being affected by more than three to five times as many accidents compared with the total workforce in Sweden. The reported accidents had occurred during a wide range of situations, but most frequently during manual handling of waste. Reported work-related diseases were mostly associated with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly due to heavy lifting. A more detailed classification of sanitation professions and workplaces in the official injury statistics would facilitate future studies of injuries in a specific professional category, e.g. employees at recycling centres. Suggestions for prevention are given.

    Statement of Relevance: The present article describes all reported work accidents and diseases among employees at recycling centres from 1992 to February 2005. It also highlights the problem of identifying new working groups in the official statistics and gives advice for a detailed classification to facilitate such future studies of injuries.

  • 37.
    Engstrand, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interrater Reliability in Finger Joint Goniometer Measurement in Dupuytrens Disease2012In: American Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0272-9490, E-ISSN 1943-7676, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 98-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated interrater reliability of range of motion (ROM) measurement in the finger joints of people with Dupuytrens disease. Eight raters measured flexion and extension of the three finger joints in one affected finger of each of 13 people with different levels of severity of Dupuytrens disease, giving 104 measures of joints and motions. Reliability measures, represented by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of the mean (SEM), and differences between raters with the highest and lowest mean scores, were calculated. ICCs ranged from .832 to .973 depending on joint and motion. The SEM was andlt;= 3 degrees for all joints and motions. Differences in mean between highest and lowest raters were larger for flexion than for extension; the largest difference was in the distal interphalangeal joint. The results indicate that following these standardized guidelines, the interrater reliability of goniometer measurements is high for digital ROM in people with Dupuytrens disease.

  • 38.
    Engström, Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Walter, Lars
    FHVC landstinget i Östergötland.
    Thorell, Kristine
    Blekinge kompentenscentrum.
    Halling, Anders
    Allmänmedicin, Lunds universitet.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Social status påverkar kostnader för läkemedel och vård: Vårdval bör ta hänsyn till socioekonomiska faktorer, visar registerstudie2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, no 48, p. 3248-3253Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Fagevik Olsen, Monika
    et al.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Gutke, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elden, Helen
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nordenman, Charlotte
    Rehabenheten, Dalsjofor.
    Fabricius, Lina
    Kinna Care Centre.
    Gravesen, Melissa
    Psykiatriska Oppenvardsmottagningen, Falkoping.
    Lind, Anette
    Gothenburg University.
    Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Self-administered tests as a screening procedure for pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain2009In: EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL, ISSN 0940-6719, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1121-1129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity and specificity of self-administrated tests aimed at pain provocation of posterior and/or anterior pelvis pain and to investigate pain intensity during and after palpation of the symphysis. A total of 175 women participated in the study, 100 pregnant women with and 25 pregnant women without lumbopelvic back pain and 50 non-pregnant women. Standard pain provocation tests were compared with self assessed tests. All women were asked to estimate pain during and after palpation of the symphysis. For posterior pelvic pain, the self-test of P4 and Bridging test had the highest sensitivity of 0.90 versus 0.97 and specificity of 0.92 and 0.87. Highest sensitivity for self-test for anterior pelvic pain was pulling a mat 0.85. Palpation of symphysis was painful and persistency of pain was the longest among women who fulfilled the criteria for symphyseal pain. There were overall significant differences between the groups concerning intensity and persistency of pain (P andlt; 0.001). Our results indicate that pregnant women can perform a screening by provocation of posterior pelvic pain by self-tests with the new P4 self-test and the Bridging test. Palpation of the symphysis is painful and should only be used as a complement to history taking, pain drawing and pulling a MAT-test.

  • 40.
    Falk, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care Centres. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun protection advice mediated by the general practitioner: An effective way to achieve long-term change of behaviour and attitudes related to sun exposure?2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate, in primary health care, differentiated levels of prevention directed at skin cancer, and how the propensity of the patients to change sun habits/sun protection behaviour and attitudes towards sunbathing were affected, three years after intervention. Additionally, the impact of the performance of a phototest as a complementary tool for prevention was evaluated. Design. Randomized controlled study. Setting and subjects. During three weeks in February, all patients andgt;= 18 years of age registering at a primary health care centre in southern Sweden were asked to fill in a questionnaire mapping sun exposure habits, attitudes towards sunbathing, and readiness to increase sun protection according to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM) (n = 316). They were randomized into three intervention groups, for which sun protection advice was given, in Group 1 by means of a letter, and in Groups 2 and 3 orally during a personal GP consultation. Group 3 also underwent a phototest to demonstrate individual skin UV sensitivity. Main outcome measures. Change of sun habits/sun protection behaviour and attitudes, measured by five-point Likert scale scores and readiness to increase sun protection according to the TTM, three years after intervention, by a repeated questionnaire. Results. In the letter group, almost no improvement in sun protection occurred. In the two doctors consultation groups, significantly increased sun protection was demonstrated for several items, but the difference compared with the letter group was significant only for sunscreen use. The performance of a phototest did not appear to reinforce the impact of intervention. Conclusion. Sun protection advice, mediated personally by the GP during a doctors consultation, can lead to improvement in sun protection over a prolonged time period.

  • 41.
    Forsgren, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics.
    Bengtsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sören, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brandejsky, Vaclav
    Depts Clinical Research and Radiology, University Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Lund, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    31P MRS as a Potential Biomarker for Fibromyalgia2012In: Proceedings of the 20th Annaal Meeting & Exhibition, 5-11 May, Melbourne, Australia, 2012, p. 1493-1493Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major clinical symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM) are muscle pain, stiffness and fatigue. Studies have shown reduced voluntary strength and exercise capacity, lower endurance and more muscular pain even at low workload. An impaired muscle energy metabolism has therefore been proposed as a result of the disease. An earlier study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) showed that at maximal dynamic and static contractions the concentration of inorganic phosphate was lower in FM [1]. A decrease in ATP, ADP and PCr and an increase in AMP and creatine was found in FM biopsies [2]. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively analyze the quantitative content of  phosphagens in the resting muscle in FM in comparison to healthy controls using 31P MRS of the quadriceps muscle.

  • 42.
    Gutke, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pelvic Girdle Pain and Lumbar Pain in relation to pregnancy2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) is higher in pregnant women compared to women of the same age in a general population. Pregnancy-related LBP persists 6 years after pregnancy in 16% of women. Consequently, pregnancy represents a specific risk for LBP and persistent LBP. Pregnancy-related LBP is usually studied as a single entity, however, only one subgroup of LBP, i.e. pelvic girdle pain (PGP), seems to be associated with pregnancy. Accordingly, possible differences in subgroups of patients with LBP are unknown.

    The aims of this thesis were the following: 1) to describe the prevalence of clinically classified subgroups of women with LBP in a cohort (no LBP, lumbar pain, PGP, and combined pain (PGP and lumbar pain)) during pregnancy and postpartum, and 2) to determine if there was a disparity in the course, health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, disability, depressive symptoms, or muscle function in subgroups of the cohort, and 3) to identify predictors for having persistent pregnancy-related PGP postpartum.

    Consecutively-enrolled pregnant women were classified into LBP subgroups by mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, pelvic pain provocation tests, standard history, and pain drawings. All women answered questionnaires (background data, EQ-5D). Women with LBP completed the Oswestry Disability Index and pain measures. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to evaluate depressive symptoms at 3 months postpartum (cut-off ≥10). Trunk muscle endurance, hip muscle strength, and gait speed were investigated. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors from self-reports and clinical examination.

    At the 12-18 gestational week evaluation, 118/308 (38%) women had no LBP, 33 (11%) had lumbar pain, 101 (33%) had PGP, and 56 (18%) had combined pain. Three months postpartum, 183/272 (67%) women had no LBP, 29 (11%) had lumbar pain, 46 (17%) had PGP, and 14 (5%) had combined pain. Pregnant women with combined pain were most affected in terms of HRQL, pain intensity, and disability. Depressive symptoms were three times more prevalent in women with LBP (27/87, 31%) than in women without LBP (17/180, 9%). Women with PGP and/or combined pain had lower values for trunk muscle endurance, hip extensor strength and gait speed compared to women without LBP. Postpartum, 16-20% of the women had persistent combined pain or PGP, whereas 1/29 had lumbar pain. Predictors for persistent PGP or combined pain were work dissatisfaction, older age, combined pain in early pregnancy, and low endurance of the back flexors.

    In conclusion, women with combined pain were identified to be a target group since they had the lowest recovery rate and since the classification of combined pain was found to be a predictor for persistent PGP or combined pain postpartum. The hypothesis of an association between muscle dysfunction and PGP was strengthened. Based on the finding of high comorbidity of postpartum depressive symptoms and LBP, it seems important to screen for and consider treatment strategies for both symptoms.

    List of papers
    1. Pelvic Girdle Pain and Lumbar Pain in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study of the Consequences in terms of Health and Functioning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pelvic Girdle Pain and Lumbar Pain in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study of the Consequences in terms of Health and Functioning
    2006 (English)In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, Vol. 31, no 5, p. E149-E155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design A cohort study in pregnancy.

    Objectives To differentiate between pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPGP) and lumbar pain, and to study the prevalence of each syndrome and its consequences in terms of pain, functioning, and health.

    Summary of Background Data When studying prevalence, etiology, and consequences, differentiation between PPGP and lumbar pain is important, and, to our knowledge, its consequences for functioning and health during pregnancy have not previously been studied.

    Methods All women answered questionnaires (demographic data, EuroQol). Women with lumbopelvic pain completed the Oswestry Disability Index, pain intensity measures, in addition to undergoing a mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, pain provocation tests, and active straight leg raising test.

    Results Of 313 women, 194 had lumbopelvic pain. The PPGP subgroup comprised 54% of those women with lumbopelvic pain, lumbar pain 17%, and combined PPGP and lumbar pain 29%. Women having both PPGP and lumbar pain reported the highest consequences in terms of health and functioning.

    Conclusions Pain intensity, disability, and health measurements differentiate subgroups of lumbopelvic pain in pregnancy.

    Keywords
    pelvic girdle pain, lumbar pain, pregnancy, health, functioning
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12990 (URN)10.1097/01.brs.0000201259.63363.e1 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-03-06 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2009-05-15
    2. Pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain in relation to postpartum depressive symptoms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain in relation to postpartum depressive symptoms
    2007 (English)In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 32, no 13, p. 1430-1436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the possible association of lumbopelvic pain and postpartum depression and differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among women without lumbopelvic pain and women classified as having pelvic girdle pain (PGP) and/or lumbar pain.

    Summary of background data: Lumbopelvic pain and depression are common pregnancy complications, but their comorbidity has rarely been evaluated and has not been studied in relation to subgroups of lumbopelvic pain.

    Methods: In a cohort of consecutively enrolled pregnant women, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to evaluate depressive symptoms at 3 months postpartum, applying a primary screening cutoff of >=10 and a cutoff of >=13 for probable depression. Women were classified into lumbopelvic pain subgroups by means of mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, standard history, pelvic pain provocation tests, a pain drawing, and the active straight leg raising test.

    Results: The postpartum cohort (n = 267) comprised 180 (67%) women without lumbopelvic pain, 44 (16%) with PGP, 29 (11%) with lumbar pain, and 14 (5%) with combined PGP and lumbar pain. Applying a cutoff of >=10, postpartum depressive symptoms were more prevalent in women with lumbopelvic pain (27 of 87, 31%; 95% confidence interval, 26%–36%) than in women without lumbopelvic pain (17 of 180, 9%; 95% confidence interval, 5%–13%; P < 0.001). The comorbidity of lumbopelvic pain and depressive symptoms was 10%. Depressive symptoms were more prevalent in women with lumbar pain versus women without lumbopelvic pain when applying cutoffs of >=10 or >=13 (P <= 0.002); whereas for women with PGP, this comparison was significant only at the screening level of >=10 (P = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Postpartum depressive symptoms were 3 times more prevalent in women having lumbopelvic pain than in those without. This comorbidity highlights the need to consider both symptoms in treatment strategies.

    Keywords
    pelvic girdle pain, lumbar pain, postpartum depressive symptoms, comorbidity, low back pain
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12991 (URN)10.1097/BRS.0b013e318060a673 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-03-06 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Association between muscle function and low back pain in relation to pregnancy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between muscle function and low back pain in relation to pregnancy
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the association of muscle function and subgroups of low back pain (no low back pain, pelvic girdle pain, lumbar pain and combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain) in relation to pregnancy.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Subjects: Consecutively enrolled pregnant women seen in gestational weeks 12–18 (n = 301) and 3 months postpartum (n = 262).

    Methods: Classification into subgroups by means of mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, pelvic pain provocation tests, standard history and a pain drawing. Trunk muscle endurance, hip muscle strength (dynamometer) and gait speed were investigated.

    Results: In pregnancy 116 women had no low back pain, 33% (n = 99) had pelvic girdle pain, 11% (n = 32) had lumbar pain and 18% (n = 54) had combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain. The prevalence of pelvic girdle pain/combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain decreased postpartum, whereas the prevalence of lumbar pain remained stable. Women with pelvic girdle pain and/or combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain had lower values for trunk muscle endurance, hip extension and gait speed as compared to women without low back pain in pregnancy and postpartum (p < 0.001–0.04). Women with pelvic girdle pain throughout the study had lower values of back flexor endurance compared with women without low back pain.

    Conclusion: Muscle dysfunction was associated with pelvic girdle pain, which should be taken into consideration when developing treatment strategies and preventive measures.

    Keywords
    low back pain, pelvic girdle pain, lumbar pain, muscle function, gait, pregnancy, postpartum
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12992 (URN)10.2340/16501977-0170 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-03-06 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Predicting persistent pregnancy-related low back pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicting persistent pregnancy-related low back pain
    2008 (English)In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 33, no 12, p. E386-E393Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the course of subtypes of low back pain (LBP) experienced [no LBP, pelvic girdle pain (PGP), lumbar pain, and combined PGP and lumbar pain (combined pain)] during gestational weeks 12 to 18 and 3 months postpartum, and to explore potential predictors for persistent PGP or combined pain postpartum.

    Summary of background data: LBP is more prevalent in pregnant women (25%) than in the general population (6.3%). Persistent LBP postpartum (16%) is usually studied as a single entity. However, only one subgroup of LBP, pelvic girdle pain (PGP), is associated with pregnancy. Several studies have suggested an association between muscular dysfunction and pregnancy-related LBP, however, muscle dysfunction has not been evaluated as potential predictor of persistent LBP postpartum. Possible subgroup differences in the course and predictors of persistent LBP are unknown.

    Methods: Pregnant women (n = 308) were classified into LBP subgroups by mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, pelvic pain provocation tests, standard history, and pain drawings. Trunk muscle endurance, hip muscle strength (dynamometer) and gait speed were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors from self-reports and clinical examination.

    Results: Women with combined pain recovered to a lower degree 33% (17 of 51) than those with PGP 66% (56 of 85) or lumbar pain 72% (21 of 29). Predictors for having persistent PGP or combined pain after delivery were low endurance of back flexors, older age, combined pain in early pregnancy and work dissatisfaction (explained variance 30%).

    Conclusion: Women with combined pain were identified to be a target group since they had the most unfavorable course and since the classification of combined pain was found to be a predictor for persistent pain postpartum. Identification of women at risk for persistent pain postpartum seems possible in early pregnancy and requires physical examination and self-reports. Pregnancy had low impact on the course of lumbar pain.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12993 (URN)10.1097/BRS.0b013e31817331a4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-03-06 Created: 2008-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 43.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain in relation to postpartum depressive symptoms2007In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 32, no 13, p. 1430-1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the possible association of lumbopelvic pain and postpartum depression and differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among women without lumbopelvic pain and women classified as having pelvic girdle pain (PGP) and/or lumbar pain.

    Summary of background data: Lumbopelvic pain and depression are common pregnancy complications, but their comorbidity has rarely been evaluated and has not been studied in relation to subgroups of lumbopelvic pain.

    Methods: In a cohort of consecutively enrolled pregnant women, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to evaluate depressive symptoms at 3 months postpartum, applying a primary screening cutoff of >=10 and a cutoff of >=13 for probable depression. Women were classified into lumbopelvic pain subgroups by means of mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, standard history, pelvic pain provocation tests, a pain drawing, and the active straight leg raising test.

    Results: The postpartum cohort (n = 267) comprised 180 (67%) women without lumbopelvic pain, 44 (16%) with PGP, 29 (11%) with lumbar pain, and 14 (5%) with combined PGP and lumbar pain. Applying a cutoff of >=10, postpartum depressive symptoms were more prevalent in women with lumbopelvic pain (27 of 87, 31%; 95% confidence interval, 26%–36%) than in women without lumbopelvic pain (17 of 180, 9%; 95% confidence interval, 5%–13%; P < 0.001). The comorbidity of lumbopelvic pain and depressive symptoms was 10%. Depressive symptoms were more prevalent in women with lumbar pain versus women without lumbopelvic pain when applying cutoffs of >=10 or >=13 (P <= 0.002); whereas for women with PGP, this comparison was significant only at the screening level of >=10 (P = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Postpartum depressive symptoms were 3 times more prevalent in women having lumbopelvic pain than in those without. This comorbidity highlights the need to consider both symptoms in treatment strategies.

  • 44.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    The inter-rater reliability of a standardised classification system for pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain2010In: MANUAL THERAPY, ISSN 1356-689X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain has varying clinical presentations and effects among subgroups. Different lumbopelvic pain subgroups require different specific management approaches which require the differentiation between lumbar and pelvic girdle pain (PGP). Thirty-one consecutive pregnant women with non-specific lumbopelvic pain were evaluated by two examiners and classified into lumbar pain, PGP, or combined pelvic girdle and lumbar pain. A standard history about different positions/activities of daily life such as bending, sitting, standing, walking, and lying, was followed by a standardised mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine (Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy), including tests of repeated end-range movements to standing and lying, pelvic pain provocation tests (distraction test, posterior pelvic pain provocation test, Gaenslens test, compression test, and sacral thrust) a hip-rotation range-of-motion test, the active straight-leg-raising test, and a neurological examination. Agreement for the three syndromes (lumbar pain, PGP, or combined pelvic girdle and lumbar pain) was 87% (27/31), with a kappa coefficient of 0.79 (95% CI 0.60-0.98). It was possible to perform the classification procedure throughout pregnancy. There was substantial agreement between the two examiners for the classification of non-specific lUrnbopelvic pain into lumbar pain and PGP in pregnant women.

  • 45.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Mari
    Gothenburg University.
    Ostgaard, Hans Christian
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Impact of postpartum lumbopelvic pain on disability, pain intensity, health-related quality of life, activity level, kinesiophobia, and depressive symptoms2011In: EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL, ISSN 0940-6719, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 440-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of women recover from pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain within 3 months of delivery. Since biomechanical and hormonal changes from pregnancy are largely reversed by 3 months postpartum, consequently, it is assumed that other factors might interfere with recovery. Relative to the fear-avoidance model and with reference to previous studies, we chose to investigate some pre-decided factors to understand persistent lumbopelvic pain. The evaluation of lumbopelvic pain postpartum is mostly based on self-administered questionnaires or interviews. Clinical classification of the lumbopelvic pain may increase our knowledge about postpartum subgroups. Two hundred and seventy-two consecutively registered pregnant women evaluated at 3 months postpartum, answered questionnaires concerning disability (Oswestry disability index), pain intensity on visual analog scale, health-related quality of life (HRQL, EQ5D), activity level, depressive symptoms (Edinburgh postnatal Depression Scale) and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia). Women were classified into lumbopelvic pain subgroups according to mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, pelvic pain provocation tests, standard history, and pain drawings. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explain the variance of disability. Thirty-three percent of postpartum women were classified with lumbopelvic pain; 40% reported moderate to severe disability. The impacts were similar among subgroups. Pain intensity, HRQL and kinesiophobia explained 53% of postpartum disability due to lumbopelvic pain. In conclusion, one of three postpartum women still had some lumbopelvic pain and the impacts were equivalent irrespective of symptoms in lumbar or pelvic areas. The additional explanations of variance in disability by HRQL and kinesiophobia were minor, suggesting that pain intensity was the major contributing factor.

  • 46.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ostgaard, Hans Christian
    Göteborg.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Letter: Untitled - Response in SPINE, vol 31, issue 20, pp 2406-24072006In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 31, no 20, p. 2406-2407Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 47.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roos Hansson, Eva
    Frolunda Specialist Hospital.
    Zetherstrom, Gunilla
    Frolunda Specialist Hospital.
    Christian Ostgaard, Hans
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Posterior pelvic pain provocation test is negative in patients with lumbar herniated discs2009In: EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL, ISSN 0940-6719, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 1008-1012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classification of pelvic girdle pain can only be reached after lumbar causes have been excluded by a clinical examination. During clinical examination, the posterior pelvic pain provocation test is a well-established method for verifying pelvic girdle pain. However, a criticism of pelvic pain provocation tests is that they may have an effect on lumbar structures, thus yielding false-positive results. The posterior pelvic pain provocation test was performed with four groups of patients: patients with computed tomography-verified disc herniations (1) on the waiting list for surgery (14 women; 9 men); (2) 6 weeks after disc surgery (18 women, 12 men); (3) pregnant women seeking care for pelvic girdle pain (n = 25); and (4) women with persistent pelvic girdle pain after delivery (n = 32). The sensitivity of the posterior pelvic pain provocation test was 0.88 and the specificity was 0.89. The positive predictive value was 0.89 and the negative predictive value was 0.87. Analysis of only women showed similar results. In our study, the posterior pelvic pain provocation test was negative in patients with a well-defined lumbar diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation, both before and after disc surgery. Our results are an important step toward the more accurate classification of lumbopelvic pain.

  • 48.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjödahl, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Specific muscle stabilizing as home exercises for persistent pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a randomized, controlled clinical trial2010In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 929-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of home-based specific stabilizing exercises focusing on the local stabilizing muscles as the only intervention in the treatment of persistent postpartum pelvic girdle pain (PGP).

    Design: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, clinically controlled study.

    Subjects: Eighty-eight women with PGP were recruited 3 months after delivery.

    Methods: The treatment consisted of specific stabilizing exercises targeting the local trunk muscles. The reference group had one telephone contact with a physiotherapist. Primary outcome was disability measured with Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary outcomes were pain, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), symptom satisfaction, and muscle function.

    Results: No significant differences between groups could be found at 3- or 6-month follow-up regarding primary outcome in disability. Within-group comparisons showed some improvement in both groups in terms of disability, pain, symptom satisfaction and muscle function compared to baseline although the majority still experienced PGP.

    Conclusion: Treatment with this home-training concept of specific stabilizing exercises targeting the local muscles was no more effective in improving consequences of persistent postpartum PGP than the clinically natural course. Regardless of treatment with specific stabilizing exercises or not, the majority still experiences some back pain almost a year after pregnancy.

  • 49.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östgaard, Hans Christian
    Sahlgrenska University.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Association between muscle function and low back pain in relation to pregnancy2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the association of muscle function and subgroups of low back pain (no low back pain, pelvic girdle pain, lumbar pain and combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain) in relation to pregnancy.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Subjects: Consecutively enrolled pregnant women seen in gestational weeks 12–18 (n = 301) and 3 months postpartum (n = 262).

    Methods: Classification into subgroups by means of mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, pelvic pain provocation tests, standard history and a pain drawing. Trunk muscle endurance, hip muscle strength (dynamometer) and gait speed were investigated.

    Results: In pregnancy 116 women had no low back pain, 33% (n = 99) had pelvic girdle pain, 11% (n = 32) had lumbar pain and 18% (n = 54) had combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain. The prevalence of pelvic girdle pain/combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain decreased postpartum, whereas the prevalence of lumbar pain remained stable. Women with pelvic girdle pain and/or combined pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain had lower values for trunk muscle endurance, hip extension and gait speed as compared to women without low back pain in pregnancy and postpartum (p < 0.001–0.04). Women with pelvic girdle pain throughout the study had lower values of back flexor endurance compared with women without low back pain.

    Conclusion: Muscle dysfunction was associated with pelvic girdle pain, which should be taken into consideration when developing treatment strategies and preventive measures.

  • 50.
    Gutke, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östgaard, Hans Christian
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pelvic Girdle Pain and Lumbar Pain in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study of the Consequences in terms of Health and Functioning2006In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, Vol. 31, no 5, p. E149-E155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design A cohort study in pregnancy.

    Objectives To differentiate between pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPGP) and lumbar pain, and to study the prevalence of each syndrome and its consequences in terms of pain, functioning, and health.

    Summary of Background Data When studying prevalence, etiology, and consequences, differentiation between PPGP and lumbar pain is important, and, to our knowledge, its consequences for functioning and health during pregnancy have not previously been studied.

    Methods All women answered questionnaires (demographic data, EuroQol). Women with lumbopelvic pain completed the Oswestry Disability Index, pain intensity measures, in addition to undergoing a mechanical assessment of the lumbar spine, pain provocation tests, and active straight leg raising test.

    Results Of 313 women, 194 had lumbopelvic pain. The PPGP subgroup comprised 54% of those women with lumbopelvic pain, lumbar pain 17%, and combined PPGP and lumbar pain 29%. Women having both PPGP and lumbar pain reported the highest consequences in terms of health and functioning.

    Conclusions Pain intensity, disability, and health measurements differentiate subgroups of lumbopelvic pain in pregnancy.

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