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  • 1.
    Albinsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    ”De va svinhögt typ 250 kilo”: Förskolebarns mätande av längd, volym och tid i legoleken2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the dissertation is to study, describe and analyses which comparative measurement activities preschool children construct and use, and how they solve problems and communicate when they use the comparative measurement activities whilst playing with Lego (“the Lego play”). The measurement activities chosen are length/height, quantity and time.

    The empirical material is based on data from two preschool classes with children aged 2 – 5 year, It was collected through participant observation (video captures) of the children’s Lego play. The theoretical starting points in this study are grounded in childhood sociology and the sociocultural perspective. The study assumes the childhood sociology perspective by viewing the children as competent and active in creating meaning as well as controlling and influencing their own and others’ social environment. The sociocultural perspective gives prominence to development and learning, and its related tools and concepts are used to analyses the results of the study. That is, the Lego play is studied in a social context from the child’s perspective, and the sociocultural perspective describes and analyses the child’s use of mathematics and the acquisition of knowledge in the Lego play in a sociocultural context.

    The results show that children measuring length/height and quantity explored a store of measurement tools in order to make comparisons, and adapted these to the context in question. These were own body, other body, artefacts, numbers and counting. The measurements were used individually and with others, and the solving of the own or shared problems constituted a large share of the time spent constructing models during Lego play. By contrast, the time concept was used mainly as a tool when the children played with their finished Lego models. Thus, a time perspective was added to the child’s finished model, which inspired thoughts and reflections about time used in the Lego play. The children used the time concepts of the present, the past and the future, and also considered the concept of velocity in the context of the timescale. The children’s communication had a large impact on the Lego play, and they expressed their ideas verbally, physically and through action. The children’s use of mathematics was prominent and meaningful during the Lego play.

  • 2.
    Albinsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Simonsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Förskolebarn använder mätning i legoleken2016In: Venue, ISSN 2001-788XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I legoleken använder förskolebarn mätning på många olika sätt. De växlar mellan olika mätredskap och måttenheter, beroende på kontext och önskat mätresultat. Genom mätningar löser barnen problem i legoleken. Mätresultatet kommuniceras genom att visa, förklara och argumentera med matematiska begrepp.

  • 3.
    Amin, Tamer G.
    et al.
    Amer University of Beirut, Lebanon.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Editorial Material: Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning: Introduction to special issue2015In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 37, no 5-6, 745-758 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 4.
    Amin, Tamer
    et al.
    Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Jeppsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Haglund, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Strömdahl, Helge
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Arrow of time: Metaphorical construals of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics2012In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 5, no 96, 818-848 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various features of scientific discourse have been characterized in the science education literature, and challenges students face in appropriating these features have been explored. Using the framework of conceptual metaphor, this paper sought to identify explicit and implicit metaphors in pedagogical texts dealing with the concept of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics, an abstract and challenging domain for learners. Three university-level textbooks were analyzed from a conceptual metaphor perspective, and a range of explicit and implicit metaphors were identified. Explicit metaphors identified include entropy as disorder, thermodynamics processes as movements along a path, and energetic exchange as financial transactions among others. Implicit metaphors include application and elaboration of the generic Location Event Structure metaphor, application of the Object Event Structure metaphor, and others. The similarities and differences between explicit and implicit metaphors found in the textbooks are also described. Two key pedagogical implications are discussed: that the selection of explicit instructional metaphors can be guided by consistency with implicit metaphors; and that the range of implicit metaphors found in pedagogical texts implies that a multiple instructional metaphor strategy is warranted. The depth of the phenomenon of conceptual metaphor and its implications for future research are also discussed

  • 5.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköpings universitet.
    Exploring childrens' views of what's inside the body2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of living a healthy life in an everyday context is promoted in schools and preschools. The discussion often focuses on what food is healthy, and that one should eat enough but not too much. The connection between food and beverages and their role in the body is seldom discussed. Students’ ideas about how the human body functions have been investigated in several studies but few have focused on young children. In this study, we investigate young children’s conceptions related to this topic and how their ideas develop. Seventy-nine pre- and primary school children, aged 4-11, participated in individual focus interviews wherein the children were asked to draw and explain their understanding. Our results confirm several findings observed by other workers. However, in contrast with earlier studies, 10 of seventeen 4-5 year-old children indicated the stomach, and more than half of those children described how food can be utilized in the body to extract energy. Furthermore, the brain was among the most commonly mentioned organs cross all age groups. Interestingly, the level of expertise varied and did not covariate with age. For example, five of eight of the 4 year-old children draw 5-8 organs, while a single 10 year-old child could only mention three. Similarly, two of thirteen 7-year old children provided an almost completely correct description of the digestive tract and its function, while most of the older children expressed a much less developed understanding. The results reflect the wide range of different conceptual ideas that teachers confront in a day-to-day classroom context.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköpings universitet.
    Children's reasoning and representations about living and non-living things2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of the concept ‘life’ and what characterise ‘living things’ is important as a foundation for learning in biology. In a more general view, this understanding can make children develop awareness, respect and responsibility for life as members of a society and in decision making for sustainable development. The present pilot study aim to investigate 5-6 year old pre-school children’s reasoning and representations about living and nonliving things. In cognitive developmental research, the concept of life is well investigated but, questions still remain regarding how children reason around and represent these concepts. Previous research has found that children have difficulties in including plants as living things. Moreover, it is found that young children include e.g. the sun, clouds and rocks as living things. The methods that have been used are often quantitative and use picture-cards with different objects for the children to categorize. In the present pilot study a modified methodology was applied. Children’s drawings of what they consider as living and non-living were collected and picture-cards were used as point of departure for reasoning. In interviews the children were encouraged to explain and express their ideas. The drawings and the cards mainly worked as a meaning making tool for the children. Results from the study will be presented and discussed. 

  • 7.
    Artman, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    House, David
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Design Learning Opportunities in Engineering Education: A case study of students solving an interaction–design task2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do engineering students embrace interaction design? We presented two groups of chemical engineering students with an interaction design brief with the task of producing a concept prototype of an interactive artefact. Through interaction analysis of video material we analyse how the students gesture and use concepts adhering to interaction. The students frequently use gestures to enhance idea-generation. Sketches are used sparsely and other design materials were almost not used at all.

  • 8.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barnlitteraturens tekniklandskap: En didaktisk vandring från Nils Holgersson till Pettson och Findus2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine, from a didactic perspective, messages conveyed about technology (view of technology) in a selection of Swedish children’s books containing elements of technology education, and to explore how these views of technology relate to nature and futures perspectives. The analysis is based on children’s books by six Swedish authors: Selma Lagerlöf, Otto Witt, Elsa Beskow, Karl-Aage Schwartzkopf, Sven Wernström and Sven Nordqvist. These books contain depictions of technology, but also depict issues and problems relevant in the field of technology education. The study has three analytical perspectives: the identification of technologies represented in the books; interpretation of the views of technology transmitted in the stories in relation to nature and futures perspectives; and identification of shared and divergent themes in the stories. The analysis shows that in general, the books present technology in diverse ways. Various facets of technology appear in the material and these are categorized into six themes: technology as metaphor or analogy; as anthropomorphic; as autonomous; technology as a result of a creative driving force; masculine technology; and technology as enduring. There are also different views of technology and its impact on individuals as well as society. The dominant view of nature in the books is weak anthropocentric and a majority of the stories convey the image of an effective future society in which technology solves human problems. A conclusion is that the technology landscapes in children’s fiction could contribute to broadening technology education. The ambivalent messages in these books reveal technology’s multifaceted nature and its complexity. The messages in children’s literature could also make it possible to problematize the nature of technology in ways that  textbooks seldom can. Children’s fiction could thereby be jumping boards for creative discussions about the nature of technology, and technology’s effects on individuals, society and nature in past and present time.

  • 9.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Critiquing literature: children's literature as a learning tool for critical awareness2017In: Critique in design and technology education / [ed] P John Williams, Kay Stables, Singapore: Springer, 2017, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A starting point for this chapter is that children’s literature can be a source of reflection and can encourage children to think critically about technology. In contrast to many textbooks and non-fiction books, fictional stories reflect the complexities and contradictions inherent in technology and at the same time reveal its less obvious and concealed aspects and messages. By using books with a strong story line, which are of interest to children, technology can be presented as part of the world around them. Children’s literature can thus be seen as a mediator of values and attitudes, which makes it an interesting subject matter for Design and Technology education. This chapter involves an exploration of critical aspects of technology found within a selection of children’s books. The stories originate from different historical and cultural contexts, and the basis for the selection is that it represents a variety of critiques and aspects of technology found in children’s literature. The conclusion of the analysis is that children’s literature can contribute to making technology and the nature of technology more comprehensible and visible to pupils. The ambiguous messages in the books reveal the multifaceted and complex nature of technology and make it possible to problematise it in ways textbooks seldom can. As the stories form the basis for critical discussion about the nature of technology, they could also help to broaden perspectives, thereby acting as a pedagogic tool in fulfilling the aims of Design and Technology education.

  • 10.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Otto Witts tekniska sagor. Tekniksyn i det tidiga 1900-talets barnlitteratur2013In: Teknik som kunskapsinnehåll i svensk skola 1842-2010 / [ed] Jonas Hallström, Magnus Hultén, Daniel Lövheim, Hedemora: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, 1, 55-102 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Technology and Children’s Literature2017In: Handbook of Technology Education / [ed] Marc J. de Vries, Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1-17 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology that mediates our lives today is complex. If we are to understand our modern technological world, technology education needs to place more emphasis on discussions and reflections about technology. A starting point for this chapter is that children’s literature can be understood as a mediator of views and values about technology, which makes it an interesting subject matter for technology education. Children’s fiction places technology in a context and could therefore serve as a pedagogical tool for broadening and expanding technology education. This chapter is an exploration of different views of technology found within a selection of children’s books: an anti-consumeristic view of technology, technology as a servant to humans, a nostalgic view of technology, and technology as a vehicle for adventure. The books are all examples of stories which depict technology itself but also issues and problems relevant to the field of technology education. In general, the books present technology in a diverse way, and the messages in the stories reveal its multifaceted nature. This chapter concludes that fictional stories can make it possible to problematize the nature of technology in ways that textbooks seldom can. Children’s fiction could therefore serve as a platform for open-ended enquiries and dialogues about the nature of technology and the effects of technology on individuals, society, and nature in the past and the present.

  • 12.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teknikundervisningen i förskolan: En internationell utblick2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna översikt är att ge exempel på forskning om  teknikundervisningen för yngre barn från olika delar av världen samt att sätta forskningsresultaten i relation till den svenska reviderade läroplanen för förskolan från 2010. Forskningsöversikten gör på intet sätt anspråk på att vara heltäckande, utan har snarare som intention att ge exempel på återkommande teman inom den befintliga forskningen. Jag vill också klargöra att den inte inkluderar forskning som rör IKT (informations- och kommunikationsteknik) eller digitala medier i förskolan.

    Översikten bygger på vetenskapliga artiklar och konferenspresentationer författade av ledande forskare på området, varav en majoritet är från USA, Australien och Storbritannien. Även om undervisningen och utvecklingen av teknikämnet skiftar från land till land, kan ändå vissa gemensamma mönster urskiljas (de Vries, 2006). Vissa av artiklarna handlar om teknikundervisningen inom primary school education, då barnen i många länder börjar skolan vid 5 års ålder. Innehållet i artiklarna kan därför betraktas som intressanta utifrån ett svenskt föreskolperspektiv. Viktigt att notera är också att i den nya skollagen (2010:800) används begreppen utbildning och undervisning även när det handlar om förskolan, trots att den svenska förskolan inte är obligatorisk. I skollagen definieras begreppen på följande sätt:

    • undervisning: sådana målstyrda processer som under ledning av lärare eller förskollärare syftar till utveckling och lärande genom inhämtande och utvecklande av kunskaper och värden, och
    • utbildning: den verksamhet inom vilken undervisning sker utifrån bestämda mål. (SFS 2010:800, 1 kap. Inledande bestämmelser, 3§ Definitioner)

    Däremot används genomgående begreppet verksamhet istället för undervisning i läroplanen för förskolan. Jag har dock valt att använda undervisningsbegreppet i redogörelserna för de olika forskningsresultaten, eftersom det är detta begrepp som används i de internationella artiklarna.

    I översikten har jag tematiserat forskningen utifrån några huvudområden, vilka också utgör rubriker. Många gånger går dock de ämnen som tas upp för diskussion i varandra, vilket gör att vissa teman kan vara återkommande under flera rubriker. Med syfte att påvisa temats relevans utifrån ett svenskt förskoleperspektiv, inleder jag varje presentation av ett tema med ett citat från den svenska läroplanen för förskolan.

    Artiklarna som finns representerade i översikten spänner över en tidsperiod på tjugo år (1992-2012). Motivet till urvalet är att jag velat undersöka om det finns några återkommande teman över tid. Eftersom forskningen om teknikundervisningen i förskolan än så länge är så begränsad till sin omfattning, skulle dessutom en översikt med enbart den allra senaste forskningen ge en tämligen begränsad bild av forskningsläget.

    Forskningsöversikten avslutas med en sammanfattande diskussion, förslag på vidare forskning samt några avslutande reflektioner.

  • 13.
    Axell, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Upptäck tekniken i barnlitteraturen2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken ger dig som blivande eller yrkesverksam lärare inom förskola och grundskola F–6:

    • kunskap och allmänbildning inom teknikämnet
    • en metod för hur du med barnlitteraturen som utgångspunkt kan skapa  intresse och förståelse för teknik
    • underlag för samtal i enlighet med kursplanens intentioner om hur teknik påverkar oss människor, vårt samhälle och vår miljö.

    Med utgångspunkt i skönlitterära barnböcker – som exempelvis böckerna om Mamma Mu, Pettson och Findus samt Kalle och chokladfabriken – visas här konkret hur du kan föra diskussioner som väcker nyfikenhet, fördjupar förståelsen samt främjar det kritiska tänkandet.

  • 14.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Boström, Johan
    Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Facts for youngsters: Contextualised technology or fragmented artefacts? A study on portrayals of technology in picture books from a gender perspective2015In: PATT 29 Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design and Technology Education, Marseille, France, April 2015 / [ed] M. Chatoney, Marseille: Presses Universitaires de Provence , 2015, 42-48 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is a field with strong connections to the female/male dichotomy and children's gender stereotyping starts as early as the age of two (Berner, 2004; Nisbet, Pendergast & Reynolds, 1998; Turja, Endepohls-Ulpe & Chatoney, 2009). According to the Swedish Curriculum for the Preschool, the preschool should strive to ensure that children ”develop their ability to identify technology in everyday life, and explore how simple technology works” (Lpfö98/2010, p. 10). The preschool also has a goal to actively counteract traditional gender roles and patterns (Lpfö98/2010, p. 4). An important part of children's activities in preschool relates to picture books. A government investigation states that the preschool, through its activities (among them ”reading aloud”) is an arena where societal norms can either be preserved or challenged (SOU 2006:75). Books about cars, airplanes, boats etc. often serve as an introduction to human applications of technology. Based on these, children start to identify and categorize the technologies they encounter in everyday life.

    The aim of this study is consequently to investigate the technological content from a gender perspective in a selection of picture books, more specifically; how do the books content preserve or challenge preschool children's view of technology and gender? Preschools use books from libraries in their daily activities, therefore the empirical material in this study is derived from the library section ”facts for youngsters”. A thematic analysis was employed to discover the dominant themes within the books. The result of the study shows that there is a focus on how separate artefacts function but no detailed explanation on how these artefacts are connected or what kind of implications they have in a societal context. There also seems to be an emphasis on traditionally masculine coded technology. This study will serve as a basis for a comparative study between two preschools, one where gender and technology is a prioritised goal and one where it is not.

  • 15.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boström, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Växjö, Sweden.
    Preschoolers’ Conceptions of Technological Artefacts and Gender in Picture Books2016In: PATT-32 Proceedings Technology Education for 21st Century Skills / [ed] J. de Vries, Arien Bekker-Holtland and Gerald van Dijk, ITEEA , 2016, 57-64 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Picture books are a frequent element of daily preschool activities (Damber, Nilsson & Ohlsson, 2013; Simonsson, 2004; SOU 2006:75). They are important pedagogical tools that can help children acquire an understanding of the everyday technology they come in contact with, as well as the human application of technology (Axell, 2015; Axell & Boström, 2015). These are skills that are emphasised in the Swedish preschool curriculum. In the curriculum it is also stated that the preschool should counteract traditional gender patterns and gender roles (Skolverket, 2010). However, an investigation of a selection of picture books aimed at preschool children shows that the books content is somewhat problematic. Many of the picture books provide a focus on the function of separate artefacts without any sort of context or explanation of their implications in a societal context. There also tends to be an emphasis on traditional masculine-coded technology in the books. Building and making and working with machines is depicted as a male activity. The male stereotype is essentially connected with different kinds of vehicles like cars, airplanes, motorbikes, tractors etc. (Axell & Boström, 2015; See also Holbrok, 2008). Based on these previous findings, the aim of this pilot study was to obtain an initial concept about how children’s literature may influence preschool children’s view on technological artefacts. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with four five-year-olds, two girls and two boys. Through a thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) three overarching themes were identified: The relationship between design and function, anthropomorphic animals as users of artefacts, and gender and artefacts. Some of the key findings were that the 5-year-olds did not know what “technology” is, but had good knowledge about tools. Additionally, they did not genderise any of the artefacts included in the study.

  • 16.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Representations of technology in the “Technical Stories” for children of Otto Witt, early 20th century Swedish technology educator2013In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 23, no 4, 817-834 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to schoolchildren. An investigation of children's literature for schools is therefore important in order to understand what was considered worth knowing about technology at the time. The aim of this article is therefore to analyse the representations of technology and attitudes towards technology that were mediated through two children's fiction books in Swedish elementary school libraries in the 1910s. We have limited the analysis of empirical material to the books Technical Stories for Young and Old (Tekniska sagor for stora och smAyen, 1914) and Technical Stories of the War for Young and Old (Krigets tekniska sagor for stora och smAyen, 1915) by the Swedish inventor, author and technology educator Otto Witt. Gauging Witt's influence on the schoolchildren and educators of his time is very difficult, but in this first English-language article on his "technical stories" one can conclude that he was in many ways unique and probably fairly well-read in the schools of early 20th century Sweden and onward. He was also a particularly perceptive forerunner of today's technology and science educators in his use of anthropomorphism as an educational tool.

  • 17.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Technology and the shaping of a Swedish national identity in the educational work of Selma Lagerlöf, 1900-19072015In: History of Education and Children's Literature, ISSN 1971-1093, E-ISSN 1971-1131, Vol. 10, no 1, 299-316 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 1900s Sweden saw an unprecedented societal transformation through ongoing industrialisation, urbanisation, democratisation and new technologies. In 1906-1907 the celebrated Swedish writer Selma Lagerlöf published a book subsequently read by thousands of elementary school children, The Wonderful Adventures of Nils. Although Lagerlöf’s book was mainly seen as a novel, she was commissioned to write it as a textbook in geography for the Swedish elementary school. One of the aims on the part of the commissioner – the Swedish Association of Elementary School Teachers – was for the book to induce Swedish nationalist sentiment and boost the feeling of a national identity in schoolchildren. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse how various representations of technology were utilised to create the sense of a Swedish national identity in The Wonderful Adventures of Nils. A hermeneutic method is employed to analyse the book in relation to the historical context of early 20th century Sweden. It is concluded that technology and human settlements are natural elements of the various landscapes of Sweden, thereby making them as much a part of building a national identity around the physical environment as woods, plains, lakes, animals and plants. The message of the book seems to be that technology is interwoven with society and nature in the formation of modern Sweden. It is impossible to describe the nation and impart nationalism in children without also incorporating technology; it is a human creation and as much a force in shaping the nation as other human endeavours and nature.

  • 18.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Images of Technology and Sustainable Development in Swedish Children’s Literature2014In: Australasian Journal of Technology Education, Vol. 1, no 1, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate images of technology and how technology is linked to sustainable development in Swedish children’s literature. Our perspective is that such images represent values that are conveyed to the young generation. We have chosen to study books by four Swedish authors, Elsa Beskow, Inger Sandberg, Jan Lööf and Sven Nordqvist, all of them still read by many children, parents and teachers, both in and out of school. In the examined books, technology is portrayed in several modes: as a servant to man, as a deterministic force, as a loyal and equal companion to man, and as a natural phenomenon in a nostalgic world. Technologies that have a leading role in the stories examined are placed in different kind of contexts, more or less social, more or less utopian or idyllic. In all four authors’ writings there is an optimistic faith in children’s ability.

  • 19.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technology for a Sustainable Life. Images in Swedish Children’s Literature2013In: PATT 27 Technology Education for the Future: A Playon Sustainability / [ed] P. John Williams & Dilani Gedera, Hamilton, New Zealand, 2013, 27-24 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the United Nations report Our common future sustainable development is defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Technology is seen as a kind of enabling force in that endeavour; new technologies are to be the solution to conflicts between growing economic activities and reductions in the use of natural resources. Sustainable development can, however, also be expressed as a set of traditional values that, in a country like Sweden, have been a part of everyday life for many generations. Education for sustainable development has been a goal in the Swedish national curriculum since 1994, not the least in the subject Technology. The teaching can evidently be inspired by both the international discussion on the future world and by the long tradition of how to live locally.

     

    The aim of this paper is to investigate images of technology and how technology is linked to sustainable development in children’s literature. Our perspective is that such images represent values that are conveyed to the young generation. We have chosen to study books by four Swedish authors, Elsa Beskow, Inger Sandberg, Jan Lööf and Sven Nordqvist, all of them still read by many children, parents and teachers alike, both in and out of school. Technology is in the examined books portrayed in several modes: as a servant to man, as a deterministic force, as a loyal and “equal” companion to man and as a natural phenomenon in a nostalgic world. Technologies that have a leading role in the examined stories are placed in different kind of contexts, more or less social, more or less utopian or idyllic. In all four author’s writings there is an optimistic faith in children’s ability to choose the right path. Children are the ones who must take responsibility for the future and overcome the problems the current adult generation have created. From a gender perspective, the message in the majority of the stories is clear: men are the source of technological development.

  • 20.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Cole, J
    Pace, M
    Tranvik, L
    Methane emissions from lakes: Dependence of lake characteristics, two regional assessments, and a global estimate2004In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 18, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [ 1] Lake sediments are "hot spots'' of methane production in the landscape. However, regional and global lake methane emissions, contributing to the greenhouse effect, are poorly known. We developed predictions of methane emissions from easily measured lake characteristics based on measurements for 11 North American and 13 Swedish lakes, and literature values from 49 lakes. Results suggest that open water methane emission can be predicted from variables such as lake area, water depth, concentrations of total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, and the anoxic lake volume fraction. Using these relations, we provide regional estimates from lakes in Sweden and the upper midwest of the United States. Considering both open water and plant-mediated fluxes, we estimate global emissions as 8 - 48 Tg CH4 yr(-1) (6 - 16% of total natural methane emissions and greater than oceanic emission), indicating that lakes should be included as a significant source in global methane budgets.

  • 21.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, C.
    Ståhlberg, Carina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Similar organic matter mineralisation rates under oxic, methanogenic, and sulphate reducing conditions in late winter sediment of a Swedish river2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    I saw daddy kissing Santa Claus! - Negotiating normativity in the early years of compulsory school.2006In: Hetero Factory. Challenging normativity in school and working life,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

           

  • 23.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    I saw daddy kissing Santa Claus! - Norms, power and resistance in the early years of compulsory school2006In: 34th Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 24.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Making space - sex/uality and constructions of normality in the early school years2009In: NERA 37th Congress,2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 25.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Schooling Heteronormativity2005In: Heteronormativity ¿ a fruitful concept,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

          

  • 26.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Äckligt - Normer kring ålder, kön och sexualitet i skolans tidigare år2008In: Skola i normer, Malmö: Gleerups , 2008, 1, 31-52 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       Skola i normer granskar hur normer för hur man ska vara och bete sig upprepas och utmanas av elever och lärare i skolan, på lärarutbildningen och i skolans värdegrundsarbete. Författarna fokuserar på sexualitet, men diskuterar också ålder, kön, klass och nationalitet.En genomgående tanke i boken är att föreställningar om normalitet skapar det som inte ryms innanför normens gränser, de Andra eller det Andra . De leder till utestängningar där det annorlunda definieras bort som något främmade och avlägset. Samtidigt uppstår alltid motsägelser, både i skolans vardagliga praktik och i dess styrdokument, som skapar möjligheter till motstånd.Skola i normer riktar sig främst till lärarstudenter och lärarutbildare, men också till alla som intresserar sig för hur makthierarkier och motstånd skapas i skolan. Bokens författare är alla lärarutbildare. Lena Martinsson är professor i genusvetenskap vid Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper, Göteborgs universitet. Hon är också verksam som lärarutbildare.Eva Reimers är professor i pedagogiskt arbete och verksam vid Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Linköpings universitet. Hon är också verksam som lärarutbildare.

  • 27.
    Berg, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete, Stockholms universitet.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Observationer i kemiklassrummet - att lära sig se kemiska reaktioner2010In: Innehållet i fokus - kemiundervisning i finlandssvenska klassrum / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag , 2010, 37-69 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera jämförande internationella studier hamnar de finska eleverna i toppen. Hur bedrivs kemiundervisningen i finlandssvenska klassrum? Rapporten består av sex kapitel där författarna bl.a. tar upp följande frågor: Vad kännetecknar undervisningspraktiken i en finlandssvensk klass? Vilka texter används i klassrummet? Vad betraktas som viktig respektive mindre viktig kunskap? I ett av kapitlen analyseras vilka frågor läraren ställer till eleverna och vilken feedback som ges. I studien ingick fyra lärare, och i det avslutande kapitlet analyseras deras provkonstruktion och bedömningsarbete.Texterna vänder sig till alla som är intresserade av bedömningsfrågor, kunskapsfrågor, lärande och undervisning. Forskningsprojektet är finansierat av Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 28.
    Berg, Märta
    et al.
    Naturskyddsföreningen, Stockholm.
    Fägerstam, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvärdering. Skogen som klassrum: Utvärdering av projektet 2009-20122013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande rapport är en utvärdering av projekt Skogen som klassrum som har bedrivits gemensamt av Naturskyddsföreningen och Naturskoleföreningen under 2009-2012. Projektet har bestått av en fortbildning i utomhuspedagogik för pedagoger kallad Skogen som klassrum samt aktiviteter på lokal, regional och nationell nivå för att uppmärksamma värdet av undervisning i skogen och behovet av att tillgängliggöra och bevara skogar nära skolor och bostäder.

    Projektet har lyft frågor och startat processer som har förbättrat förutsättningarna för att tusentals lärare och elever ska ha möjlighet att vistas i och lära känna skogen under skoltid. Utvärderingen visar att även en förhållandevis kort fortbildning som Skogen som klassrum bidrar till en utökad och fördjupad undervisning i naturen. Samtidigt kan fortbildningens upplägg med undervisning i och om närliggande skogsområden ha en positiv inverkan på lärarnas möjlighet att uppfylla målen i skolans styrdokument. En fortbildning som Skogen som klassrum kan på detta sätt vara en viktig del i arbetet för lärande för hållbar utveckling.

    Det finns ett stort intresse för en fortsättning av projektet. Många aktörer inomSkogen som klassrum uttrycker att projektet har varit lärorikt och roligt och man ser det positiva i att integrera frågor kring skogens biologiska och sociala värden med skogens möjligheter som pedagogisk resurs i olika skolämnen. För att undervisning i naturen ska bli en naturlig del av skolans verksamhet i alla Sveriges kommuner krävs fortsatt arbete för att myndigheter och politiker ska ge stöd till utomhuspedagogisk verksamhet. Dessutom måste naturområden nära skolor bevaras och göras lättillgängliga. I längden kan undervisning i naturen leda till ett ökat intresse för växter och djur och att vara ute i naturen på fritiden. Detta kan i sin tur leda vidare till ett ökat intresse för att bevara natur och ett engagemang för samhällets hållbara utveckling.

  • 29.
    Bergström, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Holm, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Den svårfångade delaktigheten i skolan: Ett ungdomsperspektiv på hinder och möjligheter2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här avhandlingen handlar om ungdomars erfarenheter och upplevelser av delaktighet i det som enligt skolans mål skall vara ´en skola för alla´. Vi har under tre terminer varit deltagande observatörer och intervjuat ungdomar på en skola (år 6-9) som vi kallar Vegaskolan. Studien beskriver möten i tid och rum mellan olika livsvärldar, mellan ungdomarna sinsemellan, mellan ungdomar och vuxna och mellan vuxna. Här framträder också relationen mellan ungdomar och det innehåll som skolan arbetar med. Dessa möten får konsekvenser för delaktighet och utanförskap, ungdomarnas självbilder, lärandet och vilket stöd som de erbjuds.

    Vår ambition har varit att se delaktighet ur ungdomars perspektiv med syftet att förstå de processer som reser hinder och skapar möjligheter för delaktighet. Vår utgångspunkt har varit ungdomarnas syn på sitt vardagsliv i skolan. De har berättat om sina minnen från förskola och skola, sin nutid och sina tankar om framtiden, gjort val av vad de sett som relevant att delge oss och hur de velat framställa sina erfarenheter. I sina reflektioner har de bidragit med analyser av skolan och det som skett där. De har i jämförelse med skolpersonal i flera avseenden en annorlunda erfarenhet av skolan samt en helhetsbild av sin egen tid där.

    De vuxna kommer bara i mycket begränsad utsträckning till tals i denna studie. De syns genom ungdomarnas och våra beskrivningar av vad de säger och gör. Detta kan tyckas ge en ensidig bild men vi menar att det mesta som skrivs om skolan utgår från ett vuxenperspektiv och att den bilden behöver kompletteras med andra perspektiv.

    Vi har valt att göra fältstudien på en skola, som vi utifrån mötet med ungdomarna och vuxna där upplevde som ”det goda exemplet”. Vi bedömde att vi i denna miljö skulle kunna upptäcka mer av möjligheter till delaktighet, men också vilka hindren är även under relativt goda förhållanden. Avhandlingen har möjliggjorts av skolverket som har finansierat den som projektarbete under tre år.

  • 30.
    Bergström, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Holm, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Rum för delaktighet: En studie av en skolas möjligheter att skapa förutsättningar för ungdomars delaktighet2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för denna studie ar ett projekt som startade våren 2001. Syftet med projektet ar att identifiera och belysa möjligheter och hinder för delaktighet for barn och ungdomar i behov av stod i en skola för alia. Denna studie ar en del av detta projekt och inriktad pa att identifiera delaktighet i skolan som rum. Med rum menar vi både den fysiska miljön och de ramar som bildar villkor för skolan. Vi genomförde förstudier i form av deltagande observationer på flera olika skolor för ungdomar mellan 13 och 16 år, och valde sedan ut en skola, i studien kallas den Z-Skolan.

    I Inledning har vi utgått fran delaktighet som begrepp, men också studier av delaktighet i skolan och skolan som ett diskursivt faIt. Vi har sökt svar på våra frågor genom att studera dokument på nationell- och kommunalniva, men främst de dokument som lärarna på Z-Skolan producerat. Vi har arbetat med deltagande observationer i skolans vardag, och vi har intervjuat ungdomar på grundskolan år 8 och 9.

    I första delen av analysen har vi inspirerats av bland annat Grounded Theory och fått fram ternan kring delaktighet. Dessa teman är organisation, möten och lärande. Med dessa teman som utgångspunkt har vi sedan gått vidare i ett andra analyssteg diU: vi använt SOU 2000: 1 och det dynamiska medborgarskapet som utgångspunkt. För att uppnå delaktighet, enligt det dynamiska medborgarskapet, måste deltagande och inflytande men också jämlikhet och insyn vara identifierbara.

    Vi har funnit att delaktighet finns för manga ungdomar i många situationer pa Z-Skolan, men det finns också inslag av utanförskap och ickedelaktighet. Möjlighetema till delaktighet, men också hindren finner vi både inom organisationen och den fysiska miljön, men inte minst genom vuxnas förhållningssatt och respekt mot ungdomarna och deras kultur. Om delaktighet ses som en rättighet eller en praktik för fostran till demokratiska medborgare får det olika konsekvenser för ungdomars skolvardag.

  • 31.
    Bevemyr, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björk-Willén, Polly
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Events of potential learning: how preschoolers produce curriculum at the computer during free play periods2016In: Nordisk Barnehageforskning, ISSN 1890-9167, E-ISSN 1890-9167, Vol. 12, no 8, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasizes children’s learning through play. This means that children’s learning in everyday practice is accomplished through a complex mixture of teacher-led activities and activities the children themselves initiate. When learning is viewed as situated and constituted through social interaction (Lave & Wenger, 1991), almost all social events have learning potential. Consequently, from an educational and a curriculum point of view it is important to raise the question of how children’s learning can be made visible, and determine what kind of learning children’s own initiated (play) activities imply. The focus of the paper is on children’s (aged 3-5 years) “communities of practice” at the computer during “free play” period in two various Swedish preschools settings. Events of peer interaction are analyzed in detail to illustrate what kind of learning activities are going on at the computer, and to discuss these events of potential learning in relation to the curriculum goals and the educational practice. From a curriculum point of view, the analyses show that the children’s activities at the computer involve a variety of events that might provides for learning that can be viewed as goal-oriented. From the children’s point of view, the project of socialization seems to be the most prominent goal. A crucial point for educational success, however, is to understand not only what the object of learning is, rather what motivates children’s play apprenticeship in their own “communities of practice”. 

  • 32.
    Biesta, Gert
    et al.
    Department of Education, Brunel University London, UK.
    Martinsson, Lena
    Department of Cultural Science, University of Gothenburg.
    Reimers, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Politics, subjectivity and education in neoliberal times: an interview with Gert Biesta2017In: Education and political subjectivities in neoliberal times and places: emergences of norms and possibilities / [ed] Eva Reimers, Lena Martinsson, London: Routledge, 2017, 14-30 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Bjork-Willen, Polly
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Routine Trouble: How Preschool Children Participate in Multilingual Instruction2008In: APPLIED LINGUISTICS, ISSN 0142-6001, Vol. 29, no 4, 555-577 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the turn-by-turn organization of social actions during educational activities at a multilingual preschool in Sweden. Specifically, it focuses on instructional exchanges within two commonplace activities: sharing time and Spanish group. The study builds on earlier research arguing that interactional routines facilitate childrens participation in social activities, and therefore promote language learning. Several instances of interactional trouble are identified and discussed in terms of the teachers elaboration of some routine features of these activities, resulting in a mismatch between the teachers local aims and the childrens projections of relevant next actions. The analysis further highlights a range of interactional means through which the participants act to come to terms with the trouble. These findings are discussed in terms of the participants local concerns as well as the childrens orientations to the routine features of preschool activities. Some educational implications are finally proposed on the basis of these findings.

  • 34.
    Bjuremark, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Setterud, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Franzén, Carin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att examinera kvalitet i kurser och program2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En central fråga under rundabordssamtalen var om det fanns några tips på examinationsförfaranden som skulle vara särskilt stimulerande för lärandet. Det praktiska råden var dock få och istället lyftes lärarens roll och kompetens fram som vägvisare för den kunskap som studenterna förväntades tillägna sig.Vid sidan av ‘nytta’ visade sig även kriterier ‘framtidens krav’ vara centralt

  • 35.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Lärande, Teknikdidaktik.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Primary School Teachers’ Development of Subject-Specific Knowledge in Technology during a Design Based Research Project2013In: PATT27 Technology Education for the Future: A Play on Sustainability, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2-6 December 2013: A Play on Sustainability / [ed] P John Williams and Dilani Gedera, University of Waikato, New Zealand , 2013, 59-64 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine the development of teachers’ subject-specific knowledge in technology during a design based research project. In the project a researcher collaborated with two primary school teachers in exploring their students’ learning of technology. Throughout the whole project, the teacher-researcher group worked in an iterative and systematic way to explore the students’ learning. The data draws from the groups’ meetings during the whole project. In order to study the potential learning that was taking place among the teacher team during the course of the teaching project, Practical epistemology analysis (PEA) was used. During the project the teachers’ expanding knowledge was based on needs of relations between their understanding of the object of learning (i.e. the capability that the students should develop) and their previous teaching experiences, technical terms and real life examples. An important factor explaining the development of the teachers’ knowledge base was the discussion in the group focusing on different aspects, starting with formulating an object of learning, constructing the pre-test, identifying critical aspects and planning and revising lessons. Our study shows that it is possible for primary school teachers to significantly increase their knowledge base in technology and technology education through design-based teaching.

     

  • 36.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Addressing Modern Technology in Science Education, a Systems approach2006In: Science and Technology Education for a Diverse World / [ed] Janiuk Ryszard & Elwira Samonek-Miciuk, Lublin: Maria Curie-Skodowska University Press , 2006, 123-134 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Adressing modern technology: a Systems Approach2005In: Technology Education in New Perspectives: research, assessment and curriculum development : festschrift for Witold Rogala / [ed] Lars Lindström och Rogala, Witold, Stockholm: HLS Förlag , 2005, 161-178 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment and curriculum development are two major foci in recent research and policy studies in technology education. They were approached, in new perspectives, during two conferences in 2003, one taking place at the Stockholm Institute of Education, the other at the National M. Dragomanov Pedagogical University Kiev, Ukraine. To these conferences some of the major scholars in Europe in the field of design and technology education were invited. The most important papers have been revised for inclusion in this book, which is intended for a larger audience of students, teachers and administrators in technology education. The book includes a chapter by Richard Kimbell on a research project trying to develop a new assessment procedure for secondary schools, which is no longer rewarding the hard-working rule-followers at the expense of the risk-taking design innovators. Gabriele Graube and Walter Theuerkauf examine main traditions in technology education and discuss a model for assessing competence. Jan Åke Granath elaborates a design-theoretical approach to architecture education and presents an exercise, which makes students aware of the dynamics and uncertainty of problems in real life. Jan-Erik Hagberg presents a review of domestic and international research on technology education, initiated by the Swedish Research Council. Participating authors: Lars Björklund, Eva Blomdahl, Jan Åke Granath, Gabriele Graube, Jan-Erik Hagberg, Richard Kimbell, Jevgen Kulyk, Michael Lindgren, Lars Lindström, Wilfried Schlagenhauf, Victor Sidorenko, Walter Theuerkauf and Igor Zhernoklieiev.

  • 38.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The forming and assessment of creative skills, from a neurocognitive point of view2009In: Strengthening the Position of Technology Education in the Curriculum / [ed] Marc de Vries, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The intuitive practitioner: Cognitive aspects on the development of Expertise2007In: 13 International Conference on Thinking / [ed] Larts Taxén, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The Repertory Grid Technique:Making Tacit Knowledge Explicit: Assessing Creative Work and Problem Solving Skillls2008In: Researching Technology Education: Methods and Techniques / [ed] Howard Middleton, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers , 2008, 1, 46-69 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This third volume in the International Technology Education Series provides insights into developments in technology education research in terms of methods and techniques. The importance of the book is that it highlights the uniqueness of the area of technology education in terms of content, and learning and teaching processes, and the need to provide methods and techniques to capture this uniqueness when undertaking research. The book comprises research methods and techniques being used by a range of current researchers. Each chapter includes details of the method or technique, but does so in terms of a project where it was used. This provides important contextual material that will help researchers when developing research projects. The book contains research methods and techniques that are new in general as well as ones new to technology education and ones that are variations to existing methods and techniques to make them suitable for use in technology education research. This book should be of interest to research students, teacher educators, researchers and policy-makers who are involved in technology education.

  • 41.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Why Do They Not See What I See?: The Difference Between Knowing How and Knowing That2013In: Transfer, transitions and transformations of learning / [ed] Middleton, Howard & Baartman, L.K.J., Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013, 1, 149-168 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a cold but sunny September day in a Forest in the south of Sweden. A university teacher, Eric, is taking his biology students out on an excursion. During the morning they have taken samples of soil, identified plants, trees and many other things. At this specific moment the group has arrived at a peat bog. They are going to study the vegetation in this special environment and will soon be drilling deep down into the bog to take samples of partially carbonized mosses. They have been asked to put on their rubber boots and now Eric encourages them to walk out on the quagmire, to make them „feel the grounds tottering beneath their feet‟. He doesn‟t hesitate but walks causally, knowing exactly where to put his feet without getting wet. Hence he is leaving the anxious, struggling, moaning students far behind. Slowly moving themselves out on the peat bog the students very often fail to establish a „safe‟ path and some of them begin to sink, getting their boots full of water. Afterwards, at the debriefing, Eric tries to teach them how to walk on a pet bog “And if you listen, you can feel … hear water oozing between … these floes of moss, or bog, or moss, or peat bog. And one could tell from the vegetation where you could walk or not.” Although Eric provides them with several clues about how to walk on the peat bog keeping their feet‟s dry, it is obvious that those rules are of no direct use for the students. This episode was one of many found in a research study on expertise in teaching (Stolpe & Björklund, 2012a). The authors followed two experienced biology teachers when they took their students out on excursions in the nature. Data was collected using video and audio recordings and by taking field notes during the excursions. Afterwards the teachers were interviewed in a stimulated recall setting and were asked to comment on specific situations during the day. In this episode Eric showed typical expert skills, observing, assessing and acting in a complex environment almost automatically and he was asked: How do you know where you could walk or not? He answered: “The vegetation tells you where to put your feet. Sedges indicate that it‟s dryer. And then one recognizes what kind of moisture there is”. This illustrates an analytical, conscious answer upon which Eric attempted to explain his walking on the bog. However, this type of instruction is more or less useless as guidelines for students, since it would be hard to know what was meant by, for example, „the vegetation tells you where to put your feet‟. Asked to be more specific, Eric then continued: “It is trial and error. You may probe and you will see. From experience you know where you cannot go because you will sink. It‟s obvious”. Eric has walked on peat bogs many times before and when he relived an earlier experienced situation, it may have helped him make the correct decisions. He was not able to transfer his own knowledge to the students, partly because his skills were tacit, hidden from himself, partly because they couldn‟t be expressed verbally. This is a general dilemma facing teachers and supervisors everywhere, to transfer their own skills and knowledge to the student or apprentice. Stolpe and Björklund (2012a) used a new psychological model to analyse and explain the behaviour of the teacher and were able to identify two different types of knowledge. There were implicit and explicit memories that explained the expert skills of the teacher, why the skills were tacit and if they could be transferred to the students. This chapter present the model and discusses its usefulness for analysing not only the knowledge of experts, but also other phenomena in the field of transfer research. The story of Eric was an example of unsuccessful transfer from an expert to his students, illustrating the dilemmas in teaching tacit knowledge or „knowing how‟. It articulates a difference of two different memory systems and two different kind of learning. This first paragraph will describe the Dual system model, the theories behind it, and some illustrative examples on how it could be used to analyse and understand transfer and its merits and drawbacks. It will be followed by an annotated bibliography of transfer research studies of relevance, using the dual system model as an analytical tool. Summing up, conclusions and implications given for training and educational design are then provided.

  • 42.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att identifiera eller att känna igen: Långtidseffekter av lärande2011In: Nordiskt forskarsymposium om undervisning i naturvetenskap: Naturvetenskap som kunskap och kultur, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Being able to see the wood for the trees: Expert teachers' observational skills in complex environments explained by a neurocognirive model of learning2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The fundamental things apply... as time goes by: Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and analyse what biology students remembered a long time after being out on an ecology excursion. The students’ memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview and analysed using the dual memory system model of learning.

    Already after 6 months we found that the students had forgotten a lot of the scientific content. Very often they showed a familiarity (recognition) with the situations and objects showed to them but they were unable to identify (recall) and label them. However they did remember some spectacular moment, the sudden appearance of a fox and a moose. They did also remember things and situations when they were active themselves, digging, smelling, using their hands or their feet’s in the difficult balancing and walking on a pet bog. From literature we identified two different types of memories, depending of the question asked: recall and recognition. We connected memories used in recall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and memories used in recognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The Explicit memory has a short retention but the implicit system is very stable and this will explain the difference in recall and recognition abilities. Since the implicit memory incorporates emotional, somatic, markers we were able to explain the specific flashbulb memories. The implicit system is active when we are doing things, using our senses and this may explain why those memories still were strong even after a full year. The strong memories of patterns stored in the implicit system seemed to act as indices to the declarable labels and facts in the explicit system. Implications for research, education and type of assessment are discussed.

  • 45.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The fundamental things apply... as time goes by: Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze what biology studentsremembered a long time after being out on an ecology excursion. The students’ memorieswere tested during a stimulated recall interview and analyzed using the dual memorysystem model of learning. Already after 6 months we found that the students had forgottena lot of the scientific content. Very often they showed a familiarity (recognition) with thesituations and objects showed to them but they were unable to identify (recall) and labelthem. However they did remember some spectacular moment, the sudden appearance of afox and a moose. They did also remember things and situations when they were activethemselves, digging, smelling, using their hands or their feet’s in the difficult balancingand walking on a pet bog. From literature we identified two different types of memories,depending of the question asked: recall and recognition. We connected memories used inrecall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and memories used inrecognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The Explicit memory has ashort retention but the implicit system is very stable and this will explain the difference inrecall and recognition abilities. Since the implicit memory incorporates emotional, somatic,markers we were able to explain the specific flashbulb memories. The implicit system isactive when we are doing things, using our senses and this may explain why thosememories still were strong even after a full year. The strong memories of patterns stored inthe implicit system seemed to act as indices to the declarable labels and facts in the explicitsystem. Implications for research, education and type of assessment are discussed.

  • 46.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att medvetandegöra det omedvetna: de fyra f-n och andra kunskapsbegrepp i skola och forskning om lärande2014In: Dynamiska och komplexa miljöer: reflektioner över pedagogiska praktiker : vänbok till Glenn Hultman / [ed] Ann-Sofi Wedin, Ann-Marie Markström, Kristina Hellberg, Linköping: Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande , 2014, 7-19 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The Dual Memory Systems Model and it's implications for Technology Education2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between the explicit and the implicit memory and learning systems in terms of recent findings in neuropsychology and outlines the implications for technology education in terms of student learning.

     

    The psychological Dual Systems Theory situates the processing of perception, assessment, decision-making and action in two parallel but different cognitive systems. The Declarative/Explicit system is conscious, remembering facts and episodes; it is rational and logical but also limited in complexity and speed. Working Memory’s (WM) capacity, an “end station” of this system, is severely limited. Depending on modality between 4 and 9 variables or steps in a sequence may be handled at once. More will lead to cognitive loading and impasse. Since WM probably is our consciousness, we will not be able to analyse what was dropped out or what happened, we will just get confused. The narrow view of conscious vision, the slow speed and the problems with details and complexity in space and time makes this system less suitable for real time, real complexity work.

     

    The non conscious Implicit System on the other hand does not use Working Memory and will not be hampered by cognitive overload; it’s a pattern recognition system with very fast recognition of earlier encountered situations and objects. It has several important functions:

     

    1- To direct conscious attention to what is important and relevant in a situation.

    2- To give a fast assessment, built upon somatic markers incorporated in memory.

    3- To start an automatic reaction to what is perceived,

     

    The lifespan of this memory system is long, and it seems very hard to erase or to change them. Most of what we usually refer to as skill seems to be connected to learning in this system. The Dual Systems model has recently been supported with neurophysiologic results showing, two different anatomical systems. The somatic markers have been identified, the secondary implicit vision system and concepts such as tacit knowing, automaticity, flow and intuition are starting to be understood. This model gives a new way of understanding what we do in technology education, gives clues of how to promote creativity, holistic learning, system thinking, forward reasoning and more.

  • 48.
    Björk-Willén, Polly
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Barns spel och samspel vid datorn: Tema: IT i lärandet2010In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift – att undervisa, no 1, 8-10 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Björk-Willén, Polly
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Being doggy: Disputes embedded in preschoolers' family role-play2012In: Disputes in Everyday life: Social and Moral Orders of Children and Young People / [ed] Susan Danby, Maryanne Theobald, Emerald Group Publishing Limited , 2012, 119-140 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Björk-Willén, Polly
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berättande med flera språk2014In: Berättande i förskolan / [ed] Bim Riddarsporre, Barbro Bruce, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2014, 1, 51-70 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234567 1 - 50 of 436
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