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  • 1.
    Aaslund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Larsson Jagbrant, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Nutida uppfattningar om svensk utrikespolitik: en diskursanalays av svenska politikers föreställningar om utrikespolitik idag2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our essay is to investigate the discourse of foreign policy from a Swedish perspective. In this essay we explore how Swedish politicians discuss the Swedish foreign policy of today and of the future. The study is based on interviews with seven members of The Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs of the Swedish Riksdag. The point of departure for our analysis of these members’ narratives is discourse analysis and discourse theory. In history Swedish foreign policy has been associated with neutrality and the work for important values such as human rights and disarmament. However, as a consequence of the development of a common foreign and security policy for Europe, there is a debate concerning what Swedish foreign policy is today. Furthermore, there is today an academic debate about how foreign policy is to be understood in a more and more internationalized world. This makes our study of the understanding of foreign policy of Swedish politicians highly legitimate.

    In our study we show that both unity and difference of opinion is present in the discourse of foreign policy that the interviewees give voice to. During our interviews we found that foreign policy was defined as relations between states and that the right of states to pursue foreign policy was commonly seen as derived from the thought that citizens of a state share a common identity. During the interviews it also became obvious that feelings of belonging to a certain group were thought to affect European foreign policy cooperation. To sum up the results of our study we conclude that a deeply rooted sense of identity seem to be very influential when it comes to the understanding of foreign policy.

  • 2.
    Abdul-Mumuni, Abdallah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Conflict Resolution in West Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Sierra Leone and Liberia2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a Master thesis for the Master’s program in International and European Relations in the Department of Management and Economics at Linköping University. As the title indicates, the aim of this thesis is to make a comparative analysis of the conflict resolution initiatives that were employed in the Sierra Leonean and Liberian conflicts. The research questions are:

    • What were the root causes and trajectories of the Sierra Leonean and Liberian conflicts?

    • What were the conflict resolution initiatives employed in resolving both conflicts?

    • Why did the Lome Peace Accord succeed in the case of Sierra Leone whilst the Abuja Peace Accord failed in bringing peace to Liberia?

    In order to answer the afore-mentioned questions and fulfil the aim of this paper, a qualitative research method has been chosen. The study is mainly based on secondary sources such as textbooks, official documents from ECOWAS and the UN, articles, magazines and newspapers as well as internet resources. In making the comparative analysis the Conflict Transformation Model as espoused by Kumar Rupesinghe has been utilized. This model has specifically helped in explaining the reasons why peace returned to Sierra Leone but eluded the people of Liberia for a long time. The conclusion drawn from the study is that a multi-track approach is required in dealing with conflicts in West Africa so that it would touch on the context of the conflict, the conflict structure, the intra-party as well as the inter- party divisions and the broader system of society and governance within the conflict area.

  • 3.
    Abjanbekov, Aidyn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Alvarez Padilla, Ana Elena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    From Knowledge Transfer to Knowledge Translation: Case Study of a Telecom Consultancy2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s highly competitive business environment, knowledge is viewed as a key strategic resource. The privatization process of telecom operators in different countries created a demand in telecom management skills, and Swedish companies like Swedtel AB became involved in exporting and transferring their knowledge and management skills.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis paper is to identify all stages (from origins to final destination) of the Knowledge Transfer process and to contribute to the understanding about the mechanism of Knowledge Transfer between organizations.

    Scope: This research is limited to the investigation of the transfer process of strategic management knowledge from consulting company Swedtel AB to privatized telecom companies in Lithuania (Lietuvos Telekomas) and Nicaragua (Enitel).

    Results: Theoretical model of Knowledge Transfer was identified and tested. The model of this research was only partially supported: processes were identified in practice as described by the theory, however model required modifications in order to better reflect the reality.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ljungberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Vad är en bantad balansräkning?2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under senare år har det blivit vanligare att företagen i tidningsartiklar och årsredovisningar talar om att de har ”bantat” sin balansräkning. Företag använder begreppet i flera olika sammanhang och för att signalera att åtgärder som är positiva för företagen genomförts. Innebörden och konsekvensen av de åtgärder som vidtagits i företagen varierar dock kraftigt.

    Syfte: Syftet med vår magisteruppsats är att utreda vilken innebörd begreppet ”bantade” balansräkningar har för ett antal företag inom olika branscher.

    Genomförande: I undersökningen valde vi ut företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen som offentliggjort att de genomfört bantningar av sina balansräkningar. Genom att studera tidningsartiklar och årsredovisningar har vi utrönt vilka åtgärder som vidtagits av företagen samt effekterna av de genomförda åtgärderna.

    Resultat: En bantning av en balansräkning innebär att åtgärder för att minska tillgångsmassan skett. Vilka dessa åtgärder är och vilket syftet med dem är varierar dock kraftigt. Några exempel på åtgärder som företagen utfört är extra aktieutdelningar, sale and lease back, outsourcing, försäljning av dotterbolag och återköp av egna aktier. Användningen av begreppet sker mycket godtyckligt. Effekterna av åtgärderna varierar, några vi funnit är minskad skuldsättning, ökad skuldsättning, minskade tillgångar och ökad lönsamhet.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Dagens Managementverktyg är alldeles för trubbigt.2004In: TH : Transport & Hantering, ISSN 0346-2773, Vol. 5, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Det är skillnad på elitserien och lägre divisioner2004In: TH : Transport & Hantering, ISSN 0346-2773, Vol. 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Logistics in the Strategy of the Firm2007In: NOFOMA,2006, 2007, p. 15-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Nya tider kräver nya managementverktyg2003In: Management magazine, ISSN 1651-8055, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Aldin, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Stahre, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Logistics Platforms for Improved Dynamic Effectiveness2003In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    A model for measuring logistics structures2003In: ESTIEM magazine, ISSN 0874-5242, Vol. 25, no 2/2003Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Ett avancerat laboratorium för visualisering av logistiksystem2004In: TH : Transport & Hantering, ISSN 0346-2773, Vol. 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Measuring Logistics Structure1999In: International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, E-ISSN 1758-6550, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 263-284Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Aronsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Lindskog, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Beyond the Beer-Game: An Arena for Visualising Complex Logistics Systems.2004In: Annual NOFOMA Conference for Nordic Researchers in Logistics: Challenging Boundaries with Logistics.,2004, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Dynamic Effectiveness - Improved Industrial Distribution from Interaction between Marketing and Logistics Strategies2004In: Journal of Distribution Channels, ISSN 1046-669X, E-ISSN 1540-7039, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 83-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Norrman, Andreas
    Lunds universitet.
    Distribution Channel Reengineering - organizational separation of distribution and sales functions in the European market1998In: Transport Logistics, ISSN 0929-9645, E-ISSN 1568-5705, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 237-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Logistics.
    Wandel, Sten
    Lunds universitet.
    Model of Tiering in Third Party Logistics with a Service Parts Distribution Case Study1998In: Transport Logistics, ISSN 0929-9645, E-ISSN 1568-5705, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 181-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ackerholt, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hartford, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Identifiering av det logistiska förpackningssystemet En studie av teleutrustningsindustrin2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Due to outsourcing, the material flows in the telecom equipment industry have undergone major changes, which in turn has imposed new challenges for packaging supplier Nefab who delivers to the industry. In order to achieve market intelligence, Nefab wants to map the material flows, and investigate possibilities of further reusable logistical packaging systems.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to describe the typical features of the logistical material flows in a technically based, rapidly growing industry, and analyze the driving forces and obstacles, which influence the selection of logistical packaging system.

    Procedure: After developing a theoretical framework consisting of general logistical theories and theories related to logistical packaging, we have interviewed companies in the logistics channel of Ericsson Radio Systems.

    Results: We have found the main characteristics of material flows in our investigated industry to be Variations in Demand, Focus on Time-to-Customer, and Globalization of Logistics Channels. Regarding driving forces and obstacles in the selection of logistical packaging systems, we have identified Transportation Characteristics, Customer Demands, Quality, Handling & Administration, and Current Packaging System as important factors.

  • 18.
    Adolfsson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Kullman, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Processförbättring&Organisationsförändring: en fallstudie av Vildmarkshotellet2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många organisationer står idag inför en allt hårdare konkurrens, vilket ställer ökade krav på ständig utveckling och förnyelse. För att uppnå detta krävs en ökad kundorientering samt att bättre kunna ta tillvara på medarbetarnas potential. Ett sätt att möta dessa ökade krav har varit att börja fundera på att förändra arbetsorganisationen.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att kartlägga och analysera Vildmarkshotellets konferensprocess samt ge förslag på hur denna kan förbättras.

    Genomförande: Studien började med en diskussion kring uppdraget. Därefter påbörjade vi en litteraturstudie som låg till grund för det empiriska material som samlats in via intervjuer med hotellets ledningsgrupp, avdelningschefer samt vissa medarbetare.

    Rekommendationer: De brister som i dagsläget finns inom Vildmarkshotellets konferensprocess kan främst härledas från dagens funktionella organisationsstruktur och det är tre övergripande aspekter som Vildmarkshotellet skall fokusera på. Dessa är att de skall förändra driftorganisationens struktur och personalens tankestrukturer samt stärka ansvarskänslan inom organisationen.

    Teoretiska slutsatser: Vi anser att organisationsstrukturen avgör vilket arbets- och tankesätt som kommer prägla organisationen samt även vilket perspektiv de anställda kommer ha på sin relation till de externa och interna kunderna. För att en organisations arbetssätt skall präglas av att sätta kunden i centrum är det viktigt att de anställdas attityder genomsyras av en stark ansvarskänsla och en känsla av delaktighet samtidigt som organisationen arbetar med ständiga processförbättringar och baserar beslut på fakta. Det är även av stor vikt att företagsledningen fokuserar på att skapa engagemang och en helhetsbild över organisationen för att denna skall genomsyras av ovanstående aspekter.

  • 19.
    Adolfsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Venture Capitalists on the Seed Stage Arena: A Fit or Misfit2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Growth oriented entrepreneurial businesses need funding for the development of their idea, technology, product etc. However, for the businesses in the very earliest stages of development, access to funding is very limited. Growing young ventures are important job creators and positively affect growth in an economy. Bridging the gap of funding to these companies is therefore on the agenda of governments around the world.

    Purpose: To describe the situation facing seed stage investing venture capitalists. I will emphasize difficulties and evaluate venture capitalists ability in addressing them. Effects of the difficulties in form of access to financing for entrepreneurs and a possible need for government intervention will be examined.

    Method: Empirical information from seed stage investing venture capital organizations have been collected in the form of face-to-face interviews, email- questionnaires and a telephone interview. Organizations from Sweden, Denmark and Germany are included in the study.

    Result: Several factors make seed stage investing unattractive compared to later stages. Important difficulties are higher risks, high costs for fund management, goal incongruence in the investor – venture capitalist relation and lack of bargaining power for seed venture capitalists. Environmental factorsthat have an impact on seed investing are the deal flow, the investment climate and access to soft funding. Seed stage investing is a very challenging business and the difficulties are to a large extent hard to overcome. The investors more likely have to accept them and I conclude that long term profitability of seed funds is unlikely, at least in absence of government support in form of soft funding towards the entrepreneurial businesses.

  • 20.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Solarz, Diana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Power Shift and Retailer Value in the Swedish FMCG Industry2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recent years in the Swedish Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry have been characterized by a palpable shift in power balance, favouring the retailers. Since the shift in power balance has strengthened the negotiation position of the retailers, the suppliers now have to, to a greater extent than before, accommodate to the retailers’ goals, whether they be financial or strategic.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate how this recent power shift has affected the relationships of suppliers and retailers. This development has resulted in the rather new and unexplored area of retailer value, which this study further aimed to explore.

    Research method: Interviews were conducted with representatives fromthe leading retailer chains and market leading suppliers.

    Results: The increased use of information and control on behalf of the retailers has led to the suppliers, to a greater extent than before, having to adjust to the retailers'different store concepts. However, in order to create retailer value, the suppliers also need to focus on the consumers’ needs and preferences, since the way to the retailer’s shelves is through creating consumer demand. They also have to stay innovative and make use of the experience and in-depth knowledge they possess within their product segments, as that is where they still have the upper hand.

  • 21.
    Agerman, Stephan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Wänström, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Finansiella Illusioner: ett test av Stockholmsbörsens effektivitet2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Low Price-Earnings ratio, low Book-to market ratio and low stock prices can give the impression that a stock is “cheap”. Is it through systematic use of these portfolio strategies possible to beat the market index – in other words does financial illusions exist?

    Purpose: To examine if the Stockholm Stock Exchange is an efficient market. Limitations: The efficiency is tested solely through the chosen portfolio strategies: low Price-Earnings ratio, low Book-to-market ratio and low stock prices. The research only includes stocks listed on the A-, O-, OTC- and Attract40 lists during the period 1998-01-01 to 2001-12-31. Methodology: With CAPM as an equilibrium model we are examining if the P/e, Book-to-market or the stock price portfolios generate systematic overperformance in comparision to the market index SIXRX. Significance tests on the 5 % level have been performed to determine if the returns are significantly separated from zero.

    Results: We can establish that none of the chosen portfolio strategies generated any significant systematic overperformance.

  • 22.
    Ahl, Helene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Arbetslivsinstitutet (ALI), Norrköping.
    Kvinnors företagande och genusordningen2013In: Arbete & jämställdhet: förändringar under 50 år / [ed] Eva Blomberg, Kirsti Niskanen, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ahlgren, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Björck, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Internetbaserade distansutbildningar2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the informational age of today, continuous learning is of greatest importance. The demand for this seems to be increasing, while at the same time people are under more pressure to carry out more tasks in shorter amounts of time. A way to solve the problem of finding time to learn could be to make use of the possibilities that Internet offers for learning at a distance. The purpose of this thesis is to, from a pedagogical perspective, contribute to the discussion concerning Internet based distance education for a target population consisting of professionals. We have found that some of the courses included in the two certification programs which we have investigated are suitable for Internet based distance education. Furthermore, we believe that such an educational format should be a complement, and not a substitute, for the target population.

  • 24.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Westerlund, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sinnliga produkter: estetik som konkurrensmedel2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today’s society consumers expect the offered products to function in accordance to what is being promised. Aspects such as functionality and quality are consequently part of most companies’ product offerings and can to a lesser extent be used as competitive advantages. A good product is not enough when it comes to creating added value; a product must also convey other intangible values, such as emotional, identity boosting or aesthetic ones. By using aesthetics to appeal to consumers’ senses, this may have a greater impact regarding choice of product, which can create a larger competitiveness than traditional marketing.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate a product’s role in marketing by understanding how aesthetic values can be used as means of competition.

    Method: The study is based on seven interviews with corporate representatives within the domestic appliance business and an organisation that deals with design.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that a product’s aesthetic expression has great importance due to consumers’ increasingly growing interest for these aspects. As more senses are affected, the possibility increases for a product to appeal to the consumer. The sensuous expression that is most prominent today is visual aesthetics even if there is certain insight regarding the significance of the other senses for the consumer’s tendency to purchase. In spite of the awareness that seems to be present regarding the importance of aesthetics in the marketing of small electrical products, the study has revealed that this insight is not fully integrated. This may be due to the fact that this mean of communicating to the consumer still has not had its breakthrough on the market.

  • 25.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Alternatives to the use of unequal voting rights: a propos the potential threat to their effectiveness as a takeover defense2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The origin of this study was the negotiations around a EU takeover directive, aimed at making the market for corporate control more open. One of the proposals was to neutralise shares carrying multiple rights in takeover situations when a potential acquirer obtains 75% of the total share capital. For many Swedish ownership groups, this would mean that the system of unequal voting rights, constituting an important defense to their control, would decrease in effectiveness. In the middle of writing this thesis, an EU agreement was finally reached, making the proposal voluntary to adopt. The imminent threat posed to the Swedish system faded, but has though not disappeared since the present rules anew will be brought under inspection in five years.

    Purpose: To give examples on potential tactics to adopt if unequal voting rights would risk to become neutralised in takeover situations, these tactics dependent on two different scenarios: (1) Present Swedish ownership structure is considered advantageous for the country and thus to be remained or (2) A more open market for takeovers is desired. Course of action: Interviews have been conducted with parties within Swedish trade and industry, partly in order to assess the value and necessity of the content of this thesis.

    Conclusion: The threat of an abolition of the unequal voting rights is not perceived as imminent by parties within Swedish trade and industry and few alternative resistance strategies are suggested. If current Swedish ownership structure is to be remained, the author proposes competition-reducing defenses, if a more open market for takeovers is aimed for, auction-inducing resistance strategies. The choice of how to proceed should depend on how afraid the Swedish Government and Swedish companies are of a change in present ownership structure.

  • 26.
    Ahlqvist, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Värdet av företagsrating2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasingly, companies choose to finance their business with corporate bonds which has resulted in an increased demand on credit ratings. As such the rating agencies have a very important role in the financial markets. Examining the value of a credit-rating can be very interesting for both issuer and investor.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to identify and define the value of rating.

    Execution: The study is built upon nine interviews with rated and non-rated firms and investors.

    Result: The most important value of rating is the greater access to the corporate- and CP market. This infers that additional capital can be issued, in comparison to that available from bank loans, however, not necessarily at a lower rate. Consequently, the rate is not the driving factor concerning the choice of buying a rating. Rating has great effect on the pricing of bonds and CP’s, which is a result of the reliance investors have on the rating agencies. Rating affects the investment decision directly through the investment mandates, and indirectly through the effect on the individual investment decision.

  • 27.
    Ahlström, Jenni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Konsten att belöna goda prestationer: en studie i projektorienterad miljö2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I de kunskapsintensiva företagen av idag krävs en ny utformning av belöningssystem. Eftersom de mänskliga resurserna utgör en viktig del i konkurrenskraften är det också alla medarbetare i företaget som ska beröras av ett belöningssystem. Utmaningen ligger i att företagets övergripande målsättning med belöningssystemet måste fogas samman med medarbetarnas uppfattning om vad som motiverar för att det ska få avsedd effekt.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att analysera utformningen av belöningssystem i en komplex projektorienterad miljö, med hänsyn tagen till såväl företagsledningens önskemål om beteenden och prestationer att premiera som till vilka belöningar sommotiverar medarbetarna.

    Genomförande: Intervjuer har genomförts med 7 chefer och 8 medarbetare på ABB Power Systems. Dessutom har en enkätundersökning bland medarbetare inom enheten genomförts.

    Resultat: Studien visar att önskvärda prestationer och beteenden kan specificeras i måluppfyllelse respektive goda insatser. I en projektorienterad miljö bör det finnas utrymme för att belöna såväl enskilda individer som grupper. Belöningar som utdelas ska variera både i förhållande till vad de består av och med avseende på deras värde.

  • 28.
    Ahlström, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hjelm, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Ett varumärkets styrka och dess distribution: en studie genomförd med utgångspunkt från varumärken som säljer en livsstil2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A strong brand is becoming an increasingly important factor when surviving on a competitive market. A strong brand can therefore be considered a strategically important resource. The relationship between a brand's strength and its distribution can decide the future of a brand in the long run. Lifestyle branding is becoming a more popular way of differentiating ones brand from the competition.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify factors which according to the lifestyle brand owners are central when measuring the strength of a brand. Furthermore it will also identify functions of the distribution channel over which the brand owner wishes to have control. The goal is to try to capture these dimensions in a measuring model. The model is aimed at being used by lifestyle brand owners in order to identify a position of the relationship of a brands strength and its distribution.

    Procedure: We chose to conduct a qualitative study and performed five interviews. Our chosen method was one of induction. By combining empirical data with existing theories of brand strength and distribution we have identified factors and functions which according to the brand owner are considered central.

    Results: When evaluating a brands strength the factors which could be considered are quality, recognition, recall, loyalty, and market share. To evaluate the distribution one can consider the control the brand owner has over the following functions of distribution; assortment, exposure, price, and knowledge of the personnel. We conclude that an increase of brand strength will provoke an increase of control over distribution. This relation also works in the opposite direction.

  • 29.
    Ahlström, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab AB.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Utbildning om och i ett projekt2003In: I teori och praktik, Linköping: CUP, LiUTryck , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ahmed, Hameed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Najam, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    How Corporate Governance Affects Strategy of Corporations: - Lessons from Enron Corporation -2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate governance is a subject of academic and professional debate. It has and it will continue to be a topic under scrutiny for subsequent deliberations since there are many different research dimensions and contexts associated with it. However, it has been observed that the linkage between corporate governance and strategy of a corporation remains as an untapped area with considerable avenues of research. This paper tends to explore this linkage, using Enron scandal as backdrop.

    In the aftermath of the debacle of US energy giant Enron in 2001, the significance of corporate governance has come under heavy scrutiny of different researchers. Whereas different explanations have been attributed to its downfall, it has been widely accepted that this was a case of failed corporate governance.

    This paper tends to explore Enron downfall from the perspective of failed corporate governance. By defining and exploring corporate governance and its underlying issues, the authors have used Agency theory as a theoretical framework in unison with internationally renowned auditing company - Ernst & Young Model - to understand the role of different actors and forces responsible for Enron collapse.

    By using qualitative research method, the authors have used secondary literature as well as combination of questionnaires and telephonic interviews to obtain viewpoint of renowned international academic / professional researchers. They have been identified through convenience sampling methodology. A few internationally renowned auditing companies have also been used as part of this survey to explore diversity of perspectives in this context. Efforts have been made; to explore the main causes rather then to write just another case on Enron.

    After drawing lessons from Enron, the paper concludes with the understanding that there is direct link between corporate governance and strategy of corporations. However there is diversity of perspectives in this context and hence it requires further exploration and debate.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Hameed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Xiaohong, Ye
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The Role Scenarios of EU in the World of 2020: a Comparative Perspective Between European and US based Think Tanks.2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to tell out a “what next” question of the future scenarios that the European Union (EU), as a security community, is most likely to face in its development as a world power up to the year 2020. The EU is a rapidly evolving concept consolidating with comprehensive internal and external dimension and implication. Key concepts such as power, security, global governance and international order have been used as the underlying themes that will determine the course of the future. In this context Neo-realism, Constructivism and Security Community’s model have been used as the theoretical framework to examine how EU’s role in the international system can be analyzed in the conceptual framework of security. This is followed by a discussion on the concurrent ESDP instruments initiated by the new Constitution as a key momentum of security community buildup internally. To broaden understanding and to get a variety of perspectives, research reports and policy papers of some transatlantic think tanks were analyzed. While multi- perspectives of some prominent think tanks were reviewed, analyzed and discussed, the opinions of policy makers at the United Nations Head Quarters, New York, were also explored to reflect on how EU’s role in international affairs is being perceived in the corridors of power, both concurrently and futuristically. These views were consequently augmented by attending General Assembly and Security Council sessions during September 2004 to January 2005 to observe what sorts of power and influence EU exerts in the contemporary international system and what potential it has for the future. Based on these findings, the paper identified three scenarios that EU is most likely to face in its efforts to be an international power. The paper concluded with the understanding that EU has vision and potential to be a power in the international system futuristically, which can be further enhanced if EU enhances its military capabilities and improves its power perception in the eyes of various stakeholders. However since the international system is volatile, its future role cannot be predicted with accuracy, only alternative options can be identified. EU’s roles are dependent upon the degree of success of the integration process internally and the structural interaction with other major actors in the international system. Whereas EU may enhance its role up to the year 2020, it may not enter into a power conflict with other major powers. However it will play its role comparable with the magnitude of its size, power and influence to manage the international system, futuristically in an improvised way.

  • 32.
    Ahrner, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Lindberg, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Att välja utan att veta: finansiärers agerande i de inledande stegen av innovationsprocesser2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag kräver så gott som alla nya idéer riskvilligt kapital för att kunna ta sig till marknaden. Oavsett om finansiären är ett etablerat företag eller en enskild person är orsaken till risktagandet en förhoppning om god avkastning på investeringen. För att minimera risken och maximera avkastningen gäller det dels att generera tillräckligt med idéer att välja bland, dels att investera i livskraftiga idéer. Mycket få idéer är tillräckligt bra för att passera det nålsöga som finansiärernas urvalsprocess utgör och ta sig till marknaden.

    Syfte: Att bidra med kunskap om tre fenomen; riskkapitalbolags agerande för att skapa och finna idéer, etablerade företags agerande vid val av idéer att utveckla samt hur etablerade företags agerande i de tidiga delarna av innovationsprocessen, från idé-skapande till investeringsbeslut, kan skilja sig från riskkapitalbolagens agerande.

    Avgränsningar: Uppsatsen omfattar endast utveckling av teknik, eftersom det finns gott om både svenska riskkapitalbolag och svenska etablerade företag som sysslar med utveckling och finansiering inom området.

    Genomförande: Information om den praktiska genererings- och urvalsprocessen har in-hämtats genom djupintervjuer med fyra utredare på riskkapitalbolag samt tre utveck- lingsansvariga på väletablerade företag.

    Slutsatser: Riskkapitalbolagens arbete för att skapa och finna idéer begränsar sig till att delta i en mängd olika nätverk. De kan dock, till skillnad från de etablerade företagen, erbjuda god ekonomisk motivation åt sina entreprenörer. De etablerade företagen tycks vid val av idéer fokusera mycket hårt på att de ska passa kärnverksamheten, men lägger liten eller ingen vikt vid idégenererarens personliga egenskaper, vilka kanske är det mest centrala för riskkapitalbolagen. Företagen har slutligen högre tolerans för misslyckan- den, vilket speglas av bristen på tidigt såddkapital i dagens svenska riskkapitalbransch.

  • 33.
    Albertson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Guerrero, Carlos
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hur många gånger skall man uppfinna hjulet?: Lärande mellan projekt2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Traditionellt sett har man i projektlitteraturen betraktat projektet som fenomen som en unik engångsföreteelse som aldrig kommer att upprepas. Enligt ett sådant resonemang skulle möjligheterna till lärande mellan projekt vara kraftigt begränsade, om ens existerande. Denna syn på projekt har dock kommit att förändras, varvid ett lärande mellan projekt inte bara skulle vara möjligt utan även kunna ses som en förutsättning för överlevnad på en alltmer konkurrensutsatt marknad eftersom projekten bland annat lägger grund för konkurrensfördelar.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna undersökning är att beskriva vad man kan lära sig mellan projekt, samt att komma med förslag på hur man kan arbeta för att främja lärande mellan dem.

    Genomförande: Undersökningen genomfördes i form av en fallstudie och den empiriska informationen samlades in genom tre intervjuer på lika många företag som arbetar med utvecklingsprojekt inom elektronik- och telekombranschen.

    Resultat: Vi har identifierat fem områden inom projektverksamhet som vi bedömer som centrala samt tack vare deras generella karaktär möjliga att lära sig inom och sedan applicera lärdomarna på andra projekt.. Eftersom utvecklingsprojekt på grund av deras höga unicitet bör vara de projekt som är svårast att lära sig mellan, bör våra slutsatser och den modell för utvärdering vi utvecklar även gälla för andra typer av projekt.

  • 34.
    Albrektsson, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Bravell, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Mattisson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Styrning inom fristående och kommunala skolor: en jämförelse2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: På grund av diverse politiska åtgärder har den offentliga sektorn börjat utsättas för ökad konkurrens. Genom Friskolereformen som drevs igenom 1992 har möjligheterna att starta upp friskolor blivit allt större och därmed också mer populärt. Mellan 1992 och 2002 ökade antalet friskolor i Sverige med över 500 %. Ur pedagogisk utgångspunkt har mycket forskning bedrivits om skolor medan det är knapphändigt med studier av fenomenet från ekonomisk vinkel. Det som föräldrar angett som främsta anledning till skolbyte är skolans status och rykte, undervisningens kvalitet och skolans atmosfär, miljö och storlek. Detta är styrvariabler som vi ska studera.

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med denna undersökning är att klarlägga huruvida styrningen av organisation, fysisk arbetsmiljö och personal skiljer sig mellan kommunala skolor och friskolor. Vi vill även förklara vad eventuella skillnader beror på.

    Avgränsningar: Rapporten omfattar främst årskurs 7-9 och endast friskolor med allmän inriktning.

    Genomförande: Undersökningen genomfördes med hjälp av en mailenkät. Skolledare i 15 friskolor, 15 kommunala skolor i de kommuner som friskolorna låg och 15 kommunala skolor i kommuner utan friskolor tillfrågades.

    Resultat: Styrningen skiljer sig en aning åt mellan skoltyperna på enskilda variabler. Orsakerna till skillnaderna var dock olika varför vi inte ser att den övergripande styrningen skiljer sig åt.

  • 35.
    Alexandersson, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Obradovic, Natasha
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Multifaktormodell för förväntad aktieavkastning2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det råder vitt skilda meningar om tekniken för beräkning av den förväntade aktieavkastningen. Å ena sidan finns de som påstår att marknaden är effektiv, d v s att ny information återspeglas i aktiepriser på ett snabbt och effek- tivt sätt. Det lönar sig helt enkelt inte att försöka ”slå” marknaden genom att tillämpa några analysmetoder som helst. Andra avfärdar den effektiva marknadshypotesen och hävdar att det finns beprövade metoder med vars hjälp felprissättningar kan upptäckas och därmed ovanligt stora vinster tjänas. Syftet med denna studie är att, med en multifaktormodell, testa huruvida aktieavkastningen kan förutses med hjälp av företagsspecifika nyckeltal. Studien grundar sig på tvärsnittsdata, d v s månadsdata för företagsspecifika nyckeltal för de 68 företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen. Tidsperioden, för vilken modellen testas, sträcker sig från februari 1996 – oktober 2004. Modellen söker förklara variationen i avkastningen samt förutse den förväntade avkastningen med hjälp av multipelregressionsanalys där förklaringsvariabler består av företagsspecifika nyckeltal. Det som konstateras är att modellens förmåga att förutse den förväntade avkastningen ökar avsevärt mot slutet av den undersökta perioden. En tänkbar implikation för modellen som undersöks i denna studie är ett förenklat urval av aktier som skulle bilda en optimal portfölj, förutsatt dess precision. Modellen ger eventuellt indikation på olika prissättningsanomalier, vars förekomster är svåra att upptäcka då de varierar över tiden och uppvisar olika mönster och samband med den faktiska och förväntade avkastningen. Att olika variabler över tiden uppvisar starkare och svagare samband med den faktiska avkastningen kan tyda på att anomalier är ostabila, vilket talar för en effektiv marknad.

  • 36.
    Algotsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Nyyssölä, Esa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Leveraged Buyout: Vilka förutsättningar finns för en LBO av Cloetta Fazer AB?2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of LBOs in Sweden has increased during the last years and the current market trend is positive. MostLBOs involves private companies, but a few concerns public corporations on the national share market. In this thesis we will examine the conditions of a LBO of Cloetta Fazer AB. The purpose is to study existing conditions of Cloetta Fazer AB and to examine pros and cons with the deal. Based upon information presented in the frame of reference and in the empirical part, two cash flow valuations have been carried out. The first valuation is a regular discounted cash flow valuation while the other is a specific LBO valuation. In a LBO valuation the debt terms and the changed capital structure is taken into consideration. The valuations are followed by an analysis where LBO conditions as well as pros and cons are examined.

    Positive conditions for Cloetta Fazer AB are insensitiveness of market fluctuations, a strong market position, stable cash flows, low risk and strong product trademarks. There is also a possibility of increasing the expected rate of return with more leverage since the current financial structure can take on more debt. We argue that a LBO of a public corporation is surrounded by limited information due to legal restrictions such as insider rules. Limited information makes it difficult to motivate value creation. Other factors that obstruct a LBO of Cloetta Fazer AB is increased market competition, indistinct possibility of rationalising the business and a high EV/EBITDA multiple. We have also found that the IRR value is too low. Due to the fact that a LBO requires a premium of at least 20 % over market value, it is difficult to argue for a LBO of Cloetta Fazer AB.

  • 37.
    Allard, Anders L.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Medborgerligt deltagande bland marginaliserade grupper2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vissa grupper deltar på samhällets olika arenor i lägre utsträckning än andra, är tämligen klarlagt. Detta kan betraktas som ett demokratiproblem. Mitt sätt att angripa problemet är att studera dem som trots allt deltar från dessa så kallade marginaliserade grupper. Tanken är att härigenom finna ledtrådar till hur medborgerligt deltagande kan uppstå och vilka effekter det i så fall får. Huvudsakligt studieobjekt för uppsatsen är ett ombyggnadsprojekt (Ringdansen) i Norrköpingsförorten Navestad. Det deltagardemokratiska teoriperspektivet, som betonar att samhället ska fyllas av medborgerligt inflytande och deltagande, utgör en viktig referenspunkt i utformning och analys av uppsatsens data. En vilja att delta måste, för vem det än gäller, finnas vid ett frivilligt engagemang. Denna vilja uppstår lättare under vissa förutsättningar. För grupper som deltar i relativt låg grad bör särskild hänsyn tas för att skapa en gynnsam miljö. De i min studie uppdagade förutsättningarna av vikt är att deltagandet: (1) upplevs beröra frågor med direkt betydelse (ofta vardagsnära), (2) har sitt ursprung i en mänsklig kontaktyta, (3) kan utövas i närheten av hemmet, (4) sker i kollektiv form, (5) inte är allt för komplicerat. Initiativtagarna, i det här fallet ett bostadsbolag, har således en viktig möjliggöranderoll, där även förtroende spelar in. Deltagarna i Ringdansprojektet, framför allt de resursbegränsade, har förbättrat följande medborgerliga resurser: självtilltro, tolerans/kritisk rationalism, samhällsintresse/delaktighet och gemenskap. Detta i något av en positiv kedjereaktion. Det visar sig att individuella förutsättningar, arbetsformer och nivån på deltagandearenan har inverkan på vilka effekter som infinner sig. En rad frågetecken kvarstår, bl.a. gällande beständigheten i effekterna, men som helhet anser jag att de positiva resultaten berättigar ökade satsningar på möjliggörande av medborgerligt deltagande bland marginaliserade grupper.

  • 38.
    Almgren, Teresia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Barriers to market entry and EC Competition law2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers to entry are important from many aspects. For a firm entering a market it is important to know which barriers it is facing. From a competition authority’s perspective it is necessary to know the extent of entry barriers to determine for example if a firm enjoys a dominant position. It is also necessary to know the entry barriers in order to create provisions to ensure free market entry.

    However, there is not one generally accepted definition of entry barriers. This makes it difficult for players in the market to assess when they are conducting a prohibited action. The lack of a standard definition and a clear opinion of what constitutes a prohibited barrier according to competition law also result in a more complicated and time-consuming judicial process.

    I provide the reader with different definitions in order to clarify the matter. I also present an overview of barriers to entry. I also discuss which barriers are interesting from a competition law perspective and why they are of interest.

    I conclude that, from a competition law perspective, it is not the definition of entry barriers that is of most interest. The most important question is without doubt whether the individual barrier constitutes an infringement to EC competition policy. That assessment must be done on an individual basis and it is an assessment that is dependant on many factors, such as the relevant market, the type of barrier, the affect the barrier have on the market, any pro-competitive effects etc.

  • 39.
    Almqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Johansson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    What did you say?: A study of communication with links to anxiety during a merger.2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore the area of communication and its links to anxiety. The methods used are interviews in conjunction with a grounded theory approach. We found that there are several different types of misunderstandings that can occur between management and employees, which also cause the level of anxiety felt among the employees to rise. Important aspects to consider for management seem to be to use several communication channels and choose the appropriate channel depending on the content of the message. It is also necessary for management to convey information on the same knowledge level as the employees and to take the interests of the employees into account when deciding what information to give them. To create a positive attitude and to avoid ambiguous messages will also improve communication and lessen the anxiety felt.

  • 40.
    Almström, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hur påverkar kompetensutveckling individens engagemang och motivation?2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I dagens organisationer kan ökad fokus på kompetensutveckling utskiljas. Anledningen till det kan bland annat vara för att överleva i den ökade konkurrensen. Genom ökade satsningar på kompetensutveckling försäkrar sig organisationen om att de anställda har rätt kompetens och att organisationen kan följa med i utvecklingen. Förutom att medarbetarna är kompetenta krävs även att de arbetar för organisationens bästa. Detta uppnås enklast genom att medarbetarna är engagerade och motiverade för organisationen och sitt arbete.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att problematisera och analysera möjliga samband mellan organisationers kompetensutveckling och medarbetarnas engagemang samt motivation.

    Avgränsningar: Uppsatsen behandlar endast individkompetens, varför frågan om organisationer kan vara kompetenta eller hur den kompetensen i så fall utvecklas inte kommer att behandlas. Vidare har studien avgränsats till att endast behandla individers engagemang för en organisation samt motivationsteorier kopplade till ett arbete.

    Genomförande: Studien har genomförts på tre olika banker i Linköping. Djupintervjuer har skett med totalt 15 medarbetare, varav tre i ledande ställning.

    Resultat: Kompetensutveckling har blivit viktigare för individen och denne förväntar sig att behovet av utveckling skall uppfyllas genom arbetet. Studien visar att det finns samband mellan kompetensutveckling och engagemang samt motivation. Engagemanget visar sig främst genom de positiva effekter som kompetensutvecklingen har på individens benägenhet att identifiera sig med organisationen och olika grupper inom den. Kompetensutveckling medför även förändringar i individens arbetssituation, det leder till ökat självförtroende samt ökad arbetsglädje, vilket påverkar motivationen positivt. Studien har också visat att tid i organisationen påverkar individens engagemang.

  • 41.
    Alstermark, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Hegefjärd, Sanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Espoused corporate and business level strategies: An analysis of annual reports in the heavy electrical engineering industry, 1987-20022006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Strategy forms an inevitable part of a company’s existence, whether explicitly formulated or implicitly acted on. Today, there are many ways to find information about companies and their strategic directions, for example in the non-financial sections of annual reports. However, the future actions and strategic choices tend not to be spoken of explicitly or in terms of strategy concepts or typologies. Thus, the presentation of strategies in annual reports may differ in terminology from the conceptions and notions as presented in strategy concepts. This implies a challenging base for analysis and will inevitably create an interesting situation if one wants to map out a company’s strategic direction with these reports as basis. Annual reports could also possibly constitute a cross-over between the theoretical realm and the business world, which might allow the drawing of parallels between theoretical concepts and espoused strategic actions.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overall image of strategy in the heavy electrical engineering industry in the time period of 1987 to 2002, using the non-financial information in annual reports as the single source for identifying and classifying companies in terms of strategy.

    Mode of procedure

    Annual reports from four large companies in the heavy electrical engineering industry have been studied with a grounded approach of textual analysis. The case study was conducted with an inductive starting point, and covered a vast amount of empirical material. Key features of strategic directions, on the corporate and business level, were derived from the empirical material as well as from strategy literature, and these features then served as base for further analysis and conclusions.

    Results

    All four studied companies displayed different strategic phases on the two levels. However, inconsistency and a multitude of comments sometimes obstructed the identification of distinct phases. On an inter-company level, the European companies tended to have more features in common than the American ones. Furthermore, specific characteristics have been identified for each company. Finally, each of the four case companies was classified in terms of generic strategies. The classification of the companies showed that a multitude of strategic typologies was applicable during the studied time period, some recurrently and others in unique periods.

  • 42. Alter, G.
    et al.
    Manfredini, M.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Economics and Economic History.
    Gender differences in mortality2004In: Life under Pressure: Mortality and living standards in Europe and Asia, 1700-1900 / [ed] Tommy Bengtsson, Boston: MIT Press , 2004, p. 327-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This highly original book -- the first in a series analyzing historical population behavior in Europe and Asia -- pioneers a new approach to the comparative analysis of societies in the past. Using techniques of event history analysis, the authors examine 100,000 life histories in 100 rural communities in Western Europe and Asia to analyze the demographic response to social and economic pressures. In doing so they challenge the accepted Eurocentric Malthusian view of population processes and demonstrate that population behavior has not been as uniform as previously thought -- that it has often been determined by human agency, particularly social structure and cultural practice.The authors examine the complex relationship between human behavior and social and economic environment, analyzing age, gender, family, kinship, social class and social organization, climate, food prices, and real wages to compare mortality responses to adversity. Their research at the individual, household, and community levels challenges the previously accepted characterizations of social and economic behavior in Europe and Asia in the past. The originality of the analysis as well as the geographic breadth and historical depth of the data make Life Under Pressure a significant advance in the field of historical demography. Its findings will be of interest to scholars in economics, environmental studies, demography, history, and sociology as well as the general reader interested in these subjects.

  • 43.
    Alvehus, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mötets metaforer: en studie av berättelser om möten1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Alvesson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Företagsekonomi Lunds universitet.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Transaction Costs, Clans and Corporate Culture.2004In: The International Library of the New Institutional Economics / [ed] Claude Ménard, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2004, p. -666Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Alvesson, Mats
    et al.
    Företagsekonomi Lunds universitet.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Transaction Costs, Clans and Corporate Culture1993In: Journal of Management Studies, ISSN 0022-2380, E-ISSN 1467-6486, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 427-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 46.
    Ambard, Céline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Autier, Gérald
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Negotiating in an intercultural environment-A Swedish perspective2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intercultural negotiations are playing an increasing role in the globalisation nowadays. Business negotiators are now facing negotiations in which they have to meet people from all over the world because of the development of different market places. Sweden is particular case of this internationalization. Swedish negotiators have to use their skills with new collaborators. Their particularities are of relevance for any international negotiator who will have to negotiate with them.

  • 47.
    Ambrutyte, Zita
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Accounting for cooperation: case study of swedish vertical supply relationships2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades a combination of business trends has caused companies to rely increasingly on relationships with other firms. Despite the popularity of inter-organizational relationships, evidence shows that many inter-organizational relationships fall short of meeting the expectations of their participants or fall for other reasons. It has been claimed that the degree to which efficiency is created is dependent on the information availability to the decision-makers; in order to assess the benefits and the results of the cooperation, there should be some arrangements by the parties done. The purpose of the study is therefore to provide an empirical evidence of the existing management accounting practice in vertical company relationships, how parties in the relationships use management accounting systems and financial information to determine effective and efficient use of resources through planning, co-ordination and evaluation.

    When this project started, it was expected that in practice this approach would result in systems that support the relationships and provide the foundations for realising the benefits. The findings provide unexpected results, i.e. the parties in the case rarely use management accounting knowledge or systems in managing relationships. However, the use of management accounting related decisions is almost a daily responsibility for the parties involved in relationships management. The reasons for such a situation might be the prevailing technical culture of most companies. This focuses on quality and processes and treats accounting and control as a staff function that is unnecessary in relationships management. Due to the shortage of funds and initiative the supplier companies often lack expertise and management information systems. However, the case investigated as well as other research evidence shows that decision-making based on management accounting information is becoming more common in managing the relationships and even more benefits could be achieved from improved accounting knowledge use.

    The mismatch between the empirical data and the expectations could possibly be influenced by two factors. First, it is possible that the case analysed represents a practical example which does not match the ideal case, and therefore the management practices illustrated might have room for changes. The second possibility is that the theories referred to in the thesis, do not represent exactly the likely practical scenarios, and accordingly these theories could be enhanced to better explain inter-organisational practices.

  • 48.
    Aminoff, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Dettel, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Payment Solutions for Services in Interactive TV: A Comparative Evaluation of Electronic Payment Systems2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for digital TV is developing and some industry actors focus on interactive TV. Interactive content and services that previously only were able to use through a standard PC are now available to use through the TV set. To distribute the services to the TV a so called set top box with broadband connection needs to be used. Such a box can be described as a unit where a standard PC and a digital TV receptor are integrated.

    This thesis aims to investigate the market for electronic payment solutions with a focus on payment for interactive content and services in digital TV. The presumptive services are many which lead to a relative complex analysis of how they should be paid for. What kind of service is it really to be paid for?

    In order to conduct an appropriate analysis this thesis contains an identification of five different service-/content types. The grouping we have conducted is in so called On Demand services, Voice over IP, Shopping, Interactive TV and web services. In order to be able to conduct a relevant assessment of how the distributed services should be paid for the understanding of the market situation is utterly important. Therefore the thesis contains a pre study of the different market actors that can be related to a set top box and interactive TV.

    The study of eight different actors on the Swedish market provides an overview of content providers’ as well as payment companies’ view on how interactive content and services should be paid for. The result from the thesis is a recommendation on how an electronic payment solution should be designed and important aspects to think of. One of the key outcomes is that different services needs different types of payment solutions which implies that you should first decide on what type of services that are to be provided before a decision is made on the payment solution.

    A byproduct from the thesis is the analysis model that facilitates analysis of services as well as payment solutions and - methods related to electronic payments and interactive media.

  • 49.
    Anbäcken, Owe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Sociology.
    Dahlgaard Park, Su Mi Fel Pnr
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    The Implementation of a Quality System in the Care sector for Elderly and Handicapped People - a Swedish case study2005In: Abstracts ... annual convention / International Reading Association, ISSN 1060-2011, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents the empirical research results conducted in a Swedish care organization for elderly and handicapped. The objective of the research was to empirically assess the implementation and practices of a quality system (ISO 9000) from an organizational change and development perspective.

  • 50.
    Andelius, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Munoz, Guillermo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Interkulturell kommunikation.: En studie av kommunikationen mellan svenskar och forna jugoslaver2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: För att svenska företag ska kunna ta del av de synergieffekter det innebär att ha människor anställda som härstammar ur olika kulturer krävs en medvetenhet om olikheterna. Genom medvetenhet om, samt kunskap och färdigheter i den andre kommunikationspartnerns kultur kan vi skaffa oss en intellektuell kommunikationsförmåga för att först lösa de enklaste och sedan en del av de mer komplicerade problemen. Ju mer kunskap om våra olikheter vi införskaffar oss, desto lättare är det att förutse dessa problem och därmed ha en möjlighet att undvika dem.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att skapa en ökad förståelse för den problematik som kan påverka kommunikationen mellan personer med olika kulturell bakgrund. Detta i samband med kommunikation som sker i en yrkesmässig kontext.

    Genomförande: Studien genomfördes i intervjuformmed hjälp av fyra personer på dataföretaget UCS AB.

    Resultat: De kulturella faktorer som påverkar kommunikationen är uppdelningen av arbete och privatliv, användandet av Ni-formen, tvetydigheter, skämt och kroppsspråket. De fördelar som kan identifieras när personer med olika kulturell bakgrund kommunicerar är att kommunikationen blir livligare, möjligheten att få uppleva hur andra kulturer lever i sin vardag samt de synergieffekter som uppstår då var och en ser saker och ting på olika sätt. De nackdelar som kan identifieras är att interkulturell kommunikation kräver mer tid.

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