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  • 1.
    Aakumiah, Prince Osei
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Water Management and Health in Ghana: Caes Study - Kumasi2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been multiple cases of drinking water related diseases in Ghana, particularly the cities. Kumasi, the second largest city is recording high figures of drinking water related diseases. The Ghana water and sewage company is supposed to provide adequate safe drinking water to the people. However, the company has failed to provide this service effectively. Various reasons have been given by the company on its inability to perform efficiently. Meanwhile the government decided lately to privatise water in the cities to facilitate access to quality water through what is called “FULL COST RECOVERY”. This attracted a lot of international companies to Ghana but this has also generated protest and demonstrations. The argument is that these foreign companies are basically profit oriented and considering the fact that most of the affected people are very poor, suggesting they cannot afford it.

    The study is aimed at finding out the relationship between water management and health in the study area and how effective water management through full community participation could help provide adequate safe drinking water. The study was a non-interventional descriptive type using both qualitative and quantitative methods. It was conducted in Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana. A total of 100 residents from the communities was selected through systematic sampling and interviewed. This includes 86 local residents and 14 key informer interviews. The study also relied on observation as well as some selected literature.

    The results confirmed that drinking water related diseases is on the increase with the most affected people being the poor living in shanty and informal areas of the city. It was also found that most people in the city are willing to render any services to provide safe drinking water. But in relative terms, most of these people are very poor with high percentage of illiterates and may only contribute if there is a good relation and trust among all. It however appears that community participation is a good option for the city provided that stakeholders are made to play effective roles.

  • 2.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 3.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Castensson, Reinhold
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Problembaserad inlärning - PBI - i miljövetenskaplig grundutbildning: Utvärdering av resultat och erfarenheter1994Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Achu Nges, Ivo
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, Lund Univeristy.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    Department of Biotechnology, Lund University.
    Stable operation during pilot-scale anaerobic digestion of nutrient-supplemented maize/sugar beet silage2012In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 118, 445-454 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production from maize/sugar beet silage was studied under mesophilic conditions in a continuous stirred tank reactor pilot-scale process. While energy crop mono-digestion is often performed with very long hydraulic retention times (HRTs), the present study demonstrated an efficient process operating with a 50-day HRT and a corrected total solids (TScorr) based organic loading rate of 3.4 kg/m3×d. The good performance was attributed to supplementation with both macro- and micronutrients and was evidenced by good methane yields (318 m3/ton TScorr) which were comparable to laboratory maximum expected yields plus low total volatile fatty acid concentrations (< 0.8 g/L). A viscoplastic and thixotropic digester fluid behaviour was observed, and the viscosity problems common in crop mono-digestion were not seen in this study. The effluent also complied with Swedish certification standards for bio-fertilizer for farmland application. Nutrient addition thus rendered a stable biogas process, while the effluent was a good quality bio-fertilizer.

  • 5.
    Acosta, Lilibeth
    et al.
    Potsdam Institute Climate Impact Research PIK, Germany .
    Klein, Richard J T
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden .
    Reidsma, Pytrik
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Metzger, Marc J
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Rounsevell, Mark D A
    University of Edinburgh, Scotland .
    Leemans, Rik
    Wageningen University, Netherlands .
    Schroeter, Dagmar
    Int Institute Appl Syst Anal, Austria .
    A spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity to global change in Europe2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, 1211-1224 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional impact models combine exposure in the form of scenarios and sensitivity in the form of parameters, providing potential impacts of global change as model outputs. However, adaptive capacity is rarely addressed in these models. This paper presents the first spatially explicit scenario-driven model of adaptive capacity, which can be combined with impact models to support quantitative vulnerability assessment. The adaptive capacity model is based on twelve socio-economic indicators, each of which is projected into the future using four global environmental change scenarios, and then aggregated into an adaptive capacity index in a stepwise approach using fuzzy set theory. The adaptive capacity model provides insight into broad patterns of adaptive capacity across Europe, the relative importance of the various determinants of adaptive capacity, and how adaptive capacity changes over time under different social and economic assumptions. As such it provides a context for the implementation of specific adaptation measures. This could improve integrated assessment models and could be extended to other regions. However, there is a clear need for a better theoretical understanding of the adaptive capacity concept, and its relationship to the actual implementation of adaptation measures. This requires more empirical research and coordinated meta-analyses across regions and economic sectors, and the development of bottom-up modelling techniques that can incorporate human decision making.

  • 6.
    Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Chlorine Isotope Effects and Composition of Naturally Produced Organochlorines from Chloroperoxidases, Flavin-Dependent Halogenases, and in Forest Soil2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 13, 6864-6871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of stable chlorine isotopic signatures (delta Cl-37) of organochlorine compounds has been suggested as a tool to determine both their origins and transformations in the environment. Here we investigated the delta Cl-37 fractionation of two important pathways for enzymatic natural halogenation: chlorination by chloroperoxidase (CPO) and flavin-dependent halogenases (FDH). Phenolic products of CPO were highly Cl-37 depleted (delta Cl-37 = -12.6 +/- 0.9 parts per thousand); significantly more depleted than all known industrially produced organochlorine compounds (delta Cl-37 = -7 to +6 parts per thousand). In contrast, four FDH products did not exhibit any observable isotopic shifts (delta Cl-37 = -0.3 +/- 0.6 parts per thousand). We attributed the different isotopic effect to the distinctly different chlorination mechanisms employed by the two enzymes. Furthermore, the delta Cl-37 in bulk organochlorines extracted from boreal forest soils were only slightly depleted in Cl-37 relative to inorganic Cl. In contrast to previous suggestions that CPO plays a key role in production of soil organochlorines, this observation points to the additional involvement of either other chlorination pathways, or that dechlorination of naturally produced organochlorines can neutralize delta Cl-37 shifts caused by CPO chlorination. Overall, this study demonstrates that chlorine isotopic signatures are highly useful to understand sources and cycling of organochlorines in nature. Furthermore, this study presents delta Cl-37 values of FDH products as well of bulk organochlorines extracted from pristine forest soil for the first time.

  • 7.
    Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Stockholm University.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Stockholm University.
    Investigating formation and degradation of polychlorinated phenols in the environment using chlorine and carbon stable isotope fractionation in ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, vol 242, issue , pp2011In: ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA , 2011, Vol. 242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 8.
    Agbesola, Yetunde
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainability of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Waste generation is an unavoidable product of man’s activities, however, sustainable management of such waste is a challenge faced in many countries today. Nigeria, a developing country in Africa, has been in a quandary of how to efficiently manage the municipal solid waste its population generates. Many states in the country lack adequate plans and infrastructure required for efficient and sustainable management of municipal solid waste. For Lagos, the most populous and popular state in Nigeria, the problem is further compounded by its rather large and still increasing population. In this research, Lagos is taken as a case study; the extant trend for solid waste handling in households, trends in the formal and informal sector as regards solid waste management from household collection to final disposal are focused upon. Many countries, particularly the developed ones, have employed options in the waste management hierarchy for sustainable management of their municipal solid waste and the blend of options employed is usually highly dependent on local factors. Following the waste management hierarchy, possible options for sustainable municipal solid waste management in Lagos are discussed. It is concluded that waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting are potential management options for the state. Landfilling will remain an important option for final disposal but reliance on this method could be significantly reduced if management options are exploited to the maximum in a sustainable solid waste management structure.

     

  • 9.
    Ahmed, Rafiq
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Seasonal Variation of Inorganic Nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) Concentration in Swedish River2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers have been playing most important role as fresh water source and medium of nutrient transportation from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem. Inorganic form of nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) are plant available mostly control the productivity of aquatic ecosystem. Transfer of these nutrients in higher concentrations cause harmful eutrophication in receiving water body.

    Study of dissolved inorganic nutrients concentrations in 12 Swedish rivers of different basin characteristics demonstrated both similar and varying behaviour from river to river and from season to season depending on catchment hydrology; land use and geology. Highest concentration did not coincide with the highest runoff. High DSi concentration observed in the unperturbed rivers however, high DIN and DIP concentration observed in agriculture dominated river followed by river basin dominated by industrial and urban activities. DSi and DIN concentration observed high in winter and decreased through spring to reach lowest in summer. DIP concentration although found low in summer but high concentration observed in early spring and early autumn. Rivers with low average runoff positively correlated with DSi and DIN concentration however, DIP demonstrated weak correlation.

  • 10.
    Aigbavbiere, Ernest
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    The effects of heavy metals on denitification in a wetland sediment..2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands water quality is influenced by the anthopogenic activities in the catchments’ areas. Wastewaters from the urban storm, agricultural runoff and sewage treatment often end up in wetlands before flowing to rivers, lakes and the sea. A lot of pollutants are readily transported in these wastewaters, thus subjecting the wetland ecosystem into a continuous resilience. Importantly, heavy metals like Cu, Zn, and Pb etc. are constituents of such pollutants in the wastewaters.

    The study has as a specific objective to investigate the effects of heavy metal Cu, Zn and Pb on denitrification, an important ecosystem process and service. In a wetland situation, denitrification is a permanent nitrogen removal process accounting for about 90% of the total nitrogen removal.

    The research was carried out in the laboratory and sediment samples were taken from a constructed wetland in Linkoping. We employed acetylene inhibition technique in obtaining N2O as a product resulting from nitrate reduction. The treatments (Cu, Zn and Pb) levels were 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of sediment, in three replicates and a control.

    Samplings of the assay were taken within 24hours. Gas chromatography was used to analyse and quantify N2O in the various samples. A linear regression analysis was carried out with Windows Excel and SPSS to compare the various treatments with the control at 95% confidence level.

    The results show that there were no inhibitions of denitrification at 100 mg/kg sediment treatment level for any of the element. Inhibition of denitrification was observed at treatment levels 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of sediment. The rate of nitrate reduction was compared from the slope of the regression curve. The rate for Cu at 500 mg and 1000 mg /kg of sediment was moderately related to that of the control, Zn shows a similar trend but a higher rate in some samples, while Pb shows more inhibition.

  • 11.
    Akhter Feroz, Raisin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Sustainable Urban Development: A Study on Slum Population of Kota, India2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urban centres are becoming more vulnerable to climate change because of the rapid urbanization and the inequality of urban development. This study assesses the urban vulnerability in an integrated approach focusing the slum people as the targeted group. The slum people are severely exposed to climate risks in terms of city‟s overall development. The negative indications of the indicators of person‟s vulnerability represent their high sensitivity to the adverse impact of climate change. The determinants of adaptive capacity also confirm that the slum people are more vulnerable to climate change with having lower adaptive capacity; though, the city is possessing high development indexes. In this context, an institutional structure is developed to build multi-level urban climate governance with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders based on the case study and literature review to integrate the vulnerable group in development planning for climate change adaptation.

  • 12.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Dept. och Ecology and Environmental Studies Umeå University.
    Brydsten, Lars
    Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Studies Umeå University.
    Jonsson, Per
    Inst. of Applied Environmental Res. Stockholm University.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environmental Inst..
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Dept. of Environmental Assessment SLU.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Räike, Antti
    Finnish environmental Inst..
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Dept. of Ecology and Evolution Uppsala University.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Dept. of Ecology and Evolution Uppsala University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå Marine Science Center Umeå University.
    Jansson, Mats
    Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Studies Umeå University.
    Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia2006In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, Vol. 63, no 3-4, 155-161 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculated input of organic carbon to the unproductive, brackish water basin of the Gulf of Bothnia from rivers, point sources and the atmosphere. We also calculated the net exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the adjacent marine system, the Baltic Proper. We compared the input with sinks for organic carbon, permanent incorporation in sediments and mineralization and subsequent evasion of CO2 to the atmosphere. The major fluxes were riverine input (1500 Gg C year- 1), exchange with the Baltic Proper (depending on which of several possible DOC concentration differences between the basins that was used in the calculation, the flux varied between an outflow of 466 and an input of 950 Gg C year- 1), sediment burial (1100 Gg C year- 1) and evasion to the atmosphere (3610 Gg C year- 1). The largest single net flux was the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere, mainly caused by bacterial mineralization of organic carbon. Input and output did not match in our budget which we ascribe uncertainties in the calculation of the exchange of organic carbon between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Proper, and the fact that CO2 emission, which in our calculation represented 1 year (2002) may have been overestimated in comparison with long-term means. We conclude that net heterotrophy of the Gulf of Bothnia was due to input of organic carbon from both the catchment and from the Baltic Proper and that the future degree of net heterotrophy will be sensible to both catchment export of organic carbon and to the ongoing eutrophication of the Baltic Proper. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Setting limits in nature and the politics of chemical compoundsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Critical Load concept, emerged in the late 1980s as a response toan expressed need from especially policy makers to create more exactand scientifically based policy tools for the abatement of transboundary air pollution in Europe (Gehring, 1994; Wettestad, 2000). The concept has mainly been used in international negotiationson emission reductions related to the second-generation protocols, tothe Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP), i.e. the 1994 Oslo protocol and the 1999 Gothenburg protocol.

    To create a policy based on scientific findings of effects in nature was, by policy makers in the CLRT AP regime, seen as an improvement in relation to the uniform emission reductions, used in earlier protocols. Equal percentage cuts were viewed as arbitrary, economically ineffective and unfair. Arbitrary, as there was no solid scientific base to support the cuts. Ineffective, as the cost for reduction was different in different parts of Europe. Unfair as uniform emission reductions had failed to take into account that ecosystem sensibility varies. The introduction of Critical Load in the CLRTAP can hence be described as a change from a focus on equity of reduction, based on equal commitments for different countries to a focus on equity of environmental effects and economical commitments. The solution to these problems was the Critical Load concept which estimates ofnature's limits to different types of pollutants were aimed to serve asthe base for cost-efficiency calculations, creating the desired policy. The shift from equal percentage cuts to emission cuts based on effects led to an increased importance of scientific estimations (Biickstrand, 2001; Cresser, 2000).

    (...)

  • 14.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Critical Load concept: A milestone or milestone for future environmental policymaking?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an analysis of the critique directed towards the Critical Load concept expressed in policy texts produced by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The aim is to trace and discuss the character of this critique. A further aim is to discuss whether it is possible that this critique may gain a foothold in today's environmental policy, and what the result of such a development could be for the future use of the Critical Load as a basis of environmental policy-making. It is shown that the Critical Load concept faces a decreasing legitimacy as a policy tool, giving it an uncertain, but nevertheless possibly viable future. However,depending on how the possibilities of estimating limits in nature areinterpreted and used in practice, the concept may become either amilestone or a millstone.

  • 15.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    A model-supported participatory process for nutrient management: a socio-legal analysis of a bottom-up implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive2011In: International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, ISSN 1473-5903, E-ISSN 1747-762X, Vol. 9, no 2, 379-389 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology for local stakeholders involvement in water management using a catchment model as a platform for dialogue has been developed and tested in the Kaggebo Bay drainage area in the southeast of Sweden. The process involved farmers, rural households not connected to municipal wastewater treatment facilities, local and regional authorities as well as different water and agricultural experts. This paper aims to assess whether and how the methodology has succeeded in encouraging social learning and promoting action and which barriers can be identified. The assessment shows that the methodology is able to create confidence in the process and increase the willingness to act as the methodology was able to adapt the form and content of the dialogue to better fit the cognitive and relational needs of involved stakeholders. It is also shown that the process may lead to a probable improvement of the eutrophication situation. However, if these types of processes are to serve not only as a basis for social learning and action at the local level, but also as the basis for a broader process of societal learning, then a mechanism to confer local ideas to the regional and national levels has to be clarified.

  • 16.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Critical Load graph: A rhetorical tropeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often said that pictures and graphical visualisations have a greatpower to unify and simplify ideas: "a picture says a thousand words" as thesaying goes. The ability of graphs to explore and summarise large sets ofnumbers is also well known (Tufte, 1983: introduction). Although scientistsfrequently have recourse to graphical illustrations when explaining complexproblems, the role of pictures and graphs in forwarding scientific findingshas received relatively little attention in studies of science compared to the attention given to texts. Ronald Giere and Michael Ruse have suggested thatthis lack of interest may be explained by the strong influence of logical empiricism in scientific culture (Giere, 1996; Ruse, 1996). Logical empiricism emerged in the eighteenth century in the transition between an oral-visualculture and a text-based culture, nurturing a suspicion towards pictures andarguing that human thinking relies on words. In this textual culture pictures are reduced to persuasive aids, if considered at all, being thought of as pedagogical tools or simple 'illustrations' used to facilitate the presentation and sharing of scientific findings (Stafford, 1994). Another reason why visual displays in science have been underestimated and neglected compared to scientific texts, may simply be, as suggested by David Lynch, that methods for analysing verbal materials are more advanced than thosefor analysing pictures (Lynch, 1990:151).

    (...)

  • 17.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Critical Load: The politics of chemistryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical Load was introduced as a environmental policy tool in the late 1980s in response to a need for exact and scientifically based measures to abate transboundary air pollution in the Convention onLong-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). The main objective in this study was to analyse the practical operationalisation of these limits. The study proceeded by analysing policy document treating the Critical Load concept produced by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEP A) It is showed that the concept is mainly operationalised through three scientific disciplines, chemistry, ecology and toxicology. Chemistry dominates and two things are forwarded as a reason. First, the political over all aim of Critical Load is based on the ideas that nature is robust within limits a perception, which is closely entangled with an idea that it is possible to calculate these limits. This favours chemical explanations, as chemistry is perceived as more calculable than for example ecology. Secondly, the Critical Load concept was initially used in connection to acidification, which primarily has been perceived a chemical problem. As ecological  explanations in the material not are operationalised into precise limitsthe role of ecology is interpreted as a complement to the precise calculations provided by chemistry, taking into consideration the balance and the complexity of nature. Toxicological explanations on the other hand provide precise measurements and are therefore interpreted as an intermediary between ecology and chemistry. Thethree stories are therefore interpreted as versions on the same story,nature as robust within limits and calculable. The ecological and thetoxicological explanations are also interpreted as answers to a changein the perception of environmental problem to more complex and to achanging focus of polluting compounds in the CLRTAP.

  • 18.
    Alkan-Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    LUCSUS, Lunds universitet.
    Andersson, Lotta
    SMHI.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI.
    Lokal åtgärdsplan mot övergödning i Kaggebofjärden med tillrinningsområde2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Bergström, Sten
    Brandt, Maja
    Gårdhammar, Göran
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundgren, Tom
    Lundman, Lena
    Norberg, Sten
    Persson, S
    Sandén, Per
    Sigas, Elias
    Bersbo - Modellområde för studier av metallers spridning i naturliga vattensystem1985In: Vannet i Norden : med IHP-nytt, ISSN 0348-5684, Vol. 18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Bergström, Sten
    Brandt, Maja
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Bersbo - några resultat från hydrokemisk modell-studie av metalltransport från läckande varphögar1986In: Vannet i Norden : med IHP-nytt, ISSN 0348-5684, Vol. 19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, HansLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Grimvall, AndersLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 22.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Tema V LIU.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Tema V LIU.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Full scale restoration of a mine waste deposit - A case study of waste management strategy and descion making1991In: Environmental consequences of hazardous waste disposal,1991, Stockholm: SKB , 1991, II: 57- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Bergström, Sten
    Brandt, Maja
    Environmental impacts of an old mine tailings deposit. Hydrochemical and hydrological background1987In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 18, 279-290 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University.
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pollehne , Falk
    Rostock, Germany.
    Tracing terrestrial organic matter by delta S-34 and delta C-13 signatures in a subarctic estuary2008In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, Vol. 53, no 6, 2594-2602 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key issue to understanding the transformations of terrestrial organic carbon in the ocean is to disentangle the latter from marine-produced organic matter. We applied a multiple stable isotope approach using delta S-34 and delta C-13 isotope signatures from estuarine dissolved organic matter (DOM), enabling us to constrain the contribution of terrestrial-derived DOM in an estuarine gradient of the northern Baltic Sea. The stable isotope signatures for dissolved organic sulfur (delta S-34(DOS)) have twice the range between terrestrial and marine end members compared to the stable isotope signatures for dissolved organic carbon (delta C-13(DOC)); hence, the share of terrestrial DOM in the total estuarine DOM can be calculated more precisely. DOM samples from the water column were collected using ultrafiltration on board the German RV Maria S Merian during a winter cruise, in the Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, and Baltic proper. We calculated the terrestrial fraction of the estuarine DOC (DOCter) from both delta C-13(DOC) and delta S-34(DOS) signatures and applying fixed C: S ratios for riverine and marine end members to convert S isotope signatures into DOC concentrations. The delta S-34(DOS) signature of the riverine end member was +7.02 parts per thousand, and the mean signatures from Bothnian Bay, Bothnian Sea, and Baltic proper were +10.27, +12.51, and +13.67 parts per thousand, respectively, showing an increasing marine signal southwards (d34SDOS marine end member = 18.1 parts per thousand). These signatures indicate that 87%, 75%, and 67%, respectively, of the water column DOC is of terrestrial origin (DOCter) in these basins. Comparing the fractions of DOCter in each basin-that are still based on few winter values only-with the annual river input of DOC, it appears that the turnover time for DOCter in the Gulf of Bothnia is much shorter than the hydraulic turnover time, suggesting that high-latitude estuaries might be efficient sinks for DOCter.

  • 25.
    Alzén, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedrén, JohanLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kulturarvets natur1998Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Kalmar högskola.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Accumulated environmental impact: The case of cadmium in Sweden1994In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 145, 13-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Tema V LIU.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pattern of lead emissions in Sweden 1880-19801990Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Tema V LIU.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Flow and distribution of chormium in the swedish environment: A new approach to studying environmental pollution1989In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 18, 216-220 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Andersson, Folke
    et al.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perttu, Kurt
    Ågren, Göran
    Skogen som miljögrundforskning om landekosystem1980In: Forska för livet / [ed] Elow Söderberg, Stockholm: Naturvetenskapliga forskningsrådet (NFR) , 1980, 141-179 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 30.
    Andersson, Fräs Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Solid-phase microextraction for determination of background levels and point-source emissions of volatile sulfur compounds in the bioindustryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was conducted to develop a rapid, matrix-independent technique for simultaneous analysis of nine different volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in complex gas matrices.The potential of using solid-phase microextraction (SP:ME) in this context was investigated, and, to achieve the best sensitivity and avoid artifact formation and competitive adsorption, pel'formance ofthe following fiber coatings was tested: Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CARIPDMS),divinylbenzene/ polydimethyl-siloxane (DVBIPDMS), and Carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVBIPDMS). The optimal injector temperature and desorption time for each fiber were dete1n1ined by experimental design. The samples analyzed were collected in Tedlar bags at a biogas facility and a sewage treatment plant to represent background levels and point-source emissions. The samples were subsequently dried over CaClz and preconcenti·ated bySPME, and the target compounds were analyzed by GC-MS. CARIPDMS induced the lowest level of artifact formation and initially also exhibited the broadest range of linear adsorption kinetics. Anextraction time of 2.5 min gave no matrix effects, despite the complexity of the samples, and the analytes were accurately quantified using extemal calibration curves below odor thresholds.Detection limits ranged from 0.008 (CS2) to 2.5 (H2S) ppbv, and the relative standard deviation was 4-16%.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Fräs Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Determination of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Air and other Gas Matrices: Development and Applications of Solid-Phase Microextraction2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are frequently emitted during bioindustrial activities, such as production of biogas, sewage treatment, landfilling, pulpmilling, and the slaughtering of animals and meat processing. VSCs are reactive and malodorous, and they can also be detrimental to human health, therefore it is of great interest to be able to analyze these compounds.

    However, the standard techniques that are now available for determination of VSCs entail detection limits that in some cases exceed the odor thresholds, and, what is more, they require the use of solvents and toxic reagents. In addition, a single standard method does not exist that can be used to analyze all the VSCs that are most often associated with bioindustrial processes.

    In the present studies, a technique based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was developed for analysis of the VSCs that are commonly found in the bioindustry. The method could even be applied to very complex gas matrices representing point-source emissions of these compounds in amounts below their odor thresholds. Furthermore, the procedure constitutes an improvement compared to the other techniques employed to determine VSCs, because SPME is less time-consuming, it does not require the use of solvents or other chemicals, and it can extract all the compounds simultaneously. The potential of applying SPME for time-weighted average sampling of VSCs was also investigated. These experiments showed that the connnercially available fiber coating with the highest affmity for VSCs (i.e., Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane)could achieve accurate determination of dimethyldisulfide, whereas use of thatcoating to collect the other compounds was highly influenced by externalparameters that are subject to variation. This work also included investigationsof several important aspects of SPME analysis of VSCs, such as the choice offiber coating, artifact formation, and the impact of various parameters on theextraction.

    The current results demonstrate that the SPME methodology that was developed can be used to determine VSCs in different matrices and contexts within the bioindustry. More precisely, the technique was successfully employed for the following purposes: to determine background levels ofVSCs to which workers were exposed; to monitor VSC emissions during the biogas process; to supervise the quality of produced biogas; to investigate the efficiency of processes used for abatement of VSCs; and to ascertain the cause of odor problems.

    List of papers
    1. Trace determination of volatile sulfur compounds by solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trace determination of volatile sulfur compounds by solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS
    2002 (English)In: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 127, no 8, 1045-1049 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the following nine volatile sulfur compounds in gas samples: carbon disulfide, carbonyl sulfide, ethyl sulfide, ethyl methyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, isopropanethiol, methanethiol, methyl disulfide and methyl sulfide. The target compounds were preconcentrated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction time and temperature and concurrent detection of the nine compounds was achieved by using an SPME fiber coated with Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (75 ╡m). Detection limits ranged from 1 ppt (v/v) for carbon disulfide to 350 ppt (v/v) for hydrogen sulfide and calibration functions were linear up to 20 ppb (v/v) for all the compounds investigated.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29669 (URN)10.1039/b202985e (DOI)15051 (Local ID)15051 (Archive number)15051 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-06-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Quantification of volatile sulfur compounds in complex gaseous matrices by solid-phase microextraction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of volatile sulfur compounds in complex gaseous matrices by solid-phase microextraction
    2002 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 963, no 1-2, 57-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Procedures were assessed for quantifying nine volatile sulfur compounds found in complex gaseous samples collected at a biogas-production plant and a sewage treatment plant. The target compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (using the 75-╡m Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating) at 22░C for 20 min, and analyzed by GC-MS. Detection limits ranged between 1 pptv (v/v) for carbon disulfide and 470 pptv (v/v) for hydrogen sulfide. High amounts of organic compounds were found during full-scan analysis of the samples and standard additions to individual sub-samples revealed that the analysis was subject to matrix effects. However, the functions obtained by standard additions were still linear and quantification was possible for all the compounds tested except hydrogen sulfide. No detectable losses were observed during storage in the sampling containers, made of Tedlar film, over a storage period of 20 h. However, water permeated through the walls and the relative humidity in the bag increased during storage until it reached the ambient level. Finally, it was shown that the drying agent, CaCl2, caused no detectable losses of any of the compounds. ⌐ 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    Keyword
    matrix effects, air analysis, volatile sulfur compounds, sulfur compounds
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29522 (URN)10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00556-3 (DOI)14880 (Local ID)14880 (Archive number)14880 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-06-27Bibliographically approved
    3. Solid-phase microextraction for determination of background levels and point-source emissions of volatile sulfur compounds in the bioindustry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid-phase microextraction for determination of background levels and point-source emissions of volatile sulfur compounds in the bioindustry
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was conducted to develop a rapid, matrix-independent technique for simultaneous analysis of nine different volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in complex gas matrices.The potential of using solid-phase microextraction (SP:ME) in this context was investigated, and, to achieve the best sensitivity and avoid artifact formation and competitive adsorption, pel'formance ofthe following fiber coatings was tested: Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CARIPDMS),divinylbenzene/ polydimethyl-siloxane (DVBIPDMS), and Carboxen/divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/DVBIPDMS). The optimal injector temperature and desorption time for each fiber were dete1n1ined by experimental design. The samples analyzed were collected in Tedlar bags at a biogas facility and a sewage treatment plant to represent background levels and point-source emissions. The samples were subsequently dried over CaClz and preconcenti·ated bySPME, and the target compounds were analyzed by GC-MS. CARIPDMS induced the lowest level of artifact formation and initially also exhibited the broadest range of linear adsorption kinetics. Anextraction time of 2.5 min gave no matrix effects, despite the complexity of the samples, and the analytes were accurately quantified using extemal calibration curves below odor thresholds.Detection limits ranged from 0.008 (CS2) to 2.5 (H2S) ppbv, and the relative standard deviation was 4-16%.

    Keyword
    Solid-phase microexh·acUon, Volatile sulfur compounds, Air analysis, Matrix effects, Artifact formation, Competitive adsmption
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79018 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-06-27 Created: 2012-06-27 Last updated: 2012-06-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Hydrogen production from organic waste
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen production from organic waste
    Show others...
    2001 (English)In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, Vol. 26, no 6, 547-550 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The extraction of pure hydrogen from the fermentation of household waste by a mixed anaerobic bacterial flora is demonstrated. Simulated household waste (600 g) was fermented in a bioreactor, which was continuously sparged with nitrogen (30 ml/min) fed in from the bottom. The gas stream from the biorector passes through a sulphide trap (ZnO) and then through a heated palladium-silver membrane reactor to separate hydrogen from the gas stream. In this way, waste remediation and biological hydrogen production is combined in a process where a large proportion of the hydrogen produced can be collected, free of other gaseous species from the fermentation. © 2001 International Association for Hydrogen Energy.

    Keyword
    Fermentation, Hydrogen, Membrane, Palladium, Waste
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47367 (URN)10.1016/S0360-3199(00)00125-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2012-06-27Bibliographically approved
    5. Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction for time-weighted average sampling of volatile sulfur compounds at ppb concentrations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction for time-weighted average sampling of volatile sulfur compounds at ppb concentrations
    2003 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 75, no 11, 2626-2632 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for time-weighted average (TWA) sampling of volatile sulfur compounds in air at ppb concentrations was investigated. The target compounds (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol (MeSH), ethanethiol (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (Me2S), and dimethyl disulfide (Me2S2)) were extracted using SPME with a Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber coating, and diffusion was controlled by keeping the fiber retracted within the needle of the sampling device. The effects of several important experimental variables (air velocity, direction of air flow, analyte concentration, humidity, temperature, extraction time) were studied. The uptake by the fiber was not affected by the direction of the air flow or the air velocity. The effects of concentration, humidity, temperature, and extraction time were examined in experiments with a central composite face design. The results showed that all or most of the investigated parameters had a significant impact on the uptake rates of H2S, MeSH, EtSH, and Me2S, which invalidated time-weighted average sampling of these compounds by SPME under the tested conditions. Moreover, reverse diffusion of H2S, MeSH, and EtSH occurred at 40% relative humidity. For Me2S2, the uptake rate had a variation of only 8% within the whole experimental domain, and the experimental value derived for the uptake rate was consistent with the theoretical value. This result was confirmed by comparative analyses of industrial samples by the standard addition method. Therefore, SPME appears to be a suitable technique for TWA sampling of Me2S2 using the Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber coating. Finally, in an investigation of potential losses during storage of the fiber, no significant losses of the target compounds were detected after 3 days at -80 °C.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46617 (URN)10.1021/ac034124g (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2012-06-27
    6. Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production
    2004 (English)In: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, ISSN 1047-3289, Vol. 54, no 7, 855-861 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in biogas originating from a biogas production plant and from a municipal sewage water treatment plant were identified. Samples were taken at various stages of the biogas-producing process, including upgrading the gas to vehicle-fuel quality. Solid-phase microextraction was used for preconcentration of the VSCs, which were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Other volatile organic compounds present also were identified. The most commonly occurring VSCs in the biogas were hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide was not always the most abundant sulfur (S) compound. Besides VSCs, oxygenated organic compounds were commonly present (e.g., ketones, alcohols, and esters). The effect of adding iron chloride to the biogas reactor on the occurrence of VSCs also was investigated. It was found that additions of 500-g/m3 substrate gave an optimal removal of VSCs. Also, the use of a prefermentation step could reduce the amount of VSCs formed in the biogas process. Moreover, in the carbon dioxide scrubber used for upgrading the gas, VSCs were removed efficiently, leaving traces (ppbv levels). The scrubber also removed other organic compounds.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32074 (URN)17929 (Local ID)17929 (Archive number)17929 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-06-27Bibliographically approved
  • 32.
    Andersson, Fräs Annika
    et al.
    Tekniska Verken.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Tekniska Verken.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production2004In: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, ISSN 1047-3289, Vol. 54, no 7, 855-861 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in biogas originating from a biogas production plant and from a municipal sewage water treatment plant were identified. Samples were taken at various stages of the biogas-producing process, including upgrading the gas to vehicle-fuel quality. Solid-phase microextraction was used for preconcentration of the VSCs, which were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Other volatile organic compounds present also were identified. The most commonly occurring VSCs in the biogas were hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide was not always the most abundant sulfur (S) compound. Besides VSCs, oxygenated organic compounds were commonly present (e.g., ketones, alcohols, and esters). The effect of adding iron chloride to the biogas reactor on the occurrence of VSCs also was investigated. It was found that additions of 500-g/m3 substrate gave an optimal removal of VSCs. Also, the use of a prefermentation step could reduce the amount of VSCs formed in the biogas process. Moreover, in the carbon dioxide scrubber used for upgrading the gas, VSCs were removed efficiently, leaving traces (ppbv levels). The scrubber also removed other organic compounds.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Jafet
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Land Cover Change in the Okavango River Basin: Historical changes during the Angolan civil war, contributing causes and effects on water quality2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Okavango river flows from southern Angola, through the Kavango region of Namibia and into the Okavango Delta in Botswana. The recent peace in Angola hopefully marks the end of the intense suffering that the peoples of the river basin have endured, and the beginning of sustainable decision-making in the area. Informed decision-making however requires knowledge; and there is a need for, and a lack of knowledge regarding basin-wide land cover (LC) changes, and their causes, during the Angolan civil war in the basin. Furthermore, there is a need for, and a lack of knowledge on how expanding large-scale agriculture and urban growth along the Angola-Namibia border affects the water quality of the river.

    The aim of this study was therefore to develop a remote sensing method applicable to the basin (with scant ground-truth data availability) to carry out a systematic historic study of LC changes during the Angolan civil war, to apply the method to the basin, to relate these changes to major societal trends in the region, and to analyse potential impacts of expanding large-scale agriculture and urban growth on the water quality of the river along the Angola-Namibia border.

    A range of remote sensing methods to study historic LC changes in the basin were tried and evaluated against reference data collected during a field visit in Namibia in October 2005. Eventually, two methods were selected and applied to pre-processed Landsat MSS and ETM+ satellite image mosaics of 1973 and 2001 respectively: 1. a combined unsupervised classification and pattern-recognition change detection method providing quantified and geographically distributed binary LC class change trajectory information and, 2. an NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) change detection method providing quantified and geographically distributed continuous information on degrees of change in vegetation vigour. In addition, available documents and people initiated in the basin conditions were consulted in the pursuit of discerning major societal trends that the basin had undergone during the Angolan civil war. Finally, concentrations of nutrients (total phosphorous & total nitrogen), bacteria (faecal coliforms & faecal streptococci), conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and Secchi depth were sampled at 11 locations upstream and downstream of large-scale agricultural facilities and an urban area during the aforementioned field visit.

    The nature, extent and geographical distribution of LC changes in the study area during the Angolan civil war were determined. The study area (150 922 km2) was the Angolan and Namibian parts of the basin. The results indicate that the vegetation vigour is dynamic and has decreased overall in the area, perhaps connected with precipitation differences between the years. However while the vigour decreased in the northwest, it increased in the northeast, and on more local scales the pattern was often more complex. With respect to migration out of Angola into Namibia, the LC changes followed expectations of more intense use in Namibia close to the border (0-5 km), but not at some distance (10-20 km), particularly east of Rundu. With respect to urbanisation, expectations of increased human impact locally were observed in e.g. Rundu, Menongue and Cuito Cuanavale. Road deterioration was also observed with Angolan urbanisation but some infrastructures appeared less damaged by the war. Some villages (e.g. Savitangaiala de Môma) seem to have been abandoned during the war so that the vegetation could regenerate, which was expected. But other villages (e.g. Techipeio) have not undergone the same vegetation regeneration suggesting they were not abandoned. The areal extent of large-scale agriculture increased 59% (26 km2) during the war, perhaps as a consequence of population growth. But the expansion was not nearly at par with the population growth of the Kavango region (320%), suggesting that a smaller proportion of the population relied on the large-scale agriculture for their subsistence in 2001 compared with 1973.

    No significant impacts were found from the large-scale agriculture and urbanisation on the water quality during the dry season of 2005. Total phosphorous concentrations (with range: 0.067-0.095 mg l-1) did vary significantly between locations (p=0.013) but locations upstream and downstream of large-scale agricultural facilities were not significantly different (p=0.5444). Neither did faecal coliforms (range: 23-63 counts per 100ml) nor faecal streptococci (range: 8-33 counts per 100ml) vary significantly between locations (p=0.332 and p=0.354 respectively). Thus the impact of Rundu and the extensive livestock farming along the border were not significant at this time. The Cuito river on the other hand significantly decreased both the conductivity (range: 27.2-49.7 μS cm-1, p<0.0001) and the total dissolved solid concentration (range: 12.7-23.4 mg l-1, p<0.0001) of the mainstream of the Okavango during the dry season.

    Land cover changes during the Angolan civil war, contributing causes and effects on water quality were studied in this research effort. Many of the obtained results can be used directly or with further application as a knowledge base for sustainable decision-making and management in the basin. Wisely used by institutions charged with that objective, the information can contribute to sustainable development and the ending of suffering and poverty for the benefit of the peoples of the Okavango and beyond.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Lars
    et al.
    Ocean. Lab. SMHI.
    Rahm, Lars
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thermally driven circulation within an experimental enclosure1990In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 30, 111-129 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 35.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Apell, Veronica
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Utarbetning av kriterier för miljömärkning av flygplatser: En studie kring fenomenet Grön flygplats utifrån RPS-modell och teorin om ekologisk modernisering2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygbranschen är en global industri som expanderar snabbt och i och med detta ökar också belastningen på miljön genom flygets miljöpåverkan. Ett verktyg som kan användas för att försöka förändra kursen mot en mer hållbar verksamhet är miljömärkning. I Sverige är flygbranschen ett område som det inte existerar några miljömärkningar inom och LFV i Sverige har blivit intresserad av att införa någon typ av miljömärkning av flygplatser.

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att utarbeta ett utkast till kriterier för en miljömärkning av Grön flygplats som baseras på flygplatsernas mest betydande miljöaspekter. Studien bygger på RPS-modell, material från enkäter, intervju och dokument. Fenomenet Grön flygplats analyseras sedan med hjälp av teorin om ekologisk modernisering för att få en förståelse för detta fenomen. Ekologisk modernisering kopplar ihop ekonomisk tillväxt och miljöhänsyn, inom denna teori anses vetenskapen och teknologin som viktiga och tillräckliga medel för att lösa och kontrollera miljöproblemen.

    Resultatet av flygplatsernas mest betydande miljöaspekter blev totalt sju stycken. Orsaken till att dessa sju blev de mest betydande miljöaspekterna tolkas som att dessa beror på den centrala plats som en flygplats har med mycket människor i rörelse samt dess geografiska läge. Utefter de betydande miljöaspekterna har kriterierna för Grön flygplats utarbetats vilka totalt blev 17 stycken. Kriterierna skulle kunna överföras på flygplatser inom Norden då flygplatsernas geografiska läge har ett liknande klimat. En flygplats kan dock inte uppnå en hållbar verksamhet enbart på kriterier utan en förståelse måste även fås om att flygbranschen inte kan fortsätta växa som den gör idag. Visionerna om Grön flygplats bygger i likhet med ekologisk modernisering på ekonomisk tillväxt och industriell effektivisering.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Lotta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ecohydrological water flow analysis of a Swedish landscape in a 100 year perspective1989Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study basically involves analysis in a 100 year perspective of the hydrological response on precipitation from different landscape elements in south-central Sweden, characterized by the interaction of topography, soil type, land management and canopy cover.

    For this purpose, a dynamic water partitioning model, based on the soil moisture balance, was developed together with a Geographical Information System (GIS)-supported method for the detection of the spatial distribution of soil wetness as an indicator of the probability to act as discharge or recharge areas respectively.

    A comparison was made of the performance of water balance models of various complexity. It was shown that, generally, increasing the complexity of the submodels did not improve the agreement with measured soil moisture dynamics. As an example, due to negative feedbacks, the rather conservative nature of transpiration was well described by using 30 years monthly means of potential evapotranspiration. However, two important physical processes that are often neglected in water balance models had to be included: the limitation of transpiration by low soil and air temperatures in spring and early summer, and the drainage of rainwater through unsaturated forest soils.

    The model was used to analyze main differences in hydrological response between forests and open grasslands. It was also used to analyze interannual fluctuations of soil moisture deficts. Ironically, the variability was never as high as in the beginning of the hydrological year. The study revealed considerable fluctuations of 10, 30 and 50-year mean soil moisture deficits, and a general secular trend towards higher summer deficits and larger fluctuations around the median. In the light of the detected critical importance of the choice of time period, the concepts of return and standard periods were challenged. It was shown that the water balance model could be calibrated to simulate also overall basin response. Thus, simulated monthly estimates of both basin evapotranspiration and recharge rates for the Velen Representative Basin agreed well with data determined with other methods.

    The model was also used to simulate the integrated basin response from different parts of the landscape mosaic as determined from GIS-overlays. The obvious advantage of GIS was demonstrated. Finally, changes due to the wetness-impacting human interventions were analyzed. Since the 1870s such activities were shown to, on average, have caused a slight desiccation of the landscape, although the impacts locally could be large.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Lund University.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological & Hydrological Institute.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Use of participatory scenario modelling as platforms in stakeholder dialogues2008In: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, Vol. 34, no 4, 439-447 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A participatory methodology, based on dialogues between stakeholders and experts has been developed and tested in the drainage area to Kaggebo Bay in the Baltic Sea. This study is focused on the EU Water Framework Directive, with emphasis on reduction of eutrophication. The drainage area is included in the WFD administrative area of the Motala Strom River basin. A similar approach is now applied in a recently initiated project in the Thukela River basin, with focus on impacts of climate change on water resources. The methodology is based on the idea that a catchment model serves as a platform for the establishment of a common view of present conditions and the causes behind these conditions. In the following steps, this is followed by model-assisted agreement on environmental goals (i.e. what do we want the future to look like?) and local agreement on a remedy or mitigation plans in order to reduce environmental impact (e. g. eutrophication); alternatively to adapt to conditions that cannot be determined by local actions (e. g. climate change). By involving stakeholder groups in this model-supported stepwise process, it is ensured that all stakeholder groups involved have a high degree of confidence in the presented model results, and thereby enable various actors involved to share a common view, regarding both present conditions, goals and the way to reach these goals. Although this is a process that is time-(and cost-) consuming, it is hypothesised that the use of this methodology is two-pronged: it increases the willingness to carry out remedies or necessary adaptations to a changing environment, and it increases the level of understanding between the various groups and therefore ameliorates the potential for future conflicts. Compared to traditional use of model results in environmental decision-making, the experts role is transformed from a one-way communication of final results to assistance in the various steps of the participatory process.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Castensson, Reinhold
    Tema LiU.
    Hallgren, Sunita
    Löwgren, Marianne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kampen om ett föroreningsutrymme - inledande försök med implementeringen av EUs vattendirektiv i Svartåns avrinningsområde.2002Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Gumbricht, Thomas
    KTH.
    Hughes, Denis
    IWR Universitet.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    Universitet.
    Ringrose, Susan
    Universitet.
    Savenije, Hubert
    Universitet.
    Todd, Martin
    Universitet.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wolski, Piotr
    Universitet.
    Water flow dynamics in the Okavango River Basin and Delta - A prerequisite for the ecosystems of the Delta2003In: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, ISSN 1474-7065, E-ISSN 1873-5193, Vol. 28, no 20-27, 1165-1172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hellström, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI.
    Rummukainen, Marku
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Modeling report: Climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe drainage basin2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statens Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alberth, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Vulnerability Assessment Concept: A Tool for Prioritization of the Most Relevant Issues for Macro-regional Cooperation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims at identifying potential issues for collaboration related to climate adaptation through application of a tool for assessing macro-regional risks. The tool is intended to assist decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) in discussions on how climate adaptation related cooperation would benefit most from macro-regional cooperation. It is based on four criteria: 1) confidence, 2) speed (determined by Baltadapt climate modellers), 3) importance of impacts and 4) macro-regional coverage (based on a questionnaires answered by 3-8 stakeholders from each of the nine riparian BSR states). Based on equal weighting of these factors, impacts related to biodiversity/eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, as well and impacts related to agriculture were given the highest rankings, which demonstrates the importance to include these sectors and their interrelationship as an important focus in macro-regional cooperation on climate adaptation in the BSR. Impacts  related to biodiversity and agriculture have in common that they are caused by climate change that will occur or already has occurred with a high degree of certainty (e.g., linked to air and water temperatures and rising sea levels), as well as having a very large macro-regional spatial coverage, and being perceived as of high societal and/or environmental concern.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Arheimer, Berit
    SMHI.
    Participatory modelling as a tool for public participation in water resource management2006In: XXIV Nordic Hydrological Conference: Experiences and Challenges in Implementation,2006, 2006, 226- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 43.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wilk, Julie
    Swedish Meteorological Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Alkan Olsson, Johanna
    Centre for Sustainability Studies, Lund University, Sweden.
    Use of participatory scenario modelling as platforms in stakeholder dialogues2010In: Hydrocomplexity: New Tools for Solving Wicked Water Problems / [ed] Shahbaz Khan, Hubert Savenije, Siegfried Demuth and Pierre Hubert, 2010, 187-192 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Water-related problems are characterized by complexities, uncertainties and conflicting interests, and there is no single “optimal” way to approach these “wicked” problems. Model-assisted participatory processes have been suggested as one way to meet these challenges. However, the use of models as scenario tools for local planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies addressing environmental challenges is more often an exception than common practice. In order to assess future possibilities for successful use of participatory scenario modelling, experiences from two model-facilitated projects are presented and discussed. The participatory scenario modelling described in this paper implies modelling with people, as opposed to agent-based modelling which is based on modelling people’s behaviour and its consequences. In the first project, a participatory model-assisted process was conducted to formulate a locally proposed remedy plan to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loads in local lakes and the coastal zone. In the second project, a similar process was used to formulate local adaptation strategies to climate change impacts on water allocation, farming and the environment. Based on the experiences of these projects; recommendations are made as to how model-assisted participatory processes can best be organised and conducted. A key message is that modellers need to rethink their role as “solution providers” to become “process facilitators”.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Institute, Sweden .
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Graham, Phil L.
    Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Institute, Sweden .
    Warburton, Michele
    University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa .
    Design and test of a model-assisted participatory process for the formulation of a local climate adaptation plan2013In: Climate and Development, ISSN 1756-5529, E-ISSN 1756-5537, Vol. 5, no 3, 217-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the design and testing of a model-assisted participatory process for the formulation of a local adaptation plan to climate change. The pilot study focused on small-scale and commercial agriculture, water supply, housing, wildlife, livestock and biodiversity in the Thukela River basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The methodology was based on stakeholders identifying and ranking the severity of climate-related challenges, and downscaled stakeholder-identified information provided by modellers, with the aim of addressing possible changes of exposure in the future. The methodology enables the integration of model-based information with experience and visions based on local realities. It includes stakeholders own assessments of their vulnerability to prevailing climate variability and the severity, if specified, of climate-related problems that may occur more often in the future. The methodology made it possible to identify the main issues to focus on in the adaptation plan, including barriers to adaptation. We make recommendations for how to design a model-assisted participatory process, emphasizing the need for transparency, to recognize the interests of the stakeholders, good advance planning, local relevance, involvement of local champions, and adaptation of Information material to each groups previous experience and understanding.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Graham, Phil
    n/a.
    Warburton, Michele
    n/a.
    Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa: Recommendations for Adaptation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council).

    The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan.

    The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Todd, Martin
    University College of London.
    Hughes, Denis
    Research Rhodes University, South Africa.
    Earle, Anton
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kniveton, Dominic
    University of Sussex, UK.
    Layberry, Russel
    University of Sussex, UK.
    Savenije, Hubert
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Impact of climate change and development scenarios on flow patterns in the Okavango River2006In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 331, no 1-2, 43-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper lays the foundation for the use of scenario modelling as a tool for integrated water resource management in the Okavango River basin. The Pitman hydrological model is used to assess the impact of various development and climate change scenarios on downstream river flow. The simulated impact on modelled river discharge of increased water use for domestic use, livestock, and informal irrigation (proportional to expected population increase) is very limited. Implementation of all likely potential formal irrigation schemes mentioned in available reports is expected to decrease the annual flow by 2% and the minimum monthly flow by 5%. The maximum possible impact of irrigation on annual average flow is estimated as 8%, with a reduction of minimum monthly flow by 17%. Deforestation of all areas within a 1 km buffer around the rivers is estimated to increase the flow by 6%. However, construction of all potential hydropower reservoirs in the basin may change the monthly mean flow distribution dramatically, although under the assumed operational rules, the impact of the dams is only substantial during wet years. The simulated impacts of climate change are considerable larger that those of the development scenarios (with exception of the high development scenario of hydropower schemes) although the results are sensitive to the choice of GCM and the IPCC SRES greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. The annual mean water flow predictions for the period 2020-2050 averaged over scenarios from all the four GCMs used in this study are close to the present situation for both the A2 and B2 GHG scenarios. For the 2050-2080 and 2070-2099 periods the all-GCM mean shows a flow decrease of 20% (14%) and 26% (17%), respectively, for the A2 (B2) GHG scenarios. However, the uncertainty in the magnitude of simulated future changes remains high. The simulated effect of climate change on minimum monthly flow is proportionally higher than the impact on the annual mean flow. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Lotten
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åkerberg, Frida
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Källsortering, vara eller icke vara?: En fokusgruppstudie kring argument och uppfattningar gällande valet att sortera eller inte sortera.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By examine how six different groups in Katrineholm and Malmö talks and arguments about recycling this study aim to identify arguments and perceptions about recycling in the two municipalities. Three focus groups in the age categories 20-26, 30-45 and 46-65 were performed in each municipality. These six focus groups were compared among each other to identify similarities and differences between the age categories and municipalities. Furthermore, previous science and the results from this study were compared in aim to investigate whether this study reflects arguments and perceptions in previous studies or if new arguments were established. The result in this study show that proximity to recycling stations, maintenance of recycling stations, lack of space in the home, knowledge about recycling processes, knowledge about how to recycle, the environmental mentality and positive feedback are, for the participants in this study, working as motivation factors to recycle more. Factors as legislative demands and rate billing were seen as insignificant or in some cases obstacles when increase the participant’s recycling. The results of this study show no differences between the two municipalities, however, differences in arguments and perceptions between the age categories could be interpreted.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Department of Geography.
    Stormän, bönder och landbor: - jordägoförhållanden i 1500-talets Kalmar län och på Öland2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Stormän, bönder och landbor undersöks jordägofördelningen under 1500-talets första hälft i Kalmar län och på Öland. Utifrån kamerala förteckningar från denna tid studeras och beskrivs fördelningen mellan jordnaturerna: skattejord, frälsejord, kronojord, kyrkojord och arv och eget-jord.

    Med detta som utgångspunkt och syfte genomförs uppsatsens undersökning, vilken är tudelad i en kvantitativ och en kvalitativ del. I den första kvantitativa delen undersöks Kalmar län och Ölands härader och socknar beträffande jordägofördelningen under undersökningsperioden. I den andra mer kvalitativa undersökningsdelen presenteras olika förklaringsmodeller till de mönster som framträtt i den första delen.

    Tidigare forskning inom området fungerar som en teoretisk utgångspunkt eller ram för uppsatsen, och då kanske främst för den kvalitativa undersökningsdelen. Resultatet i den kvantitativa, första delen presenteras i 6 olika geografiska områden utifrån de mönster i jordägofördelningen som framträtt. Dessa tolkas därefter med hjälp av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna som inledningsvis redogjorts för. Även lokala faktorer med relevans för sammanhanget vägs in, exempelvis topografi och tidig bebyggelsestruktur i området. Därigenom framkommer uppsatsens kvalitativa resultat i form av ovan nämnda förklaringsmodeller, en för var och ett av de 6 områdena.

    I uppsatsens avslutande del presenteras resultaten från uppsatsen tematiskt utifrån de olika jordnaturerna. Samtidigt ställs uppsatsens resultat i relation med de teoretiska utgångspunkter och den tidigare forskning som finns inom området i en avslutande diskussion. Uppsatsens resultat både bekräftar vissa tidigare formulerade teorier, samtidigt som det motsäger andra teorier. Därför skulle studien kunna fungera som exempel eller på annat sätt styrka eller bestrida den tidigare, men även kommande forskning inom jordägofördelningen under medeltid eller tidigmodern tid.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Utveckla grundskolans NO-undervisning: Ett elevperspektiv i årskurserna 2, 4 och 9 på undervisningens innehåll2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete görs en analys av elevers syn på konkret innehåll i naturvetenskap och teknik. Intervjuer med elever har genomförts i fokusgrupper i årskurserna 2, 4 och 9. Syftet var att ta reda på vad elever är intresserade av inom dessa ämnesområden och hur intresset skiljer sig åt i en jämförelse mellan åldrarna. Arbetet ingår i en större studie som regionförbundet Östsam genomför på uppdrag av Skolverket och som har som mål att öka intresset för dessa kunskapsområden i grundskolan. Resultaten indikerar elevers vilja att se helheter, kopplingar till verklighet utanför skolan och att reflektera över samband mellan olika fenomen. Eleverna i samtliga årskurser kan berätta om sina intressen och flera områden är gemensamma för årskurs 2, 4 och 9. Elever i de yngre åldrarna visar större intresse för kataloga aspekter av kunskap medan elever i de senare åren på ett tydligare sätt lyfter fram diskussion, reflektion och kunskapens användning. Resultaten diskuteras i relation till utbildningens syften, frågor om progression och betydelsen av kontakter mellan skola och omgivande samhälle.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hedberg, Per
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mandelin, Fredrik
    Vägvisaren2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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