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  • 1.
    Alehagen, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Division of Biological Psychology, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fear, pain and stress hormones during childbirth2005In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. To investigate the course of fear, pain and stress hormones during labor, and the associations between fear, pain, stress hormones and duration of labor in nulliparous women with and without epidural analgesia (EDA).

    Method.  One day during gestation weeks 37–39, urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure catecholamines and cortisol. Hourly during labor, the participants answered the Delivery Fear Scale and a pain intensity scale, and urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure stress hormones.

    Results. The course of fear, pain and stress hormones differed throughout labor in women with and without EDA. Pain and cortisol increased throughout labor in women without EDA. Women who received EDA had more fear, but not more pain, before the administration of the EDA than women who did not receive EDA. Pain, fear and catecholamines decreased when women received EDA, but fear and pain increased again later in labor. Fear and pain correlated, as well as levels of fear in the different phases of labor. During phase one of labor epinephrine and duration of the phase were negatively correlated.

    Conclusion.  The course of fear, pain and concentrations of stress hormones differed, highly influenced by the administration of EDA. Fear and pain correlated more pronounced than stress hormones and fear, pain and duration of labor.

  • 2.
    Alehagen, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fear of childbirth before, during, and after childbirth2006In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 56-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Only scanty research exists about the relationship between women's expectations during pregnancy and their experiences as reported during the actual process of labor and afterwards. The aims of the present study were: 1. to investigate the associations between fear of childbirth during pregnancy and postpartum and fear and pain during early active labor (phase 1: cervix dilatation 3–5 cm), and 2. to explore possible differences regarding fear of childbirth during pregnancy and postpartum between women who did or did not receive epidural analgesia during labor.

    Methods. Fear of childbirth was measured in 47 nulliparous women during gestation weeks 37–39 by means of the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ version A). During early active labor we measured women's fear (Delivery Fear Scale) and their experiences of pain (a pain intensity scale). Finally, fear after childbirth (W-DEQ version B) was measured two hours, two days, and five weeks after delivery.

    Results. A positive correlation appeared between fear of childbirth during pregnancy, postpartum, and early active labor. There were no differences in fear of childbirth during late pregnancy between women who received epidural analgesia and those who did not. Postpartum fear was higher in the women who had received epidural analgesia.

    Conclusions. Pregnant women who fear childbirth are prone to report fear during the actual labor and postpartum. The administration of epidural analgesia is not a sufficient response to women's fear during the process of labor.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, K
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ålands Centralsjukhus, Finland.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Björnerem, A
    Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Regionssjukhuset, Tromsö, Norway.
    Platz-Christensen, JJ
    Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Malmö.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Validation of the use of Pap-stained vaginal smears for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis2007In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, no 7, p. 809-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears (Pap smears) are used to screen for cervical cancer. Since there is a lack of consensus in published reports respecting the efficacy of Pap-stained smears in BV diagnostics, there is a need to validate their use for diagnosis of BV. Slides from the international BV00 workshop were Pap stained and independently analyzed by four investigators under a phase-contrast microscope. All workshop slides - whether Pap-stained, Gram-stained or rehydrated air-dried smears - were scored according to the same Nugent classification. The diagnostic accuracy of Pap smears for diagnosis of BV had a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.92, with a positive and negative predictive value of 0.84 and 0.93, respectively. The interobserver weighted kappa index was 0.86 for Pap-stained smears compared to 0.81 for Gram-stained smears, and 0.70 for rehydrated air-dried smears using the mean Nugent score as the criterion standard. Provided that the samples are taken from equivalent locations (the vaginal fornix) and analyzed according to the same scoring criteria, there is no discernable difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the three smear-staining methods. The Pap-stained vaginal smears can be used as a wholly adequate alternative to Gram-stained smears for BV diagnosis. © Apmis 2007.

  • 4. Hilden, Malene
    et al.
    Schei, Berit
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Halmesmäki, Erja
    Langhoff-Roos, Jens
    Offerdal, Kristin
    Pikarinen, Ulla
    Sidenius, Katrine
    Steingrimsdottir, Tora
    Stoum-Hinsverk, Hildegun
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A history of sexual abuse and health: A Nordic multicentre study2004In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 111, no 10, p. 1121-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine if a history of sexual abuse is associated with objective and subjective indicators of health and if certain abusive incidents had a stronger impact on health than others. Design: A cross-sectional, multicentre study. Setting: Five gynaecological departments in the five Nordic countries. Sample: Three thousand five hundred and thirty-nine gynaecology patients. Methods: The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) on abuse history and current health was mailed to all patients who consented to participate. Main outcome measures: Reason for index visit at the gynaecologic clinic as well as several questions on health were recorded. General health status was measured as self-estimated health, psychosomatic symptoms (headache, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, dizziness), number of health care visits and number of periods on sick leave. Result: A history of sexual abuse was reported by 20.7% of respondents. A history of sexual abuse was significantly associated with chronic pelvic pain as reason for index visit (P < 0.01), laparoscopic surgery (P < 0.01), psychosomatic symptoms (P < 0.01), self-estimated poor health (P < 0.01), many health care visits (P < 0.01) and high incidence of sick leave (P < 0.01). Several subgroups within the group of sexually abused women were more likely to report poor health: women abused as both children and adults, women who experienced additional emotional and/or physical abuse and women abused by a person they knew. Conclusion: Sexual abuse has a profound impact on women's health. Taking a history of sexual abuse seems particularly warranted when the patient presents with chronic pelvic pain or symptoms of a vague and diffuse nature.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Fåhraeus, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Carlsson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Jakobsson, Tell
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Late miscarriage and preterm birth after treatment with clindamycin: A randomised consent design study according to Zelen2006In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 113, no 6, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To screen for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and to investigate the effect of treatment with vaginal clindamycin in order to observe the effect on late miscarriage and delivery prior to 37 completed weeks (primary outcome). Design: Randomised consent design for clinical trials according to Zelen. Setting: Southeast region of Sweden. Population: A total of 9025 women were screened in early pregnancy. Methods: A total of 819 women with a Nugent score of 6 and above were considered to have BV and treated according to Zelen allocation. The incidence of late miscarriage and spontaneous (noniatrogenic) preterm birth was assessed. Main outcome measures: Late miscarriage and spontaneous preterm delivery before 37 weeks. Results: Therapy with vaginal clindamycin had no significant impact on the incidence of spontaneous preterm delivery prior to 37 completed weeks, OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.40-2.02 (primary outcome variable). However, only 1 of 11 women in the treatment group versus 5 of 12 in the control group delivered prior to 33 completed weeks, OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.02-0.95. Treatment was associated with 32 days longer gestation for the 23 participants who had late miscarriage or spontaneous preterm birth (P= 0.024, Mann-Whitney U test) and significantly fewer infants had a birthweight below 2500 g (secondary outcome). A follow up of infants born preterm 4 years postnatally indicated that extending gestational age did not increase the number of sequelae. Conclusions: Clindamycin vaginal cream therapy was associated with significantly prolonged gestation and reduced cost of neonatal care in women with BV. Early screening for BV and treatment with clindamycin saved approximately €27 per woman. © RCOG 2006 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  • 6.
    Maroti, Marianne
    et al.
    Jönköping.
    Ulff, Eva
    Jönköping.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Quality of life before and 6 weeks after treatment in a dermatological outpatient treatment unit2006In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 20, no 9, p. 1081-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dermatological disease affects quality of life to a great extent. Treatments are time-consuming and many patients have problems adhering to treatment. Attending an outpatient unit regularly during an intensive treatment period may enable patients to cope with their illness, adhere to treatment and thus improve their quality of life. Objective: To study the effect on quality of life of 6 weeks of regular treatment in the outpatient unit in the County Hospital of Jönköping, by means of a questionnaire and interviews. Methods: The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was distributed to 50 consecutive patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis or pruritus attending our outpatient treatment unit. Nine of the patients were interviewed during treatment about factors that might influence their quality of life. Results: The DLQI scores before treatment indicated a low quality of life. Women were more affected than men. After 6 weeks of treatment there was a clear improvement, with a 57% reduction in the scores. The answers from the interviews indicated important areas of concern such as withdrawal from public places, adoption of special clothing habits and concern about personal relationships. Conclusion: Dermatological diseases have an important influence on patients' quality of life. Attending an outpatient treatment unit was in this series of cases associated with improved quality of life as measured with the DLQI. © 2006 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  • 7.
    Oscarsson, Marie G.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Kalmar University, Sweden.
    Benzein, Eva G.
    Kalmar University, Sweden.
    Wijma, Barbro E
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The first pelvic examination2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To describe adolescents' experiences of their first pelvic examination.

    Methods. Data were collected by tape-recorded interviews with 15 adolescents, who had had their first pelvic examination (PE) performed by a midwife at a Youth Clinic. Data were analyzed by qualitative latent content analysis.

    Results. The result is presented in terms of the themes: Emotional ambivalence, Being in control and A step into women's world. The adolescents generally believed that PE was beneficial to their health and they were curious to see how they would manage. On the other hand they also felt embarrassed about getting undressed. They described several factors which contributed to feelings of being in control of the situation, e.g., when the examiner shared the process of decision making, thoroughly explained the PE procedure in advance, and assured them that the PE could be discontinued at any time. They considered their first PE as a step into a women's world. It seems important that the examiners perform the first PE in a manner that empowers the adolescents so they can enter womanhood with a positive attitude to their bodies. Furthermore, this empowering process may lay the foundation for subsequent PEs to be educational events for the adolescents.

     

  • 8. Pikarinen, Ulla
    et al.
    Saisto, Terhi
    Schei, Berit
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Halmesmäki, Erja
    Experiences of physical and sexual abuse and their implications for current health.2007In: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 109, no 5, p. 1116-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 9.
    Salomonsson, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Swedish midwives perceptions of fear of childbirth in JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, vol 31, issue , pp 53-532010In: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, Informa Healthcare , 2010, Vol. 31, p. 53-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 10.
    Shrestha, S.
    et al.
    Kakani Primary Health Centre, Nepal.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Siwe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gender and medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Learning Pelvic Examination with Professional Patients2010In: JOURNAL OF NEPAL MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, ISSN 0028-2715, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing pelvic examination is a vital skill to learn during gynecological and obstetrical training. Its a difficult maneuver to master as there is very little to see and more to feel and interpret. In addition, learning PE in usual clinical set-up has been found to induce lot of stress and anxiety among both the patients and the students. Students fear of hurting the patients and being judged inept, whereas patients feel embarrassed having to expose their most intimate body parts for learning purpose. This hampers effective learning. Learning PE on sedated women before surgery or on mannequins has been practiced as alternative learning models. But, they have been found to miss out on teaching the communication skills, which are as important as the palpation skills. However, there exists another model of learning PE - the professional patients, who are specially trained to act as patients and also guide the students on how to make a proper PE. They provide stress-free environment for the students to learn PE and at the same time, provide immediate feedback on each of their maneuvers. They form a complete learning model and help students to see patients as partner and not just a person seeking help.

  • 11.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Schei, Berit
    Hilden, Malene
    Halmesmäki, Erja
    Sidenius, Katrine
    Steingrimsdottir, Thora
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Patients' experiences of abuse in health care: A Nordic study on prevalence and associated factors in gynecological patients2007In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In an earlier Swedish study conducted with The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire, we found that one-third of female patients who had experienced adult abuse in health care (AAHC) had a background of childhood emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse (EPSA) ('revictimised'). But since the majority of women with AAHC were 'new victims' without such a background, there might be other factors associated with AAHC. The present study aimed to map prevalence of abuse in health care (AHC), and associated variables among new victims and revictimised patients. Methods. We carried out a cross-sectional questionnaire study at 5 Nordic gynecological clinics. Associations between AAHC and other variables were tested in a multivariate model in 4 groups of women with adult EPSA, childhood EPSA, childhood and adult EPSA, and no EPSA. Results. The response rate was 77% (n=3,641). The overall prevalence of any lifetime experience of AHC was 13-28%. High educational level, physical complaints, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and sleeping problems were associated with AAHC in women without EPSA (new victims). Poor self-rated health was strongly associated with AAHC in the 3 groups of women with EPSA. Conclusion. AHC is commonly reported by gynecological patients in the Nordic countries, but not yet properly explored or understood. The most important factors associated with AAHC were high educational level and poor self-rated health. © 2007 Taylor & Francis.

  • 12.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Nullified: Women's perceptions of being abused in health care2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 161-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. In a study performed with The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) among Nordic gynecological patients, the prevalence of lifetime abuse in health care (AHC) was 13 - 28%. In the present study we chose a qualitative approach. Our aim was to develop a more in-depth understanding of AHC, as experienced by female Swedish patients. Study design. Qualitative interviews with 10 Swedish gynecological patients who had experienced AHC. The interviews were analyzed through Grounded Theory. Results. Saturation was reached after six interviews. In the analyses four categories emerged which explain what AHC meant to the participating women: felt powerless, felt ignored, experienced carelessness, and experienced non-empathy. To be nullified is the core category that theoretically binds the four categories together. The women's narratives described intensive current suffering even though the abusive event had taken place several years ago. Conclusions. The fact that AHC exists is a critical dilemma for an institution that has the society's commission to cure and/or to alleviate pain and suffering. In their narratives, women described the experience of 'being nullified', a core category that embodies AHC. © 2007 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 13.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Kroppen - en möjlighet. Ett projekt bland kvinnliga klienter på anstalten Färingsö.2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 14.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Liss, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Tema Health and Society.
    Female patients report on health care staff's disobedience of ethical principles2006In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, no 7, p. 830-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Earlier studies have shown a high prevalence of abuse in health care (AHC). We hypothesized that patients might easily feel abused when staff do not follow prevailing ethical principles. Therefore we developed the Violations of Ethical Principles Questionnaire (ViolEP), with 30 examples of situations in health care where four ethical principles are disobeyed (autonomy, nonmaleficence, justice, and integrity). Respondents reported whether or not they had ever experienced each of the situations, and whether or not they had perceived that event as a violation. Research questions: 1. What proportion of female patients have ever experienced staff disobeying ethical principles in health care? 2. To what extent are such events perceived as violations? and 3. How well do perceived violations of ethical principles correspond to experiences of AHC? Method. Our sample was 661 consecutive female patients at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Linköping, Sweden. They completed ViolEP and NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) at home and returned them by post. Results. 20/661 (64%) women answered the ViolEP and 426/661 (64%) returned the NorAQ. The majority (73%) (306/420) had experienced staff disobeying ethical principles. More than every second woman had perceived those events as violations (68%) (209/306). The prevalence of AHC was 23%. ViolEP had good sensitivity but low specificity when we used AHC according to NorAQ as the "gold standard". Conclusion. The majority of the patients had experienced health care staff disobeying prevailing ethical principles. These events were not always perceived as violations. The reason for this discrepancy needs to be explored. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 15.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hilden, Malene
    Schei, Berit
    Women's perceived experiences of abuse in the health care system: Their relationship to childhood abuse2004In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 111, no 12, p. 1429-1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether there was an association between any lifetime experiences of emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse and perceived abuse in the health care system. Furthermore, we wanted to ascertain if adult victims of perceived abuse in the health care system reported exposure to childhood emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse more often than non-victims did. Design: A cross sectional questionnaire study. The first hypothesis was tested in the total sample, and the second hypothesis in a case-control analysis. The cases were those women who reported perceived experiences of abuse in the health care system as adults. Exposure was defined as experience of emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood. Settings: Three Swedish gynaecological clinics. Sample: A total of 2439 gynaecology patients (response rate 81%). Methods Postal questionnaire: Main outcome measure: Associations between experiences of emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse, and perceived abuse in the health care system, all operationalised in The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ). Results: A general association was found between lifetime experiences of emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse and perceived abuse in the health care system. Adult victims of abuse in the health care system reported experiences of emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood more often than non-victims did. These findings also held after adjustment for age and educational level. Conclusions: We found associations between experiences of any lifetime abuse and perceived abuse in the health care system. Adult victimisation in the health care system was associated with childhood exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse. These associations call for attention and need to be further investigated.

  • 16.
    Söderquist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress after childbirth2006In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 113-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-traumatic stress was assessed in early and late pregnancy, and 1, 4, 7, and 11 months postpartum by means of questionnaires among 1224 women. Thirty-seven women (3%) had post-traumatic stress (meeting criteria B, C, and D for PTSD) at least once within 1–11 months postpartum. In pregnancy, depression, severe fear of childbirth, ‘pre’-traumatic stress, previous counseling related to pregnancy/childbirth, and self-reported previous psychological problems were associated with an increased risk of having post-traumatic stress within 1–11 months postpartum. Sum-scores of post-traumatic stress did not decrease over time among women who at least once had post-traumatic stress (criteria B, C, and D) within 1–11 months postpartum. Women with post-traumatic stress also showed a decrease in perceived social support over time postpartum.

  • 17.
    van de Wiel, Harry
    et al.
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Brand, Paul L P
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord
    University Medical Centre Groningen.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The virtual ISPOG Academy: how E-learning can enrich (our) society2010In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 111-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Wijma, Barbro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Engman, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    A model for critical review of literature - With vaginismus as an example2007In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present a behavioral model for the critical review of the literature within a certain research field, using vaginismus as an example. We searched the literature for the title word "vaginismus" and analyzed to what extent the articles dealt with the following seven categories: prevention, etiology, maintaining factors, consequences, object of intervention, method of intervention, and method of evaluation. In each category we scrutinized the content of the articles for biological, psychological, social, relational, and gender aspects. Quality requirements of etiological and treatment studies were then added and the results presented in a "quality-adjusted" model. There were 102 articles during 1985-2001, of which 22 were included in the review. Most of the articles deal with supposed predisposing factors of etiology and different aspects of intervention. Only a few articles discuss precipitating factors, maintaining factors, or consequences of the problem. No article had a gender analysis. Only 11 of the articles fulfilled some of the proposed quality criteria. We found the behavioral model with quality requirements useful for classifying and evaluating the literature of vaginismus. The model may also be used as a guide to design methodologically good studies. © 2007 Informa UK Ltd.

  • 19.
    Wijma, Barbro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Siwe, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Examiner's unique possibilities to catalyze women's empowerment during a pelvic examination2004In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 83, no 12, p. 1102-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    PTSD: Where does it come from? Origin and development in JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, vol 31, issue , pp 6-62010In: JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY, Informa Healthcare , 2010, Vol. 31, p. 6-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 21.
    Wijma, Klaas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Paarlberg, Karen Marieke
    Gelre Teaching Hospital Apeldoorn.
    New times for the International Society of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ISPOG)2011In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 21 of 21
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