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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jerregård, H.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerbäck, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fall, Per-Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rannug, A.
    National Institute for Working Life, Solna and Inst. of Environ. Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    GSTM1 and mEPHX polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease and age of onset2000In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 269, no 3, p. 676-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the development of PD and biotransformation of exogenous and endogenous compounds and may play a role in inter-individual susceptibility. Therefore, we investigated the presence of null genotypes of GSTM1, GSTT1, and two polymorphisms of mEPHX in subjects with Parkinson's disease and in a reference population. The study included 35 male PD patients and a male control group including 283 subjects. Homozygosity of the histidine (H) 113 isoform of mEPHX was significantly increased in PD patients (odds ratio = 3.8 CI 95% 1.2–11.8) and analysis of allele frequencies displayed an increased frequency of the H-allele among PD patients (odds ratio = 1.9 CI 95% 1.1–3.3). However, a significantly elevated median age for the onset of PD was found among GSTM1 gene carriers (median age = 68 years) compared to PD patients being GSTM1 null genotypes (median age = 57 years). Our observations suggest that (H) 113 isoform of mEPHX, which has been suggested as a low activity isoform, is overrepresented in PD patients and that inherited carriers of the GSTM1 gene postpone the onset of PD. These detoxification pathways may represent important protective mechanisms against reactive intermediates modifying the susceptibility and onset of PD.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonsson, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interaction between smoking and glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy2002In: Toxicology and industrial health, ISSN 0748-2337, E-ISSN 1477-0393, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to organic solvents is still common in industrial and other work environments, and increases the risk of chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE). Genetic variation in metabolic enzymes for solvents and other xenobiotics may modify the risk of developing toxic effects. Therefore, we investigated the presence of null genotypes for glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1, GSTT1) and two genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEPHX) in relation to the risk for chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) when exposed to solvents and smoking. We genotyped 115 patients who were classified into three categories: CTE (n = 56), incipient CTE (n = 27) and non-CTE (n = 32) patients. DNA was isolated from leucocytes and the GSTM 1 and GSTT1 null genotypes were determined by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. The two polymorphisms of mEPHX were analysed by PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) based assays. All analyses were performed blindly with regard to both exposure and disease status. An increased binomial regression risk ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-4.2, of the GSTM1 null genotype for CTE was found in smokers and for the GSTT1 null genotype (binomial regression risk ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.0). In nonsmokers, the GSTM1 null genotype did not confer any risk for CTE. None of the studied mEPHX polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk for CTE. We suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype in smokers is a possible risk for solvent-induced CTE.

  • 3. Alfvén, Tobias
    et al.
    Elinder, C-G
    Carlsson, Margareta
    Grubb, Anders
    Hellström, Lennart
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Pettersson, Conny
    Spång, Gunnar
    Schütz, Andrejs
    Järup, Lars
    Low-level cadmium exposure and osteoporosis.2000In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 15, p. 1579-1586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. A number of risk factors, such as age and gender, are well established. High cadmium exposure causes renal damage and in severe cases also causes osteoporosis and osteomalacia, We have examined whether long-term Pow-level cadmium exposure increases the risk of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the forearm was measured in 520 men and 544 women, aged 16-81 years, environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique. Cadmium in urine was used as the dose estimate and protein HC was used: as a marker of renal tubular damage. There was a clear dose-response relation between cadmium dose and the prevalence of tubular proteinuria. Inverse relations were found between cadmium dose, tubular proteinuria, and BMD, particularly apparent in persons over 60 years of age, There was a dose-response relation between cadmium dose and osteoporosis. The odds ratios (ORs) for men were 2.2 (95% CI, 1.0-4.8) in the dose group 0.5-3 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine and 5.3 (2.0-14) in the highest dose category (greater than or equal to 3 nmol/mmol creatinine) compared with the lowest dose group (<0.5 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine). For women, the OR was 1.8 (0.65-5.3) in the dose group 0.53 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine. We conclude that exposure to low levels of cadmium is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.

  • 4. Andersson, E
    et al.
    Hagberg, SA
    Nilsson, T
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Torén, K
    A case-referent study of cancer mortality among sulfate mill workers in Sweden.2001In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 58, p. 321-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Angbratt, Marianne
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Blomberg, Carina
    Vadstena Primary Health Care Centre, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte
    Vadstena Primary Health Care Centre, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Waller, John
    Vadstena Primary Health Care Centre, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Möller, Margareta
    Research and Development Unit, Primary Health Care, Borås, Sweden.
    Calcium intake in a Swedish adult population: relationship to life-style factors and bone mineral density. A descriptive studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. This study is part of a community-based intervention programme dealing with the prevention of osteoporosis. The study aims were to estimate the calcium intake from dairy products and calcium supplements within a general population, and thereafter to study associations between calcium intake, relevant lifestyle factors, and forearm bone mineral density.

    Methods. A randomised sample of 15 % of the inhabitants aged 20 - 79 years ( = 1510) from two Swedish municipalities answered a questionnaire, and a selected sub-sample (n=448) had their forearm bone mineral density measured.

    Results. The mean consumption of calcium from dairy products was 878 mg/day. Men consumed more than women, and calcium intake decreased with increasing age. Twelve percent of the youngest age group in the study population and 31 % of the oldest age group did not meet the recommended daily intake. Associations were found between calcium intake and both residence and physical activity. There was a tendency towards an association between calcium intake and forearm bone mineral density. No other associations with lifestyle factors were observed.

    Conclusion. Calcium intake is in general well attained in an adult Swedish population, although the intake range is wide (55 to 3213 mg/day from dairy products). Women aged 50-59 years and older people are at increased risk of not meeting the recommended daily intake.

  • 6.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Alternative for estimating the burden of lung cancer from occupational exposures - Some calculations based on data from Swedish men2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 58-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study attempts to demonstrate a calculation of the occupational lung cancer burden using economically active men in Sweden as an example. Methods. Estimates were calculated using Swedish register data on occupation in 1970, lung cancer incidence in 1971-1989, smoking frequencies in 1963, and the formula I = RI0F + I0(I-F), where I is the overall incidence, R is the relative risk associated with a factor (here smoking), F is the fraction of persons at risk (smokers), and I0 is the incidence among those not at risk (nonsmokers). Results. Farmers, gardeners, forestry workers, and fishermen had the lowest lung cancer risk (42.1 per 100 000 person-years) and a smoking frequency of 44.7%. Their I0 was 12.6 or 8.4 per 100 000 person-years, taking R for smoking as 6 or 10, respectively. From these I0 estimates, the expected rates for white- and blue-collar workers (smoking frequencies 52.7 and 57.7%, respectively) were 45.8 and 49.1 per 100 000 person-years, as compared with the 22% and 57% higher observed rates, respectively. Weighing these excesses proportionally according to the sizes of the three occupational categories gave, respectively for R equal to 6 and 10, occupation-related excesses of 39% and 32% and population-attributable risks of 28% and 24%. Conclusions. About one-fourth of the lung cancers that occur among economically active Swedish men seem to have been related to occupation. This figure agrees with estimates made by other methods in Nordic countries. Due to interaction, the population-attributable risk from smoking is still high, 73% and 83% at relative risk values of 6 and 10, respectively.

  • 7.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Ethylene oxide and cancer2004In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Negative and non-positive epidemiological studies.2004In: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Balbus, JM
    Cohen, G
    Davis, D
    Donnay, A
    Doolittle, R
    Duran, BM
    Egilman, D
    Epstein, SS
    Goldman, L
    Grandjean, P
    Hansen, ES
    Heltne, P
    Huff, J
    Infante, P
    Jacobson, MF
    Joshi, TK
    LaDou, J
    Landrigan, PJ
    Lee, PR
    Lockwood, AH
    MacGregor, G
    Melnick, R
    Messing, K
    Needleman, H
    Ozonoff, D
    Ravanesi, B
    Richter, ED
    Sass, J
    Schubert, D
    Suzuki, D
    Teitelbaum, D
    Temple, NJ
    Terracini, B
    Thompson, A
    Tickner, J
    Tomatis, L
    Upton, AC
    Whyatt, RM
    Wigmore, D
    Wilson, T
    Wing, SB
    Sharpe, VA
    Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology.2003In: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 9, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Castleman, B
    Epstein, S
    Franco, G
    Giannasi, F
    Grandjean, P
    Greenberg, M
    Hooper, K
    Huff, J
    Jacobsson, M
    Joshi, TK
    Kulkarni, GK
    La Dou, J-F
    Mazaheri, Marie
    Mekonnen, Y
    Melnick, R
    Mirabelli, DK
    Ofrin, R
    Partanen, Tony
    Pott, FJ
    Sass, J
    Soskolne, CL
    Suplido, ML
    Terracini, B
    Tomatis, L
    Ungvary, G
    Watterson, A
    Wessling, C
    Yassi, A
    Re: Implementation of WHO Guidelines on Disclosure of Interest by members of WHO Expert Panels.2002In: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 8, p. 271-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Assessing dose-response relationships by cumulative exposures in epidemiological studies2007In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 217-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If the occurrence of disease monotonically increases with the degree of exposure in an epidemiologic study, a dose-response (or exposure-response) relationship is indicated and facilitates the interpretation that the exposure has a causal role. It is not uncommon, however, that there is some effect in terms of an overall increased relative risk but no clear dose-response relationship. Methods: Models presented here show that cumulative exposure, as involving the duration of exposure, is not an adequate parameter when more recent exposure or the intensity of the exposure plays the greater role for the disease outcome. Conclusions: In lack of a dose-response pattern by cumulative exposure, the interpretation of an overall increased risk might well be that there is no definite effect. The proper consideration should be, however, that the measure of exposure could be inadequate, suggesting a need for further analyses and evaluations of the material studied. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 12.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Åkerblom, G
    Hardell, L
    Leukemia in childhood and adolescence and exposure to ionizing radiation in homes built from uranium-containing alum shale concrete2002In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 146-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns in Sweden about indoor radon around 1980 prompted measurements of gamma-radiation from the facades of houses to identify those constructed of uranium-containing alum shale concrete, with potentially high radon concentrations. To evaluate any possible risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia from exposure to elevated gamma-radiation in these homes, we identified the acute lymphocytic leukemia cases less than 20 years of age in Sweden during 1980-1989 as well as eight controls per case from the population registry, matching on age, gender, and county. Using the existing measurements, exposure was assessable for 312 cases and 1,418 controls from 151 properly measured municipalities. A conditional logistic odds ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.9) was obtained for those ever having lived in alum shale concrete houses, with the average exposure exceeding 0.10 microsieverts per hour. Comparing those who ever lived in alum shale concrete houses (divided by higher and lower annual average exposure) with those who never lived in such houses, we found a weak dose-response relation. The results suggest some risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia from indoor ionizing radiation among children and young adults.

  • 13.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Multiple sclerosis and ionizing radiation.2001In: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208, Vol. 120, p. 175-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) may involve exposure to infectious, chemical or physical agents damaging the blood-brain barrier and an autoimmune reaction against myelin breakdown products. Here we report a pooled analysis of 174 MS cases and 815 population controls from two case-control studies with regard to such a potentially damaging exposure, namely X-ray examinations, radiological work and treatment with ionizing radiation. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires to the subjects. We obtained odds ratios of 4.4 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.6-11.6) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) for radiological work and X-ray examinations, respectively, 5 cases, but no controls, in one of the studies had been treated with ionizing radiation. Our data and some other observations reported in the literature suggest a contributory role for ionizing radiation to the development of MS in some cases.

  • 14. Bergman, Vivi
    et al.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Starkhammar, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde after high dose radiochemotherapy preceding stem cell transplantation2004In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 300-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urinary excretion of the hydroxylated DNA base 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was monitored in 11 patients with hematological malignancies undergoing total body irradiation and high-dose chemotherapy preceding bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients showed a prompt increase in urinary 8-OHdG (8-25 times the initial baseline level) on days 0-7 after irradiation onset, the excretion then decreased during the aplastic period and increased again when engraftment took place (in 7 patients). A significant positive correlation was found between urinary 8-OHdG and whole blood leukocyte count, both on day 5 (p = .04, r = .72) and on day 22 (p = .009, r = .80) after irradiation onset. One patient who lacked the first peak of 8-OHdG excretion showed low blood leukocyte counts (less than 2×109/l) before therapy onset, this patient, however, later had a successful engraftment and then also showed considerable increases in both 8-OHdG excretion and leukocyte count. These observations suggest leukocytes play a part in the excretion of 8-OHdG after conditioning therapy preceding bone marrow transplantation. As opposed to the biphasic 8-OHdG excretion, the excretion of MDA showed a single peak appearing on days 11-19 after radiochemotherapy onset, i.e., during the period in which the patients suffered from cytopenia, mucositis, and other side effects of the treatment. It is suggested, therefore, that these clinical manifestations are associated with increased lipid peroxidation. Altogether, these findings illustrate the utility of serial urinary samples for monitoring oxidative stress due to conditioning therapy in clinical practice. They also demonstrate that different oxidative stress markers may behave quite differently regarding their appearance in the urine after whole-body oxidative stress.

  • 15. Bochicchio, Francesco
    et al.
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Farchi, Sara
    Quarto, Maria
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Residential radon exposure, diet and lung cancer: A case-control study in a Mediterranean region2005In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 983-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a case-control study in Lazio, a region in central Italy characterized by high levels of indoor radon, Mediterranean climate and diet. Cases (384) and controls (404) aged 35-90 years were recruited in the hospital. Detailed information regarding smoking, diet and other risk factors were collected by direct interview. Residential history during the 30-year period ending 5 years before enrolment was ascertained. In each dwelling, radon detectors were placed in both the main bedroom and the living room for 2 consecutive 6-month periods. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for time-weighted radon concentrations using both categorical and continuous unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusting for smoking, diet and other variables. Radon measurements were available from 89% and 91% of the time period for cases and controls, respectively. The adjusted ORs were 1.30 (1.03-1.64), 1.48 (1.08-2.02), 1.49 (0.82-2.71) and 2.89 (0.45-18.6) for 50-99, 100-199, 200-399 and 400+ Bq/m3, respectively, compared with 0-49 Bq/m3 (OR = 1, 0.56-1.79). The excess odds ratio (EOR) per 100 Bq/m3 was 0.14 (-0.11, 0.46) for all subjects, 0.24 (-0.09, 0.70) for subjects with complete radon measurements and 0.30 (-0.08, 0.82) for subjects who had lived in 1 or 2 dwellings. There was a tendency of higher risk estimates among subjects with low-medium consumption of dietary antioxidants (EOR = 0.32, -0.19, 1.16) and for adenocarcinoma, small cell and epidermoid cancers. This study indicates an association, although generally not statistically significant, between residential radon and lung cancer with both categorical and continuous analyses. Subjects with presumably lower uncertainty in the exposure assessment showed a higher risk. Dietary antioxidants may act as an effect modifier. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 16. Bosette, C
    et al.
    Negri, E
    Kolonel, L
    Ron, E
    Franceschi, S
    preston-Martin, S
    McTiernan, A
    Dal Maso, L
    Mark, SD
    Mabuchi, K
    Land, C
    Jin, F
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Galanti, MR
    Hallquist, A
    Glattre, E
    Lund, E
    Levi, F
    Linos, D
    La Vecchia, C
    A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VII. Cruciferous and other vegetables (International)2002In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 765-775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the association between cruciferous and other vegetables and thyroid cancer risk we systematically reanalyzed the original data from 11 case-control studies conducted in the US, Asia, and Europe. Methods: A total of 2241 cases (1784 women, 457 men) and 3716 controls (2744 women, 972 men) were included. Odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each study by logistic regression models, conditioned on age and sex, and adjusted for history of goiter, thyroid nodules or adenomas, and radiation. Summary ORs for all studies combined were computed as the weighted average of the estimates from each study. Results: A decreased risk for the highest level of cruciferous vegetable intake, as compared to the lowest, was observed in Los Angeles, Hawaii, Connecticut, southeastern Sweden, Troms°, and Switzerland, the OR were above unity in Japan and Uppsala, whereas no material association was found in northern Sweden, Italy, or Greece. The OR values for all studies combined were 0.87 (95% CI 0.75-1.01) for moderate and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80-1.10) for high cruciferous vegetables intake. The results were similar in studies from iodine-rich areas and endemic goiter areas, and were consistent when the analysis was restricted to papillary carcinomas and women. The summary OR values for vegetables other than cruciferous were 1.04 (0.88-1.22) for moderate and 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for high consumption. Conclusions: This combined analysis indicates that cruciferous vegetables are not positively related to thyroid cancer risk. Their effect does not seem to be substantially different from that of other vegetables, which appear to be protective on this cancer.

  • 17. Bosetti, C
    et al.
    Kolonel, L
    Negri, E
    Ron, E
    Franceschi, S
    Dal Maso, L
    Galanti, MR
    Mark, SD
    Preston-Martin, S
    McTiernan, A
    Land, C
    Jin, F
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Hallquist, A
    Glattre, E
    Lund, E
    Levi, F
    Linos, D
    La Vecchia, C
    A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VI. Fish and shellfish consumption2001In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To better understand the role of fish and shellfish on thyroid cancer risk, we systematically re-analyzed the original data from 13 case-control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China, and Europe. Methods: A total of 2497 cases (2023 women, 474 men) and 4337 controls (3268 women, 1069 men) were considered. Odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated for each study by logistic regression models, conditioned on age and sex, and adjusted for history of goiter, thyroid nodules or adenomas, and radiation. Combined ORs were computed as the weighted average of the estimates from each study. Results: The ORs for the highest level of total fish consumption (three or more times per week) as compared to the lowest one (less than once per week) was above unity in Hawaii, Connecticut, Japan, Norway, Troms°, and Vaud. Conversely, the ORs for the studies in Los Angeles, Shanghai, southeastern Sweden, Uppsala, northern Sweden, northern Italy, and Athens were below one. The pattern of risk for salt water fish and shellfish was not substantially different from that of total fish. Fish was not associated with thyroid cancer risk in all studies combined (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.2 for moderate, and OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.71-1.1 for high total fish consumption), but there was a suggestion of a protective effect in endemic goiter areas (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88). Conclusion: This combined analysis indicates that relatively elevated fish consumption does not appreciably increase thyroid cancer risk, and may have a favorable influence in areas where iodine deficiency is, or was, common.

  • 18. Buzio, L
    et al.
    De Palma, G
    Mozzoni, p
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Buzio, C
    Franchini, I
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Mutti, A
    Glutathione S-transferases M1-1 and T1-1 as risk modifiers for renal cell cancer associated with occupational exposure to chemicals2003In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 789-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the possible interaction between occupational risk factors and genotype for glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in renal cell cancer (RCC). Methods: One hundred patients with RCC and 200 outpatient controls were enrolled at Parma University Hospital. The polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 (GSTM1) and T1-1 (GSTT1) were investigated by PCR, occupational history was collected by a structured questionnaire. Results: Subjects with GSTM1 present genotype showed higher risks for RCC, compared to GSTM1 null subjects, if exposed to metals (OR 2.73, 95% CI 0.91 to 8.22 v 1.14, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.82) or pesticides (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.12 to 10.74 v 1.59, 95% CI 0.48 to 5.34). The GSTT1 present genotype also enhanced the risk (about twofold) of RCC among subjects exposed to solvents and pesticides, compared with those GSTT1 null. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms can interact with several occupational exposures to significantly modify the risk of RCC among exposed subjects.

  • 19. Buzio, L
    et al.
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    De Palma, G
    Buzio, C
    Franchini, I
    Mutti, A
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Occupational risk factors for renal cell cancer. An Italian case-control study2002In: Medicina del Lavoro, ISSN 0025-7818, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine possible associations between occupational and environmental risk factors and renal cell cancer (RCC), a tumour with unclear aetiology and increasing incidence. Methods: A questionnaire-based case-control study of 100 histologically verified cases of RCC and 200 controls was conducted at Parma University Hospital. The control group was enrolled from patients attending different outpatient departments and represented the same residential area as the cases. For all exposure variables under study, two levels of duration were defined: "short" and "prolonged" for less than 10 years or more, respectively. Results: The highest risk estimates for RCC were found for "prolonged" exposure to organic solvents with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.0-4,8). "Prolonged" exposures to pesticides and copper sulphate were also associated with increased risk, OR 2.0 (95% CI: 0.8-4.7) and OR 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-5.5), respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggests an association between RCC and exposure to organic solvents, pesticides and copper sulphate. A risk gradient as a function of exposure duration was found for organic solvents (p= 0.044) and copper sulphate (p= 0.036), but not for pesticides.

  • 20. Carel, RH
    et al.
    Boffetta, P-A
    Kauppinen, TN
    Teschke, K
    Andersen, A
    Jäppinen, P
    Pearce, N
    Andreassen Rix, B
    Bergeret, A
    Coggon, D
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I
    Kielkowski, D
    Henneberger, P
    Kishi, R
    Facchini, LA
    Sala, M
    Colin, D
    Krogevinas, M
    Exposure to asbestos and lung and pleural cancer mortality among pulp and paper industry workers2002In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 579-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the mortality from lung and pleural cancers in a cohort of 62, 937 male workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 13 countries during 1945 to 1996. Mill departments were classified according to probability and level of exposure to asbestos on the basis of available dust measurements and mill-specific information on exposure circumstances. Thirty-six percent of workers were classified as ever exposed to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios of lung cancer were 0.99 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.08) among unexposed and 1.00 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 1.11) among ever exposed workers. The number of pleural cancer deaths among unexposed workers was 10, that among exposed workers was 14, most of which occurred among maintenance workers. In internal analyses, a trend in mortality from either neoplasm was suggested for estimated cumulative exposure to asbestos, weighted for the individual probability of exposure within the department and for duration of exposure (relative risk for lung cancer for 0.78+ f/cc-years, as compared with = 0.01 f/cc-years: 1.44, 95 % CI, 0.85 to 2.45, corresponding relative risk for pleural cancer: 2.43, 95% CI, 0.43 to 13.63). Despite a possible nondifferential misclassification of exposure and outcome, this study suggests that the carcinogenic effect of asbestos can be detected among workers employed in industries such as the pulp and paper industry, in which it is not considered to be a major hazard.

  • 21. Carstensen, U
    et al.
    Hou, S
    Alexandrie, A-K
    Högstedt, B
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Warholm, M
    Rannung, A
    Lambert, B
    Axmon, A
    Hagmar, L
    Influence of genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes on gene mutations, strand breaks of deoxyribonucleic acid, and micronuclei in mononuclear blood cells and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in potroom workers exposed to polyaromatic hydrocarbons.1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 25, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Dahl, Andreas
    et al.
    Gharibi, Arash
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Bohgard, Mats
    Ljungman, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Traffic-generated emissions of ultrafine particles from pavement-tire interface2006In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1314-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a road simulator study, a significant source of sub-micrometer fine particles produced by the road-tire interface was observed. Since the particle size distribution and source strength is dependent on the type of tire used, it is likely that these particles largely originate from the tires, and not the road pavement. The particles consisted most likely of mineral oils from the softening filler and fragments of the carbon-reinforcing filler material (soot agglomerates). This identification was based on transmission electron microscopy studies of collected ultrafine wear particles and on-line thermal treatment using a thermodesorber. The mean particle number diameters were between 15-50 nm, similar to those found in light duty vehicle (LDV) tail-pipe exhaust. A simple box model approach was used to estimate emission factors in the size interval 15-700 nm. The emission factors increased with increasing vehicle speed, and varied between 3.7×1011 and 3.2×10 12 particles vehicle-1 km-1 at speeds of 50 and 70 km h-1. This corresponds to between 0.1-1% of tail-pipe emissions in real-world emission studies at similar speeds from a fleet of LDV with 95% gasoline and 5% diesel-fueled cars. The emission factors for particles originating from the road-tire interface were, however, similar in magnitude to particle number emission factors from liquefied petroleum gas-powered vehicles derived in test bench studies in Australia 2005. Thus the road-tire interface may be a significant contributor to particle emissions from ultraclean vehicles. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23. Dal Maso, L
    et al.
    La Vecchia, C
    Franceschi, S
    Preston-Martin, S
    Ron, E
    Levi, F
    Mack, W
    Mark, SD
    McTiernan, A
    Kolonel, L
    Mabuchi, K
    Jin, F
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Galanti, MR
    Hallquist, A
    Glattre, E
    Lund, E
    Linos, D
    Negri, E
    A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors2000In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the relation between anthropometric factors and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of individual data from 12 case-control studies conducted in the US, Japan, China and Europe. Methods: 2056 female and 417 male cases, 3358 female and 965 male controls were considered. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression, conditioning on age, A-bomb exposure (Japan) and study, and adjusting for radiotherapy. Results: Compared to the lowest tertile of height, the pooled OR was 1.2 for females for the highest one, and 1.5 for males, and trends in risk were significant. With reference to weight at diagnosis, the OR for females was 1.2 for the highest tertile, and the trend in risk was significant, whereas no association was observed in males. Body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis was directly related to thyroid cancer risk in females (OR = 1.2 for the highest tertile), but not in males. No consistent pattern of risk emerged with BMI during the late teens. Most of the associations were observed both for papillary and follicular cancers, and in all age groups. However, significant heterogeneity was observed across studies. Conclusions: Height and weight at diagnosis are moderately related to thyroid cancer risk.

  • 24. Dick, FD
    et al.
    De Palma, G
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Osborne, A
    Scott, NW
    Prescott, GJ
    Bennett, J
    Semple, S
    Dick, S
    Mozzoni, P
    Haites, N
    Bezzina Wettinger, S
    Mutti, A
    Otelea, M
    Seaton, S
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Felice, A
    Geoparkinson Study Group:, On behalv of the
    Hällsten, Anna-Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Gene-environment interactions in parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease: The Geoparkinson study2007In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 673-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonian syndromes with polymorphic genes that influence metabolism of either foreign chemical substances or dopamine and to seek evidence of gene-environment interaction effects that modify risk. Methods: A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with PD) and 1989 controls across five European centres. Occupational hygienists estimated the average annual intensity of exposure to solvents, pesticides and metals, (iron, copper, manganese), blind to disease status. CYP2D6, PON1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, CYP1B1, MAO-A, MAO-B, SOD 2, EPHX, DATl, DRD2 and NAT2 were genotyped. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression adjusting for key confounders. Results: There was a modest but significant association between MAO-A polymorphism in males and disease risk (G vs T, OR 1.30, 95% C1 1.02 to 1.66, adjusted). The majority of gene-environment analyses did not show significant interaction effects. There were possible interaction effects between GSTM1 null genotype and solvent exposure (which were stronger when limited to PD cases only). Conclusions: Many small studies have reported associations between genetic polymorphisms and PD. Fewer have examined gene-environment interactions. This large study was sufficiently powered to examine these aspects. GSTM1 null subjects heavily exposed to solvents appear to be at increased risk of PD. There was insufficient evidence that the other gene-environment combinations investigated modified disease risk, suggesting they contribute little to the burden of PD.

  • 25.
    Fall, Per-Arne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Saleh, Avin
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, Jan-Edvin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Granerus, Ann-Kathrine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Geriatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Survival time, mortality, and cause of death in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease: A 9-year follow-up2003In: Movement Disorders, ISSN 0885-3185, E-ISSN 1531-8257, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1312-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This community-based study of Parkinson's disease (PD) investigated age at death and cause of death in a cohort of 170 previously studied patients. The current study is a 9-year follow-up, and the results are compared to 510 sex- and age-matched controls from the same area. A total of 170 patients were diagnosed with PD on August 31, 1989, within a defined area of Sweden. A control group of 510 persons from the same area and with the same age and sex distribution was also examined regarding age at death and cause of death. After 9.4 years, 121 cases (71.1%) and 229 controls (44.9%) were no longer alive. Thus, the mortality rate ratio was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.8) when comparing PD patients with controls. The all-cause hazard ratio for cases compared to controls was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.9-3.0). The mean age at death for the cases was 81.9 (95% CI, 80.3-83.0) years and for the controls 82.9 (95% CI, 82.0-83.7) years. Survival analysis also showed a shorter survival time (P < 0.001) for PD patients. Only 53% of the death certificates for the deceased patients recorded PD as an underlying or contributory cause of death. Many PD patients reached a high age but had a shorter survival than the controls. There was a significant increase in deaths from pneumonia.

  • 26.
    Faustini, Annunziata
    et al.
    Local Health Unit, Tarquinia (VT), Italy.
    Settimi, Laura
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pacifici, Roberta
    Instituto Superiore di Sanita', Rome, Italy.
    Fano, Valeria
    Epidemiologic Unit, Lazio Regional Health Authority, Rome, Italy.
    Zuccaro, Piergiorgio
    Instituto Superiore di Sanita', Rome, Italy.
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Epidemiologic Unit, Lazio Regional Health Authority, Rome, Italy.
    Immunological changes among farmers exposed to phenoxy herbicides: preliminary observations1999In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 583-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short term immunological changes after agricultural exposure to commercial formulations of chlorophenoxy herbicides.

    METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 10 farmers within seven days before exposure, one to 12 days after exposure, and again 50 to 70 days after exposure. Whole blood was used to count lymphocyte subsets with monoclonal antibodies. Peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were used to measure natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte response to mitogenic stimulations. Values before exposure were used as reference.

    RESULTS: In comparison with concentrations before exposure, a significant reduction was found one to 12 days after exposure in the following variables (P < 0.05): circulating helper (CD4) and suppressor T cells (CD8), CD8 dim, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), natural killer cells (NK), and CD8 cells expressing the surface antigens HLA-DR (CD8-DR), and lymphoproliferative response to mitogen stimulations. All immunological values found 50-70 days after exposure were comparable with concentrations before exposure, but mitogenic proliferative responses of lymphocytes were still significantly decreased.

    CONCLUSIONS: According to our data agricultural exposure to commercial 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) formulations may exert short term immunosuppressive effects. Further studies should clarify whether the immunological changes found may have health implications and can specifically contribute to cancer aetiology.

  • 27.
    Flodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Jönsson, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Non-sensitising air pollution at workplaces and adult onset asthma2004In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 17-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate further whether occupational exposure to non-sensitising air pollution at workplaces increases the risk of adult onset asthma. Methods: One hundred and twenty persons with asthma diagnosed by general practitioners, aged 20-65 years, were compared with 446 referents matched for age and gender and living in the same community as the cases. Information about occupation, exposure to specific allergens, smoking habits, dwellings and atopy was obtained from a postal questionnaire. The subjects' occupations were categorised as clean or polluted, based on the judgement of the referents on their respective occupations. Results: Three years or more of work in air-polluted workplaces resulted in an odds ratio of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.0-2.7). Stratification of the material on smoking habits, gender or atopy did not alter the results, nor did exclusion of subjects exposed to specific allergens of statistical significance in this material, e.g. flour dust. Smoking per se did not bring any risk of asthma. Working in buildings affected by dampness and mould brought a fourfold significant risk. Conclusion: In this study occupational exposure to unspecific air pollution at workplaces was associated with an increased risk of adult-onset asthma.

  • 28.
    Flodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Seneby, Agneta
    Tegenfeldt, Clas
    Provocation of electric hypersensitivity under everyday conditions2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. In most previous provocation studies subjects suffering from ?electric hypersensitivity? have not been able to determine correctly whether or not they have been subjected to a sham or true provocation to magnetic or electric fields. However, an often-discussed weakness is that most of the earlier provocation studies have been performed in a laboratory situation, often with simulated fields, which may not be representative of conditions prevailing in the homes or workplaces of the patients. Criticism has also been put forth about neglect of the long latency period of symptoms. Therefore, a provocation study was performed in the homes or workplaces of the patients, where we also studied the symptoms and on-off answer 24 hours after the exposure. Methods. Fifteen subjects selected as having fast and distinct reactions from electric equipment were provoked on 4 occasions: mainly 2 true and 2 sham provocations. The intervals between exposure were a few or more days in order to provide the subjects with an opportunity to recover before the next provocation. A control group of healthy subjects with normal hearing and vision verified that the provocations were performed in a blind manner. Results. The patients suffering from ?electric hypersensitivity? were no better than the control group in deciding whether or not they were exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Conclusions. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields per se does not seem to be a sufficient cause of the symptoms experienced by this patient group.

  • 29. Franceschi, S
    et al.
    Preston-Martin, S
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. IV. Benign thyroid diseases.1999In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 10, p. 583-595Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Fransén, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fenech, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Association between ulcerative growth and hypoxia inducible factor-1α polymorphisms in colorectal cancer patients2006In: Molecular Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0899-1987, E-ISSN 1098-2744, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 833-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been found to be involved in several different physiological mechanisms, such as blood-vessel formation, apoptosis, and erythropoiesis. HIF-1α is hydroxylated at normoxia and rapidly degraded via the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL)/ubiquitin-proteasome degradation system to prevent angiogenesis. In a previous study, the C1772T (P582S) and the G1790A (A588T) polymorphisms were identified in the human HIF-1α gene, which was shown to have a higher transactivating capability in vitro compared to the wild type allele. However, the role for these polymorphisms in vivo is still unclear. In the present investigation, we have therefore studied the role of the two polymorphic variants in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) with PCR/RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), single strand conformation analysis (SSCA), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). A significant higher-risk was identified between patients heterozygous for the C1772T polymorphism and the more severe ulcerative growth pattern compared to homozygous C1772C wild type tumors (RR = 5.2; 95% CI 1.26–21.6; P = 0.006). This was also verified on the allelic level (RR = 6.5; 95% CI 1.58–26.8; P = 0.001). In addition, patients carrying one or more polymorphic alleles in either the HIF-1α C1772T or the G1790A polymorphisms display significant higher risk for the development of ulcerative CRCs (RR = 4.17; 95% CI = 1.33–13.08; P = 0.004). These results suggest that the HIF-1α polymorpisms are an important factor for development of a subset of ulcerative intestinal tumors. Future screening of the polymorphic HIF-1α allele may therefore be of importance in the selection of treatment strategies of CRC.

  • 31.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Proteomics of the upper airways: studies on a new lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, PLUNC2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is now significant interest in identifying, quantifying and characterizing the human proteome, and new powerful techniques (proteomics) have evolved to deal with this giant task. In the present study, proteomics have been applied for the first time to map the proteins of the upper airways. The protein contents of human nasal fluid (NLF) and saliva were analysed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and the proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix assisted laser desorptioniionization time of night mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) or by amino acid sequencing using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI- MS/MS). More than 100 proteins were identified and protein maps of nasal fluid and saliva were thus established. Of particular interest was the identification of a new lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone), which was shown to be the only protein in NLF that binds to LPS. PLUNC was characterized as multiple isoforms (Mr/p1: 27/5.1, 26/5.2, 25/5.3, 27.5/5.1, 27/5.2, 26/5.3, 25.1/5.5 and 24.8/5.4), and several of these isoforms were demonstrated to be sialylated. Notably, decreased levels of PLUNC were found in NLF of (i) smokers, (ii) epoxy workers with airway irritation, and (iii) patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) during allergy season. In addition, the levels of von Ebner's gland protein, α1-antitrypsin, cystatin S, Clara cell protein 16 and lipocortin-1 were altered, either in smokers or SAR patients or both. One previously unidentified NLF protein was found in SAR patients during allergy season but not before season: this protein was identified as eosinophil lysophospholipase. Many of these proteins were post-translationally modified by glycosylation (PLUNC, α1-antitrypsin, von Ebner's gland protein), phosphorylation (cystatin S), acetylation (eosinophil lysophospholipase), or truncation (lipocortin-1). Altogether, these findings illustrate the potential use of proteomics for identifying new markers of upper airway inflammation and for revealing structural details of such markers. The findings also indicate that allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa is associated with decreased nasal fluid levels of the endogenous proteinase inhibitors, cystatin S and von Ebner's gland protein, and of the new irritation marker, PLUNC. Further studies are required to explore the possibility that PLUNC plays an important part in microbial  recognition and that this function is impaired after exposure to airway irritants and during upper airway inflammation.

    List of papers
    1. Newly identified proteins in human nasal lavage fluid from non-smokers and smokers using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Newly identified proteins in human nasal lavage fluid from non-smokers and smokers using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting
    2002 (English)In: Proteomics, ISSN 1615-9853, E-ISSN 1615-9861, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 112-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Human nasal lavage fluids (NLFs) were analyzed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and proteins were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desoption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. In some cases, the identification was verified by analysis of post-source decay fragmentation spectra. Many of the identified proteins were new forms or fragments of previously found proteins (e.g. albumin, lactoferrin, cystatin, calgranulin, von Ebners gland protein and palate lung nasal epithelium clone), while others were proteins that have previously been indicated by 2-DE image matching or immunoblots (e.g. apolipoprotein AI, lysozyme C, and Clara cell secretory protein). Some new proteins, not shown before in 2-DE patterns of NLF were also found, e.g. mammaglobin B, 2-microglobulin and immunoglobulin J chain. Of the identified NLF proteins many appear to be involved in inflammatory and immune responses. A study was therefore conducted to investigate if the levels of these proteins were changed in smokers compared to nonsmokers. It was found that NLF from smokers contained decreased levels of Clara cell secretory protein, and increased proportions of a truncated variant of lipocortin-1, three acidic forms of α1-antitrypsin, and one phosphorylated form of cystatin S. Furthermore, NLF from smokers contained increased proportions of a new variant of palate lung nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC), a recently identified airway irritation marker. The results demonstrate that 2-DE of NLF may be used to assess alterations of proteins or post-translationally modified proteins in smokers. Clara cell secretory protein (CC 16, CC 10) and lipocortin-1 are two anti-inflammatory, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, and α1-antitrypsin and cystatin S are two proteinase inhibitors. Changed levels of these proteins may therefore be of importance to the airway inflammation caused by smoking. The results also support the notion that PLUNC is involved in inflammatory responses in the upper airways.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26518 (URN)10.1002/1615-9861(200201)2:1<112::AID-PROT112>3.0.CO;2-N (DOI)11076 (Local ID)11076 (Archive number)11076 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Mapping of proteins in human saliva using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping of proteins in human saliva using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting
    2003 (English)In: Proteomics, ISSN 1615-9853, E-ISSN 1615-9861, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 1003-1015Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Human saliva contains a large number of proteins that can be used for diagnosis and are of great potential in clinical and epidemiological research. The aim of this work was to map the proteins in saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and to identify abundant proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting using trypsin cleavage and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis. One hundred proteins were identified representing 20 different identities according to accession numbers. Abundant proteins expressed in different forms were: α-amylase, immunoglobulin A, prolactin-inducible protein, zinc-α2-glycoprotein and cystatins (S, SA, D and SN). Other proteins found were interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, von Ebner’s gland protein (lipocalin-1) and calgranulin A and B (S100A8 and A9). Furthermore, apolipoprotein A-I, β2-microglobulin, glutathione S-transferase P and fatty acid-binding protein were also identified. Our results show that human saliva contains a large number of proteins that are involved in inflammatory and immune responses. The 2-DE protein map constructed opens the possibility to investigate protein changes associated with disease processes.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26469 (URN)10.1002/pmic.200300426 (DOI)11020 (Local ID)11020 (Archive number)11020 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins in human nasal lavage fluid
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins in human nasal lavage fluid
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Biochemical Society Transactions, ISSN 0300-5127, E-ISSN 1470-8752, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 810-814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) is a newly discovered gene that is expressed in the upper respiratory tract and is suggested to be of importance in host defence against bacteria. We have identified two forms of the PLUNC protein in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MS. The apparent molecular masses and isoelectric points of these forms are 24.8 kDa/pI 5.4 and 25.1 kDa/pI 5.5. Notably, the 24.8 kDa/pI 5.4 form of PLUNC is an abundant protein in the 2-DE protein patterns of NLF from healthy subjects. Decreased levels of PLUNC were found in NLF from smokers and workers exposed to reactive epoxy chemicals, indicating that long-term exposure to airway irritants impairs the production of PLUNC in the upper respiratory tract. We have also investigated the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding proteins in NLF. Five proteins were found to adsorb to a LPS-coated surface; two of these proteins correspond to the two PLUNC forms, as judged by 2-DE pattern matching. For comparison, human saliva was found to contain a set of LPS-binding proteins with similar 2-DE spot positions (the same pIs but somewhat lower apparent molecular masses of 20 kDa). These results indicate that PLUNC may be a new marker of airway inflammation and may play a part in the innate immune response, and that human saliva contains yet other members of the family of LPS-binding proteins.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26470 (URN)10.1042/BST0310810 (DOI)11021 (Local ID)11021 (Archive number)11021 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. PLUNC in human nasal lavage fluid: multiple isoforms that bind to lipopolysaccharide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PLUNC in human nasal lavage fluid: multiple isoforms that bind to lipopolysaccharide
    2004 (English)In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics, ISSN 1570-9639, E-ISSN 1878-1454, Vol. 1699, no 1-2, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we demonstrate the presence of multiple isoforms of palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF). Eight isoforms were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and peptide mapping of the proteins was performed using MALDI-TOF MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) of tryptic and asparginase cleavages. The identification was verified by amino acid sequencing after analysis of collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation spectra with nanoelectrospray MS/MS. One isoform showed an electrophoretic mobility shift after N-glycosidase treatment, indicating that at least one of the PLUNC isoforms is glycosylated. We also demonstrate that PLUNC in NLF binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro; indeed, out of all proteins present in NLF only the PLUNC isoforms were found to adsorb to an LPS-coated surface. These results show that PLUNC is expressed as multiple LPS-binding isoforms in human NLF. The possibility that PLUNC may play a role in the innate immune response of the upper airways is inferred.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22261 (URN)10.1016/j.bbapap.2004.01.001 (DOI)1434 (Local ID)1434 (Archive number)1434 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Comparative proteomics of nasal fluid in seasonal allergic rhinitis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative proteomics of nasal fluid in seasonal allergic rhinitis
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 330-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative proteomic approach was applied to examine nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR, n = 6) and healthy subjects (controls, n = 5). NLF samples were taken both before allergy (pollen) season and during season, and proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after tryptic cleavage. Twenty proteins were selected and quantified. During allergy season, the levels of six sialylated isoforms of PLUNC (palate lung nasal epithelial clone) were lower in SAR patients than controls, as were the levels of six isoforms of von Ebner's gland protein (VEGP), including a previously undescribed form with N-linked glycosylation, and of cystatin S. PLUNC is a new innate immunity protein and VEGP and cystatin S are two endogenous proteinase inhibitors. By contrast, the levels of an acidic form of alpha-1-antitrypsin were higher in SAR patients than controls. One previously unidentified NLF protein was found in all samples from the SAR patients during allergy season but not in any sample before allergy season:  this protein was identified as eosinophil lysophospholipase (Charcot-Leyden crystal protein/galactin 10). MS/MS analysis of the N-terminus of the protein showed removal of Met and acetylation of Ser. Altogether, these findings illustrate the potential use of proteomics for identifying protein changes associated with allergic rhinitis and for revealing post-translational modifications of such new potential markers of allergic inflammation.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32843 (URN)10.1021/pr050341h (DOI)18783 (Local ID)18783 (Archive number)18783 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 32.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Irander, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindbom, John
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Comparative proteomics of nasal fluid in seasonal allergic rhinitis2006In: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 330-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative proteomic approach was applied to examine nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR, n = 6) and healthy subjects (controls, n = 5). NLF samples were taken both before allergy (pollen) season and during season, and proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after tryptic cleavage. Twenty proteins were selected and quantified. During allergy season, the levels of six sialylated isoforms of PLUNC (palate lung nasal epithelial clone) were lower in SAR patients than controls, as were the levels of six isoforms of von Ebner's gland protein (VEGP), including a previously undescribed form with N-linked glycosylation, and of cystatin S. PLUNC is a new innate immunity protein and VEGP and cystatin S are two endogenous proteinase inhibitors. By contrast, the levels of an acidic form of alpha-1-antitrypsin were higher in SAR patients than controls. One previously unidentified NLF protein was found in all samples from the SAR patients during allergy season but not in any sample before allergy season:  this protein was identified as eosinophil lysophospholipase (Charcot-Leyden crystal protein/galactin 10). MS/MS analysis of the N-terminus of the protein showed removal of Met and acetylation of Ser. Altogether, these findings illustrate the potential use of proteomics for identifying protein changes associated with allergic rhinitis and for revealing post-translational modifications of such new potential markers of allergic inflammation.

  • 33.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mörtstedt, Harriet
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lewander, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Note: 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid instead of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as matrix in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for analyses of in-gel digests of silver-stained proteins: in Analytical Biochemistry(ISSN 0003-2697), vol 371, issue 1, pp 121-1232007In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 371, no 1, p. 121-123Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 34.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins in human nasal lavage fluid2003In: Biochemical Society Transactions, ISSN 0300-5127, E-ISSN 1470-8752, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 810-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) is a newly discovered gene that is expressed in the upper respiratory tract and is suggested to be of importance in host defence against bacteria. We have identified two forms of the PLUNC protein in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MS. The apparent molecular masses and isoelectric points of these forms are 24.8 kDa/pI 5.4 and 25.1 kDa/pI 5.5. Notably, the 24.8 kDa/pI 5.4 form of PLUNC is an abundant protein in the 2-DE protein patterns of NLF from healthy subjects. Decreased levels of PLUNC were found in NLF from smokers and workers exposed to reactive epoxy chemicals, indicating that long-term exposure to airway irritants impairs the production of PLUNC in the upper respiratory tract. We have also investigated the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding proteins in NLF. Five proteins were found to adsorb to a LPS-coated surface; two of these proteins correspond to the two PLUNC forms, as judged by 2-DE pattern matching. For comparison, human saliva was found to contain a set of LPS-binding proteins with similar 2-DE spot positions (the same pIs but somewhat lower apparent molecular masses of 20 kDa). These results indicate that PLUNC may be a new marker of airway inflammation and may play a part in the innate immune response, and that human saliva contains yet other members of the family of LPS-binding proteins.

  • 35.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    PLUNC in human nasal lavage fluid: multiple isoforms that bind to lipopolysaccharide2004In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Proteins and Proteomics, ISSN 1570-9639, E-ISSN 1878-1454, Vol. 1699, no 1-2, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we demonstrate the presence of multiple isoforms of palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF). Eight isoforms were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and peptide mapping of the proteins was performed using MALDI-TOF MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) of tryptic and asparginase cleavages. The identification was verified by amino acid sequencing after analysis of collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation spectra with nanoelectrospray MS/MS. One isoform showed an electrophoretic mobility shift after N-glycosidase treatment, indicating that at least one of the PLUNC isoforms is glycosylated. We also demonstrate that PLUNC in NLF binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro; indeed, out of all proteins present in NLF only the PLUNC isoforms were found to adsorb to an LPS-coated surface. These results show that PLUNC is expressed as multiple LPS-binding isoforms in human NLF. The possibility that PLUNC may play a role in the innate immune response of the upper airways is inferred.

  • 36.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Newly identified proteins in human nasal lavage fluid from non-smokers and smokers using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting2002In: Proteomics, ISSN 1615-9853, E-ISSN 1615-9861, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 112-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human nasal lavage fluids (NLFs) were analyzed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and proteins were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desoption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. In some cases, the identification was verified by analysis of post-source decay fragmentation spectra. Many of the identified proteins were new forms or fragments of previously found proteins (e.g. albumin, lactoferrin, cystatin, calgranulin, von Ebners gland protein and palate lung nasal epithelium clone), while others were proteins that have previously been indicated by 2-DE image matching or immunoblots (e.g. apolipoprotein AI, lysozyme C, and Clara cell secretory protein). Some new proteins, not shown before in 2-DE patterns of NLF were also found, e.g. mammaglobin B, 2-microglobulin and immunoglobulin J chain. Of the identified NLF proteins many appear to be involved in inflammatory and immune responses. A study was therefore conducted to investigate if the levels of these proteins were changed in smokers compared to nonsmokers. It was found that NLF from smokers contained decreased levels of Clara cell secretory protein, and increased proportions of a truncated variant of lipocortin-1, three acidic forms of α1-antitrypsin, and one phosphorylated form of cystatin S. Furthermore, NLF from smokers contained increased proportions of a new variant of palate lung nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC), a recently identified airway irritation marker. The results demonstrate that 2-DE of NLF may be used to assess alterations of proteins or post-translationally modified proteins in smokers. Clara cell secretory protein (CC 16, CC 10) and lipocortin-1 are two anti-inflammatory, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins, and α1-antitrypsin and cystatin S are two proteinase inhibitors. Changed levels of these proteins may therefore be of importance to the airway inflammation caused by smoking. The results also support the notion that PLUNC is involved in inflammatory responses in the upper airways.

  • 37.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mapping of proteins in human saliva using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting2003In: Proteomics, ISSN 1615-9853, E-ISSN 1615-9861, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 1003-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human saliva contains a large number of proteins that can be used for diagnosis and are of great potential in clinical and epidemiological research. The aim of this work was to map the proteins in saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and to identify abundant proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting using trypsin cleavage and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis. One hundred proteins were identified representing 20 different identities according to accession numbers. Abundant proteins expressed in different forms were: α-amylase, immunoglobulin A, prolactin-inducible protein, zinc-α2-glycoprotein and cystatins (S, SA, D and SN). Other proteins found were interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, von Ebner’s gland protein (lipocalin-1) and calgranulin A and B (S100A8 and A9). Furthermore, apolipoprotein A-I, β2-microglobulin, glutathione S-transferase P and fatty acid-binding protein were also identified. Our results show that human saliva contains a large number of proteins that are involved in inflammatory and immune responses. The 2-DE protein map constructed opens the possibility to investigate protein changes associated with disease processes.

  • 38.
    Gladh, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Rahgozar, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Spetz, Anna-Clara
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Prevalence of symptoms possibly related to PADAM, in a Swedish population aged 55, 65 and 75 years2005In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 161-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: With age there is an average decline in the concentration of biologically active testosterone. It is still controversial if this leads to a clinically relevant deficit, "partial androgen deficiency of the ageing man" (PADAM). Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of a series of symptoms possibly associated with PADAM in an assumed normal-population of older men. Methods: We developed a questionnaire including items about symptoms possibly associated with PADAM as well as background data covering demography, medical history, mood status, medication, castration therapy, as well as smoking, exercise and alcohol habits. The 10 items of the ADAM-questionnaire, designed to predict low bio-available T, were also included. The questionnaire was sent to all 1885 men 55, 65 or 75-years-old, living in Linköping, Sweden. Results: We identified a number of symptoms that differed significantly (P<0.01) between age groups, e.g., "increased abdominal circumference", "decrease in muscle strength and/or endurance", "decreased libido", "less strong erection" and "lack of energy". From factorial analysis we found that the symptoms co-varied in four different groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of a number of symptoms differed significantly between age groups, but we cannot infer that there is a causal connection between an average age-dependent decline in testosterone function and these symptoms. There are several other ways to interpret these results like the existence of concurrent somatic and/or mood disorders or ageing as such. For this purpose further studies including measurements of testosterone concentrations relating to the findings of this study have to be performed. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 39. Guénel, Pascal
    et al.
    Cyr, Diane
    Sabroe, Svend
    Lynge, Elsebeth
    Merletti, Franco
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia
    Ménégoz, Francois
    Olsson, Håkan
    Paulsen, Stein
    Simonato, Lorenzo
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Alcohol drinking may increase risk of breast cancer in men: A European population-based case-control study2004In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 571-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: It has been estimated that alcohol drinking increases the risk of breast cancer in women by approximately 7% for each increment of 10 g alcohol per day. However, the few studies conducted on breast cancer among men have failed to detect an association with quantitative measures of alcohol drinking, even if the alcohol intake is generally higher in men than in women. On the other hand, increased risks of male breast cancer were inconsistently reported in alcoholics or patients with liver cirrhosis. We have investigated the role of alcohol drinking in male breast cancer using data collected in a population-based case-control study on seven rare cancers, conducted in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden. Methods: The cases were 74 histologically verified male breast cancer patients aged 35-70 years. The controls (n = 1432) were selected from population registers, and frequency-matched to the cases by age group and geographic area. To check for consistency, a separate analysis was conducted using as controls the patients with a rare cancer other than male breast recruited simultaneously in the European study (n = 519 men). Results: Based on population controls, the risk of developing breast cancer in men increased by 16% (95% CI: 7-26%) per 10 g alcohol /day (p < 0.001). An odds ratio of 5.89 (95% CI: 2.21-15.69) was observed for alcohol intake greater than 90 g per day, as compared with light consumers ( < 15 g per day). Similar associations were observed when other rare cancers patients were used as controls. Conclusion: We found that the relative risk of breast cancer in men is comparable to that in women for alcohol intakes below 60 g per day. It continues to increase at high consumption levels not usually studied in women.

  • 40. Hagfors, Linda
    et al.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Sköldstam, Lars
    Andersson, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress in a randomized, controlled, parallel, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis2003In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previously we have reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) obtained a significant reduction in disease activity by adopting a Mediterranean-type diet. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant intake, the plasma levels of antioxidants and a marker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) during the study presented earlier. Methods: RA patients randomized to either a Mediterranean type diet (MD group, n = 26) or a control diet (CD group, n = 25) were compared during a three month dietary intervention study. Their antioxidant intake was assessed by means of diet history interviews and their intake of antioxidant-rich foods by a self-administered questionnaire. The plasma levels of retinol, antioxidants (a- and ?-tocopherol, ▀-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C and uric acid) and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The Student's t-test for independent samples and paired samples were used to test differences between and within groups. For variables with skewed distributions Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test were performed. To evaluate associations between dietary intake of antioxidants, as well as between disease activity, MDA and antioxidants we used Pearson's product moment correlation or Spearman's rank correlation. Results: The MD group had significantly higher intake frequencies of antioxidant-rich foods, and also higher intakes of vitamin C (p = 0.014), vitamin E (p = 0.007) and selenium (p = 0.004), and a lower intake of retinol (p = 0.049), compared to the CD group. However, the difference between the groups regarding vitamin C intake was not significant when under- and over-repoters were excluded (p = 0.066). There were no changes in urine MDA or in the plasma levels of antioxidants (after p-lipid adjustments of the tocopherol results), from baseline to the end of the study. The levels of retinol, vitamin C and uric acid were negatively correlated to disease activity variables. No correlation was found between antioxidant intake and the plasma levels of antioxidants. Conclusions: Despite an increase in reported consumption of antioxidant-rich foods during the Mediterranean diet intervention, the levels of plasma antioxidants and urine MDA did not change. However, the plasma levels of vitamin C, retinol and uric acid were inversely correlated to variables related to RA disease activity.

  • 41.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Strålning, cancer och forskarutbildning2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Flesch-Janys, Dieter
    Epidemiological studies on cancer and exposure to dioxins and related compounds.2003In: Dioxins and health / [ed] Arnold Schecter, Thomas A. Gasiewicz, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003, 2, p. 729-764Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Now in its third edition, Dioxins and Healthis the most respected reference of its kind, presenting the latest scientific findings on dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds, and their impact on human health. The book fully examines the many toxicological effects—including immunological, neurological, developmental, dermatological, and cardiological—these chemicals have on health.

    This Third Editionhas been greatly expanded with the latest research findings on dioxins and related compounds. Moreover, it now includes coverage of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine disruptors, including:

    • Brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane

    • Perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

    • Other endocrine disrupting chemicals similar to POPs such as bisphenol A

    Readers will also learn about the latest findings on the long-term impacts caused by the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam. Other chapters review the Seveso disaster in Italy and the Yusho and Yucheng rice oil poisoning incidents in Japan and Taiwan. In addition, there is a full chapter dedicated to the dioxin poisoning of former Ukraine President Victor Yushchenko.

    All the chapters in the book have been written by leading international experts. References at the end of each chapter guide readers to the primary literature in the field.

    Expertly organized in one volume, Dioxins and Health offers readers quick access to essential information about dioxins and related compounds written in clear, simple language that is accessible to not only scientists, clinicians and public health professionals, but also general readers.

  • 43. Hellström, L
    et al.
    Hellström, L
    Elinder, CG
    Elinder, C-G
    Dahlberg, B
    Dahlberg, B
    Lundberg, M
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Nephrology UHL.
    Lundberg, M
    Järup, L
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Cadmium exposure and end-stage renal disease2001In: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, ISSN 0272-6386, E-ISSN 1523-6838, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1001-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental exposure to cadmium may cause kidney damage and tubular proteinuria. We investigated the relationship between low-level cadmium exposure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), indicated by renal replacement therapy (RRT), in a Swedish population environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium. Based on records of all persons in the population previously or presently employed in cadmium-battery production or residing in cadmium-polluted areas near the battery plants, we defined exposure as high (occupational), moderate (domicile < 2 km from a plant), low (domicile 2 to 10 km from a plant), or no exposure (domicile > 10 km from a plant). Comprehensive data were available for all individuals undergoing RRT since 1978. The annual incidence of RRT increased from 41 per million in the age group 20 to 29 years to 243 per million in the age group 70 to 79 years and was greater in a priori-defined populations with cadmium exposure. Adjusting for age and sex gave an increased Mantel-Haenszel rate ratio (MH-RR) of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.3) for RRT in the cadmium-exposed population compared with the unexposed group, the MH-RR was even higher for women (MH-RR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.5). Directly age-standardized rate ratios for RRT and cadmium exposure increased from 1.4 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.0) in the low-exposure group to 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.5) and 2.3 (95% CI, 0.6 to 6.0) in the moderate- and high-exposure groups, respectively. We conclude that exposure to occupational or relatively low environmental levels of cadmium appears to be a determinant for the development of ESRD. ⌐ 2001 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  • 44.
    Hellström, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Järup, Lars
    KI.
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Using environmental concentrations of cadmium and lead to assess human exposure and close2004In: Journal of Exposure Analysis And Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1053-4245, E-ISSN 1476-5519, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 416-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Using environmental concentrations and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to model human exposure is an emerging tool in environmental epidemiology. To evaluate the usefulness of this, we investigated to what extent cadmium and lead concentrations in soil and moss could be used as potential determinants for cadmium and lead exposure for a population living near a battery plant. Methods: Cadmium in urine and blood and lead in blood, as well as food, smoking habits, places of residence, occupations and health, were determined for 512 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. Cadmium and lead contents in moss were available through previous assessments by the Geological Survey of Sweden. Soil samples had been collected at various distances from the factory, and analyzed for cadmium and lead contents in 1990. Kriging technique in GIS was used to create areas with different metal concentrations based on these measurements. By linking individual address coordinates to mapped concentration levels, each study subject home address received a value of cadmium and lead in moss and soil. Results: We found a statistically significant association between lead in soil and lead in blood, for female subjects eating homegrown vegetables regularly. No significant association was found between cadmium in soil and cadmium in urine for either gender in the study population. No clear associations were found for either gender regarding lead and cadmium in moss and lead in blood or cadmium in urine or in blood. Conclusion: In general, environmental concentrations may not be useful surrogates for assessing human exposure to lead and cadmium, but concentrations of metals in soil around emitting point sources can be a complement for estimating the exposure in certain subgroups.

  • 45.
    Hellström, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Brudin, Lars
    Petersson Grawé, Kierstin
    Öborn, Ingrid
    Järup, Lars
    Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 373, no 2-3, p. 447-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Methods: Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Results: Eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd > 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in homegrown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. Conclusion: The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 46. Jin Lee, W
    et al.
    Teschke, K
    Kauppinen, T
    Andersen, A
    Jäppinen, P
    Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I
    Pearce, N
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Bergeret, A
    Facchini, LA
    Kishi, R
    Kielkowski, D
    Anddreassen Rix, B
    Henneberger, P
    Sunyer, J
    Colin, D
    Kogevinas, M
    Boffetta, P
    Mortality from lung cancer in workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry.2002In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 110, p. 991-995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Järup, Lars
    et al.
    Hellström, Lennart
    Alfvén, Tobias
    Carlsson, Margareta
    Grubb, Anders
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Pettersson, Conny
    Spång, Gunnar
    Schütz, Andrejs
    Elinder, C-G
    Low level exposure to cadmium and early kidney damage: The OSCAR study2000In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 57, no 10, p. 668-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives - To study the dose-response relation between cadmium dose and renal tubular damage in a population of workers and people environmentally or occupationally exposed to low concentrations of cadmium. Methods - Early kidney damage in 1021 people, occuptionally or environmentally exposed to cadmium, was assessed from cadmium in urine to estimate dose, and protein HC (a1-microglobulin) in urine to assess tubular pvoteinuria. Results - There was an age and sex adjusted correlation between cadmium in urine and urinary protein HC. The prevalence of tubular proteinuria ranged from 5% among unexposed people to 50% in the most exposed group. The corresponding prevalence odds ratio was 6.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6 to 22) for the highest exposure group, adjusted for age and sex. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an increasing prevalence of tubular proteinuria with urinary cadmium as well as with age. After adjusment to the mean age of the study population (53 years), the results show an increased prevalence of 10% tubular proteinuria (taking into account a background prevalence of 5%) at a urinary cadmium concentration of 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine. Conclusion - Renal tubular damage due to exposure to cadmium develops at lower levels of cadmium body burden than previously anticipated.

  • 48. Kallas, M
    et al.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Synnerstad, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Frequency and distribution pattern of melanocytic naevi in Estonian children and the influence of atopic dermatitis2006In: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, ISSN 0926-9959, E-ISSN 1468-3083, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 143-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a strong correlation between naevus number and prospective melanoma risk. Melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in Estonia and primary prevention programmes for melanoma that target risk behaviour in the sun have so far not been launched. Methods: The naevus profile was examined in 549/700 9-year-old Estonian children (282 boys and 267 girls) and the presence of active atopic dermatitis (AD) was registered. Results: There was a wide range of naevi (4-121) and a median total body count of 26. There was no difference in naevus count between boys and girls. No dysplastic naevi were found. Thirty-nine of 549 children (7%) had at least one lesion clinically diagnosed as a congenital naevus. Boys had more naevi on the face (median 4) and trunk (median 12) than girls (median 3 and 9, respectively, P < 0.001). Girls had more naevi on the legs compared with boys (median 4 and 3, respectively, P < 0.01). Fifty-four out of 549 (9.8%) had naevi on the palms and 18/549 (3.3%) on the soles. Children with fair skin, freckles and light hair and eye colours had significantly more naevi than those with darker colours. Thirty-one of 549 (6%) children had AD diagnosed on the examination day and they had a lower total naevus count (median 20) compared with children with no AD (median 27,n = 518, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The naevus situation in Estonian children today might constitute a starting point for evaluating the efficiency of coming preventive measures as a change of naevus number in children might serve as an early marker for a change in melanoma incidence. © 2006 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  • 49.
    Kangoum, Abdul-Almawla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Prevalence of female genital mutilation among African women resident in the Swedish county of Östergötland2004In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 187-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To establish the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) among African women resident in the Swedish County of Östergötland and assess the types of FGM. Material and methods. Three hundred and four African women aged ≥ 18 years were domiciled in Östergötland by the end of 1998. The women were invited by letter. A socio-cultural questionnaire designed to give an overall picture of FGM within a socioeconomic context, and also to invite the women to an interview and examination, was sent to all African women in the county of Östergötland. Women who gave their consent (n = 63) underwent a gynecologic examination. Results. The response rate was 84%. According to the questionnaire, 68% of all the African women were genitally mutilated. The clinical examination revealed that 39 women (62%) were mutilated, 17 of them (44%) had undergone removal of part or all external genitalia and stitching ('infibulation'), 26% had undergone removal of the prepuce of the clitoris ('prepucectomy'), 23% had undergone various cultural practices on the external genitalia, and 7.7% excision of the clitoris with partial or total removal of labia minora ('clitoridectomy'). Conclusion. The influx of immigrants to Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries from cultures where FGM is practiced, requires that physicians and other health professionals familiarize themselves with the practice and the cultural beliefs underlying it. Sensitivity to the needs of these women as well as attention to the potential physical hazards posed by the practice are important factors in care.

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Hanna L
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Unit for Analytical Toxicology, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindbom, John
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Möller, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at Novum, Unit for Analytical Toxicology, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparison of genotoxic and inflammatory effects of particles generated by wood combustion, a road simulator and collected from street and subway2006In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 165, no 3, p. 203-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health effects of exposure to airborne particles are of increasing concern in society. In order to protect public health, a clarification of the toxic properties of particles from different sources is of importance. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the genotoxicity and the ability to induce inflammatory mediators of nine different particle types from wood and pellets combustion, from tire–road wear and collected from an urban street and a subway station. The comet assay was used to assess genotoxicity after exposure of the human lung cell line A549. Inflammatory effects were measured as induction of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α after exposure of human macrophages. We found that all particles tested caused DNA damage and those from the subway caused more damage than the other particles (p < 0.001) likely due to redox-active iron. In contrast, particles collected from an urban street were most potent to induce inflammatory cytokines. Particles from tire–road wear collected using a road simulator were genotoxic and able to induce cytokines. Finally, more effective combustion of wood led to less emission of particles, but those emitted did not show less toxicity in this study.

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