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  • 1.
    Grundström, Hanna
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Wallin, Karin
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Berterö, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    'You expose yourself in so many ways': young women's experiences of pelvic examination2011In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe young women's experiences of pelvic examination (PE). Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine women aged 18--23 years, who had undergone at least one PE. Data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Three general themes were identified: (1) relinquishing and regaining control, (2) facilitation of the situation by the examiner and (3) PE is an unpleasant necessity. These general themes had a common structure that represented the essence: an intimate situation. The women experienced PE as an intimate situation, which they associated with their sexuality. They felt exposed both bodily and mentally and were placed in a vulnerable situation. PE was considered as unpleasant but necessary to confirm their health. During the PE, the women felt that they lost control of the situation by exposing their intimate parts. To regain control, the women felt a need for continuous information from the examiner. The vulnerable situation could be made less vulnerable if the examiner built a trusting relationship and made the women feel secure and seen as individuals. A deeper understanding of the situation from the women's perspective could facilitate the examiner's performance of PE, leading to more positive experiences among young women.

  • 2.
    Nieminen, Katri
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Berg, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Frankenstein, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Viita, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Larsson, Kamilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Persson, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Spånberger, Loviisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wretman, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Silfvernagel, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wijma, Klaas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Internet-provided cognitive behaviour therapy of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth—a randomized controlled trial2016In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 287-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of trauma-focused guided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for relieving posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth, a problem that about 3% women encounter postpartum. Following inclusion, 56 traumatized women were randomized to either treatment or to a waiting list control group. Primary outcome measures were the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) and Impact of Event Scale—Reversed (IES-R). Secondary measures were Beck depression inventory II, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Quality Of Life Inventory and the EuroQol 5 Dimensions. The treatment was guided by a clinician and lasted eight weeks and comprised eight modules of written text. The between-group effect size (ES) was d = .82 (p < .0001) for the IES-R. The ES for the TES was small (d = .36) and not statistically significant (p = .09). A small between-group ES (d = .20; p = .02) was found for the PHQ-9. The results from pre- to post-treatment showed large within-group ESs for PTSD symptoms in the treatment group both on the TES (d = 1.42) and the IES-R (d = 1.30), but smaller ESs in the control group from inclusion to after deferred treatment (TES, d = .80; IES-R d = .45). In both groups, the treatment had positive effects on comorbid depression and anxiety, and in the treatment group also on quality of life. The results need to be verified in larger trials. Further studies are also needed to examine long-term effects.

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