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  • 1.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Internmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Månsson, Ann-Sofie
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Widell, Anders
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Monitoring hepatitis C infection in a major Swedish nephrology unit and molecular resolution of a new case of nosocomial transmission.2010Ingår i: Journal of medical virology, ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 249-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a frequent problem in hemodialysis units. The prevalence and incidence of HCV infection over a decade were studied in a nephrology unit affected by previous nosocomial HCV transmission. The HCV non-structural 5B protein gene was sequenced to achieve phylogenetic analysis of a new (incident) case of infection. Proportions of patients who were and were not infected with HCV remained similar over the period, as did the inflow and outflow of patients infected previously. In 1997, 12/157 (8%) of patients at the unit (treatment: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplant recipients) were positive in HCV RNA, whereas in 2007 the overall number was 9/239 (4%). One patient acquired an HCV infection, and the NS5B sequence in that case clustered with genotype 2b sequences found in patients from an earlier outbreak. Comparing the HCV from the incident patient with several stored longitudinal samples and cloned PCR products from the most likely source patient revealed close phylogenetic relationship with an HCV quasispecies member from the possible source. The source patient and the incident newly infected patient were not scheduled on the same dialysis shift, although the records showed that simultaneous treatment occurred on two occasions during the months preceding transmission. In conclusion, over the 10-year period, the proportion of HCV-infected patients at the unit was unchanged. Only one new infection occurred, which originated from a fellow patient's quasispecies. This establishes phylogenetic analysis as a valuable tool for tracing patient sources of HCV transmission.

  • 2.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Njurmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Lindell, Å
    Åselius, H
    Sörén, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Svensson, L
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Molekylär och immunologisk patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Eribe, ERK
    Olsen, I
    Acute glomerulonephritis associated with streptococcus pyogenes with concomitant spread of streptococcus constellatus in four rural families2005Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 110, nr 3, s. 217-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied history, renal histopathology and microbiology of an epidemic of acute glomerulonephritis associated with throat infections and uncommon culture results in four neighbour families. A 40-year-old man (index patient) was referred to a university hospital for dialysis and kidney biopsy due to a suspected acute glomerulonephritis. An acute tonsillitis had preceded the condition. Penicillin treatment had been started four days before the discovery of renal failure. Throat swabs were positive for β-hemolytic streptococci, group C (GCS). GCS were also found in throat cultures from his wife and two of their children. The bacteria were typed as Streptococcus constellatus. A third child had S. constellatus expressing Lancefield antigen group G. A neighbour and two of his children fell ill the following week with renal involvement. Throat swabs from both these children were positive for S. constellatus. His third child had erythema multiforme and S. constellatus in the throat while a fourth child had β-hemolytic streptococci group A, Streptococcus pyogenes. Kidney biopsies on the index patient and his neighbour showed an acute diffuse prolipherative glomerulonephritis compatible with acute post-streptococcal nephritis and microbiological analysis of renal tissue revealed in both cases S. pyogenes and S. constellatus. The families had had much contact and had consumed unpasteurized milk from our index patient's farm. In four of seven persons in two additional neighbouring families S. constellatus was found in throat swabs during the same month while two persons carried Streptococcus anginosus expressing the Lancefield C antigen. In conclusion spread of S. constellatus coincided with the occurrence of four cases of acute glomerulonephritis. The two biopsied patients had both S. pyogenes and S. constellatus present in renal tissue. The epidemic either suggested that the outbreak of glomerulonephritis was due to S. pyogenes but coincided with the transmission and colonization of S. constellatus or that the S. constellatus strains were highly pathogenic or nephritogenic and that this organism can be transmitted in such cases.

  • 3.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Njurmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Uhlin, F
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Njurmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Njurmedicinska kliniken US.
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Kaijser, B
    Andersson, B
    Hahn-Zoric, M
    Sällberg, M
    Perspectives on hepatitis B infections and the efficacy of vaccination (hepatitis B and pneumococci) in dialysis patients2003Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 108, nr 1, s. 61-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis B is a well known problem in dialysis units. We therefore examined the historical frequency of hepatitis B carriers in our unit, our vaccination program to hepatitis B virus (HBV), the response to hepatitis B vaccine, the IgG subclass response of anti-HBs and the response and IgG subclass response to pneumococcal vaccination (another vaccine) in dialysis patients. From 1970 and onwards 23 HBV carriers were found, but no new cases of hepatitis B occurred during the study period, i.e. from 1980 and onwards.Only one of the carriers was alive by the end of 2001. In four patients liver disease(in one of them liver cirrhosis) may have been a concomitant cause of death. The antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine was significantly lower in patients than in staff. In four patients a fourth injection was cancelled due to transplantation and bad health, while such data were lacking in 8 cases. In anti-HBs positive patients and controls a significant difference in the response of healthy adults was observed in anti-HBs IgG1 (p<0.001) vs all other IgG subclasses. Dialysis patients had low levels, or negative findings, in all cases, with IgG1 as the highest proportion found (3/11 patients). An antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination was registered in 25 out of 29 dialysis patients (in all 86 %). The IgG-subclass vaccination response to pneumococci in 28 dialysis patients was mainly IgG2 and IgG1 but also occurred in IgG3 and IgG4. Prevaccination antibody levels of the controls were higher in IgG1 and IgG2 (p< 0.01) (n=21) than in dialysis patients (n=28). Hepatitis B is nowadays a rare, but still dangerous disease in nephrology units. Dialysis patients have a reduced response to hepatitis B vaccine and vaccination schedules should be started early as some patients otherwise may not receive a fourth injection. The adequate antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination mainly due to IgG2 and IgG1 antibodies indicates that the antigen involved is important in vaccination responses in dialysis patients.

  • 4.
    Aspevall, O
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Kjerstadius, T
    Hallander, H
    Evaluation of two methods for improving quality of diagnosis of bacteriuria by culture in primary healthcare.2000Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 60, s. 387-394Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Aspevall, O
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin.
    Osterman, Björn
    Dittmer, R
    Stén, L
    Lindbäck, E
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Performance of four chromogenic urine culture media after one or two days of incubation compared with reference media.2002Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 40, s. 1500-1503Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Four chromogenic urine culture media were compared to culture on blood agar, MacConkey agar, and CLED (cysteine-, lactose-, and electrolyte-deficient) agar for detection of uropathogens in 1,200 urine specimens. After 2 nights of incubation, 96% of all isolates were recovered on blood agar, 96% were recovered on CLED agar, 92% were recovered on CPS ID2, 96% were recovered on CHROMagar Orientation from BBL, 95% were recovered on CHROMagar Orientation from The CHROMagar Company, and 95% were recovered on Chromogenic UTI Medium.

  • 6.
    Aspevall, Olle
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst Stockholm.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Preiminary report: Concepts and terms used to describe urinary tract infection in primary health care and in the clinical microbiology laboratory1999Ingår i: Medical Informatics Europe99,1999, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 1999, s. 899-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Aspevall, Olle
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet Stockholm.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Building a concept system to structure the contents of a decision support system - a grounded theory study of concepts in the knowledge domain of urinary tract infection2001Ingår i: Medical informatics and the Internet in medicine (Print), ISSN 1463-9238, E-ISSN 1464-5238, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 115-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Cardell, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Widell, A
    Department of Medical Microbiology Lund University.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Månsson, A-S
    Department of Medical Microbiology Lund University.
    FranzÉn, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Lymer, U-B
    Department of Natural Sciences and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences Jönköping University.
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Nosocomial hepatitis C in a thoracic surgery unit, retrospective findings generating a prospective study2008Ingår i: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 322-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to two patients from a thoracic surgeon who was unaware of his hepatitis C infection. By partial sequencing of the non-structural 5B gene and phylogenetic analysis, the viruses from both patients were found to be closely related to genotype 1a strain from the surgeon. Two further hepatitis C cases were found in relation to the thoracic clinic. Their HCV sequences were related to each other but were of genotype 2b and the source of infection was never revealed. To elucidate the magnitude of the problem, we conducted a prospective study for a period of 17 months in which patients who were about to undergo thoracic surgery were asked to participate. Blood samples were drawn prior to surgery and at least four months later. The postoperative samples were then screened for anti-HCV and, if positive, the initial sample was also analysed. The only two patients (0.4%) identified were confirmed anti-HCV positive before surgery, and none out of 456 evaluable cases seroconverted to anti-HCV during the observation period. Despite the retrospectively identified cases, nosocomial hepatitis C is rare in our thoracic unit. The study points out the risk of transmission of hepatitis C from infected personnel and reiterates the need for universal precautions. © 2008 The Hospital Infection Society.

  • 9.
    Cardell, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Sällberg, Matti
    Division of Clinical Virology, Karolinska Institute at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Frydén, Aril
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Infektionskliniken US.
    Excellent response rate to a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in previous nonresponders to hepatitis B vaccine2008Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, E-ISSN 1537-6613, Vol. 198, nr 3, s. 299-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine has been shown to be highly efficient in preventing hepatitis B. However, 5%-10% of individuals fail to develop protective levels (>or=10 mIU/mL) of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and are considered to be nonresponders.

    METHODS: A total of 48 nonresponders and 20 subjects naive to the HBV vaccine received a double dose of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The levels of anti-HBs and antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) were determined before vaccination and 1 month after each dose.

    RESULTS: Among 44 nonresponders, protective anti-HBs levels were found in 26 (59%) after the first dose and in 42 (95%) after the third dose. Among the control subjects, the corresponding figures were 10% and 100%, respectively. All subjects seroconverted to anti-HAV. The titers of both anti-HBs and anti-HAV were lower in the previously nonresponsive subjects (P< .01).

    CONCLUSION: Revaccination of nonresponders to the standard hepatitis B vaccine regimen with a double dose of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was highly effective. This is most likely explained by the increased dose, a positive bystander effect conferred by the hepatitis A vaccine, or both.

  • 10.
    Coble, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi, Avdelningen för dermatologi och venereologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Hudkliniken i Östergötland.
    Nordahl-Åkesson, E
    Vinnerberg, Å
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Urine-based testing for Chlamydia trachomatis using polymerase chain reaction, leucocyte esterase and urethral and cervical smears2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 269-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of Roche polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Amplicor to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in first-voided urine specimens from 422 males and 456 females attending two clinics for sexually transmitted infections was evaluated in comparison with cultures of urethral and cervical specimens. At the same time, the ability of leucocyte esterase (LE) in first-voided urine and the presence of leucocytes in urethral and cervical smears to identify C. trachomatis -infected individuals based on PCR and culture was determined. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 10.9 % in men and 7.7 % in women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Amplicor was 93.5 %, 99.7 %, 97.7 % and 99.2 % in males and 91.4 %, 99.5 %, 94.1 % and 99.3 % in females. All Chlamydia-infected men were identified by means of a combination of urethritis (≥4 leucocytes in the urethral smear) and/or a positive LE test in urine, although the specificity was only 42.2 %. In women, the combination of urethritis and/or cervicitis and/or a positive LE test identified 85.7 % of Chlamydia-infected patients with a specificity of 38.2 %. It is concluded that a combination of urethral and/or cervical smears and LE testing of urine can be used as a screening test to select patients, especially males, for specific C. trachomatis testing.

  • 11.
    Cristea-FernstrOm, M.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Laboratory, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Margaretha
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Chryssanthou, E.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Laboratory, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Laboratory, SE 17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonasson, Jon
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Petrini, B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Laboratory, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pyrosequencing of a short hypervariable 16S rDNA fragment for the identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria - A comparison with conventional 16S rDNA sequencing and phenotyping2007Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, nr 11, s. 1252-1259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional methods for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are often inexact and time consuming. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA is accurate, rapid and effective. We have retrospectively evaluated the discriminative power of pyrosequencing of a short hypervariable 16S rDNA fragment as a simple and rapid tool for NTM characterization. A series of 312 clinical NTM isolates, excluding the M. avium/intracellulare complex, was investigated. When species could not be resolved by sequencing alone, growth rate and pigment production were also examined. 54% (170/312) of the isolates were unambiguously identified by both methods. An additional 14% (45/312) were directly identified to species by conventional 16S rDNA sequencing but needed complementary phenotypic analysis when examined by pyrosequencing. The remaining 31% (97/312) needed additional phenotypic analysis for both sequencing methods. We consider the pyrosequencing procedure to be a useful alternative for the identification of several NTM species, and a versatile tool for the characterization of clinical NTM isolates. At times it requires additional tests for definite species diagnosis and correct identification. Copyright © Apmis 2007.

  • 12.
    Davidson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Utvärdering och hälsoekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ekermo, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Transfusionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Gaines, Hans
    Lesko, Birgitta
    Akerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    The cost-effectiveness of introducing nucleic acid testing to test for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Sweden2011Ingår i: TRANSFUSION, ISSN 0041-1132, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 421-429Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using individual-donor nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) in addition to serologic tests compared with the sole use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors in Sweden. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The two strategies analyzed were serologic tests and ID-NAT plus serologic tests. A health-economic model was used to estimate the lifetime costs and effects. The effects were measured as infections avoided and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. A societal perspective was used. RESULTS: The largest number of viral transmissions occurred with serologic testing only. However, the risks for viral transmissions were very low with both strategies. The total cost was mainly influenced by the cost of the test carried out. The cost of using ID-NAT plus serologic tests compared to serologic tests alone was estimated at Swedish Krona (SEK) 101 million (USD 12.7 million) per avoided viral transmission. The cost per QALY gained was SEK 22 million (USD 2.7 million). CONCLUSION: Using ID-NAT for testing against HBV, HCV, and HIV among blood donors leads to cost-effectiveness ratios that are far beyond what is usually considered cost-effective. The main reason for this is that with current methods, the risks for virus transmission are very low in Sweden.

  • 13. Dornbusch, Kathrine
    et al.
    Sörén, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Kinolonresistens hos gramnegativa tarmbakterier2003Ingår i: Smittnytt : information från smittskyddet och mikrobiologen, Vol. 36, s. 18-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    Ekerfelt, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk immunologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk immunologi och transfusionsmedicin.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Jönsson, Anna-Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Neurologiska kliniken.
    Ärlehag, L
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Lyme borreliosis in Sweden - Diagnostic performance of five commercial Borrelia serology kits using sera from well-defined patient groups2004Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 112, nr 1, s. 74-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Five commercial Borrelia serology kits available in Sweden were evaluated and compared for their diagnostic performance in sera from clinically well-characterized patient groups. With the clinically defined groups as the gold standard, i.e. without knowledge of antibody status in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, the diagnostic performance of the kits was compared and important differences in diagnostic usefulness were found. The kits from Abbot and DAKO, that often predict clinically relevant Borrelia infection and do not detect antibodies in sera from patients without strong suspicion of Borrelia infection, were considered the most useful in the population studied. This kind of validation study is an important part of good laboratory practice and should be performed by laboratories serving patient populations with varying endemicity of Borrelia.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, K
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ålands Centralsjukhus, Finland.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Björnerem, A
    Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Regionssjukhuset, Tromsö, Norway.
    Platz-Christensen, JJ
    Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Malmö.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Genus och medicin.
    Validation of the use of Pap-stained vaginal smears for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis2007Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, nr 7, s. 809-813Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears (Pap smears) are used to screen for cervical cancer. Since there is a lack of consensus in published reports respecting the efficacy of Pap-stained smears in BV diagnostics, there is a need to validate their use for diagnosis of BV. Slides from the international BV00 workshop were Pap stained and independently analyzed by four investigators under a phase-contrast microscope. All workshop slides - whether Pap-stained, Gram-stained or rehydrated air-dried smears - were scored according to the same Nugent classification. The diagnostic accuracy of Pap smears for diagnosis of BV had a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.92, with a positive and negative predictive value of 0.84 and 0.93, respectively. The interobserver weighted kappa index was 0.86 for Pap-stained smears compared to 0.81 for Gram-stained smears, and 0.70 for rehydrated air-dried smears using the mean Nugent score as the criterion standard. Provided that the samples are taken from equivalent locations (the vaginal fornix) and analyzed according to the same scoring criteria, there is no discernable difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the three smear-staining methods. The Pap-stained vaginal smears can be used as a wholly adequate alternative to Gram-stained smears for BV diagnosis. © Apmis 2007.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Adolfsson, Ann-Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Genus och medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Genus och medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    The prevalence of BV in the population on the Åland Islands during a 15-year period2010Ingår i: APMIS, ISSN 0903-4641, Vol. 118, nr 11, s. 903-908Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence and age distribution of bacterial vaginosis (BV) during an observation period of 15 years in a population study with cross-sectional samples of adult women living on the Aland Islands. The Aland Islands form an archipelago in the Baltic Sea and are a province of Finland. Every fifth year, specific age groups in the adult female population are invited to participate in a screening program for early diagnosis of cervical cancer using a papanicolaou (PAP)-stained vaginal smear. Women in the age groups of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 years are called each year. BV diagnosis of the PAP-stained smears uses the classification according to Nugent. The PAP-stained smears from the screening program of cervical cancer 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008 were used in this study. A total of 3456 slides were investigated and 271 women could be followed for the 15-year observation period. The prevalence of BV declined from 15.6% in 1993 to 8.6% in 2008. The highest prevalence occurred among the age groups of 35 and 50 years. Among the 271 women who could be followed for the 15-year observation period, two-third showed normal/intermediate flora and one-third were infected with BV at least once. As this is a cross-sectional population study spanning 15 years, the prevalence of BV in the female adult population of the Aland Islands can be estimated. The prevalence has declined between 1993 and 2008 from 15.6% to 8.6%.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Carlsson, Bodil
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Larsson, P-G
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital of Sko¨vde, Sweden.
    A double-blind treatment study of bacterial vaginosis with normal vaginal lactobacilli after an open treatment with vaginal clindamycin ovules2005Ingår i: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 85, nr 1, s. 42-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected 4-week cure rate after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis are only 65-70%. In an attempt to improve the cure rate by adding probiotic lactobacilli we performed a double-blind placebo-controlled study of adjuvant lactobacilli treatment after an open treatment with vaginal clindamycin ovules. Women with bacterial vaginosis as defined by Amsel's criteria were treated with clindamycin ovules. Vaginal smears were collected and analysed according to Nugent's criteria. During the following menstruation period the women used, as an adjuvant treatment, either lactobacilli-prepared tampons or placebo tampons. The lactobacilli tampons were loaded with a mixture of freeze-dried L. fermentum, L. casei var. rhamnosus and L. gasseri. The cure rate was recorded after the second menstruation period. There was no improvement in the cure rate after treatment with lactobacilli-containing tampons compared to placebo tampons, the cure rates as defined by Amsel's criteria were 56% and 62%, respectively, and 55% and 63%, as defined by Nugent's criteria. This is the first study to report cure rates for women with 'intermediate' wet smear ratings according to Nugent's classification and this group had an overall cure rate of 44%. The cure rate of treatment of bacterial vaginosis was not improved by using lactobacilli-prepared tampons for one menstruation.

  • 18.
    Erlandsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Lindgren, Sune
    Sörén, L.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, County Hospital, Jönköping .
    Walther, Sten
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Fysiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance in ICUs in Southeastern Sweden1999Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, Vol. 43, nr 8, s. 815-820Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A study was designed to assess a computer-based program for continuous registration of antibiotic resistance, statistics concerning severity of illness, and consumption of antibacterial drugs.

    Methods: The frequency of antibiotic resistance among bacteria in eight ICUs in southeastern Sweden was investigated yearly from 1995 through 1997. The antibiotic consumption in the ICUs was registered as defined daily doses (DDD) and compared to severity of illness (APACHE-II scores).

    Results: There was a statistically significant increase in ampicillin resistance among Enterococcus spp. between 1996 and 1997, which was due to a shift from Enterococcus faecalis to Enterococcus faecium. A high prevalence of resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci to oxacillin (≈ 70%), ciprofloxacin (≈ 50%), fucidic acid (≈ 50%) and netilmicin (≈ 30%) was seen in all ICUs during the whole study period. There was a statistically significant increase in ciprofloxacin resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. The resistance among Enterobacter spp. to cefotaxime decreased but this change was not statistically significant. Efforts were made to avoid betalactam antibiotics, except carbapenems, for treatment of infections caused by Enterobacter spp. and the consumption of cephalosporins decreased whereas the consumption of carbapenems increased. The total antibiotic consumption decreased by 2.5% during the study period. There was no correlation between APACHE II scores and antibiotic consumption.

    Conclusions: Each ICU within a hospital ought to have a program for "on-line" antibiotic resistance surveillance of drugs used in that unit so that changes in empirical treatment can be made when there is an increase in antibiotic-resistant isolates within that unit.

  • 19. Evertsson, U
    et al.
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Johansson, AG
    Detection and identification of fungi in blood using broad-range 28S rDNA PCR amplification and species-specific hybridisation2000Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 108, nr 5, s. 385-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to develop a PCR-based method to detect and identify fungi directly from human venous blood. We used broad-range PCR primers that targeted a part of the large subunit 28S rRNA genes. To obtain species-specific hybridisation probes, type strains of Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans were PCR amplified, and the amplicons were analysed by gene sequencing. Based on the sequence analysis, species-specific probes that targeted variable regions were designed and used in hybridisation analyses. Between 2 to 10 fungal cells/ml of spiked blood samples could be detected and correctly identified to species. We applied the technique to blood samples obtained from two patients with or two patients without verified candidaemia. The three samples of candidaemia patients were correctly identified to species level, and those of the negative patients remained negative. This method is a potential tool for diagnosis of systemic invasive candidiasis.

  • 20.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Ett område där värderingarna går isär2008Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, nr 43, s. 3058-3058Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Honungsburkar och UVI-diagnostik - kvalitetsarbete i uppförsbacke.2001Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, s. 596-597Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 22.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Lactobacilli and probiotics--the Devil lurks behind the details2008Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, nr 41, s. 2859-2860Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Letter: En intressant fotnot2009Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, nr 44, s. 2866-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 24.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Referensmetodik för laboratoriediagnostik vid kliniskt mikrobiologiska laboratorier.: I, Infektionsdiagnostik, 11, Bakteriologisk diagnostik av infektioner i hud, mjukdelar, skelett och inre organ2003Ingår i: Smittskyddsinstitutet / [ed] Berndt Claesson, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003, s. 89-117Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    The Swedish Society for Medical Microbiology, activities and scientific success during the first 100 years.2007Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Varning för Ellen!2004Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 101, nr 17, s. 1544-1544Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Danielsson, Dan
    Uppsala.
    Developments in the recent past - Immunology2007Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, nr 5, s. 406-408Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Fyrenius, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Annorlunda kurslitteratur. Skönlitteratur en del av läkarutbildningen i Linköping.2006Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, nr 35, s. 2483-2484Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Fyrenius, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Klinisk fysiologi.
    Literary fiction in the medical programme2006Ingår i: Celebrating the past by expanding the future.: the Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University 1986-2006 / [ed] Mats Hammar, Björn Bergdahl, Lena Öhman, Lecture Notes in Computer Science , 2006, s. 38-40Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the fall of 2006, the Faculty of Health Sciences (FHS) celebrates its 20th birthday. Linköping has a long tradition of health education; our nursing programme started already in 1895 and occupational therapy began in 1965. From the late 1960’s, medical students from Uppsala spent their last seven semesters in Linköping, mainly for clinical studies. After some years, academic and teachers from the young faculty, together with the county council, realized the enormous potential benefits of a complete undergraduate medical programme at Linköping University. Inspired by apparent innovations from McMaster University in Canada, Maastricht in Holland, Ben Gurion in Israel and Tromsø in Norway, these ideas and ideals were gradually turned into reality. In a complicated process, concerning the life or death of the medical faculty, a close co-operation between the University and the County Council of Östergötland was extremely fruitful. A proposal regarding a complete medical programme, and study periods integrated between the other health education programmes, was forwarded to the Swedish government in December 1982 and approved in 1984.

  • 30.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Gryfelt, Gunilla
    # # Institutionen för medicinsk epidemiologi och biostatistik , Karolinkska institutet.
    Klinteberg, Britt af
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, L Å
    Nordin, G
    Persson, B
    Svenska koder för laboratoriemedicin enligt C-NPU kodverkets principer2008 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Hallander, Hans O.
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control Stockholm.
    Kallner, Anders
    Dept of Clinical Chemistry Karolinska Univesity Hospital.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    The impact of qualitative analysis in laboratory medicine2005Ingår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 546-555Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory medicine is a challenge for the metrologically and terminologically inclined scientist. One main reason is the need for a sound theory that can be applied in a systematic way to cover all aspects of examinations, i.e., those procedures whose results are reported on an ordinal scale and those reported on more primitive scales (e.g., classifications and narratives). Validation of procedures for examinations involving properties on a nominal scale is especially difficult to achieve because it is hard to find gold standards, in the conventional sense, against which to validate and which combine performance characteristics and clinically relevant specificity and sensitivity. We present a systematic, unambiguously defined terminology (the C-NPU coding scheme) for metrologically derived terms for expressing properties, and present some examples of how to attain diagnostic goals. If the analytic process in the laboratory can be subsumed into medical contexts in a systematic way, many pitfalls in reporting results can be avoided. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Holst, E
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Vasquesz, A
    Jakobsson, Tell
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Mattsby-Baltzer, I
    Bacterial vaginosis - A microbiological and immunological enigma2005Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 113, nr 2, s. 81-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women of childbearing age and the resulting quantitative and qualitative shift from normally occurring lactobacilli in the vagina to a mixture of mainly anaerobic bacteria is a microbiological and immunological enigma that so far has precluded the formulation of a unifying generally accepted theory on the aetiology and clinical course of BV. This critical review highlights some of the more important aspects of BV research that could help in formulating new basic ideas respecting the biology of BV, not least the importance of the interleukin mediators of local inflammatory responses and the bacterial shift from the normally occurring lactobacilli species: L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii, and L. iners to a mixed flora dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Copyright © APMIS 2005.

  • 33.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Karell, A-C
    Larsson, P
    Klinisk bakteriologi och klinisk virologi är nödvändiga delar i sjukvårdens kärnverksamhet!2000Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, s. 24-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Begrepp och termer inom hälso- och sjukvård1999Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, nr 6, s. 540-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk informatik.
    Terminology, categories and representation of examinations in laboratory medicine [2]2005Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 43, nr 3, s. 344-345Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 36.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Larsson, Peter
    Bättre samlat grepp krävs för samhällets skydd mot mikroorganismer.2000Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, s. 5019-5019Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Larsson, P-G
    Bakteriell vaginos2004Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Larsson, P.-G.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skövde, Sweden.
    Spiegel, C.
    University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.
    Scoring vaginal fluid smears for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: Need for quality specifications2008Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 116, nr 2, s. 156-159Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Olcén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Skurnik, Mikael
    Diagnostic clinical bacteriology - Recent developments in the application of molecular biology tools2004Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 112, nr 11-12, s. 709-712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Olcén, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Skurnik, Mikael
    Methods in molecular biology2004Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An accessible introduction to how genomics has and will provide novel methods for bacterial investigation and advance our understanding and knowledge of bacterial pathogenicity. The authors critically evaluate the applications of genomics to diagnostic bacteriology, highlighting both current and likely future uses, describing real-time PCR methods, and outlining the promise of microarrays in clinical bacteriology. Their discussion examines in detail genomic approaches to antibacterial discovery, the nature of pathogenicity, the discovery of new pathogens, the exploration of the concept of clonality in bacteria, and bacterial taxonomics.

  • 41.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Olesen, H
    Frederiksen, W
    Persson, B
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Properties and units in the clinical laboratory sciences part VIII. Properties and units in clinical microbiology.2000Ingår i: Pure and Applied Chemistry, ISSN 0033-4545, E-ISSN 1365-3075, Vol. 72, s. 555-745Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Forsum, Urban
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Vainio, O
    Ögmundsdottir, H
    Special edition: Dendritic cells.2003Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 111, s. 673-674Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Friberg, O
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Kallman, J
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Soderquist, B
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    COLLAGEN-GENTAMICIN IMPLANT FOR PREVENTION OF STERNAL WOUND INFECTION; LONG TERM EFFECTIVENESS2009Ingår i: in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS vol 33, 2009, Vol. 33, s. S42-S42Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Friberg, Örjan
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Källman, Jan
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Söderquist, Bo
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Thoraxkirurgi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Collagen-gentamicin implant for prevention of sternal wound infection; long-term follow-up of effectiveness2009Ingår i: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 454-458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (LOGIP trial) the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of postoperative sternal wound infections (SWI) compared with intravenous prophylaxis only. Consequently, the technique with local gentamicin was introduced in clinical routine at the two participating centers. The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate the technique regarding the prophylactic effect against SWI and to detect potential shifts in causative microbiological agents over time. All patients in this prospective two-center study received prophylaxis with application of two collagen-gentamicin sponges between the sternal halves in addition to routine intravenous antibiotics. All patients were followed for 60 days postoperatively. From January 2007 to May 2008, 1359 patients were included. The 60-day incidences of any SWI was 3.7% and of deep SWI 1.5% (1.0% mediastinitis). Both superficial and deep SWI were significantly reduced compared with the previous control group (OR=0.34 for deep SWI, Pless than0.001). There was no increase in the absolute incidence of aminoglycoside resistant agents. The majority of SWI were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). The incidence of deep SWI caused by Staphylococcus aureus was 0.07%. The results indicate a maintained effect of the prophylaxis over time without absolute increase in aminoglycoside resistance.

  • 45.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kihlström, Erik
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins in human nasal lavage fluid2003Ingår i: Biochemical Society Transactions, ISSN 0300-5127, E-ISSN 1470-8752, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 810-814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone) is a newly discovered gene that is expressed in the upper respiratory tract and is suggested to be of importance in host defence against bacteria. We have identified two forms of the PLUNC protein in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and MS. The apparent molecular masses and isoelectric points of these forms are 24.8 kDa/pI 5.4 and 25.1 kDa/pI 5.5. Notably, the 24.8 kDa/pI 5.4 form of PLUNC is an abundant protein in the 2-DE protein patterns of NLF from healthy subjects. Decreased levels of PLUNC were found in NLF from smokers and workers exposed to reactive epoxy chemicals, indicating that long-term exposure to airway irritants impairs the production of PLUNC in the upper respiratory tract. We have also investigated the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding proteins in NLF. Five proteins were found to adsorb to a LPS-coated surface; two of these proteins correspond to the two PLUNC forms, as judged by 2-DE pattern matching. For comparison, human saliva was found to contain a set of LPS-binding proteins with similar 2-DE spot positions (the same pIs but somewhat lower apparent molecular masses of 20 kDa). These results indicate that PLUNC may be a new marker of airway inflammation and may play a part in the innate immune response, and that human saliva contains yet other members of the family of LPS-binding proteins.

  • 46. Grahn, Niclas
    et al.
    Olofsson, Margaretha
    Ellnebo-Svedlund, Katarina
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    Jonasson, Jon
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Identification of mixed bacterial DNA contamination in broad-range PCR amplification of 16S rDNA V1 and V3 variable regions by pyrosequencing of cloned amplicons2003Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Letters, ISSN 0378-1097, E-ISSN 1574-6968, Vol. 219, nr 1, s. 87-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sensitive and rapid method combining broad-range PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA fragments and pyrosequencing for detection, identification and typing, we have found contaminating bacterial DNA in our reagents used for PCR. Identified bacteria are the water-borne bacterial genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Xanthomonas, Ralstonia and Bacillus. Our results are in concordance with recent reports of contaminated industrial water systems. In light of this conclusion, we believe that there is a need for increased awareness of possible contamination in uncertified widely used molecular biology reagents, including ultra-pure water. Since sequence-based 16S rDNA techniques are used in a variety of settings for bacterial typing and the characterization of microbial communities, we feel that future certification of molecular biology reagents, as free of nucleic acids, would be advantageous. ⌐ 2002 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Grönberg, Anders
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Reactive arthritis: The human antibody responce elicited by Yersinia enterocolitica and Clamydia trachomatis1992Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A central issue in the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis (ReA) is whether or not individuals developing arthritis have an aberrant immune response to individual antigens of potential triggering microorganisms. Although evidence exists that Yersinia and Chlamydia are two agents that precipitate ReA it has not been shown that these pathogens share common antigens. To address this hypothesis, the antibody responses in individuals with ReA associated with Yersinia or Chlamydia have been analysed.

    Results reveal that 60% of patients with ReA following urogenital infectionhave antibodies to C. trachomatis, compared to 33% of patients withankylosing spondylitis and 19% of healthy blood donors.

    All patients infected with Y. enterocolitica developed IgG and IgA immuneresponses against a limited number of antigens, which can be detected within weeks of the onset of symptoms. The immune response to most of these antigens persisted throughout the follow-up period (the longest being 993 days). The IgG response was partly directed against different antigens not involved in the IgA response. There were substantial differencies between patient sera as regards anti genic specificity patterns. Individual variations were more pronounced than any putative similarities among patients with ReA or uncomplicated enterocolitis (UEC).

    Sera from patients with Y. enterocolitica-triggered ReA with or withoutantibodies to Chlamydia and sera from patients with UEC caused by Y. enterocolitica were analysed for cross-reactions with Salmonella typhimurium and C. trachomatis, representing two arthritis-associated bacteria. It was found that three antigens were restricted to arthritis associated organisms. Affinity purification suggested that one antigen of 74 kDa was recognized in Yersinia-, Salmonella-, and Chlamydia antigen preparations.

    A standardized method for quantitative Western blot analysis, using ascanning and image-processing system, was developed. Using this system it was found that the degree of antibody response could vary significantly between different runs. The amount of antigen transferred was found to be the key factor affecting the interpretation of the antibody response.

  • 48.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö.
    Claesson, B
    Kärnell, A
    Larsson, P
    Rylander, M
    Svensson, E
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa och miljö. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Sörberg, M
    Sörén, L
    New species-related MIC breakpoints for early detection of development of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria in Swedish intensive care units. 1999Ingår i: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 44, s. 611-619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Hydén, Dag
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Peebo, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Öronkliniken US.
    Inner ear and facial nerve complications of acute otitis media with focus on bacteriology and virology2006Ingår i: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 126, nr 5, s. 460-466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusion. Among 20 patients with inner ear complications and/or peripheral facial palsy secondary to acute otitis media (AOM) a proven or probable bacteriological cause was found in 13 (65%). In seven patients (35%), a proven or probable viral cause was found. Only two of the patients (10%), with a proven bacterial AOM and a clinical picture of a purulent labyrinthitis in both, together with a facial palsy in one, had a substantial degree of dysfunction. Although the number of patients in this study is relatively low our findings show that inner ear complications and facial palsy due to AOM can be of both bacterial and viral origin. Severe sequelae were found only where a bacterial origin was proven. Objectives. Inner ear complications and/or peripheral facial palsy secondary to AOM are rare. The general understanding is that they are due to bacterial infections. However, in some of these patients there are no clinical or laboratory signs of bacterial infections and they have negative bacterial cultures. During recent years different viruses have been isolated from the middle ear or serologically proven in AOM patients and are thought to play a pathogenetic role. We suggest that in some cases of AOM complications from the inner ear and the facial nerve can be caused by viruses. The purpose of our study was to analyze infectious agents present in patients with inner ear complications and/or facial palsy arising from AOM. Patients and methods. The medical records of 20 patients who had inner ear complications and/or facial palsy following AOM (unilateral in 18, bilateral in 2) between January 1989 and March 2003 were evaluated. Bacterial cultures were carried out for all patients. Sera from 12 of the patients were stored and tested for a battery of specific viral antibodies. In three patients, investigated between November 2002 and March 2003, viral cultures were also performed on samples from the middle ear and nasopharynx. Results. Nineteen patients had inner ear symptoms. Eight of them had a unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo, three had vertigo as an isolated symptom and one, with bilateral AOM, had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Seven patients had a combination of facial palsy and inner ear symptoms (unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in three, unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo in two, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo in one, with bilateral AOM, and vertigo alone in one). One patient had an isolated facial palsy. Healing was complete in 11 of the 20 patients. In seven patients a minor defect remained at follow-up (a sensorineural hearing loss at higher frequencies in all). Only two patients had obvious defects (a pronounced hearing loss in combination with a moderate to severe facial palsy (House-Brackman grade 4) in one, distinct vestibular symptoms and a total caloric loss in combination with a high-frequency loss in the other. Eight patients had positive bacteriological cultures from middle ear contents: Streptococcus pneumoniae in two, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group A in two, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus group A together with Staphylococcus aureus in one, Staph. aureus alone in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci (interpreted as pathogens) in two. In the 12 patients with negative cultures, there was a probable bacteriological cause due to the outcome in SR/CRP and leukocyte count in five. In four patients serological testing showed a concomitant viral infection that was interpreted to be the cause (varicella zoster virus in two, herpes simplex virus in one and adenovirus in one.) In three there was a probable viral cause despite negative viral antibody test due to normal outcome in SR/CRP, normal leukocyte count, serous fluid at myringotomy and a relatively short pre-complication antibiotic treatment period. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 50.
    Hällgren, Anita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Burman, L
    Olsson-Liljequist, B
    Isaksson, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Klinisk mikrobiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Saedi, B
    Walther, Sten
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och vård, Anestesiologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärtcentrum, Thorax-kärlkliniken.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Infektionsmedicin. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Infektionskliniken i Östergötland.
    Hög frekvens an korskolonisering med resistenta enterokocker hos "långliggare" på IVA2004Ingår i: Hygiea,2004, 2004, s. 57-57Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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