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  • 1.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå Universitet.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Vägverket.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Näsman, Yvonne
    Räddningsverket, Sandö.
    Utrymningsförsök av passagerare ur buss vid brand och brandtillbud samt antalet bränder och brandtillbud i bussar i Sverige2006In: Akuttjournalen: Tidsskrift for avansert akuttmedisin, ISSN 0805-6129, E-ISSN 1500-7480, Vol. 14, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 2.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Is there a pattern in European bus and coach incidents? A literature analysis with special focus on injury causation and injury mechanisms2005In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify and describe a pattern in bus and coach incident related injuries and fatalities, and to suggest possible future measures for improvement of bus and coach safety, a literature analysis was performed. The results formed a multi-faceted pattern, which briefly can be described as follows, women travelled more frequently by bus as compared to men. Injuries sustained predominantly affected women 60 years of age and older. Of all traffic fatalities in Europe, bus and coach fatalities represented 0.3-0.5%. In the OECD countries, the risk of being killed or seriously injured was found to be seven to nine times lower for bus and coach occupants as compared to those of car occupants. Despite the fact that fatalities were more frequent on rural roads, a vast majority of all bus and coach casualties occurred on urban roads and in dry weather conditions. Boarding and alighting caused about one-third of all injury cases. Collisions were a major injury-contributing factor. Buses and coaches most frequently collided with cars, but unprotected road users were hit in about one-third of all cases of a collision, the point of impact on the bus or the coach being typically frontal or side. Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe coach crashes. In this type of crash projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanisms and among those, ejection being the most dangerous. A 2-point belt may prevent passenger ejection, but in frontal crashes when the upper abdominal parts and the head hit the seatback in front, it could, however, contribute to head and thoracic injuries. Hence, a 3-point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Kirk, Alan
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Mayrhofer, Erich
    University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå Universitet.
    Case study: 128 Injured in rollover coach crashes in Sweden - Injury outcome, mechanisms and possible effects of seat belts2006In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 87-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk for injuries in rollover coach crashes are dependent on whether the occupants are belted or not. However, the influence of the different belt systems for reducing injuries has remained unclear. Since many injuries sustained are caused by impacts with the interior, passenger interactions or ejection through a window, the advantages by proper seat belt systems are evident. In this study, representing the most common serious crash scenario for serious injury, 128 injured in rollover cases were analysed with regard to the injury outcome, mechanisms and the possible injury reduction for occupants when using a safety belt. Furthermore, the different belt systems were compared to explain their contribution to increased safety. Based on medical reports and questioning of the passengers, the injuries sustained are recorded according to the AIS classification. The next step was the identification of the injury mechanisms, using the passenger statements as well as results from numerical occupant simulations. It is important to mention that this study was purely focused on detection of the injury mechanism to avoid the reported injuries. The possibility of additional injuries due to the wearing of a belt were not taken into account. However, the analysis of the 128 injured showed a considerable increase in safety for belted occupants through limiting interior contacts, minimising passenger interaction and reducing the possibility of ejection. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    VTI.
    Kronqvist, Linda
    VTI.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Är kraven på utmärkning av skolskjutsfordon utmärkta2005Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    Umeå Universitet.
    Björnstig, Johanna
    Umeå Universitetssjukhus.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Umeå Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Vägverket.
    Injury events among bus and coah occupants2005In: IATSS research : journal of International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bylund, P-O
    et al.
    Umeå Unviersitet.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    Lunds Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Vägverket, Borlänge.
    Injuries in special transportation services for elderly and disabled - A multi-methodology approach to estimate incidence and societal costs2007In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 180-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Previous research has shown that elderly and disabled travelers using Special Transportation Services (STS) are injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate the true costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards an incident/traveler-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was thus to utilize such a perspective, in order to make a best estimation of the true costs for injury incidents, related to STS in Sweden. Methods. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed-method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research methods applied on four different sets of data, the hospital-based material (n = 32), two sets of STS material (n = 127), and interview-based material (n = 1,000). Results. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e., 3.2 per 100,000 trips (ranging from 1.5-1.9 in STS taxis and 3.6-5.6 in STS special vehicles). However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic crashes, but to non-collision injury incidents involving elderly and frail passengers, easily sustaining injuries from minor to moderate external violence. Typically, this violence is affecting an older female STS user, while entering and exiting the vehicle. The true costs were estimated to be $35 million per annum or $2.6 per trip. Conclusion. Future injury prevention measures should thus focus on safety in entering and exiting procedures.

  • 7.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Could sound be used as a strategy for reducing symptoms of perceived motion sickness?2008In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 5, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working while exposed to motions, physically and psychologically affects a person. Traditionally, motion sickness symptom reduction has implied use of medication, which can lead to detrimental effects on performance. Non-pharmaceutical strategies, in turn, often require cognitive and perceptual attention. Hence, for people working in high demand environments where it is impossible to reallocate focus of attention, other strategies are called upon. The aim of the study was to investigate possible impact of a mitigation strategy on perceived motion sickness and psychophysiological responses, based on an artificial sound horizon compared with a non-positioned sound source.

    Method: Twenty-three healthy subjects were seated on a motion platform in an artificial sound horizon or in non-positioned sound, in random order with one week interval between the trials. Perceived motion sickness (Mal), maximum duration of exposure (ST), skin conductance, blood volume pulse, temperature, respiration rate, eye movements and heart rate were measured continuously throughout the trials.

    Results: Mal scores increased over time in both sound conditions, but the artificial sound horizon, applied as a mitigation strategy for perceived motion sickness, showed no significant effect on Mal scores or ST. The number of fixations increased with time in the non-positioned sound condition. Moreover, fixation time was longer in the nonpositioned sound condition compared with sound horizon, indicating that the subjects used more time to fixate and, hence, assumingly made fewer saccades.

    Conclusion: A subliminally presented artificial sound horizon did not significantly affect perceived motion sickness, psychophysiological variables or the time the subjects endured the motion sickness triggering stimuli. The number of fixations and fixation times increased over time in the non-positioned sound condition.

  • 8.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundgren, Pontus
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effects of Motion Sickness on Encoding and Retrieval2010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated.

    Background: The impact of motion sickness on human performance has been studied with regards to psychomotor functions and over learned skills, as well as to novel situations requiring encoding and retrieval skills through the use of short term memory. In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated.

    Method: Forty healthy participants, half of them males, performed a continuous recognition task (CRT) during exposure to a motion sickness triggering optokinetic drum. The CRT was employed as a measurement of performance and consisted of encoding and retrieval of words. The task consisted of three consecutive phases 1) encoding of familiar words; 2) encoding and retrieval of words under the influence of motion sickness; 3) retrieval of words after exposure.

    Results: Data analysis revealed no significant differences in the ability to encode or retrieve words during motion sickness compared with a control condition. In addition, there were no significant correlations between the level of motion sickness and performance of the CRT.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that encoding and retrieval of words are not affected by moderate levels of motion sickness. Application: This research has implications for operational settings where professionals experience moderate levels of motion sickness.

  • 9.
    Donlau, M
    et al.
    Jobbtorget Linkopings Kommun.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Independence in the toilet activity in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele - managing clean intermittent catheterization in a hospital setting2009In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 98, no 12, p. 1972-1976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify and describe gross motor, fine motor, executive and time-processing obstacles for independence in children with myelomeningocele who are treated with Clean Intermittent Catheterization and to relate their opinions about their performance in the toilet activity, and their medical records, to the observed outcome. Methods: In a hospital setting, 22 children with myelomeningocele were observed using a structured information form while performing their toilet activity, and tested for time processing ability with the Ka-Tid instrument. Results: Only five children were independent, despite the fact that 12 of 22 children were completely satisfied with their toilet activity. Neither the degree of motor impairment, nor sex or age had any significant impact on performing the toilet activity. The ability to remain focused on the toilet activity proved to have no relation to age or learning disabilities. The medical records for the children were only able to classify approximately three quarters correctly with respect to independence. The only measurement that could suggest anything in relation to a maintained focus was time processing ability. Conclusion: The children were unaware of their abilities and limitations. Time processing ability and observations are important factors to assess independence.

  • 10.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lunds Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception2006In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 78-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 11.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Recognition of facially expressed emotions and visual search strategies in adults with Asperger syndrome2011In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can the disadvantages persons with Asperger syndrome frequently experience with reading facially expressed emotions be attributed to a different visual perception, affecting their scanning patterns? Visual search strategies, particularly regarding the importance of information from the eye area, and the ability to recognise facially expressed emotions were compared between 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and their matched controls. While wearing a head mounted eye tracker, the participants viewed 12 pairs of photos of faces. The first photo in each pair was cut up into puzzle pieces. Six of the 12 puzzle pieced photos had the eyes bisected. The second photo showed a happy, an angry and a surprised face of the same person as in the puzzle pieced photo. Differences in visual search strategies between the groups were established. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties recognizing these basic emotions than controls. The distortion of the eye area affected the ability to identify emotions even more negatively for participants with Asperger syndrome.

  • 12.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    The importance of the eye area in face identification abilities and visual search strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2010In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 724-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and matched controls viewed puzzle pieced photos of faces, in order to identify them as one of three intact photos of persons. Every second puzzle pieced photo had the eyes distorted. Fixation patterns were measured by an eye tracker. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties in identifying faces than controls. However, the entire face identification superiority in controls was found in the condition when the eyes were distorted supporting that adults with Aspergers syndrome do use the eye region to a great extent in face identification. The visual search strategies in controls were more effective and relied on the use of the face information triangle, i.e. the two eyes and the mouth, while adults with Asperger syndrome had more fixations on other parts of the face, both when obtaining information and during the identification part, suggesting a less effective use of the face information triangle.

  • 13.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Truck and bus driver training, can simulation contribute?2005In: Driver behaviour and training volume II / [ed] Dorn, Lisa, Hampshire: Asghate , 2005, p. 93-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on driver behaviour over the past two decades has clearly demonstrated that the goals and motivations a driver brings to the driving task are important determinants for driver behaviour. The importance of this work is underlined by statistics: WHO figures show that road accidents are predicted to be the number three cause of death and injury by 2020 (currently more than 20 million deaths and injuries p.a.). The objective of this second edition and of the conference, on which it is based, is to describe and discuss recent advances in the study of driving behaviour and driver training. It bridges the gap between practitioners in road safety, and theoreticians investigating driving behaviour, from a number of different perspectives and related disciplines. A major focus is to consider how driver training needs to be adapted, to take into account driver characteristics, goals and motivations, in order to raise awareness of how these may contribute to unsafe driving behaviour, and to go on to promote the development of driver training courses that considers all the skills that are essential for road safety.As well as setting out new approaches to driver training methodology based on many years of empirical research on driver behaviour, the contributing road safety researchers and professionals consider the impact of human factors in the design of driver training as well as the traditional skills-based approach. The readership includes road safety researchers from a variety of different academic backgrounds, senior practitioners in the field of driver training from regulatory authorities and professional driver training organizations such as the police service, and private and public sector personnel who are concerned with improving road safety.

  • 14.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Anund, Anna
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Falkmer, Marita
    The transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 90-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders, questionnaires from 1,631 parents were analysed. The results showed that almost 3 out of 4 parents were worried when their child was transported by school transport or by the Special Transport System. Transports in the family vehicle caused worry among almost half of the parents. The parents' worries were justified by the fact that the children were not transported according to general safety recommendations. Moreover, it was common for the children to be transported with unfamiliar drivers, as well as with unknown passengers, which is known to be quite problematic. Transport mobility adaptation to this particular group of children with disabilities refers merely to implementation of knowledge and a specific, well-structured approach among the drivers towards the children during the ride, rather than to physical/mechanical adaptation of the vehicles.

  • 15.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport, Research Institute, VTI, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    School for Technique and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Matilda
    School for Technique and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fixation identification in centroid versus start-point modes using eye-tracking data2008In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 710-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixation-identification algorithms, needed for analyses of eye movements, may typically be separated into three categories, viz. (i) velocity-based algorithms, (ii) area-based algorithms, and (iii) dispersion-based algorithms. Dispersion-based algorithms are commonly used but this application introduces some difficulties, one being optimization. Basically, there are two modes to reach this goal of optimization, viz., the start-point mode and the centroid mode. The aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate these two dispersion-based algorithms. Manual inspections were made of 1,400 fixations in each mode. Odds ratios showed that by using the centroid mode for fixation detection, a valid fixation is 2.86 times more likely to be identified than by using the start-point mode. Moreover, the algorithm based on centroid mode dispersion showed a good interpretation speed, accuracy, robustness, and ease of implementation, as well as adequate parameter settings.

  • 16.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    FOI, Linköping.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Ökad körsäkerhet och snabbare målidentifiering genom blickregistrering2006Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    A comparison of eye movement behavior of inexperienced and experienced drivers in real traffic environments2005In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 82, no 8, p. 732-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The importance of the visual system as the input channel for sensory information necessary when driving is often stated. There are several reports on differences in visual search strategies between experienced and inexperienced drivers, as well as in relation to the roadway. However, the results are ambiguous and are not sampled by similar procedures. Based on previous findings, the aim of the present study was to gain further knowledge on these differences by testing the hypotheses that inexperienced drivers, in comparison to experienced drivers, fixate closer to the vehicle, fixate more often on in-vehicle objects, spread their fixations less along the horizontal meridian, fixate more often on relevant traffic cues, and fixate more often on objects classified as potential hazards. Methods. Data from eye-tracker recordings of visual search strategies of the driver in real-world traffic were used for the analyses. Results. The results confirmed all stated hypotheses regarding differences between inexperienced and experienced drivers, with the exception of fixations closer to the vehicle, in which ambiguous results were found. Conclusions. The present study provides normative data for the understanding of the development of visual search strategies among drivers. The methodology used in the present study, i.e., to combine a quantitative analysis with a qualitative analysis proved, to be useful to compare visual search strategies among inexperienced and experienced drivers. Copyright © 2005 American Academy of Optometry.

  • 18.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments2001In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among learner drivers with cerebral palsy (CP), driver education is problematic for those failing to fulfil their education as well as for those becoming licensed drivers. A crucial ingredient in the development of driving is the quality of the visual search. Problems increase for CP learners in those parts of training where high demands are set on visual search abilities. The aim of the study was to increase knowledge about search patterns among learners with CP in comparison with learners and experienced drivers without CP. The study was carried out in traffic by measuring eye movements and the duration and distribution of fixation. The results show that search strategies among learners with CP were less flexible than in the control groups. The results suggest a need for better methods for teaching CP learners search strategies and may provide a tool for such development. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 19.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Anund, Anna
    VTI, Linköping.
    Nyberrg, Jonna
    VTI, Linköping.
    Elkehag, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Elm, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Gustavson, Pamela
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Åkerberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 20.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    VTI, Linköping.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine .
    Handbook guidance promoting a safe journey for children with disabilities - An evaluation2006In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 712-724Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that both mobility and safety for children with disabilities are reduced, due to several reasons, one of them being lack of adequate and focused information on safety measures to be taken. A handbook was created and disseminated for free to parents of children with disabilities, organised in parental organisations. The handbook was evaluated from a user perspective, by a parental questionnaire survey. The results confirmed the parents' lack of information and further valued the handbook as useful. The parents stated the benefits of the handbook to be largest in contacts with drivers of school transportation and special transport systems. Future development and research should focus on: (i) "early intervention" by occupational therapists and paediatricians by providing the parents the handbook at the clinic, (ii) dissemination strategies towards parents not being members of the parental interest organisations, and (iii) translation and evaluation of the handbook for parents not having Swedish as their native language. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    VTI.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    The traffic safety situation among foreign born in Sweden2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

           

  • 22.
    Hanson, L.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jeppson, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rafstedt, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Yong, L.
    Zhongyuan University of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effects of stature, age and vehicle motion on ingress movement2009In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, Vol. 51, no 3-4, p. 292-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle ingress is an important automotive industry issue. End-users and production line assemblers perform similar ingress tasks. In this study, comparisons were made of the car ingress motion in 40 subjects of different statures, acting both as assemblers and end-users. Half of the subjects were under 28 years of age and the remaining were over 60. Results show no significant differences in motion patterns between assemblers and end-users, i.e., slow forward motion of the car on the assembly line had no effect on ingress patterns. This suggests that ergonomie departments working either with end-users or assemblers may instead cooperate or even be fully integrated. Stature significantly affected joint angle distribution and joint angle velocity distribution. No stature effect was found on time to perform ingress movements or on ingress technique. Age significantly affected all test parameters and is thus an issue for developers to consider along with anthropometric variables like stature. To facilitate age analysis, manikins in digital human modelling tools should be able to replicate the physical characteristics of different age groups and the movement behaviour of older people.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska institutitet, Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Karollinska institutet, Stockholm.
    A Swedish survey of occupational therapists' involvement and performance in driving assessments2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 215-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which occupational therapists (OTs) are involved in driving assessments in Sweden and how these assessments are performed. A questionnaire was sent to 154 geriatric, rehabilitation, and neurological clinics, and additionally directly to 19 OTs who had purchased a test battery specifically used for driving assessments. The response rate was 60%. Of those responding, 57% reported being involved in fitness-to-drive assessments. However, such assessments were carried out in various manners and diverse methods were used, ranging from unstandardized activity assessments to a test developed specifically for driving assessments. Only 19% used on-road driving tests as a complement to the clinical assessments. Apart from the lack of appropriate methods, the respondents said that they did not have sufficient knowledge to perform driving assessments and expressed a need for further education. In the future it seems necessary for OTs in Sweden to undergo specialized training and perform the assessments on a regular basis to maintain a high level of competence as driving assessors.

  • 24.
    Lee, H
    et al.
    University of Technology Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Rosenwax, L
    University of Technology Western Australia.
    Cordell, R
    Osborne Park Hospital Western Australia.
    Granger, A
    Osborne Park Hospital Western Australia.
    Vieira, B
    Osborne Park Hospital Western Australia.
    Lee, A
    University of Technology Western Australia.
    Validity of driving simulator in assessing drivers with parkinson´s disease2007In: Advances in transportation studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. special issue, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Nalmpantis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Grekland.
    Naniopoulos, Aristotelis
    Grekland.
    Bekiaris, Evangelos
    Grekland.
    Panou, Maria
    Grekland.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Baten, Guido
    Belgien.
    Dols, Juan F
    Spanien.
    "Trainer" project: Pilot applications for the evaluation of new driver training technologies2005In: Traffic & Transport Psychology -: Theory and application: proceedings of the ICTTP 2004 / [ed] Geoffrey Underwood, Oxford: Elsevier , 2005, p. 141-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Just as our transport systems become more and more important to our economic and social well-being, so they become more and more crowded and more at risk from congestion, disruption, and collapse. Technology and engineering can provide part of the solution, but the complete solution will need to take account of the behaviour of the users of the transport networks.

    The role of psychologists in this is to understand how people make decisions about the alternative modes of transport and about the alternative routes to their destinations, to understand how novice and other vulnerable users can develop safe and effective behaviours, how competent users can operate within the transport system optimally and within their perceptual and cognitive limitations.

    The contributions to this volume address these issues of how the use of our transport systems can be improved by taking into account knowledge of the behaviour of the people who use the systems. Topics discussed include driver training and licensing, driver impairment, road user attitudes and behaviour, enforcement and behaviour change, driver support systems, and the psychology of mobility and transport mode choice.

    This work will be of value not only to psychologists but to all transport professionals interested in the application of psychology to traffic

  • 26. Peters, B
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Bekiaris, E
    Sommer, S
    Stankus, A
    Varoneckas, G
    Consensus networking for assessment of fitness to drive for drivers with disabilities in the European union2004In: Sveikatos mokslai, ISSN 1392-6373, Vol. 6, p. 19-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Petzäll, J
    et al.
    Vägverket Borlänge.
    Torlund, PA
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Bromma, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Albertsson, P
    Umeå Universitet.
    Björnstig, U
    Umeå universitet.
    Aerodynamic design of high-sided coaches to reduce cross-wind sensitivity, based on wind tunnel tests2008In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 185-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerodynamic properties of high-sided coaches with various body shapes were investigated in order to improve directional stability. The idea was to find out whether it would be possible, from an aerodynamic point of view, to suggest an optimal coach body design. The subject has previously been paid little attention in the scientific literature. The fact that during the last few years at least 10 wind-related coach crashes have occurred in Sweden indicates that here a serious problem exists and that cross-wind effects should be carefully considered by coach designers. The observations made in the present study suggest that it should be possible to find an ideal coach body shape. The ideal shape of the coach includes a rounded front face, rounded top sides and sharp rear corners. Copyright © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  • 28.
    Petzäll, Jan
    et al.
    Vägverket.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    Umeå Universitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine .
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå Universitete.
    Wind forces and aerodynamics: Contributing factors to compromise bus and coach safety?2005In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 435-444Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A bus in motion is affected by aerodynamical side and lift forces that may interfere with the stability of the vehicle. These forces depend on the speed and direction of the resulting wind in relation to the bus. Cross-wind gusts may generate side forces so suddenly that great directional deviation is imposed on the bus prior to any possible driver or vehicle manoeuvre responses. Prevailing friction forces may not be sufficient to enable the driver to avoid large lateral deviation from the desired route, and can potentially lead to crashes. The present study, based on ten bus crashes, aimed to show that the effect of wind, in addition to vehicle speed and road friction, is a contributing factor to compromising bus safety. The results of the study confirmed that wind, in relation to vehicle speed and friction, needs more attention when addressing the pre-crash factors in crash investigations, bus manoeuvring capacities, operational management, and the aerodynamic design of buses. © Woodhead Publishing Ltd.

  • 29.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Karolinska Institute.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    The Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment as predictor for the outcome of an on-road test2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of the cognitive test battery Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA) has increased, sometimes as a stand-alone test to evaluate fitness to drive, also for non-stroke patients such as patients suffering from cognitive deficits/dementia, approaches that may be questioned. The objective of the study was to determine whether the NorSDSA could predict an on-road test result, for large sets of stroke (n = 74) and cognitive deficits/dementia participants (n = 116), respectively. The percentage of correctly classified was 62% for the stroke group and 50% for the cognitive deficits/dementia group. A discriminant analysis with pass/fail on the on-road test as grouping variable could classify 62% of the stroke participants and the cognitive deficit/dementia participants. Hence, the NorSDSA could not predict the outcome of the on-road test. Therefore, NorSDSA should not be used as a stand-alone test to determine the fitness to drive of individual participants. Also, its use with participants suffering from cognitive deficits/dementia appears to be less successful than for clients with stroke.

  • 30.
    Sjors, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gerdle, Bjorn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Physiological responses to low-force work and psychosocial stress in women with chronic trapezius myalgia2009In: BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 10, no 63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Repetitive and stressful work tasks have been linked to the development of pain in the trapezius muscle, although the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In earlier studies, it has been hypothesized that chronic muscle pain conditions are associated with imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, predominantly expressed as an increased sympathetic activity. This study investigates whether women with chronic trapezius myalgia show higher muscle activity and increased sympathetic tone at baseline and during repetitive low-force work and psychosocial stress, compared with pain-free controls. Methods: Eighteen women with chronic trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 30 healthy female controls (CON) were studied during baseline rest, 100 min of repetitive low-force work, 20 min of psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), and 80 min recovery. The subjects rated their pain intensity, stress and energy level every 20 min throughout the experiment. Muscle activity was measured by surface electromyography in the trapezius muscle (EMGtrap) and deltoid muscle (EMGdelt). Autonomic reactivity was measured through heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SCL), blood pressure (MAP) and respiration rate (Resp). Results: At baseline, EMGtrap, stress ratings, and HR were higher in MYA than in CON. Energy ratings, EMGdelt, SCL, MAP and Resp were, however, similar in the two groups. Significant main group effects were found for pain intensity, stress ratings and EMGtrap. Deltoid muscle activity and autonomic responses were almost identical in MYA and CON during work, stress and recovery. In MYA only, pain intensity and stress ratings increased towards the end of the repetitive work. Conclusion: We found increased muscle activity during uninstructed rest in the painful muscle of a group of women with trapezius myalgia. The present study could not confirm the hypothesis that chronic trapezius myalgia is associated with increased sympathetic activity. The suggestion of autonomic imbalance in patients with chronic local or regional musculoskeletal pain needs to be further investigated.

  • 31. Sommer, S.M
    et al.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Bekiaris, E
    Panou, M
    Toward a client-centred approach to fitness-to-drive assessment of elderly drivers2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic changes increase the need for fair and valid fitness-to-drive assessment in older drivers. In a self-report survey, 473 older drivers stratified by age (55-64, 65-74, > 74 years) were asked about their driving habits, crash history, compensatory driver behaviour, and attitude towards age-based reassessment. The results showed an increase in the proportions of subjects reporting crash involvement and the subjects reporting full legal responsibility for the latest crash in older age groups. The reported use of different compensatory strategies and adaptation techniques was also higher in the older age groups. Medical fitness-to-drive screenings are not able to deal with the complexity of this paradoxical finding, because medical diagnoses do not take into account adaptation and compensation in older drivers. Age-based reassessments limited to medical screenings therefore carry an increased likelihood of false positive classifications that would unnecessarily reduce the quality of life of sufficiently safe older drivers. This risk could, however, be reduced by a client-centred approach focused on practical fitness-to-drive, providing older drivers with the opportunity to show whether they are able to cope with functional deficits in more realistic driving settings. Such an approach is in line with theoretical occupational therapy foundations.

  • 32.
    Vessby, Karin
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Participation in occupational therapy research: a literature review2010In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation is a concept that is used and discussed, both within the field of occupational therapy and in other areas. The concept of participation is included in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the Model of Human Occupation. The aim of this study was to investigate how the concept of participation has been used in studies published in peer-reviewed journals. A literature review was performed using the search terms 'occupational therapy' and 'participation'. Papers published in peer-reviewed journals during the period 2004-2006 were included (n = 38). Content analysis was used when analysing the data.

     

    The results show that interview is the most common method of data collection and that the physical field is the clinical field that is most frequently represented in these papers. Three different categories were identified with regard to how the concept of participation has been used. These were client-centredness (n = 11), involvement in the environment (n = 19) and meaningfulness (n = 23). The three categories represent three dimensions of participation and are interpreted as occurring on micro or macro levels. Further research is needed and this review contributes to this development.

  • 33.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Petzall, Jan
    Swedish Transport Agency, Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Injuries in special transport services-Situations and risk levels involving wheelchair users2010In: MEDICAL ENGINEERING and PHYSICS, ISSN 1350-4533, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 248-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that wheelchair-seated passengers using special transportation services (STS) have been injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate incident rate and societal costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards a traveler/incident-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was to utilize such a perspective, related to travelers using STS in Sweden. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research techniques applied on four different sets of data one hospital-based record, two sets of STS incident report databases, and interviews with wheelchair-seated STS passengers. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e. 10 per 100,000 trips. However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic collisions, but to non-collision injury incidents involving many elderly and frail passengers, who easily sustain traumas ranging from minor to moderate. The costs were estimated to be 23 million USD per annum or 14 USD per trip. Results suggest that future injury prevention measures should focus on safety in boarding and alighting procedures, as well as the continuing development of WTORS.

  • 34.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Petzall, Jan
    Swedish Transport Agency, Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Reducing non-collision injuries in special transportation services by enhanced safety culture2010In: MEDICAL ENGINEERING and PHYSICS, ISSN 1350-4533, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 254-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has pointed out that non-collision injuries occur among wheelchair users in Special Transportation Services (STS - a demand-responsive transport mode). The organization of such modes is also quite complex, involving both stakeholders and key personnel at different levels. Our objective was therefore to qualitatively explore the state of safety, as perceived and discussed within a workplace context. Focus groups were held with drivers of both taxi companies and bus companies. The results indicated that passengers run the risk of being injured without being involved in a vehicle collision. The pertinent organizational and corporate culture did not prioritize safety. The drivers identified some relatively clear-cut safety threats, primarily before and after a ride, at vehicle standstill. The drivers work place seemed to be surrounded with a reactive instead of proactive structure. We conclude that not only vehicle and wheelchair technical safety must be considered in STS, but also system safety. Instead of viewing drivers error as a cause, it should be seen as a symptom of systems failure. Human error is connected to aspects of tools, tasks, and operating environment. Enhanced understanding and influence of these connections within STS and accessible public transport systems will promote safety for wheelchair users.

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