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  • 1.
    Aardal-Eriksson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion.
    Holm, AC
    Eriksson, TE
    Lundin, T
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed & Surg, Ctr Clin Chem, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Salivary cortisol and posttraumatic stress reactions methodological and applied studies before and after trauma2002In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 45, no 1-2, p. 89-89Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2. Allgulander, Christer
    et al.
    Mangano, Richard
    Zhang, Jun
    Dahl, Alv A
    Lepola, Ulla
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Emilien, Gerard
    Efficacy of venlafaxine ER in patients with social anxiety disorder: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparison with paroxetine2004In: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0885-6222, E-ISSN 1099-1077, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the anxiolytic efficacy, safety and tolerability of a flexible dose of venlafaxine extended release (ER) compared with placebo and paroxetine in the short-term treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD). Adult outpatients with generalized SAD (n=434) were randomized to receive capsules of venlafaxine ER 75 mg to 225 mg/day, paroxetine 20 mg to 50 mg/day, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the Liebowitz social anxiety scale total score. Secondary efficacy variables included the patient-rated social phobia inventory and the proportion of responders in each group (a responder was defined as having a clinical global impression-improvement score of 1 or 2). Treatment with venlafaxine ER was associated with significantly greater improvement than treatment with placebo for all primary and secondary efficacy variables (p<0.05). No significant differences in primary or secondary efficacy variables were observed between the venlafaxine ER and paroxetine groups. The week 12 response rates were 69%, 66% and 36% for the venlafaxine ER, paroxetine and placebo groups, respectively. Both active treatments were generally well tolerated and were associated with a similar incidence of adverse events. This study shows that venlafaxine ER is an effective, safe and well-tolerated drug treatment for SAD.

  • 3.
    Annerbrink, K.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hansson, C.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Allgulander, C.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Andersch, S.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Holm, G.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Dickson, S.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Eriksson, E.
    Gothenburg University Hospital.
    A possible association between panic disorder and the ghrelin gene in EUROPEAN NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, vol 21, issue , pp S238-S2382011In: EUROPEAN NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Elsevier , 2011, Vol. 21, p. S238-S238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 4.
    Annerbrink, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Westberg, Lars
    University of Gothenburg.
    Olsson, Marie
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Allgulander, Christer
    Karolinska Institute.
    Andersch, Sven
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Holm, Goran
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Eriksson, Elias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism and panic disorder: A replication2010In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 178, no 1, p. 196-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism and panic disorder was studied in a Swedish sample of 211 patients and 452 controls. We found a significant excess of the Val allele in both male and female patients, the latter but not the former finding being in line with previous studies.

  • 5.
    Annerbrink, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Westberg, Lars
    University of Gothenburg.
    Olsson, Marie
    Apoteket AB.
    Andersch, Sven
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Holm, Goran
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Allgulander, Christer
    Karolinska Institute.
    Eriksson, Elias
    University of Gothenburg.
    Panic disorder is associated with the Val308Iso polymorphism in the hypocretin receptor gene2011In: PSYCHIATRIC GENETICS, ISSN 0955-8829, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 85-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Orexin A and B are neuropeptides influencing, for example, arousal and respiration. Although panic disorder is characterized by both enhanced proneness for arousal and by respiratory abnormalities, the possible influence of orexin-related genes on the risk of developing this disorder has not been studied until now. Methods We have analyzed the Ile408Val polymorphism in the hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTR1) gene and the Val308Iso (G1246A) polymorphism in the hypocretin receptor 2 (HCRTR2) gene in a sample of 215 panic disorder patients and 454 controls. Results Although the polymorphism in the HCRTR1 did not differ between groups, the Iso allele of the HCRTR2 polymorphism was significantly more frequent in patients than in controls. After the population was divided according to sex, the association between the Iso allele of the Val308Iso polymorphism and panic disorder was observed only in female patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that the HCRTR2 polymorphism may be of importance for the pathophysiology of panic disorder. The results should be regarded as preliminary until replicated in an independent sample. This indicates that further research on the possible role of orexin in panic disorder may prove rewarding.

  • 6. Apelqvist, G
    et al.
    Wikell, C
    Carlsson, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Hjorth, S
    Bergqvist, P B F
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Dynamic and kinetic effects of chronic citalopram treatment in experimental hepatic encephalopathy2000In: Clinical neuropharmacology, ISSN 0362-5664, E-ISSN 1537-162X, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 304-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that arises in liver-impaired subjects. Patients with HE display various neuropsychiatric symptoms including affective disturbances and may therefore likely receive treatment with novel thymoleptics like citalopram (CIT). The simultaneous pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome of the commonly used serotonin-selective thymoleptic drugs in liver-impaired subjects with pending chronic HE is far from understood today. We therefore investigated the effects of chronic, body-weight-adjusted (10 mg ╖ kg-1 ╖ day-1), treatment with CIT in rats with and without portacaval shunts (PCS). Open-field activity was monitored. The 5-HT, 5-HIAA, noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DA) output were assessed in the frontal neocortex. The racemic levels of CIT and its metabolites DCIT and DDCIT, including the S- and R-enantiomers, were determined in serum, brain parenchyma, and extracellular fluid. The rats with PCS showed higher (2-3-fold) levels of CIT than rats undergoing a sham treatment with CIT in all compartments investigated. The PCS rats also showed elevated levels of DCIT and DDCIT. No major differences in the S/R ratios between PCS rats and control rats could be detected. The CIT treatment resulted in neocortical output differences between PCS rats and control rats mainly within the 5-HT and DA systems but not within the NA system. For the 5-HT system, this change was further evidenced by outspoken elevation in 5-HT output after KCl-depolarizing challenges. Moreover, the CIT treatment to PCS rats was shown to "normalize" the metabolic turnover of 5-HT, measured as a profound lowering of a basal elevation in the 5-HIAA levels. The CIT treatment resulted in an increased or "normalized" behavioral activity in the PCS group. Therefore, a dose-equal chronic treatment with CIT in PCS rats produced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes not observed in control rats. The results further support the contention of an altered 5-HT neurotransmission prevailing in the chronic HE condition. However, the tentatively beneficial behavioral response also seen following chronic CIT treatment to PCS rats in this study has to be viewed in relation to both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes observed.

  • 7. Apelqvist, G
    et al.
    Wikell, C.
    Hindfeldt, B
    Bergqvist, PBF
    Andersson, G.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Altered open-field behavior in experimental chronic hepatic encephalopathy after single venlafaxine and citalopram challenges.1999In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 143, p. 408-416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Arner, P
    et al.
    Sjöberg, S
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Eriksson, M
    Changes in cerebrospinal fluid signalling substances and appetite scores following 48 h fast in healthy volunteers2003In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 213-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 9. Atlas, Ann
    et al.
    Gisslen, Magnus
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindstrom, Leif
    Schwieler, Lilly
    Acute psychotic symptoms in HIV-1 infected patients are associated with increased levels of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid2007In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with psychiatric complications including cognitive impairment, affective disorders, and psychosis. Previous studies have revealed a disturbed kynurenine metabolism in these patients leading to increased levels of neuroactive compounds acting at glutamatergic neurotransmission. Kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of these metabolites is a glutamate-receptor antagonist, preferentially blocking the glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NNIDA) receptor. Increased levels of brain KYNA have been suggested to induce a NNIDA receptor hypofunction that is associated with psychotic symptoms. In the present study, we analyze the concentration of KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from HIV-1 infected patients (n = 22), including HIV-1 infected patients with psychotic symptoms (n = 8) and HIV-1 infected patients without psychiatric symptoms (n = 14). We found that HIV-1 infected patients had significantly higher median concentration of CSF KYNA (3.02 nM) compared to healthy controls (1.17 nM). Furthermore, CSF KYNA levels were significantly elevated in HIV-1 infected patients with psychotic symptoms (4.54 nM) compared to patients with HIV-1 without psychiatric symptoms (2.28 nNI). Present results indicate that increased levels of CSF KYNA may be associated with development of psychotic symptoms in HIV-1 infected patients. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    "Neurologi. Diagnostisk handledning" av Bengt Hindfelt2001In: Neurologi : diagnostisk handledning / [ed] Hindfelt, Bengt, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2001, 1, p. -104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lägg i varukorgSpara som favorit Den här artikeln kan inte längre levereras innan jul. Fri frakt vid beställning på minst 99 kr för privatpersoner i Sverige - Läs mer

    Alltid återbäringBetala i din egen takt Ämnesområdet neurologi är omfattande. Det inkluderar skador och sjukdomar i det centrala (storhjärna, lillhjärna, hjärnstam och ryggmärg) och perifera nervsystemet (somatiska och autonoma) samt neuromuskulära transmissionsstörningar och muskelsjukdomar. Flera neurologiska sjukdomstillstånd kan rubriceras som folksjukdomar, t.ex. slaganfall (stroke), epilepsi, degenerativa hjärnsjukdomar såsom Alzheimers och Parkinsons sjukdom etc. Många patienter söker för neurologiska symtom utan att för den skull lida av organisk neurologisk sjukdom. Hit hör flertalet patienter med olika former av huvudvärk (t.ex. spänningshuvudvärk, migrän etc.), kortvariga medvetslöshetsattacker, yrsel etc. Sammantaget har det visat sig att var fjärde patient som söker i öppenvård söker för neurologiska symtom. Således är neurologiska symtom vanligt förekommande i klinisk praxis men inte liktydigt med neurologisk sjukdom eller skada. Denna bok är ett försök att hjälpa Dig i Din ”bedside-diagnostik” av vanliga neurologiska symtom. Grunden är en ingående anamnes i kombination med en noggrann somatisk och neurologisk undersökning. Utifrån vanligt förekommande symtom i klinisk praxis exemplifieras neurologisk differentialdiagnostik och utredning. Terapin har inte inkluderats. Innehåll, uppläggning (till stor del i algoritmisk form) etc. ersätter därför på inget sätt en god lärobok i neurologi som referenskälla. Avsikten med boken är att den skall vara till hjälp i den kliniska vardagen och till stöd i problembaserad undervisning för främst läkarstuderande. För att underlätta för läsaren att bredda sitt kunnande har de enskilda kapitlen försetts med kommentarer. Aktuella referenser har adderats för eventuella fördjupningsstudier.

  • 11.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Postmarketing surveillance studier av antidepressiva via läkemedelsanalyser. I.2001In: Aktuell neuropsykiatrisk forskning / [ed] Finn Bengtsson and H. Lundbeck AB., Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2001, p. 66-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Bergkvist, P.
    et al.
    Carpenedo, R
    Apelqvist, G
    Moroni, F
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Plasma and brain levels of oxindole in experimental chronic hepatic encephalopathy: effects of systemic ammonium acetate and L-tryptophan.1999In: Pharmacology and Toxicology, ISSN 0901-9928, E-ISSN 1600-0773, Vol. 85, p. 138-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kadowaki, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Carlbring, Per
    Tailored internet-administered treatment of anxiety disorders for primary care patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2012In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Internet-administered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been found to be effective for a range of anxiety disorders. However, most studies have focused on one specific primary diagnosis and co-morbidity has not been considered. In primary care settings, patients with anxiety often suffer from more than one psychiatric condition, making it difficult to disseminate ICBT for specific conditions. The aim of this study will be to investigate if ICBT tailored according to symptom profile can be a feasible treatment for primary care patients with anxiety disorders. It is a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the treatment against an active control group. METHODS: Participants with anxiety disorders and co-morbid conditions (N = 128), will be recruited from a primary care population. The Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM) will serve as the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures include self-reported depression, anxiety, quality of life and loss of production and the use of health care. All assessments will be collected via the Internet and measure points will be baseline, post treatment and 12 months post treatment. DISCUSSION: This trial will add to the body of knowledge on the effectiveness of ICBT for anxiety disorders in primary care. The trial will also add knowledge on the long term effects of ICBT when delivered for regular clinic patients Trial registration: Clinical trials identifier NCT01390168.

  • 14.
    Bjorck, RV
    et al.
    Huddinge Univ Hosp, Dept Psychiat, S-14186 Huddinge, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Div Psychiat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Eye dominance and perinatal complications in schizophrenia2000In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 41, no 1, p. A309-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bjorck, RV
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Sect Psychiat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Left eyedness is associated with a disproportionate birth weight/birth length ratio in schizophrenia2002In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 17, p. 186S-186SConference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bogren, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Bogren, Inga-Britt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Early visual information processing and the defence mechanism test in schizophrenia.1999In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 6, p. 460-465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bogren, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Bogren, Inga-Britt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    The defence mechanism test in panic disorder and generalized anxiety2000In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 54, p. 15-15Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bogren, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Bogren, Inga-Britt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    The Defence Mechanism Test in panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and schizophrenia2000In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 15, p. 319S-320SConference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bogren, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Bogren, Inga-Britt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ohrt, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Panic disorder and the Defence Mechanism Test2002In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 56, p. 195-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study defence categories according to the modified version of the Defence Mechanism Test (DMTm) and to see if there was a relationship between DMTm and severity of illness. The material consists of 23 patients with panic disorder according to DSM-III-R who participated in a long-term follow-up of two clinical trials. The most common defence categories were repression, denial, disavowal or denial of the threat relation or of the identity of the peripheral person. The patients with denial or polymorphous identification had more severe symptoms and the latter group also were more handicapped by their symptoms. Denial and disavowal or denial of the threat relation may be defence categories, which are not so effective in preventing the individual from experiencing anxiety. Polymorphous identification, although not so common, does not seem to be an appropriate defence among patients with panic disorder.

  • 20.
    Bång, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Holm, Einar
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Mobile phone computing for in-situ cognitive-behavioral therapy2007In: MedINFO 2007,2007, IOS Press, 2007, p. 1078-1082Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for psychological disorders is becoming increasingly popular on the Internet. However when using this workstation approach, components such as training and learning relaxation skills, problem solving, exposure exercises, and sleep management guidance must be done in the domestic environment. This paper describes design concepts for providing spatially explicit CBT with mobile phones. We reviewed and analyzed a set of treatment manuals to distinguish elements of CBT that can be improved and supported using mobile phone applications. The key advantage of mobile computing support in CBT is that multimedia can be applied to record, scale, and label anxiety-provoking situations where the need arises, which helps the CBT clients formulate and convey their thoughts and feelings to relatives and friends, as well as to therapists at subsequent treatment sessions.

  • 21. Börelius, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Holmberg, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Schöld, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ylikivelä, Rita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Nettelbladt, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Mental unhealth among young adults in primary health care2008In: European Psychiatry - the journal of the association of european psychiatrists,2008, 2008, p. 248-248Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 22. Börelius, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Holmberg, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Schöld, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ylikivelä, Rita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Nettelbladt, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Själen i primärvården - psykisk ohälsa hos unga vuxna och deras upplevelser av vården2007Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Umea University.
    Maurin, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Torngren, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linna, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eriksson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Sparthan, Elisabeth
    Svenska KBT Institute.
    Straat, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marquez von Hage, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergman-Nordgren, Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Clinical and Social Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Individually-tailored, Internet-based treatment for anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial2011In: BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 18-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on Internet-based treatment with minimal to moderate therapist guidance have shown promising results for a number of specific diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a new approach to Internet treatment that involves tailoring the treatment according to the patients unique characteristics and comorbidities. A total of 54 participants, regardless of specific anxiety diagnosis, were included after an in-person, semi-structured diagnostic interview and randomized to a 10 week treatment program or to a control group. Treatment consisted of a number of individually-prescribed modules in conjunction with online therapist guidance. Significant results were found for all dependent measures both immediately following treatment and at 1 and 2 year intervals. Mean between-group effect size including measures of anxiety, depression and quality of life was Cohens d = 0.69 at post-treatment, while the mean within-group effect size was d = 1.15 at post-treatment and d = 1.13 and d = 1.04 at 1 and 2 year follow-up respectively. The tentative conclusion drawn from these results is that tailoring the Internet-based therapy can be a feasible approach in the treatment of anxiety in a homogeneous population.

  • 24.
    Carlsson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Reis, Margareta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lundmark, Jöns
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Adolescents on chronic oral dosing with racemic citalopram. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and CYP2D6/CYP2C19 genotyping. 5 th Congress of the European Association for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapuetics, Odense, Denmark 12-15 september 20012001In: Pharmacology and Toxicology,2001, 2001, p. 132-132Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Carlsson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reis, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lundmark, Jöns
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Scordo, M. G.
    Dahl, M-L.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Ahlner, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Enantioselective Analysis of Citalopram and Metabolites in Adolescents2001In: Therapeutic drug monitoring, ISSN 0163-4356, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 658-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of the antidepressant effect and pharmacokinetics of citalopram have been performed in adults, but the effects on children and adolescents have only been studied to a minor extent despite its increasing use in these age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate a group of adolescents treated for depression, with respect to the steady-state plasma concentrations of the enantiomers of citalopram and its demethylated metabolites desmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram. Moreover, the authors studied the genotypes for the polymorphic cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in relation to the different enantiomers. The S/R ratios of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram found in this study of 19 adolescents were similar to studies involving older patients. The concentrations of the R-(-)- and S-(+)-enantiomers of citalopram and desmethylcitalopram were also in agreement with values from earlier studies, the R-(-)-enantiomer (distomer) being the major enantiomer. The results indicate that the use of oral contraceptives may have some influence on the metabolism of citalopram. This might be because of an interaction of the contraceptive hormones with the CYP2C19 enzyme.

  • 26.
    Daremo, Åsa
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Occupational performance and affective symptoms for patients withdepression disorder2015In: Advances in Psychiatry, ISSN 2356-685X, E-ISSN 2314-7768, p. 1-6, article id 438149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aimof this study was to describe recovering over time in occupational performance and in affective symptoms for patients with depression disorder by using different assessments and methods for collecting data. A longitudinal design with data collections on repeated occasions was used. The Occupational Circumstances Assessment Interview and Rating Scale and Occupational Self- Assessment were used formeasuring occupational performance, and for affective symptoms, a Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale Self-Assessment was used. Fourteen patients with depression disorder were included in the study. The result indicates that affective symptoms improve earlier than occupational performance. Furthermore, self-assessment seems to reflect more improvement to the patient than interview-based assessment. Different kinds of assessment and different kinds of data collection methods seem to facilitate the understanding of the patients recovering. In addition habituationwas themost important item for the patients to manage.One implication for practice is that patients may need an extended period of treatment supporting occupational performance.

  • 27.
    Dobrov, Eugen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    "Reasons For Living" - Translation, psychometric evaluation and relationships to suicidal behaviour in a Swedish random sample2004In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 277-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protective role of positive beliefs and expectations against suicide has been studied using the Reasons For Living inventory (RFL). The RFL has shown to be useful in research and suggested for use in clinical practice. A Swedish translation of the RFL was examined for psychometric properties, reliability, latent structure and convergent validity in a Swedish general population. The RFL was distributed with the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ) to 1366 randomly selected subjects aged 20-65 years in the county of Östergötland. The results were based on 506 complete replies. The Cronbach a of the total RFL was 0.92, ranging from 0.72 to 0.93 in the six scales of RFL. The intercorrelations between the scales were weak and the scale to total RFL score moderate to high. The factor structure and item loadings of the inventory showed great similarities with the American one with exception for the scales Responsibility to Family and Child-related Concerns, which formed one common factor. The convergent validity was supported by significant relationships to the items of the SBQ. It is concluded that the Swedish translation of the RFL inventory in a Swedish general sample possesses great similarities to the American original RFL. Thus, it is suggested as an instrument for research and clinical usage in Sweden. © 2004 Taylor & Francis.

  • 28.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    The Worker Role Interview: Preliminary data on the predictive validity of return to work of clients after an insurance medicine investigation2004In: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 131-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the predictive validity of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) for return to work at a 2-year follow-up of clients who attended an insurance medicine investigation center. The WRI identifies psychosocial and environmental factors that influence a person's abilities to return to work. Forty-eight of 202 consecutively selected clients constituted the study group. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to test the statistically significant differences in WRI ratings between those who were working (n=6) and those who were not (n=42) 2 years after their investigations. Five of the 17 items in WRI had a tentative predictive validity of return to work. The content area personal causation in WRI, had the best predictive validity. The results emphasize the importance of considering the unique individual's beliefs and expectations of his/her effectiveness at work when assessing clients' work ability and planning for further rehabilitation.

  • 29.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perceptions of the work environment among people with experience of long term sick leave2010In: WORK-A JOURNAL OF PREVENTION ASSESSMENT and REHABILITATION, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aims were to describe and analyze how people with experience of long term sick leave perceive that factors in their work environment support or interfere with work performance, satisfaction, and well-being. Method: The 53 participants were interviewed with the Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS). The WEIS ratings and belonging notes were analyzed by descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis respectively. Differences in WEIS ratings between; women and men; participants with somatic and mental diseases; and participants working and on full-time sick leave were tested. Results: The most supportive factors concerned social interactions at work, and the value and meaning of work. The factors perceived as most interfering concerned work demands and rewards. The social relations at work were perceived as more supportive by the working group than by those on full-time sick leave. The participants with somatic diseases perceived physical work factors as more interfering than did participants with mental diseases, who in turn perceived the value and meaning of work as more interfering. Conclusion: Knowledge about the interaction between the worker and the work environment could reveal useful information about the complex phenomenon of reducing sick leave. The WEIS seems useful in providing information about how alterations and accommodations in the work environment could support individual workers.

  • 30.
    Ekbladh, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Return to work: the predictive value of the Worker Role Interview (WRI) over two years2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worker Role Interview (WRI) is an assessment tool designed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors which influence a persons ability to return to work. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the Worker Role Interview (WRI) can predict return to work over a period of two years. Fifty three long-term sick-listed people were interviewed and rated with the WRI. Differences in ratings and the ability of WRI to correctly predict whether these people would fall into the working or non-working groups at 6, 12 and 24 month follow-ups were tested by Mann-Whitney test and logistic regression respectively. Eight of 17 items in WRI were rated differently between the groups at one or more of the follow-ups. The regression models based on the WRI ratings had an overall correct prediction rate ranging from 81% to 96%. Expectation of job success which concerns the persons belief in abilities in relation to return to work emerged as an important predictive factor for return to work in all statistical analyses. The WRI assessment contains items that could predict return to work. This implies that the WRI could be a useful tool in vocational rehabilitation for identifying individual rehabilitation needs.

  • 31. Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Monoamine compounds in cerebrospinal fluid of healthy subjects punctured without preceding strict bed rest: A pilot study2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 43, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interpretation of data on compounds in the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is limited by several confounding factors, e.g. motor activity for which strict bed rest prior to lumbar puncture is recommended for standardisation. Now we report data from 14 healthy males employing the standardised procedure except for the requirement of strict bed rest. The levels of serotonin, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol in the second CSF fraction (7-12 ml) were significantly higher than those in the first fraction (0-6 ml), indicating the presence of concentration gradients. 5-HIAA was negatively influenced by age and the neuraxis distance in the lying position and positively by atmospheric pressure. Storage time and atmospheric pressure contributed to the variance in dopamine. Both tyrosine, tryptophan and dopamine were linearly correlated with storage time. We also found a significant curvilinear correlation between tapping time and atmospheric pressure. On comparing with previous studies, the results support the notion that the issue of strict bed rest or not prior to lumbar puncture might have to be taken into consideration when interpreting lumbar monoamine CSF data.

  • 32. Eklundh, Thomas
    et al.
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Intraspinal pressure influences CSF disposition of tryptophan and 5-HIAA2001In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 84-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of monoamine compounds are influenced by factors such as age, gender, height, body weight, tapping time, and atmospheric pressure. We have now examined the role of intraspinal pressure. Thirteen male volunteers underwent lumbar puncture in the right decubitus position without preceding strict bed rest. The intraspinal pressure was recorded, and monoamine precursors, transmitters, and metabolites were analyzed in two consecutively collected CSF fractions. Tryptophan in 12 ml of CSF and the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration ratio [fraction II (7-12 ml CSF)/fraction I (0-6 ml CSF)] correlated with the intraspinal pressure. Hypothetically, the intraspinal pressure may be a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of CSF tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations, and this is an issue that has to be addressed in future CSF studies. Copyright ⌐ 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 33. Ekselius, Lisa
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Non-compliance with pharmacotherapy of depression is associated with a sensation seeking personality.2000In: International Clinical Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0268-1315, E-ISSN 1473-5857, Vol. 15, p. 273-278Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Erhardt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Skogh, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif
    Engberg, Göran
    Kynurenic acid levels ae elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia2001In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 313, no 1-2, p. 96-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kynurenic acid is an endogenous glutamate antagonist with a preferential action at the glycine-site of the N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor. Mounting evidence indicate that the compound is significantly involved in basal neurophysiological processes in the brain. In the present investigation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of kynurenic acid was analyzed in 28 male schizophrenic patients and 17 male healthy controls by means of high pressure liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Schizophrenic patients showed elevated CSF levels of kynurenic acid (1.67 ▒ 0.27 nM) compared to the control group (0.97 ▒ 0.07 nM). Furthermore, CSF levels of kynurenic acid in schizophrenic patients were also found to correlate with age. The present finding is indicative of a contribution of kynurenic acid in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Erhardt, Sophie
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Lim, Chai K.
    University of New S Wales, Australia .
    Linderholm, Klas R.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Janelidze, Shorena
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Lindqvist, Daniel
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Samuelsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Postolache, Teodor T
    University of Maryland, MD USA .
    Traskman-Bendz, Lil
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Guillemin, Gilles J
    University of New S Wales, Australia .
    Brundin, Lena
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Connecting Inflammation with Glutamate Agonism in Suicidality2013In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 743-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine has proven efficient in reducing symptoms of suicidality, although the mechanisms explaining this effect have not been detailed in psychiatric patients. Recent evidence points towards a low-grade inflammation in brains of suicide victims. Inflammation leads to production of quinolinic acid (QUIN) and kynurenic acid (KYNA), an agonist and antagonist of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, respectively. We here measured QUIN and KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 64 medication-free suicide attempters and 36 controls, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. We assessed the patients clinically using the Suicide Intent Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We found that QUIN, but not KYNA, was significantly elevated in the CSF of suicide attempters (Pandlt;0.001). As predicted, the increase in QUIN was associated with higher levels of CSF interleukin-6. Moreover, QUIN levels correlated with the total scores on Suicide Intent Scale. There was a significant decrease of QUIN in patients who came for follow-up lumbar punctures within 6 months after the suicide attempt. In summary, we here present clinical evidence of increased QUIN in the CSF of suicide attempters. An increased QUIN/KYNA quotient speaks in favor of an overall NMDA-receptor stimulation. The correlation between QUIN and the Suicide Intent Scale indicates that changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission could be specifically linked to suicidality. Our findings have important implications for the detection and specific treatment of suicidal patients, and might explain the observed remedial effects of ketamine. Neuropsychopharmacology (2013) 38, 743-752; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.248; published online 9 January 2013

  • 36.
    Falklöf, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Haglund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Daily occupations and adaptation to daily life described by women suffering from borderline personally disorder2010In: Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, ISSN 0164-212X, E-ISSN 1541-3101, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 354-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clients suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder have significant impairments in relation to health. Despite this, their occupational status is rarely described. The aim of this study was to examine how women with Borderline Personality Disorder describe their daily occupations and adaptation to daily life. The study included nine participants. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview and were analyzed using content analysis.

    Theme: Having few organized daily activities and poor personal causation prevent changes in adaptation to daily life. Two categories: performance and self-image, and four subcategories: competent or incompetent to perform, positive self-image, and lack of self-image were identified.

  • 37.
    Fall, Per-Arne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Ekman, R.
    Granérus, Ann-Kathrine
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wålinder, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    ECT in Parkinson's disease: Changes in motor symptoms, monoamine metabolites and neuropeptides1995In: Journal of Neural Transmission. Parkinson's disease and dementia section., ISSN 0936-3076, Vol. 10, no 2-3, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was given to 16 non-depressed, non-demented patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). In all the patients an antiparkinsonian effect was seen, lasting for 18 months in one patient, 3-5 months in seven patients, and a few days to four weeks in eight patients. After ECT the levels of homovanillic acid and neuropeptide Y in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly increased. The eight patients with long lasting motor improvement after ECT had significantly lower CSF-3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol compared to the group with short lasting improvement. Five patients developed transitory mental confusion after ECT. In these patients, and in no others, a high albumin-ratio was found already before ECT was given - an indication of blood CSF barrier damage. Our results suggest that ECT is valuable in patients with drug refractory PD or PD with intolerance to antiparkinsonian drugs.

  • 38.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Cholecystokinin in cerebrospinal fluid2002In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 17, p. 51S-51SConference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Gunnarsson, Tove
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Leszniewski, W
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bak, J
    Davidsson, L
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Radiol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Pathol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking a neurinoma - Case illustration2001In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 144-144Other (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Haglund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Clinical perspective on the Swedish version of the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills: Stability of assessments2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 417-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ratings according to the Assessment of Communication and Interaction Skills, Swedish version (ACIS-S) are related to the settings in which the skills are assessed, and whether the client's comprehension of the setting is related to the ACIS-S rating scores. The ACIS-S is an observation rating scale applied immediately after each of two to six different social sessions that the client takes part in. The selection of settings relies on the client's judgement of them as being meaningful. In total, nine occupational therapists and 16 clients participated in the study. A total of 71 ratings were made in a mean of 4.4 settings per client. The results indicate that the client's rated comprehension of the settings is not significantly related, in general, to the ACIS-S rating scores given by the occupational therapist. However, the clients ACIS-S scores may vary a lot over settings. In the present study, 13- of the 20-items showed ratings of both the existence and the absence of problems in the same skill - but in different settings - in half or more of the client group. This may rise questions for the practitioners how to implement the ACIS-S in clinical practice, for example, how many and which kind of settings and how many times? Further research in the field is recommended. © 2004 Nordic College of Caring Sciences.

  • 41.
    Hansson, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Annerbrink, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Bah, Jessica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Olsson, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Allgulander, Christer
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Andersch, Sven
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Eriksson, Elias
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Dickson, Suzanne L.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    A possible association between panic disorder and a polymorphism in the preproghrelin gene2013In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 206, no 1, p. 22-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the preproghrelin gene are associated with anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, in humans. Panic disorder is a severe anxiety disorder, characterized by sudden attacks of intense fear or anxiety in combination with somatic symptoms. The preproghrelin gene codes for two gut-derived circulating peptides that have been linked to anxiety-like behaviour in rodents: ghrelin (an orexigenic, pro-obesity hormone) and obestatin. In the present study, we genotyped three missense mutations in the preproghrelin gene in 215 patients suffering from panic disorder and in 451 controls. The A allele of the rs4684677 polymorphism was significantly associated with panic disorder, while there were no significant associations with the two other polymorphisms studied. We conclude that the rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) polymorphism in the preproghrelin gene may be associated with increased risk of panic disorder. It will be important to confirm these findings in additional panic disorder patient groups.

  • 42. Hashimoto, Kenji
    et al.
    Engberg, Göran
    Shimizu, Eiji
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif H
    Iyo, Masaomi
    Elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio in cerebrospinal fluid of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients2005In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies report that glutamine is altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients. There were also conflicting findings on glutamate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of schizophrenic patients, and absent for glutamine. This study aims to clarify the question of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients. Method: Levels of glutamine and glutamate in CSF of 25 first episode and drug-naive male schizophrenic patients and 17 age-matched male healthy controls were measured by a high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The ratio (126.1 (median), 117.7 ± 27.4 (mean ± S.D.)) of glutamine to glutamate in the CSF of patients was significantly (z = -3.29, p = 0.001) higher than that (81.01 (median), 89.1 ± 22.5 (mean ± S.D.)) of normal controls although each level of glutamine and glutamate in patients was not different from that of normal controls. Conclusion: Our data suggests that a disfunction in glutamate-glutamine cycle in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. © 2005 Hashimoto et al, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 43. Hashimoto, Kenji
    et al.
    Engberg, Göran
    Shimizu, Eiji
    Nordin, Conny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Leif H
    Iyo, Masaomi
    Reduced D-serine to total serine ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug naive schizophrenic patients2005In: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0278-5846, E-ISSN 1878-4216, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 767-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several lines of evidence suggest that d-serine, an endogenous agonist of the glycine site on the NMDA receptors, might play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether levels of d- and l-serine or d-serine ratio (d-serine/total serine) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were altered in first episode and drug-naive schizophrenic patients. The CSF levels of d- and l-serine in 25 male first episode and drug-naive schizophrenic patients and 17 age-matched male healthy subjects were measured using a column-switching high performance liquid chromatography system. The percentage of d-serine in the total serine of patients was significantly (z = - 2.01, p = 0.044) lower than that of controls. This study suggests that synthetic or metabolic pathways of d-serine may be abnormal in the brain of drug-naive schizophrenic patients, supporting the NMDA receptor dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Henningsson, S.
    et al.
    Department of Pharmacology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Annerbrink, K.
    Department of Pharmacology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, M.
    Department of Pharmacology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Allgulander, C.
    Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec Department, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersch, S.
    Institution of Clinical Neuroscience, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Gustafson, D.
    Institution of Clinical Neuroscience, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Skoog, I.
    Institution of Clinical Neuroscience, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, E.
    Department of Pharmacology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Westberg, L.
    Department of Pharmacology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden, Department of Pharmacology, Box 431, Göteborg University, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Absence of the Arg441His polymorphism in the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in adults with anxiety disorders and depression2007In: American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, ISSN 1552-4841, Vol. 144, no 6, p. 816-817Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 45.
    Hjalmdahl, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping.
    Forsman, Asa
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping.
    Ceder, Gunnel
    Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Woxler, Per
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Kronstrand, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of d-amphetamine on simulated driving performance before and after sleep deprivation2012In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 222, no 3, p. 401-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulant drugs are commonly abused and also used to promote wakefulness, yet their effects on driving performance during sleep deprivation have not been thoroughly researched in experimental studies. The aims were to assess the effects on fundamental driving parameters during simulated driving of two doses of d-amphetamine and further to assess the interaction between d-amphetamine and sleep deprivation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment including 18 healthy male volunteers was conducted. The participants felt more alert when taking a dose of d-amphetamine than when taking placebo, and the effect was stronger for the higher dose. However, the data did not show any evidence that taking d-amphetamine prevented the subjects from becoming successively sleepier during the night. A significant main effect of the dose was found for three out of the five primary indicators where the lower dose led to improved driving. These indicators were crossing-car reaction time, and coherence and delay from a car-following event. Regarding sleep deprivation, a main effect was found for four of the primary indicators and three of the secondary indicators. The results showed overall impaired driving with respect to standard deviation of lateral position and delay in reaction time when the sleep-deprived conditions were compared to the alert condition. We found no interactions between dose and sleep deprivation for any of the performance indicators. Our results suggest that administration of d-amphetamine does not compensate for impairment of driving due to fatigue. The positive effects of 10 mg were not further improved or even sustained when increasing the dose to 40 mg.

  • 46. Humble, M
    et al.
    Bejerot, S
    Bergqvist, PB
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Reactivity of serotonin in whole blood: relationship with drug response in obsessive-compulsive disorder?2001In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 49, p. 360-368Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Isaksson, Björn
    et al.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Bengtsson, Finn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Rosén, I
    Jeppsson, I
    Hepatic encephalopathy verified by psychometric testing and EEG in cirrhotic patients: Effects of mesocaval interposition shunt or sclerotherapy2005In: HPB, ISSN 1365-182X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The aim of this randomised prospective study was to evaluate hepatic encephalopathy after mesocaval interposition shunt operation and after repeated endoscopic sclerotherapy. Methods. Forty-five patients with bleeding oesophageal varices due to liver cirrhosis were randomised to the two treatment groups, 24 to the shunt group and 21 to the sclerotherapy group. The patients were evaluated preoperatively regarding blood tests, hepatic encephalopathy as measured by electroencephalogram with spectral analysis and by a battery of psychometric tests. The direction of portal flow in the shunt group was investigated by shunt phlebography and ultrasonography with Doppler. During follow-up the same investigations were performed twice at median 6.7 and 14.7 months after operation. Results. No statistically significant difference was found during follow-up regarding blood tests and electroencephalography with spectral analysis. Although the preoperative psychometric tests showed that the shunt group performed significantly better than the sclerotherapy group, the first follow-up showed that the shunt group performed statistically worse than the sclerotherapy group in seven of the tests: Synonyms (measuring verbal ability), Block Design Test (measuring visuo-spatial ability), Memory for Design Test, Error Score (measuring memory function), Revised Visual Retention Test, correct answers and the same test error answers (measuring visuo-spatial memory, ability and immediate memory), Digit Symbol Test (measuring perceptual ability) and Trial Making Test B (measuring cognitive motor abilities). Conclusions. Patients treated by mesocaval interposition shunt showed a progressive general reduction in psychometric performance compared with patients treated with repeated sclerotherapy, in whom a general intellectual improvement was observed. This finding corresponds to the reverse direction of the preoperative portal flow to a hepatofugal pattern at first follow-up and at 12 months among two-thirds of the patients. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.

  • 48.
    Janelidze, Shorena
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Ventorp, Filip
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hansson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Minthon, Lennart
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Flax, John
    PrecisionMedical Inc, CA USA .
    Samuelsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Traskman-Bendz, Lil
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Brundin, Lena
    Lund University, Sweden Michigan State University, MI USA .
    Altered chemokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of suicide attempters2013In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 853-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemokines constitute a class of small inflammatory proteins that control the chemotaxis of leukocytes. They are also present in the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to diverse physiological functions, such as the regulation of cell migration, axonal growth and neuronal survival. It is to date not known whether chemokines in the CNS are affected in psychiatric disorders. In this study, chemokine levels were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 137 psychiatric patients in conjunction to a suicide attempt, and 43 healthy controls. A subgroup of patients (n = 42) was followed up with blood samples 12 years after the initial CSF collection, when they did not show suicidal behavior. The follow-up chemokine levels were compared to those of psychiatric patients (n = 17) who had never attempted suicide. Ultrasensitive chemokine multiplex immunoassay was used to quantify eotaxin-1 (CCL11), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10, CXCL10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta, CCL4), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2), MCP-4 (CCL13) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC, CCL17). Patients were diagnosed using DSM-III-R/DSM-IV, and assessed using the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS), including subscales, and the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS). CSF eotaxin-1, MIP-1 beta, MCP-1, MCP-4 and TARC were significantly lower in suicide attempters than in healthy controls. Low chemokine levels were specifically associated with psychotic symptoms and pain. In the samples collected at follow-up, TARC was significantly lower in suicide attempters compared to psychiatric patients who had never attempted suicide. We also found a positive correlation between blood TARC and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Our study thus provides evidence of reduced chemokine levels in suicide attempters, both in the acute suicidal setting, and at long-term, compared to non-attempters. These results warrant future studies on the detailed neurobiological functions of chemokines in psychiatric patients. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björklund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hornborg, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rousseau, Andréas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Frederick, Ronald J.
    Center for Courageous Living, California, USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial2013In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 1, p. e102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT), as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders.

    Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average) in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9) and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up.

    Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect size of Cohen’s d = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.37–1.18) was found on the PHQ-9 and a moderately large between-group effect size d = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.08–0.87) was found on the GAD-7. The number of patients who recovered (had no diagnoses of depression and anxiety, and had less than 10 on both the PHQ-9 and the GAD-7) were at post-treatment 52% in the treatment group and 24% in the control group. This difference was significant, χ2(N = 100, df = 1) = 8.3, p < .01. From post-treatment to follow-up, treatment gains were maintained on the PHQ-9, and significant improvements were seen on the GAD-7.

    Conclusion. This study provides initial support for the efficacy of Internet-delivered psychodynamic therapy based on the affect-phobia model in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The results support the conclusion that psychodynamic treatment approaches may be transferred to the guided self-help format and delivered via the Internet.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekbladh, Sigrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hebert, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindström, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möller, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Petitt, Eleanor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Poysti, Stephanie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmqvist Larsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rousseau, Andréas
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Carlbring, Per
    Umeå universitet.
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psychodynamic Guided Self-Help for Adult Depression through the Internet: A Randomised Controlled Trial2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 5, p. e38021-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but not all clients with MDD can receive psychotherapy. Using the Internet to provide psychodynamic treatments is one way of improving access to psychological treatments for MDD. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based psychodynamic guided self-help treatment for MDD.

    Methods

    Ninety-two participants who were diagnosed with MDD according to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview were randomised to treatment or an active control. The treatment consisted of nine treatment modules based on psychodynamic principles with online therapist contact. The active control condition was a structured support intervention and contained psychoeducation and scheduled weekly contacts online. Both interventions lasted for 10 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II).

    Results

    Mixed-effects model analyses of all randomised participants showed that participants receiving Internet-based PDT made large and superior improvements compared with the active control group on the BDI-II (between-group Cohen's d = 1.11). Treatment effects were maintained at a 10-month follow-up.

    Conclusions

    Internet-based psychodynamic guided self-help is an efficacious treatment for MDD that has the potential to increase accessibility and availability of PDT for MDD.

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