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  • 1.
    Abbott, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Bond University, Australia.
    Kjellman, Görel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Multidimensional assessment of pain related disability after surgery for cervical disc disease2013In: APA Conference 2013: New moves, Australian Physiotherapy Association , 2013, p. 2-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: Given only 25% of patients, 10 year post-surgery for cervical disc disease report clinically meaningful improvements in functional disability, what are the biopsychosocial factors associated with continued long-term disability? What are the implications for physiotherapy practice?

    Design: Cross-sectional observational study.

    Participants: Ninety patients who had undergone anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery 10-13 years prior.

    Outcome Measures: The Neck Disability Index (NDI), ACDF surgery type, surgical fusion status, patient age and Part 1 of the West Haven-Yale multidimensional pain inventory Swedish version (MPI-S) were entered into a statistical model. Part 1 of the MPI-S contains 5 subscales: pain severity, interference, life control, affective distress and support.

    Results: Seventy-three patients answered the questionnaires. Non-linear categorical regression modeling (CATREG) of the selected predictive variables explained 76.1% of the variance in NDI outcomes 10-13 years post ACDF. Of these predictors, MPI-S affective distress subscale (β = 0.635, p = <0.001) and pain severity subscale (β = 0.354, p = <0.001) were significant individual predictors of NDI ratings.

    Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate potential factors associated with prolonged functional disability greater than 10 years post-surgery for cervical disc disease. The results suggest the importance of not only pain severity but also screening affective distress as a potential barrier to physical functioning in patients previously operated for cervical disc disease. Future research on the utility of affect-focused body awareness therapy and pain coping strategies for post-surgical patients with continuing pain and physical disability is indicated.

    Key Practice Points:

    •  The screening of pain severity and affective distress is of importance for patients presenting with continuing physical disability after previous surgery for cervical disc disorders

    •  Affect-focused body awareness therapies and pain coping strategies may be a potential treatment alternative for patients with continuing pain and physical disability.

  • 2. Admyre, Lena
    et al.
    Norgren, C
    Perers, L
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Teamarbete på vårdcentral - en viktig grund för rehabilitering av patienter med besvär från rörelseorganen i primärvården2003In: Allmänmedicin, ISSN 0281-3513, Vol. 24, p. 76-80Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Agvall, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Foldevi, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Cost of heart failure in Swedish primary healthcare2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 23, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To calculate the cost for patients with heart failure (HF) in a primary healthcare setting. Design. Retrospective study of all available patient data during a period of one year. Setting. Two healthcare centers in Linköping in the southeastern region of Sweden, covering a population of 19 400 inhabitants. Subjects. A total of 115 patients with a diagnosis of HF. Main outcome measures. The healthcare costs for patients with HF and the healthcare utilization concerning hospital days and visits to doctors and nurses in hospital care and primary healthcare. Results. The mean annual cost for a patient with HF was SEK 37 100. There were no significant differences in cost between gender, age, New York Heart Association functional class, and cardiac function. The distribution of cost was 47% for hospital care, 22% for primary healthcare, 18% for medication, 5% for nursing home, and 6% for examinations. Conclusion. Hospital care accounts for the largest cost but the cost in primary healthcare is larger than previously shown. The total annual cost for patients with HF in Sweden is in the range of SEK 5.0–6.7 billion according to this calculation, which is higher than previously known.Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02813430500197647

  • 4.
    Ahlbeck, Lars
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Differences in patient perception of appropriate level of care1996In: European Journal of General Practice, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 109-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The principle of achieving the most cost-effective level of care in relation to needs is an essential aim for all health care systems. However, it is not certain that the corresponding knowledge and attitudes with respect to the appropriate level of care for different symptoms can be found in the general population. There may be age-related differences in illness behaviour that manifest in ‘overutilisation’ of the system. We studied illness behaviour with regard to attitudes and inclination to seek care for different symptoms at various levels in the health care system.Methods: The study group consisted of a random selection of 296 persons, born in the 1940s, ′50s and ′60s, and living in a defined region in Sweden. In a questionnaire they had to choose between different levels of care for twelve symptom descriptions with varying degrees of severity. The answers were scored according to the level of care, adequacy and overutilisation.Results: The vast majority of participants chose an adequate level of care. However, overutilisation was found, particularly among women born in the 1960s and to some extent among men born in the 1940s. These two groups together constituted about 70% of all the individuals who tended to overutilise the health care in their expressed preferences.Conclusions: These individuals do not receive cost-effective care, or the most adequate care with regard to their needs. The results indicate, however, that the problem was more a question of attitude rather than a lack of knowledge and information.

  • 5.
    Al-Karkhi, Isam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Al-Rubaiy, Raad
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rosenqvist, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Falk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Comparisons of automated blood pressures in a primary health care setting with self-measurements at the office and at home using the Omron i-C10 device2015In: Blood Pressure Monitoring, ISSN 1359-5237, E-ISSN 1473-5725, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 98-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare blood pressure (BP) levels recorded using the semiautomatic oscillometric Omron i-C10 BP device in patients with or without hypertension in three different settings: (a) when used by a doctor or a nurse at the office (OBP); (b) when used for self-measurement by the patient at the office (SMOBP); and (c) when used for 7 consecutive days at home (HBP).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 247 individuals were invited to participate, but 78 of these individuals declined and a further seven were excluded, leaving a final cohort of 162 participants.

    RESULTS: The mean OBP was higher than HBP (difference 8.1±14/3.1±8.8 mmHg, P<0.0001) and so was SMOBP compared with HBP (difference 7.0±13/4.2±7.3 mmHg, P<0.0001). Sixteen participants (9.9%) had at least 10 mmHg higher systolic SMOBP than OBP and 28 (17%) participants had at least 10 mmHg lower systolic SMOBP than OBP. Participants who were current smokers had a larger mean difference between systolic OBP and SMOBP than nonsmokers (OBP-SMOBP in smokers: 6.6±9.4 mmHg, OBP-SMOBP in nonsmokers: 0.5±9.2 mmHg, P=0.011 between groups).

    CONCLUSION: Self-measurement of BP in the office does not preclude an increase in BP when levels in the individual patients are compared with HBP using the same equipment. Thus, SMOBP with a semiautomatic device does not lead to a reduction in the white-coat effect in the same manner as fully automatic devices.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.

  • 6.
    Almen-Christensson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Prevention of menstrual migraine with perimenstrual transdermal 17-beta-estradiol: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study2011In: Fertility and Sterility, ISSN 0015-0282, E-ISSN 1556-5653, Vol. 96, no 2, p. 498-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he effect of treatment with percutaneous E(2) (100 mu g/24 h) during 2 weeks perimenstrually on the number and severity of menstrual migraine attacks was studied in 27 women in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial. We were not able to demonstrate any difference between E(2) supplementation and placebo on the number or severity of migraine attacks, but both regimens showed significant effects compared with before treatment.

  • 7.
    Almlöv, J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Vägledd självhjälp vid depression - en pilotstudie av Internet-och telefonbaserad kognitiv beteendeterapi inom primärvården.2009Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nephrology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Nephrology UHL.
    Geogrsson, T
    Mussener, E
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Malmsten, G
    Olcen, P
    Increased prevalence of antigliadine IgA-antibodies in patients with IgA-nephropathy2004In: Kidney International 2004,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Andersson, A
    et al.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation.
    Enthoven, Paul
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Kjellman, Görel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Ockander, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society.
    Skargren, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Öberg, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Vad är en god arbetslivsinriktad rehabilitering? Slutsatser baserade på en litteratursammanställning2003Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ölvander, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Karolinska Institute.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Alcohol use among university students in Sweden measured by an electronic screening instrument2009In: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, no 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Electronic-based alcohol screening and brief interventions for university students with problem drinking behaviours forms an important means by which to identify risky drinkers. Methods: In this study an e-SBI project was implemented to assess drinking patterns, and to provide personalised feedback about alcohol consumption and related health problems, to students in a Swedish university. In this study, third semester university students (n = 2858) from all faculties (colleges) at the University were invited to participate in e-SBI screenings. This study employed a randomised controlled trial, with respondents having a equal chance of being assigned to a limited, or full-feedback response. Results: The study shows that high risk drinkers tend to underestimate their own consumption compared to others, and that these high risk drinkers experience more negative consequences after alcohol intake, than other respondents. There was a strong belief, for both high-and low-risk drinkers, that alcohol helped celebrations be more festive. This study also confirms findings from other study locations that while males drank more than females in our study population; females reached the same peak alcohol blood concentrations as males. Conclusion: Obtaining clear and current information on drinking patterns demonstrated by university students can help public health officials, university administration, and local health care providers develop appropriate prevention and treatment strategies.

  • 11.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Co-morbidity and health care utilisation five years prior to diagnosis for depression: A register-based study in a Swedish population2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 552-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Depressive disorders have been associated with a number of co-morbidities, and we   hypothesized that patients with a depression diagnosis would be heavy users of health   care services, not only when first evaluated for depression, but also for preceding   years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased health care utilisation   and co-morbidity could be seen during five years prior to an initial diagnosis of   depression.

    Methods

    We used a longitudinal register-based study design. The setting comprised the general   population in the county of Östergötland, south-east Sweden. All 2470 patients who   were 20 years or older in 2006 and who received a new diagnosis of depression (F32   according to ICD-10) in 2006, were selected and followed back to the year 2001, five   years before their depression diagnosis. A control group was randomly selected among   those who were aged 20 years or over in 2006 and who had received no depression diagnosis   during the period 2001-2006.

    Results

    Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female   gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status.

    Patients who received a diagnosis of depression used twice the amount of health care   (e.g. physician visits and hospital days) during the five year period prior to diagnosis   compared to the control group. A particularly strong increase in health care utilisation   was seen the last year before diagnosis. These findings were supported with a high   level of co-morbidity as for example musculoskeletal disorders during the whole five-year   period for patients with a depression diagnosis.

    Conclusions

    Predictors of a depression diagnosis were a high number of physician visits, female   gender, age below 60, age above 80 and a low socioeconomic status. To find early signs   of depression in the clinical setting and to use a preventive strategy to handle these   patients is important.

  • 12.
    André, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andén, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Rudebeck, Carl Edvard
    Kalmar County Council, Sweden University of Tromso, Norway .
    GPs decision-making - perceiving the patient as a person or a disease2012In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 13, no 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical decision making strategies of GPs with regard to the whole range of problems encountered in everyday work. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: A prospective questionnaire study was carried through, where 16 General practitioners in Sweden registered consecutively 378 problems in 366 patients. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: 68.3% of the problems were registered as somatic, 5.8% as psychosocial and 25.9% as both somatic and psychosocial. When the problem was characterised as somatic the main emphasis was most often on the symptoms only, and when the problem was psychosocial main emphasis was given to the person. Immediate, inductive, decision-making contrary to gradual, analytical, was used for about half of the problems. Immediate decision-making was less often used when problems were registered as both somatic and psychosocial and focus was on both the symptoms and the person. When immediate decision-making was used the GPs were significantly more often certain of their identification of the problem and significantly more satisfied with their consultation. Rules of thumb in consultations registered as somatic with emphasis on symptoms only did not include any reference to the individual patient. In consultations registered as psychosocial with emphasis on the person, rules of thumb often included reference to the patient as a known person. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The decision-making (immediate or gradual) registered by the GPs seemed to have been adjusted on the symptom or on the patient as a person. Our results indicate that the GPs seem to recognise immediately both problems and persons, hence the quintessence of the expert skill of the GP as developed through experience.

  • 13.
    André, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andén, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudebeck, Carl-Edvard
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Clinical Strategies in General Practice: GPs' Perceptions2009Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: General practice operates at the point of intersection between health care as a medical-technological and a humanistic enterprise, as manifested through the coherent attention given to both the patient as a person and to the disease.

    Objective: To analyse the problem-solving strategies of GPs with regard to problems encountered and presumed patient outcomes throughout the range of problems and patients encountered in the everyday work of the GP.

    Methods: Sixteen GPs from different areas of Sweden filled out questionnaires concerning 15-30 of their recent consecutive consultations.

    Results: In 94% of the consultations a somatic problem was registered, in 28% of these together with a psychosocial problem. Only a small fraction (5.8%) was registered as psychosocial problems only. In most of the consultations characterised as somatic, the main emphasis was on the symptoms only, whereas emphasis was given only to the person in consultations where the problem was registered as psychosocial. Immediate problem solving was used in about half of the consultations, where the patients were more often considered to be reassured, cope better and to be satisfied. With increasing psychosocial content of the consultations, the GPs registered more dissatisfaction, both for themselves and their patients.

    Limitations: The GPs were not randomly selected and the results are based solely on the GPs perceptions.

    Conclusions: The GPs seemed to adjust their problem solving (immediate or gradual) to the registered problem and furthermore adjust the immediate problem solving, focusing either on the problem or on the patient as a person. This might be regarded as the quintessence of the expert skill of the experienced GP.

  • 14.
    André, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Foldevi, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Central County Primary Health Care.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Asking for ’rules of thumb’: a way to discover tacit knowledge in general practice2002In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 617-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Research in decision-making has identified heuristics (rules of thumb) as shortcuts to simplify search and choice.

    Objective. To find out if GPs recognize the use of rules of thumb and if they could describe what they looked like.

    Methods. An explorative and descriptive study was set up using focus group interviews. The interview guide contained the questions: Do you recognize the use of rules of thumb? Are you able to give some examples? What are the benefits and dangers in using rules of thumb? Where do they come from? The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the templates in the interview guide, and the examples of rules were classified by editing analysis.

    Results. Four groups with 23 GPs were interviewed. GPs recognized using rules of thumb, producing examples covering different aspects of the consultation. The rules for somatic problems were formulated as axiomatic simplified medical knowledge and taken for granted, while rules for psychosocial problems were formulated as expressions of individual experience and were followed by an explanation. The rules seemed unaffected by the sparse objections given. A GP’s clinical experience was judged a prerequisite for applying the rules. The origin of many rules was via word-of-mouth from a colleague. The GPs acknowledged the benefits of using the rules, thereby simplifying work.

    Conclusion. GPs recognize the use of rules of thumb as an immediate and semiconscious kind of knowledge that could be called tacit knowledge. Using rules of thumb might explain why practice remains unchanged although educational activities result in more elaborate knowledge.

  • 15.
    André, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Use of rules of thumb in the consultation in general practice: an act of balance between the individual and the general perspective2003In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 514-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Rules of thumb used by GPs could be considered as empirical evidence of intuition and a link between science and practice in general practice.

    Objective. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the description of the application of rules of thumb with regard to different situations in general practice.

    Methods. An explorative and descriptive study was started with focus group interviews. Four groups with 23 GPs were interviewed. The interviews were transcribed and analysed, and the rules and their application were classified by an editing analysis.

    Results. A specific set of rules of thumb was used for rapid assessment, when emergency and psychosocial problems were identified. When the main focus of the problems was identified as somatic or psychosocial, the GPs did not disregard the other aspects but described the use of rules in a simultaneous individualizing and generalizing process. The rules contained probability reasoning and risk assessment.

    Conclusion. Rules of thumb seemed to serve as a link between theoretical knowledge and practical experience and were used by the GPs in an act of balance between the individual and the general perspective.

  • 16.
    Arvidsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andre, Malin
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Setting priorities in primary health care - on whose conditions? A questionnaire study2012In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 13, no 114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden three key criteria are used for priority setting: severity of the health condition; patient benefit; and cost-effectiveness. They are derived from the ethical principles established by the Swedish parliament 1997 but have been used only to a limited extent in primary care. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse: 1) GPs, nurses, and patients prioritising in routine primary care 2) The association between the three key priority setting criteria and the overall priority assigned by the GPs and nurses to individual patients. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Paired questionnaires were distributed to all patients and the GPs or nurses they had contact with during a 2-week period at four health centres in Sweden. The staff registered the health conditions or health problem, and the planned intervention. Then they estimated the severity of the health condition, the expected patient benefit, and the cost-effectiveness of the planned intervention. Both the staff and the patients reported their overall prioritisation of the patient. In total, 1851 paired questionnaires were collected. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Compared to the medical staff, the patients assigned relatively higher priority to acute/minor conditions than to preventive check-ups for chronic conditions. Severity of the health condition was the priority setting criterion that had the strongest association with the overall priority for the staff as a whole, but for the GPs it was cost-effectiveness. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The challenge for primary care providers is to balance the patients demands with medical needs and cost-effectiveness. Transparent priority setting in primary care might contribute to a greater consensus between GPs and nurses on how to use the key priority setting criteria.

  • 17.
    Arvidsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    André, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Priority setting in primary health care - dilemmas and opportunities: a focus group study2010In: BMC FAMILY PRACTICE, ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 11, no 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish health care authorities use three key criteria to produce national guidelines for local priority setting: severity of the health condition, expected patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness of medical intervention. Priority setting in primary health care (PHC) has significant implications for health costs and outcomes in the health care system. Nevertheless, these guidelines have been implemented to a very limited degree in PHC. The objective of the study was to qualitatively assess how general practitioners (GPs) and nurses perceive the application of the three key priority-setting criteria. Methods: Focus groups were held with GPs and nurses at primary health care centres, where the staff had a short period of experience in using the criteria for prioritising in their daily work. Results: The staff found the three key priority-setting criteria (severity, patient benefit, and cost-effectiveness) to be valuable for priority setting in PHC. However, when the criteria were applied in PHC, three additional dimensions were identified: 1) viewpoint (medical or patients), 2) timeframe (now or later), and 3) evidence level (group or individual). Conclusions: The three key priority-setting criteria were useful. Considering the three additional dimensions might enhance implementation of national guidelines in PHC and is probably a prerequisite for the criteria to be useful in priority setting for individual patients.

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    André, Malin
    Falun.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Kjell
    Falun.
    Så resonerar läkare och sjuksköterskor vid prioriteringar av patienter i primärvård2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Background

    Experience from work with priority setting in health and medical care indicates that the ethical guidelines that are at the heart of Swedish Parliament’s principles for priority  setting  are difficult  to implement  into practical  clinical  decision- making. The same can be said of the model for priority setting drawn up by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in the national guidelines  for care and treatment. For this reason, we need more knowledge on how principles for priority setting and related concepts are perceived by medical care personnel, the relevance of these concepts, and if there are other aspects that also impact the priority setting situation.  We also need to develop  new work methods  to meet Parliament’s intentions with priority setting in health and medical care.

    To contribute  to the development  of new  work  methods,  we chose  to study priority setting in primary care practice. Our primary purpose was to describe the way in which general practitioners and district nurses perceive the concepts severity  of  illness,  benefit  and  cost-effectiveness  when  they  rank  priority  for individual patients. Our secondary purpose was to compare medical personnel’s perception of the concepts severity of illness, benefit and cost-effectiveness with the definitions  of these  concepts  in the model  for vertical  priority  setting  as established by the National Board of Health and Welfare.

    Methods

    Focus group interviews as a source of data collection was selected as the method since the study was explorative and the intention was to obtain as many aspects as possible pertaining  to priority setting concepts.  The method is suitable for collecting a large amount of information within a previously unexplored subject. Interviews were conducted with eight groups of physicians and nurses from four different primary care centers. The respondents  selected had participated  in a prospective  study  on  practical  priority  setting,  i.e.  they  had  experience  of implementing the concepts severity of illness, benefit, and cost-effectiveness in setting priorities in their daily work.

    Results and Conclusions

    Both  the  physicians  and  nurses  expressed  a  simplified  interpretation  of  the concepts severity of illness and benefit. One example of such simplification was that many nurses said that when ranking the severity of a condition, they based their decision on how imperative  it was for the patient to see a physician.  A

     

    common response was that the concepts could be assessed from both patient and staff perspectives  but that these assessments  could differ. When asked to set priorities according to a specific template, respondents said that it was easier to rank patients with an acute condition that had a tangible effect on function and that could be immediately treated, than to rank patients according to factors that were a risk to their future health. This means that priority judgements based on knowledge of a patient category were perceived as uncertain and more difficult to use than direct personal experience of treating an individual patient. This was discussed, above all, by the physicians. Respondents gave several examples of actions taken despite that medical staff did not feel that there was any benefit to the patient.

    In a comparison  of how these three concepts  are described  in the model for priority setting on the policy level drawn up by the National Board of Health and Welfare and how medical personnel implemented the concepts, we found both similarities and dissimilarities.

    A model based on these concepts can be of use in priority setting in primary care, but it must be supplemented  and improved  to be applicable  to ranking patients  in day-to-day  medical  care. Supplements  that may be necessary  are; clarification that a combination of medical and patient perspectives is intended, clarification of how to use the concept cost-effectiveness, and the addition of a time factor and factors related to the individual patient. There is also a need for a more  structured  way  of working  with evidence-based  care.  We also  need  to clarify the differences between setting priorities for patient categories and for individual patients in day-to-day medical care.

    In our opinion, the model for priority setting on the patient category level can be improved  to  be  more  applicable  as  a  template  for  decision-making  on  the individual patient level, however a supplementary  model may be necessary to support priority setting on the individual level.

  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    André, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Lindström, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Primary care patients' attitudes to priority setting in Sweden.2009In: Scandinavian journal of primary health care, ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 123-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse attitudes to priority setting among patients in Swedish primary healthcare. DESIGN: A questionnaire was given to patients comprising statements on attitudes towards prioritizing, on the role of politicians and healthcare staff in prioritizing, and on patient satisfaction with the outcome of their contact with primary healthcare (PHC). SETTINGS: Four healthcare centres in Sweden, chosen through purposive sampling. PARTICIPANTS: All the patients in contact with the health centres during a two-week period in 2004 (2517 questionnaires, 72% returned). MAIN OUTCOMES: Patient attitudes to priority setting and satisfaction with the outcome of their contact. RESULTS: More than 75% of the patients agreed with statements like "Public health services should always provide the best possible care, irrespective of cost". Almost three-quarters of the patients wanted healthcare staff rather than politicians to make decisions on priority setting. Younger patients and males were more positive towards priority setting and they also had a more positive view of the role of politicians. Less than 10% of the patients experienced some kind of economic rationing but the majority of these patients were satisfied with their contact with primary care. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care patient opinions concerning priority setting are a challenge for both politicians and GPs. The fact that males and younger patients are less negative to prioritizing may pave the way for a future dialogue between politicians and the general public.

  • 20.
    Arvidsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    André, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Department of Nursing, School of Health and Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Day-to-day Rationing of Limited Resources in Swedish routine Primary Care: an interview study2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rationing is a reality in all health care, but little is known about day-to-day rationing in routine primary health care (PHC). This study aims to explore strategies to handle limited of resources in Swedish routine primary care.

    Methods: Data were compiled from 62 interviews with healthcare professionals (general practitioners, nurses, physiotherapists, and managers at primary care centres). A qualitative research method was applied in the analysis.

    Results: The interviewed staff described perceptions of a general public with high expectations on PHC in combination with a lack of resources. Strategies to cope with scarce resources were avoiding rationing, ad hoc rationing, or planned rationing. Rationing was largely implicit and not based on ethical principles or other defined criteria. Trying to avoid rationing resulted in unintended rationing. Ad hoc rationing had undesired consequences, e.g. inadequate continuity of care and displacing certain patient groups, especially the chronically ill and the elderly. The staff expressed a need for support and for applicable guidelines, and called for policy statements based on priority decisions to help manage the situation.

    Conclusions: The interviews suggested a need to improve the transparency of priority setting procedures in PHC, although the nature of the PHC setting presents special challenges. Improving transparency could, in turn, improve equity and the efficient use of resources in PHC.

  • 21. Bari, Muhammad Rizuanul
    et al.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland.
    Rastam, Lennart
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Swedish community - Skaraborg Hypertension and Diabetes Project2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 211-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To explore the association between abdominal obesity and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design. A cross-sectional observational study. Setting. Primary care in Skara, Sweden. Subjects. A total of 198 men and 186 women with type 2 diabetes who consecutively completed an annual check-up in 1992-1993. Main outcome measures. Abdominal obesity was defined according to criteria for the metabolic syndrome using the waist circumference (WC): > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women. Insulin resistance was estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA), and was dichotomized by the 75th percentile (IR). Results. Abdominal obesity was found in 66 men (33%), and in 106 women (57%). Pearson's correlation coefficients between components of the metabolic syndrome and IR were statistically significant for WC, waist-hip ratio, serum triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol, and were higher for WC (0.40) than for waist-hip ratio (0.23) in both genders (p < 0.001). The association between WC and IR was challenged by successively entering other components of the metabolic syndrome into the model in a logistic regression. In the final model, adjusting for differences in age, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, the association remained statistically significant both in men (OR 8.6, 95% CI 3.0-25.2, p < 0.001), and in women (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.7-18.1, p = 0.004). Conclusions. WC provides a feasible measure for insulin resistance in the vast majority of subjects with type 2 diabetes. It is convenient and less expensive than direct means and could be used as a proxy for insulin resistance in population studies.

  • 22.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Feasibility and user perception of a fully automated push-based multiple-session alcohol intervention for university students: randomized controlled trial.2014In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 2, no 2, p. e30-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, many electronic health behavior interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with unhealthy behaviors, such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant for university students, many of whom are risky drinkers.

    OBJECTIVE: This study explored the acceptability and feasibility in a nontreatment-seeking group of university students (including both risk and nonrisk drinkers), of a fully automated, push-based, multiple-session, alcohol intervention, comparing two modes of delivery by randomizing participants to receive the intervention either by SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) or by email.

    METHODS: A total of 5499 students at Luleå University in northern Sweden were invited to participate in a single-session alcohol assessment and feedback intervention; 28.04% (1542/5499) students completed this part of the study. In total, 29.44% (454/1542) of those participating in the single-session intervention accepted to participate further in the extended multiple-session intervention lasting for 4 weeks. The students were randomized to receive the intervention messages via SMS or email. A follow-up questionnaire was sent immediately after the intervention and 52.9% (240/454) responded.

    RESULTS: No difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention, regardless of the mode of delivery. Approximately 15% in both the SMS (19/136) and email groups (15/104) would have preferred the other mode of delivery. On the other hand, more students in the SMS group (46/229, 20.1%) stopped participating in the intervention during the 4-week period compared with the email group (10/193, 5.2%). Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the content of the messages and would recommend the intervention to a fellow student in need of reducing drinking. A striking difference was seen regarding when a message was read; 88.2% (120/136) of the SMS group read the messages within 1 hour in contrast to 45.2% (47/104) in the email group. In addition, 83.1% (113/136) in the SMS group stated that they read all or almost all the messages, compared with only 63.5% (66/104) in the email group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the feedback from the students, an extended, multiple-session, push-based intervention seems to be a feasible option for students interested in additional support after a single-session alcohol intervention. SMS as a mode of delivery seems to have some advantages over email regarding when a message is read and the proportion of messages read. However, more students in the SMS group stopped the intervention than in the email group. Based on these promising findings, further studies comparing the effectiveness of single-session interventions with extended multiple-session interventions delivered separately or in combination are warranted.

  • 23.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Feasibility of an email-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) to college students in Sweden.2006In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 31, p. 777-787Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hazardous Drinking Concepts, Limits and Methods: Low Levels of Awareness, Knowledge and Use in the Swedish Population.2011In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the awareness and knowledge of hazardous drinking limits among the general population in Sweden and the extent to which people estimate their alcohol consumption in standard drinks to assess their level of drinking.

    Methods: A population-based study involving 6000 individuals selected from the total Swedish population was performed. Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire. The mail survey response rate was 54.3% (n = 3200) of the net sample of 5891 persons.

    Results: With regard to drinking patterns, 10% of the respondents were abstainers, 59% were sensible drinkers and 31% were classified as hazardous drinkers. Most of the abstainers (80%), sensible drinkers (64%) and hazardous drinkers (56%) stated that they had never heard about the standard drink method. Familiarity with the hazardous drinking concept also differed between the three categories although ∼61% of sensible and hazardous drinkers expressed awareness of the concept (46% of the abstainers). Knowledge about the limits for sensible drinking was very poor. Between 94 and 97% in the three categories did not know the limit. There was a statistically significant association between having visited health care within the last 12 months and being aware of the standard drink method and the hazardous drinking concept, but not with knowing the hazardous drinking limits. Similarly, there was a significant association between having had at least one alcohol conversation in health care within the last 12 months and being aware of the standard drink method and the hazardous drinking concept, but not with knowing the hazardous drinking limits.

    Conclusion: The results can be seen as a major challenge for the health-care system and public health authorities because they imply that a large proportion of the Swedish population does not know when alcohol consumption becomes a threat to their health. The current strategy to disseminate knowledge about sensible drinking limits to the population through the health-care system seems to have failed and new means of informing the population are warranted.

  • 25.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    McCambridge, Jim
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Effectiveness of a proactive mail-based alcohol Internet intervention for university students: dismantling the assessment and feedback components in a randomized controlled trial2012In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 14, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: University students in Sweden routinely receive proactive mail-based alcohol Internet interventions sent from student health services. This intervention provides personalized normative feedback on alcohol consumption with suggestions on how to decrease drinking. Earlier feasibility trials by our group and others have examined effectiveness in simple parallel-groups designs.Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electronic screening and brief intervention, using a randomized controlled trial design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity (and other possible effects of the research process) due to the similarity between the intervention and assessment content. The design of the study allowed for exploration of the magnitude of the assessment effects per se.Methods: This trial used a dismantling design and randomly assigned 5227 students to 3 groups: (1) routine practice assessment and feedback, (2) assessment-only without feedback, and (3) neither assessment nor feedback. At baseline all participants were blinded to study participation, with no contact being made with group 3. We approached students 2 months later to participate in a cross-sectional alcohol survey. All interventions were fully automated and did not have any human involvement. All data used in the analysis were based on self-assessment using questionnaires. The participants were unaware that they were participating in a trial and thus were also blinded to which group they were randomly assigned.Results: Overall, 44.69% (n = 2336) of those targeted for study completed follow-up. Attrition was similar in groups 1 (697/1742, 40.01%) and 2 (737/1742, 42.31% retained) and lower in group 3 (902/1743, 51.75% retained). Intention-to-treat analyses among all participants regardless of their baseline drinking status revealed no differences between groups in all alcohol parameters at the 2-month follow-up. Per-protocol analyses of groups 1 and 2 among those who accepted the email intervention (36.2% of the students who were offered the intervention in group 1 and 37.3% of the students in group2 ) and who were risky drinkers at baseline (60.7% follow-up rate in group 1 and 63.5% in group 2) suggested possible small beneficial effects on weekly consumption attributable to feedback.Conclusions: This approach to outcome evaluation is highly conservative, and small benefits may follow the actual uptake of feedback intervention in students who are risky drinkers, the precise target group.Trial Registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 24735383; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN24735383 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Awq7gjXG)

  • 26.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Karlstad University.
    Johansson, Anne Lie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Matti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Referral to an electronic screening and brief alcohol intervention in primary health care in Sweden: impact of staff referral to the computer2011In: International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications, ISSN 1687-6415, E-ISSN 1687-6423, Vol. 2011, p. 1-11, article id 918763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate whether primary health care staff's referral of patients to perform an electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for alcohol use had a greater impact on change in alcohol consumption after 3 month, compared to patients who performed the test on their own initiative. Staff-referred responders reported reduced weekly alcohol consumption with an average decrease of 8.4 grams. In contrast, self-referred responders reported an average increase in weekly alcohol consumption of 2.4 grams. Staff-referred responders reported a 49% reduction of average number of heavy episodic drinking (HED) occasions per month. The corresponding reduction for self-referred responders was 62%. The differences between staff- and self-referred patient groups in the number who moved from risky drinking to nonrisky drinking at the followup were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that standalone computers with touchscreens that provide e-SBIs for risky drinking have the same effect on drinking behaviour in both staff-referred patients and self-referred patients.

  • 27.
    Bergfors, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Nyström Kronander, Ulla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Falk, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Valter, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital-East, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    How common are long-lasting, intensely itching vaccination granulomas and contact allergy to aluminium induced by currently used pediatric vaccines? A prospective cohort study2014In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 173, no 10, p. 1297-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency of long-lasting, intensely itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site for aluminium (Al)-adsorbed vaccines (vaccination granulomas) was investigated in a prospective cohort study comprising 4,758 children who received either a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Infanrix®, Pentavac®) alone or concomitant with a pneumococcal conjugate (Prevenar). Both vaccines were adsorbed to an Al adjuvant. Altogether 38 children (0.83 %) with itching granulomas were identified, epicutaneously tested for Al sensitisation and followed yearly. Contact allergy to Al was verified in 85 %. The median duration of symptoms was 22 months in those hitherto recovered. The frequency of granulomas induced by Infanrix® was >0.66 % and by Prevenar >0.35 %. The risk for granulomas increased from 0.63 to 1.18 % when a second Al-adsorbed vaccine was added to the schedule. Conclusion: Long-lasting itching vaccination granulomas are poorly understood but more frequent than previously known after infant vaccination with commonly used diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The risk increases with the number of vaccines given. Most children with itching granulomas become contact allergic to aluminium. Itching vaccination granulomas are benign but may be troublesome and should be recognised early in primary health care to avoid unnecessary investigations, anxiety and mistrust.

  • 28.
    Bergfors, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Lundmark, Katarzyna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Nyström Kronander, Ulla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Allergy Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    A child with a long-standing, intensely itching subcutaneous nodule on a thigh: an uncommon (?) reaction to commonly used vaccines2013In: BMJ Case Reports, ISSN 1757-790XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-year-old girl presented with an intensely itching subcutaneous nodule on the front of a thigh. The nodule persisted for 10 months until it was excised. Subsequent investigation for malignancy and systemic disease showed no pathological findings. The diagnosis, persistent itching vaccination granuloma, was revealed by hazard almost 2 years after the onset of symptoms. Persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site for aluminium containing vaccines (mostly diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis combination vaccines for primary immunisation of infants) may appear with a long delay after the vaccination (months), cause prolonged itching (years) and are often associated with contact allergy to aluminium. The condition is poorly recognised in Health Care which may lead to prolonged symptoms and unnecessary investigations.

  • 29.
    Bergfors, Elisabet
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Göteborgs universitet, Avdelning för pediatrik.
    Long-lasting itching subcutaneous granulomas and contact allergy to aluminium in children after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination2012In: WONCA Europe Vienna, July 4-7 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bergfors, Elisabet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Department of Paediatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital-East, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Sixty-four children with persistent itching nodules and contact allergy to aluminium after vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines-prognosis and outcome after booster vaccination2013In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent itching subcutaneous nodules and aluminium (Al) allergy have been described after vaccination with Al-adsorbed vaccines but are considered rare. Little is known about the prognosis. Sixty-four children with itching nodules following vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines currently used in Sweden (Infanrix® and Pentavac®) were spontaneously reported to the authors from 1999 and followed for up to 12 years. The median duration of itching was 5 years in the 44 children who were free or almost free from symptoms at the latest follow-up. Typical findings were a long interval between vaccination and onset of symptoms (months or years) and intensified itching during intercurrent infections. Contact allergy to aluminium was demonstrated in 60/63 children (95 %). Neither the incidence nor differences between the two vaccines can be estimated from this study, but vaccine-induced itching nodules are probably more common than hitherto realised. The median interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 8 months in a region where nurses were educated to recognise the condition compared to 2 years in other regions. Booster vaccination with DTP-polio was postponed or declined by 15/40 families in fear for new problems. Out of 25 children who received a booster dose, only two had new itching nodules. Conclusion: Intensely itching subcutaneous nodules (vaccination granulomas) and contact allergy to aluminium may occur after primary vaccination with the two most commonly used DTP vaccines in Europe. The condition is probably underreported. Symptoms may last for at least 4-5 years but eventually seem to subside.

  • 31.
    Bergström, G
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg / Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Berglund, G
    Lund University.
    Blomberg, A
    Umeå University.
    Brandberg, J
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital / University of Gothenburg.
    Engström, G
    Lund University.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research.
    Eriksson, M
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    de Faire, U
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm / Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Flinck, A
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Stockholm / University of Gothenburg.
    Hansson, M G
    Uppsala University.
    Hedblad, B
    Lund University.
    Hjelmgren, O
    University of Gothenburg / Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Janson, C
    Uppsala University.
    Jernberg, T
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm / Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Johnsson, Å
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg / University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, L
    Unit of Radiology.
    Lind, L
    Uppsala University.
    Löfdahl, C-G
    Lund University / Lund University Hospital.
    Melander, O
    Lund University / Skåne University Hospital, Malmö.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Motala.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Persson, M
    Lund University / Skåne University Hospital, Malmö.
    Sandström, A
    Umeå University.
    Schmidt, C
    University of Gothenburg.
    Söderberg, S
    Umeå University.
    Sundström, J
    Uppsala University / Uppsala Clinical Resarch Centre.
    Toren, K
    University of Gothenburg.
    Waldenström, A
    Umeå University Hospital.
    Wedel, H
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg.
    Vikgren, J
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg / University of Gothenburg.
    Fagerberg, B
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rosengren, A
    University of Gothenburg.
    The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design2015In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 278, no 6, p. 645-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.

  • 32.
    Bergström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Bergström, Karin
    Stockholm shool of economics.
    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Rehabilitation in West County.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Brinck, Jonas
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Back extensor training increases muscle strength in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, kyphosis and vertebral fractures2011In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We determined the efficacy of a back muscle extensor strengthening program on the back muscle extensor strength, kyphosis, height and thoracic expansion in women with at least one vertebral fracture, kyphosis and osteoporosis. Thirty-six patients were included and randomized to a control or a training group. The training focused on back muscle extensor strengthening program for 1 h, twice a week for 4 months and was performed by a physiotherapist. The main outcome measure was the back muscle extensor strength. In an intention-to-treat analysis no significant effects on back muscle strength in the training group vs. controls could be seen (p = 0.74). In a per-protocol analysis (n = 28), the training group increased back muscle strength from 290 ± 87 to 331 ± 89 N while the control group showed no improvement. After adjusting for the strength at baseline, a significant effect of training could be demonstrated (p = 0.029). When comparing the heights between the groups a significant group × time interaction was observed (p = 0.012) where the training women increased their mean height with 0.3 cm (p = 0.101) and controls decreased 0.44 cm (p = 0.045). The training group improved their thoracic expansion compared with baseline (p = 0.03). No effect of training on kyphosis was seen. In conclusion, a 4-months back extensor training program can improve back strength and seems to maintain height and thoracic expansion.

  • 33.
    Bjørnevik, Kjetil
    et al.
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway .
    Riise, Trond
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway .
    Casetta, Ilaria
    University of Ferrara, Italy .
    Drulovic, Jelena
    University of Belgrade, Serbia .
    Granieri, Enrico
    University of Ferrara, Italy .
    Holmoy, Trygve
    University of Oslo, Norway; Akershus University Hospital, Norway .
    Kampman, Margitta T.
    University of Tromsø, Norway; University Hospital North Norway.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Lauer, Klaus
    Griesheim, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Lossius, Andreas
    University of Oslo, Norway; National Hospital Norway.
    Magalhaes, Sandra
    McGill University, Canada .
    Myhr, Kjell-Morten
    Haukeland Hospital, Norway; University of Bergen, Norway .
    Pekmezovic, Tatjana
    University of Belgrade, Serbia .
    Wesnes, Kristin
    University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland Hospital, Norway .
    Wolfson, Christina
    McGill University, Canada .
    Pugliatti, Maura
    University of Bergen, Norway; University of Sassari, Italy .
    Sun exposure and multiple sclerosis risk in Norway and Italy: The EnvIMS study2014In: Multiple Sclerosis, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 1042-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and measures of sun exposure in specific age periods in Norway and Italy.

    METHODS:

    A total of 1660 MS patients and 3050 controls from Italy and Norway who participated in a multinational case-control study (EnvIMS) reported sun habits during childhood and adolescence.

    RESULTS:

    A significant association between infrequent summer outdoor activity and increased MS risk was found in Norway and in Italy. The association was strongest between the ages of 16 and 18 years in Norway (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-2.59), and between birth and age 5 years in Italy (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.16-2.10). In Italy a significant association was also found during winter (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.03-1.97). Frequent sunscreen use between birth and the age of 6 years was associated with MS in Norway (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.93) after adjusting for outdoor activity during the same period. Red hair (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.63) and blonde hair (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09-1.70) were associated with MS after adjusting for outdoor activity and sunscreen use.

    CONCLUSION:

    Converging evidence from different measures underlines the beneficial effect of sun exposure on MS risk.

  • 34.
    Blomstrand, Peter
    et al.
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Engvall, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Festin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Maret-Ouda, John
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Motala.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Left ventricular diastolic function, assessed by echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging, is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events, superior to global left ventricular longitudinal strain, in patients with type 2 diabetes.2015In: European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging, ISSN 2047-2412, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 1000-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine whether left ventricular systolic function, in terms of global left ventricular longitudinal strain (GLS), and diastolic function, expressed as the ratio between early diastolic transmitral flow and mitral annular motion velocities (E/e'), can predict cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively investigated 406 consecutive patients, aged 55-65 years, with diabetes mellitus, who participated in the CARDIPP study. Echocardiography, pulse pressure (pp), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were analysed. Twelve cases of myocardial infarction and seven cases of stroke were identified during the follow-up period of 67 ± 17 months. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that E/e' was a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazards ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.18, P < 0.001). E/e' was prospectively associated with cardiovascular events independent of age, sex, GLS, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), pp, and HbA1c in multivariate analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that E/e' and HbA1c were the strongest predictors for cardiovascular events, both having an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 followed by LVEF with an AUC of 0.65 and GLS of 0.61. In a Kaplan-Meyer analysis, the cumulative probability of an event during the follow-up period was 8.6% for patients with an E/e' ratio >15 compared with 2.6% for patients with E/e' ≤15, P = 0.011.

    CONCLUSION: In middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes, E/e' is a strong predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke, comparable with HbA1c and superior to GLS and LVEF.

  • 35.
    Bolin, K.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berggren, F.
    UCB Pharma, Denmark.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Regional variation in prevalence and healthcare utilization due to epilepsy in Sweden2014In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 130, no 6, p. 354-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo estimate the regional differences in the prevalence of epilepsy and the associated costs due to inpatient and outpatient care and anti-epileptic drug (AED) utilization for the years 2005 and 2011 in Sweden. MethodsRegion-specific estimates of the prevalence of epilepsy were obtained using a method based on a linkage of the healthcare and pharmaceutical registries and the cause of death registry. Regional cost components were estimated using registry data by region on inpatient and outpatient care utilization, AED sales, and mortality. Per-patient utilization and monetary costs were calculated. ResultsEstimated prevalence of epilepsy varied substantially across the regions in 2011, from 0.76% in Jamtland to 1.08% in Gotland. The national prevalence was 0.88%. The average number of hospitalizations per patient and year decreased at the national level between 2005 and 2011. At the national level, the per-patient specialized care (outpatient) utilization also decreased between 2005 and 2011. However, at the regional level, the decrease was not uniform, and in some counties, the per-patient utilization increased during the period studied. The per-patient utilization of AEDs increased in all counties, except Kronoberg, between 2005 and 2011. Moreover, between-region differences in healthcare and AED utilization, and significant differences between regions and national averages were revealed. Similarly, regional per-patient costs were shown to deviate from the national average in 13 of 21 regions. ConclusionsThere is significant variation in the prevalence of epilepsy and the provision of health care for patients with epilepsy across the different regions of Sweden.

  • 36.
    Borgquist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Arrelöv, BE
    jSvärdsudd, Kurt
    Uppsala universitet.
    Influence of local structural factors on physicians' sick-listing practice: A population-based study2005In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 470-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physicians have a central role as gatekeepers to the social security system, including sick-listing. Variation in physicians' sick-listing practices has been demonstrated in several studies. The objective of this study was to determine whether local structural factors affect sick-listing practice. Methods: A total of 57 563 consecutive sick-listing certificates, issued during 4 months in 1995 and 2 months in 1996, were collected from the local branches of the National Social Insurance Office in eight Swedish counties. County code, local community population size and presence of a hospital in the area were used as indicators of local structural factors. Length of the sick-listing certificates and of the sick-listing episodes were used as outcome variables. Results: After ajustment for the influence of category of issuing physician, patients' age, sex and diagnosis ('case mix'), and type of certificate there was a large variation of the length of the sick-listing certificates and of the sick-listing episodes between counties, between communities of various size and between communities with or without a hospital in the area. All these factors were independently and significantly correlated to the length of the certificate and of the sick-listing episode. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that physicians' sick-listing practice is influenced by local structural factors. © The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Borgquist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kostnadseffektivitetens betydelse vid prioritering av läkemedel2013In: Läkemedelsboken 2014 / [ed] Helena Ramström, Läkemedelsverket, Uppsala, Uppsala: Läkemedelsverket , 2013, p. 1182-1193Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Borgquist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Lind, jan-Inge
    Från parsjukhus till vårdkedjor? Kostnadsutvecklingen i Ystad-Österlens sjukvårdsdistrikt1995-1997 belyst ur tre besparingsperspektiv1998Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Borgquist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Paulsson, Eric
    The physician and lifelonglearning1998Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Borgquist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    W-Dahl, Annette
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Dale, Havard
    Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway..
    Lidgren, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Stefansdottir, Anna
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Prosthetic joint infections - a need for health economy studies2014In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 218-220Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Borgstrom Bolmsjo, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Motala.
    Midlov, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - A longitudinal study2015In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 128-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  • 42.
    Borgstrom Bolmsjo, Beata
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Motala.
    Midlov, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Prevalence and treatment of heart failure in Swedish nursing homes2013In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 13, no 118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since the burden of care for elderly patients with heart failure (HF) can be decreased by therapeutic measures, it is important that such patients are identified correctly. This study explores the prevalence of HF in nursing homes in Sweden, with special consideration of the risk of failure to diagnose HF in the study population. A second aim is to explore medication and the adherence to guidelines for the treatment of HF. Methods: 429 patients from 11 nursing homes were included during 2008-2011. Information about diagnoses and medications from patient records, blood samples, questionnaire responses and blood pressure measurements were collected. The baseline characteristics of the patients, their medications and one-year mortality were identified and then compared regarding HF diagnosis and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. A BNP level of greater than 100 ng/L was used to identify potential cases of HF. Results: The point prevalence of HF diagnosis in the medical records in the study population was 15.4%. With the recommended cut-off value for BNP, up to 196 subjects in the study population (45.7%) qualified for further screening of potential HF. The subjects in the HF and non-HF groups were similar with the exception of mean age, BNP levels and Mini Mental State Examination results which were higher in the HF group, and the eGFR and blood pressure, which were lower when HF. The subjects with higher BNP values were older and had lower eGFR, Hb, diastolic blood pressure and BMI. The subjects with HF diagnoses were in many cases not treated according to the guidelines. Loop diuretics were often used without concomitant ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. The subjects without HF diagnoses in the medical records at inclusion but with BNP values greater than 100 ng/L had less appropriate HF medication. The one-year mortality was 52.9% in the population with HF. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the estimated prevalence of HF in nursing homes in Sweden would increase if BNP measurements were used to select patients for further examinations. The pharmacological treatment of HF varied substantially, as did adherence to guidelines.

  • 43.
    Boström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Lauer, Klaus
    Epidemiologist, Greishiem.
    An ecological study of industry in a high-risk region of multiple sclerosis2011In: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, ISSN 0022-510X, E-ISSN 1878-5883, Vol. 311, no 1-2, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The county of Varmland, Sweden, has shown a high frequency of multiple sclerosis in several investigations. It has been presented in three studies: a period prevalence study in 1925-1934, a mortality study during 1952-1992 and a prevalence investigation in 2002. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of industry in this high-risk area for multiple sclerosis. The three investigations were correlated with industry in 1913 and in the 1950s, all analyzed by the Kruskall-Wallis test. Select industries from wood-pulp, paper and iron/mechanical sectors were tested also in whole Sweden. The Spearman rank correlation was used for these data and forestry data in Varmland. In Varmland, industrial data from 1913 revealed that large sawmills were associated with the period prevalence in 1925-1934 and there was a possible correlation with the prevalence for 2002. Wood-pulp factories showed a possible association with the prevalence 1925-1934 and the mortality 1952-1992. Some industries in the 1950s were correlated with the prevalence 2002. Wood and paper industries in Sweden 1913 showed an association with the MS mortality 1952-1992. In summary, data on MS prevalence in Varmland and mortality both in Varmland and all Sweden from the past 100 years suggest an association with wood-related industries in 1913 and in the 1950s, whereas no consistent association was found for other industries.

  • 44.
    Boström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Stawiarz, Leszek
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Age-specific sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in the National Swedish MS Register (SMSreg)2014In: Multiple Sclerosis Journal, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 513-514Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Boström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stawiarz, Leszek
    Division of Neurology, Dept of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, STOCKHOLM, Sweden.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Sweden2013In: Multiple Sclerosis, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 46-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis has been reported from several areas. The disease is more common in women. In Europe the women-to-men ratio varies from 1.1 to 3.4. Recently a study in Canada has reported a significant increased female-to-male ratio in multiple sclerosis.

    Our objective was to analyse the development of sex ratio in multiple sclerosis in the Swedish population.

    Data from the Swedish MS Register and data from the Swedish National Statistics Office were used to estimate sex ratio by year of birth and year of onset.

    In analyse of sex ratio by year of birth there were 8,834 patients (6,271 women and 2,563 men) born during 1931 to 1985. The mean value of women-to-men ratio was 2.62. No clear trend was noted for the women-to-men ratio by year of birth (Spearman’s rho = 0.345, p=0.298, n=11). Patients analysed by year of onset was 9,098 (6,452 women and 2,646 men) during the study time period 1946 until 2005. The mean women-to-men ratio was 2.57. There was no significant change of the women-to-men ratio (Spearman’s rho = -0.007, p = 0.983, n = 12).

    Conclusion: In the Swedish patients there was no evidence for an increased womento-men ratio in multiple sclerosis.

  • 46.
    Bragde, Hanna
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Soederman, Jan
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Potential blood-based markers of celiac disease2014In: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 14, no 176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Blood-based diagnostics has the potential to simplify the process of diagnosing celiac disease (CD). Although high levels of autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2) are strongly indicative of active CD, several other scenarios involve a need for additional blood-based CD markers. Methods: We investigated the levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) in whole blood (n = 49) and protein in plasma (n = 22) from cases with active CD (n = 20), with confirmed CD and normalized histology (n = 15), and without a CD diagnosis (n = 14). Group differences were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks. We also investigated correlations between levels of potential markers, histopathology according to the modified Marsh scale, and CD risk gradient based on HLA type, using Spearman rank correlation. The relation between HLA-DQ2 gene dose effect and the expression levels of selected blood-based markers was investigated using the Mann-Whitney U test. Finally, the diagnostic performance of anti-TG2, potential blood-based CD markers, and logistic regression models of combined markers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: CXCL11 protein levels and TNFRSF9 and TNFSF13B mRNA levels were identified as potential CD markers. These are all affected by or involved in the regulation of the NF-kappa B complex. CXCL11 protein levels and IL21 and IL15 mRNA levels were correlated with histopathology according to the modified Marsh scale, as were the established CD markers. HLA genotype risk and HLA-DQ2 gene dose effect did not show any significant relations with either the potential CD markers or the established CD markers. ROC curve analysis revealed a slight, non-significant increase in the area under the curve for the combined use of anti-TG2 and different constellations of potential blood-based CD markers compared to anti-TG2 alone. Conclusions: The CD markers identified in this study further emphasize the significance of components related to NF-kappa B regulation in relation to CD. However, the relevance of CXCL11, TNFSF13B, TNFRSF9, and other NF-kappa B interacting proteins recognized by pathway analysis, needs to be further investigated in relation to diagnosis and monitoring of CD.

  • 47.
    Butler, C.C.
    et al.
    Cardiff University.
    Hood, K.
    Cardiff University.
    Verheij, T.
    University Medical Centre Utrecht.
    Little, P.
    University of Southampton.
    Melbye, H.
    University of Tromso.
    Nuttall, J.
    Cardiff University.
    Kelly, M.J.
    Cardiff University.
    Molstad, S.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Godycki-Cwirko, M.
    Medical University of Lodz.
    Almirall, J.
    Hospital de Mataro.
    Torres, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona.
    Gillespie, D.
    Cardiff University.
    Rautakorpi, U.
    Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment.
    Coenen, S.
    University of Antwerp.
    Goossens, H.
    University of Antwerp.
    Variation in antibiotic prescribing and its impact on recovery in patients with acute cough in primary care: Prospective study in 13 countries2009In: BMJ, ISSN 0959-8146, Vol. 338, no 7710, p. 1545-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in contrasting European settings and the impact on recovery. Design: Cross sectional observational study with clinicians from 14 primary care research networks in 13 European countries who recorded symptoms on presentation and management. Patients followed up for 28 days with patient diaries. Setting: Primary care. Participants: Adults with a new or worsening cough or clinical presentation suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection. Main outcome measures: Prescribing of antibiotics by clinicians and total symptom severity scores over time. Results: 3402 patients were recruited (clinicians completed a case report form for 99% (3368) of participants and 80% (2714) returned a symptom diary). Mean symptom severity scores at presentation ranged from 19 (scale range 0 to 100) in networks based in Spain and Italy to 38 in the network based in Sweden. Antibiotic prescribing by networks ranged from 20% to nearly 90% (53% overall), with wide variation in classes of antibiotics prescribed. Amoxicillin was overall the most common antibiotic prescribed, but this ranged from 3% of antibiotics prescribed in the Norwegian network to83% in the English network. While fluoroquinolones were not prescribed at all in three networks, they were prescribed for 18% in the Milan network. After adjustment for clinical presentation and demographics, considerable differences remained in antibiotic prescribing, ranging from Norway (odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.30) to Slovakia (11.2, 6.20 to 20.27) compared with the overall mean (proportion prescribed: 0.53). The rate of recovery was similar for patients who were and were not prescribed antibiotics (coefficient -0.01, Pless than0.01) once clinical presentation was taken into account. Conclusions: Variation in clinical presentation does not explain the considerable variation in antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in Europe. Variation in antibiotic prescribing is not associated with clinically important differences in recovery. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00353951.

  • 48. Börelius, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Holmberg, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Schöld, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Psychiatry . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ylikivelä, Rita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Nettelbladt, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Mental unhealth among young adults in primary health care2008In: European Psychiatry - the journal of the association of european psychiatrists,2008, 2008, p. 248-248Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 49. Börelius, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Foldemo, Anniqa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Holmberg, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Schöld, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Thorell, Lars-Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Ylikivelä, Rita
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Nettelbladt, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Själen i primärvården - psykisk ohälsa hos unga vuxna och deras upplevelser av vården2007Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Caceres, R
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Edston, E
    Swedish Word Forensic Pathology.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Cardiac fibrosis in six SUDEP cases2009In: in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, vol 16, 2009, Vol. 16, p. 471-471Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

1234567 1 - 50 of 375
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