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  • 1. Albertsson Wikland, K
    et al.
    Alm, F
    Aronsson, S
    Gustafsson, J
    Hagenäs, L
    Häger, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Ivarsson, S
    Kriström, B
    Marcus, C
    Moell, C
    Nilsson, KO
    Ritzén, M
    Tuvemo, T
    Westergren, U
    Westphal, O
    Åman, J
    Effect of growth hormone (GH) during puberty in GH-deficient children: preliminary results from an ongoing randomized trial with different dose regimens. 1999In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 428, p. 80-84Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2. Annus, T
    et al.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Mai, Xiaomei
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Riikjärv, MA
    Sandin, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Bråbäck, L
    Wheezing in relation to atopy and environmental factors in Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren2001In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 1846-1853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases is significantly lower in post socialist Eastern Europe than in Western industrialized countries. The reason for this difference is largely unknown. Different types of childhood wheezing could be related to different risk factors. Objective: To compare the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, asthma and atopic diseases among Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren and to evaluate characteristics for wheezing in the two countries. Methods: In a prevalence study, population-based random samples of 10-11-year-old schoolchildren in Tallinn (n = 979), Estonia and in Link÷ping (n = 911) and ╓stersund (n = 1197), Sweden were studied by a parental questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPT). All 275 children with wheeze in the past 12 months and 710 randomly selected controls within the original cohorts were invited to a case-control study involving a parental questionnaire, examination for flexural dermatitis and bronchial challenge with hypertonic saline. The study adhered to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase II protocol. Results: The prevalence of current wheezing was similar (8-10%) in the three centres, while diagnosed asthma and atopic symptoms were more common in Sweden and cold-related respiratory symptoms were more prevalent in Estonia. Frequent wheezing was more common in Sweden than in Estonia (but significantly so only in ╓stersund). Wheezing children in Sweden had a high rate of positive SPT (49% in Link÷ping and 58% in ╓stersund) bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) (48% in Link÷ping and ╓stersund) and anti-asthmatic treatment (63% in Link÷ping and 81% in ╓stersund). In Estonia, the proportion of wheezing children with positive SPT, BHR and anti-asthmatic treatment was only 26%, 13% and 17%, respectively. Domestic crowding was inversely related to wheezing in one of the study areas (╓stersund). The mean baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was higher in Estonia than in Sweden, both in wheezing and non-wheezing children. Conclusions: Our study suggested that although wheezing symptoms were equally common in Estonia and Sweden, they were less severe in Estonia. More frequent symptoms and a high rate of atopy, BHR and anti-asthmatic medication characterized wheezing children in Sweden. In contrast, BHR, atopy and medication were uncommon among wheezing children in Estonia.

  • 3.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Domeij, Erica
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    A follow-up of medical graduates of a problem-based learning curriculum2003In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 155-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is little information available on the effects of problem-based undergraduate curricula on doctors and their performances after graduation. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire study of all graduates of the new medical programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences, Link÷ping University. Methods: All 446 medical students who had graduated from the new programme were asked to fill in a questionnaire about selected activities during their studies and their careers after graduation. They were also asked to evaluate the quality of their undergraduate education retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive, multivariate and bivariate approaches. Results: A total of 77% of the graduates responded. They showed a high degree of overall contentment with their undergraduate education and felt well prepared for professional life during their preregistration period and specialist education (mean = 4.0 on a 6-point Likert scale ranging from 0 to 5). They felt especially well prepared in terms of skills for communication with patients, collaboration with other health professionals and development of critical thinking/scientific attitudes. The students' age at the beginning of their studies correlated positively with their contentment as graduates, especially in terms of preparation for patient communication and collaboration with other health professionals. No differences between students originally admitted via a local admission procedure and those admitted via a national procedure were detected concerning retrospective evaluation of undergraduate medical education. Conclusion: Graduates of the new curriculum showed a high degree of satisfaction with their undergraduate education and its preparation of them for medical practice. Specifically, they were very content with the particular emphases of the new curriculum.

  • 4. Arbring, K
    et al.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Cortisol response to heelstick stressor in preterm infants2000In: Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1359-8635, E-ISSN 1473-0774, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 182-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the hormonal response to stress in healthy preterm infants, we measured concentrations of serum cortisol at baseline and after capillary heelstick. Eleven preterm infants, five girls and six boys, with gestational ages ranging from 30 to 34 weeks, were studied. We measured the serum cortisol concentration before and 30 min after capillary heelstick on days 1, 3 and 7 of life. On days 3 and 7, but not on day 1, the rise in cortisol was significant (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). The reduced response on day 1 can probably be explained by the significantly higher baseline concentrations. We suggest that a test like this can be useful in evaluating the hormonal stress response in preterm as well as full-term infants.

  • 5. Berg, I
    et al.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Nygren, KG
    Barn födda efter in vitro-fertilisering i Sverige 1982-19972001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, p. 4020-4025Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Berzina, L
    et al.
    Shtauvere-Brameus, S
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Sanjeevi, CB
    Newborn screening for high-risk human leukocyte antigen markers associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: The ABIS study2002In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 958, p. 312-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is associated with specific high-risk HLA DQ and DR haplotypes and islet cell antibodies. IDDM susceptibility in Caucasians is more strongly associated with DQ2/DQ8 (DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201/DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302) and DQ6 (B1*0604) than with DRB1*03/DRB1*04, while a single copy of DQ6 (B1*0602) gives sufficient protection against type 1 diabetes. As a part of the ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden) study we have done typing of DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the second exon of the genes, manually dot-blotting onto nylon membranes synthetic sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes, 3' end-labeling with 32P-dCTP, and hybridization followed by stringency washes and autoradiography using the SSO probe. Among 3756 newborns born in southeast Sweden we have found the high-risk genotype DQ2/DR3-DO8/DR4 to be present in 1%, haplotype DQ8/DR4 in 7.8%, and haplotype DQ2/DR3 in 9.6%. DQ2/DR3 or DQ8/DR4 was carried by 16.4% of newborns, the low-risk DQ6 molecule was carried by newborns as follows: DQ2/DR3-DQ6/DR15, 1.3%, DQ8/DR4-DQ6/DR15, 1.3%, and DQ6/DR15, 9.4%. We conclude from our results that the high incidence of IDDM in Sweden is at least in part due to increased prevalence of high-risk HLA haplotypes compared to protective haplotypes (20% vs. 13%) in the general population.

  • 7. Bevan, S
    et al.
    Popat, S
    Braegger, CP
    Busch, A
    O'Donoghue, D
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Ferguson, A
    Godkin, A
    Hogberg, L
    Holmes, G
    Hosie, KB
    Howdle, PD
    Jenkins, H
    Jewell, D
    Johnston, S
    Kennedy, NP
    Kerr, G
    Kumar, P
    Logan, RFA
    Love, AHG
    Marsh, M
    Mulder, CJJ
    Sjöberg, K
    Stenhammar, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Walker-Smith, J
    Marossy, AM
    Houlston, RS
    Contribution of the MHC region to the familial risk of coeliac disease. 1999In: Journal of Medical Genetics, ISSN 0022-2593, E-ISSN 1468-6244, Vol. 36, p. 687-690Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Allergy priming early in life. 1999In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 353, p. 167-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Environment and infant immunity. 1999In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, ISSN 0029-6651, E-ISSN 1475-2719, Vol. 58, p. 729-732Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Food and asthma2000In: Practical Issues in Asthma Management, ISSN 1388-7319, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Perinatal events in relation to sensitization in the human2000In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 162, no 3 IIArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    The environmental influence on childhood asthma. 1999In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 54, p. 17-23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Unmet needs in the treatment of asthmatic children and adolescents.2000In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Björkstén, B
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Naaber, P
    Sepp, E
    Mikelsaar, M
    The intestinal microflora in allergic Estonian and Swedish 2-year-old children. 1999In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 29, p. 342-346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Primary prevention of atopic asthma.2001In: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1528-4050, E-ISSN 1473-6322, Vol. 1, p. 545-548Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    The epidemiology of food allergy2001In: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1528-4050, E-ISSN 1473-6322, Vol. 1, p. 225-227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    The gastrointestinal flora and the skin. Is there a link?2001In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 12, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Blomqvist, M
    et al.
    Juhela, S
    Erkkila, S
    Korhonen, S
    Simell, T
    Kupila, A
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Simell, O
    Knip, M
    Ilonen, J
    Rotavirus infections and development of diabetes-associated autoantibodies during the first 2 years of life.2002In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 128, p. 511-515Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Bojestig, M
    et al.
    Nyström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Karlberg, Bengt E
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, MKC-2, GE: endomed.
    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is suppressed in adults with Type 1 diabetes2000In: jraas. Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, ISSN 1470-3203, E-ISSN 1752-8976, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 353-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor glycaemic control and high blood pressure are two important risk factors for the development of retinopathy and nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be involved in this process, since treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors postpones the development of these complications. We investigated whether plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) differed in Type 1 diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. We recruited 80 patients with Type 1 diabetes of more than 10 years' duration and 75 age-matched controls. We found that PRA and Ang II concentrations were significantly lower in patients than in the controls. The levels of ANP, on the other hand, were higher in patients than in controls. PRA correlated negatively to the mean value of HbA1c during the previous five years. PRA and Ang II were significantly lower in patients with mean HbA1c. >8.4% compared with those with mean HbA1c 7.2%. In summary, we found patients with Type 1 diabetes to have RAAS suppression and increased ANP levels, suggesting a state of fluid retention.

  • 20. Bråbäck, L
    et al.
    Plaschke, P
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Boman, G
    Jansson, C
    Stora geografiska skillnader i förekomst av astma och allergi. Internationella befolkningsstudier har sökt sambandsfaktorer2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, p. 5322-5326Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21. Bråbäck, Lennart
    et al.
    Kjellman, N-I.Max
    Sandin, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Atopy among schoolchildren in northern and southern Sweden in relation to pet ownership and early life events2001In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 12, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have suggested a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies in northern, as compared to southern. Scandinavia. The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in atopy in relation to pet ownership and certain early life events among schoolchildren. (n=2108) aged 10-11 years from Link÷ping in southern Sweden and ╓stersund in northern Sweden. The parents completed a questionnaire, comprising questions on home environment, heredity, socio-economic conditions, and the core questions on symptoms from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. The children were skin-prick tested to eight common inhalant allergens. Information on maternal smoking habits, gestational age, and anthropometric measures were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. The prevalence of atopic symptoms and sensitization to pollen were similar in ╓stersund and in Link÷ping. A higher prevalence of sensitization to animal dander among children in ╓stersund could be linked to a higher occurrence of pets in the community. Current cat ownership was related to less sensitivity to cat allergen but only in children with an atopic heredity. Ponderal index >30 kg/m3 was related to an increased risk of atopic sensitization, both in Link÷ping (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.0) and in ╓stersund (adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.5). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was related to an increased risk of atopic sensitization among children in Link÷ping, whereas current smoking was associated with a decreased risk of sensitization in -stersund. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a high occurrence of pets in the community was associated with sensitization, whereas atopic symptoms were essentially unaffected. This study has also suggested an association between body size at birth and atopic sensitization at 10-11 years of age.

  • 22.
    Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bjurström, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mai, Xiaomei
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Allergen-induced cytokine secretion in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children2003In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 345-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atopic asthma is characterized by excessive T helper 2 (Th2)-like immunity to allergens in the bronchial mucosa. The Th2-cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 induces IgE production, while the Th2-cytokine IL-5 promotes eosinophilic inflammation in the airways of asthmatics. Most asthmatics are atopic, but a subgroup is non-atopic. We hypothesize that allergen-induced Th2, particularly IL-5, responses can be observed in peripheral blood in both atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children but not in healthy control children. The aim of the present study was to determine IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ secretion induced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by a broad panel of inhalant allergens (timothy, cat, birch, dog and house dust mite) in asthmatic children with and without sensitization. The study included 13 atopic asthmatic, 5 non-atopic asthmatic, and 12 non-atopic non-asthmatic children. PBMC were stimulated with allergens and cytokine production was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Higher levels of cat and dog antigen-induced IL-5 release were more commonly observed in both atopic and non-atopic asthmatics than in controls. Children with atopic, but not non-atopic, asthma produced higher levels of allergen-induced IL-4 and IL-9 than controls. Non-atopic asthmatics produced more IL-10 than atopic asthmatics after cat stimulation. High levels of eosinophilia-associated IL-5 responses are induced by cat and dog allergen in both atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-9 were associated only with atopic asthma, probably due to their IgE-inducing properties.

  • 23.
    Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Garofalo, R
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Human milk polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids and secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies and early childhood allergy2000In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 29-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible protective effect of breast milk against atopic manifestations in infancy, i.e. atopic eczema and food allergy, has been controversial for the last decades. Besides the methodological problems, differences in the composition of human milk could explain these controversies. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) levels to food proteins (ovalbumin and ▀-lactoglobulin) and an inhalant allergen (cat) in milk from mothers of allergic and non-allergic children. Blood samples were obtained at birth and at 3 months from 120 children. Skin prick tests were performed at 6, 12 and 18 months, and the development of atopic diseases was assessed in the children. Breast milk samples were collected from their mothers at birth and monthly during the lactation period. Milk PUFA composition was measured by gas chromatography, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure total S-IgA, anti-cat S-IgA, anti-ovalbumin S-IgA, and anti-▀-lactoglobulin S-IgA. Allergic disease developed in 44/120 children (22/63 children of allergic mothers and 22/57 children of non-allergic mothers). Lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5 n-3 (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid C22:5 n-3 (DPA), and docosatetraenoic acid C22:4 n-6 (DHA) (p < 0.05 for all) were found in mature milk from mothers of allergic as compared to milk from mothers of non-allergic children. The total n-6 : total n-3 and the arachidonic acid, C20:4 n-6 (AA) : EPA ratios were significantly lower in transitional and mature milk from mothers of allergic children, as compared to milk from mothers of non-allergic children. The PUFA levels in serum of allergic and non-allergic children were largely similar, except for higher levels of C22:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-6 (p < 0.05 for both) and a higher AA:EPA ratio in serum phospholipids in the former group (p < 0.05). Changes in the levels of milk PUFA were reflected in changes in PUFA serum phospholipids, particularly for the n-6 PUFA. The AA:EPA ratio in maternal milk was related, however, to the AA:EPA only in serum from non-allergic children, while this was not the case in allergic children. The levels of total S-IgA, anti-cat S-IgA, anti-ovalbumin S-IgA, and anti-▀-lactoglobulin S-IgA in milk from mothers of allergic, as compared to non-allergic, children were similar through the first 3 months of lactation. Low levels of n-3 PUFA in human milk, and particularly a high AA:EPA ratio in maternal milk and serum phospholipids in the infants, were related to the development of symptoms of allergic disease at 18 months of age. The milk PUFA composition influenced the composition of PUFA in serum phospholipids of the children. We also showed that the lower levels of colostral anti-ovalbumin S-IgA and lower total S-IgA in mature milk from atopic mothers did not influence the development of allergic disease in the children up to 18 months of age. The findings indicate that low a-linolenic acid, C18:3 n-3 (LNA) and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) 20-22 carbon chains, but not the levels of S-IgA antibodies to allergens, are related to the development of atopy in children.

  • 24.
    Böttcher, Malin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Norin, EK
    Sandin, A
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Microflora associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and non-allergic infants.2000In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 30, p. 1591-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Casas, Rosaura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Cat-specific IgA antibodies in breast milk from atopic and non-atopic mothers: detection of Fel D 1->IgG immune complexes in cord blood and sera.1999In: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 118, p. 317-318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Casas, Rosaura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Ferrándiz, RA
    Wihl, j-Å
    Fernández, B
    Dreborg, S
    Biologic activity of Dermatophagoides siboney and Blomia tropicalis allergens in exposed and unexposed mite-allergic individuals. Effect of patient selection on the biologic standardization of mite extracts.  1999In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 54, p. 392-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Cortolani, C
    et al.
    Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C
    Bengtsson, U
    Bindslev-Jensen, C
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Höst, AG
    Ispano, Mahfuzar
    Jarish, R
    Madsen, C
    Nekamp, K
    Paganelli, P
    Poulsen, LK
    Wythrich, B
    Controversial aspects of adverse reactions to food. 1999In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 54, p. 27-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Dahlqvist, G
    et al.
    Mustonen, L
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Analysis of 20 years of prospective registration of childhood onset diabetes - time trends and birth cohort effects.2000In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 89, p. 1231-1237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Duchen, Karel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Are human milk polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) related to atopy in the mother and her child?2001In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 587-592Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Duchen, Karel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and the development of atopic disease2001In: Lipids, ISSN 0024-4201, E-ISSN 1558-9307, Vol. 36, no 9, p. 1033-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between polyunsaturated longchain fatty acids and atopy has been discussed for decades. Higher levels of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid and lower levels of their longer metabolites in plasma phospholipids of atopic as compared to nonatopic individuals have been reported by several, but not all, studies. Largely similar findings have been reported in studies of cell membranes from immunological cells from atopics and nonatopics despite differences in methodology, study groups, and definitions of atopy. An imbalance in the metabolism of the n-6 fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid and dihomo-?-linolenic acid, leading to an inappropriate synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGE1 was hypothesized early on but has not been corroborated. The fatty acid composition of human milk is dependent on the time of lactation not only during a breast meal but also the time of the day and the period of lactation. This explains the discrepancies in reported findings regarding the relationship between milk fatty acids and atopic disease in the mother. Prospective studies show disturbances in both the n-6 and n-3 fatty acid composition between milk from atopic and nonatopic mothers. Only the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids was related to atopic development in the children, however. A relationship between lower levels of n-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3), and early development of atopic disease is hypothesized.

  • 31.
    Duchén, Karel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Thorell, L
    Nucleotide and polyamine levels in colostrum and mature milk in relation to maternal atopy and atopic development in the children. 1999In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 88, p. 1338-1343Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Duchén, Karel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Yuo, G
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk in relation to atopy in the mother and her child.1999In: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 1018-2438, E-ISSN 1423-0097, Vol. 118, p. 321-323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Ellwood, P
    et al.
    Asher, MI
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Burr, M
    Pearce, N
    Robertsson, N
    Diet and asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema symptom prevalence: An ecological analysis of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).2001In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 17, p. 436-443Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Bodin, L
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Schollin, Jens
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Can severity-of-illness indices for neonatal intensive care predict outcome at 4 years of age?2002In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 91, p. 1093-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Estelle, F
    et al.
    Simons, R
    Kjellman, Max
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Prospective, long-term safety evaluation of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine in very young children with atopic dermatitis.1999In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 104, p. 433-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Roel, Eduardo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Olsen Faresjö, Å
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Kjellman, Max
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Astma hos barn blir allt vanligare. Journalstudie visar en fördubbling under en tioårsperiod. 1999In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 96, p. 5368-6369Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37. Fierabracci, A
    et al.
    Biro, PA
    Yiangou, Y
    Mennuni, C
    Luzzago, A
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Cortese, R
    Bottazzo, GF
    Osteopontin is an autoantigen of the somatostatin cells in human islets: identification by screening random peptide libraries with sera of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.1999In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 18, p. 342-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Mätfel i randomiserade kontrollerade studier i neonatala perioden- Kvalilteten brister rörande det informerade samtycket.2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, p. 2474-2475Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Samuelsson, S
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Very-low-birth-weight children at school age: Academic achievement, behavior and self-esteem and relation to risk factors2003In: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1476-7058, E-ISSN 1476-4954, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate school performance, behavior and self-esteem of children with very low birth weight (VLBW). Methods: All children with birth weight below 1501 g (VLBW) and normal birth weight controls, born in the south-east region of Sweden during a 15-month period in 1987-88, were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study. At the age of 9 years, 81% and 82%, respectively, were re-examined regarding growth, neurofunctional classification, academic achievement tests, need for special education and behavioral problems. At 12 years, 89% and 76%, respectively, were re-examined regarding growth, neurofunctional classification, visual acuity and self-esteem. Results: VLBW children were shorter and lighter, and differed from the controls with regard to neurological functional classification. They produced poorer results in most academic achievement tests. When the comparison was restricted to children with normal intelligence, almost all the differences in other academic achievements disappeared. VLBW children had more reading difficulties but were less often than expected defined as dyslexics compared to control children. We did not find any major disparity in visual acuity and self-esteem between the groups. Low Apgar scores, intracranial hemorrhage and the need for mechanical ventilation neonatally were associated with poorer results in most outcome measures. Neurofunctional assessments in early childhood were associated with most outcome measures. The mother's education was related to delayed reading skills and need for special education. Conclusions: Although VLBW children performed less well in most academic achievement tests and on some behavioral subscales, those who had a normal intellectual capacity did not differ in any important aspects from the controls.

  • 40.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Samuelsson, S
    Bylund, B
    Cervin, T
    Gäddlin, PO
    Mård, S
    Wärngård, O
    Skolsvårigheter vanliga hos barn med mycket låg födelsevikt. Extra uppmärksamhet och stöd behövs vid skolstart.2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, p. 3492-3498Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Otterblad-Olausson, P
    Sedin, G
    Serenius, F
    Svenningsen, N
    Thiringer, K
    Tunell, R
    Wennergren, M
    Wesström, G
    Stor studie indikerar god prognos för barn med extremt låg födelsevikt. 1999In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 96, p. 1560-1567Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Persson, J
    Ethical aspects of decision-making at the limit of viability.1999In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 88, p. 708-709Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Foyn Bruun, Cathrine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Enrichment of serum amyloid proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatography combined with two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilised pH gradients2003In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 790, no 1-2, p. 355-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum amyloid A protein was subjected to one-step octyl-Sepharose extraction in three different dimensions. Elution was performed partly without UV recording, and with urea or guanidine-based buffers. The eluent was applied directly to denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilised pH gradient, or octyl-Sepharose extracted fractions were pooled and lyophilised before application. Proteins were characterised by N-terminal analysis or mass spectrometry. In most of the species that were studied, previously undescribed serum amyloid proteins were detected. Compared to conventional strategies, the presented techniques are more rational and yield more comprehensive information. The presented data also provide a basis for novel perspectives regarding certain inflammatory conditions.

  • 44.
    Grodzinsky, Ewa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Ivarsson, A
    Juto, P
    Olcén, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Persson, L.Å.
    Hernell, O
    New automated immunoassay measuring immunoglobulin A antigliadin antibodies for prediction of celiac disease in childhood.2001In: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, ISSN 1071-412X, Vol. 8, p. 564-570Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Grüber, C
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Do early childhood immunizations influence the development of atopy and do they cause allergic reactions?2001In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 296-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about allergic side-effects of vaccines and about a possible promotion of allergic diseases contribute to incomplete vaccination rates in childhood. This article reviews the current understanding of these issues. There is evidence that pertussis and diphtheria/tetanus antigens elicit immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody formation as part of the immune response. In murine models, pertussis toxin is an effective adjuvant for IgE formation against simultaneously administered antigens. In children, however, sensitization to unrelated antigens or development of allergic diseases do not seem to be augmented. In contrast, bacille Calmette-GuΘrin (BCG) and measles vaccination have been proposed as suppressors of allergy because of their T helper 1 (Th1)-fostering properties. In the murine system, BCG inhibits allergic sensitization and airway hyper-reactivity. Some epidemiological studies in humans suggest an inhibitory effect of tuberculosis on allergy. BCG vaccination in children, however, has no or merely a marginal suppressive effect on atopy. Other vaccine components such as egg proteins, gelatin, and antibiotics are a potential hazard to children with severe clinical reactions to these allergens. These rare children should be vaccinated under special precautions. In conclusion, vaccination programs do not explain the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases, but individual children may uncommonly develop an allergic reaction to a vaccine. The risks of not vaccinating children, however, far outweigh the risk for allergy. Therefore, childhood vaccination remains an essential part of child health programs and should not be withheld, even from children predisposed for allergy.

  • 46. Hallert, C
    et al.
    Olsson, M
    Störsrud, S
    Arvidsson Lenner, R
    Kilander, A
    Stenhammar, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Havre kan ingå i den glutenfria kosten.2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 96, p. 3339-3340Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47. Hallert, C
    et al.
    Stenhammar, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Kilander, A
    Olsson, M
    Störsrud, S
    Arvidsson Lenner, R
    Blomqvist, L
    Sjöberg, K
    Sjöström, H
    Ström, M
    Expertuttalande om havre i behandlingen av celiaki i Sverige.1999In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 96, p. 5606-5606Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48. Halminen, M
    et al.
    Juhela, S
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Simell, O
    Induction of interferon-gamma and IL-4 production by mitogen and specific antigens in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Type 1 diabetes patients.2001In: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Hesselmar, B
    et al.
    Åberg, N
    Åberg, B
    Eriksson, B
    Björkstén, B
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Does early exposure to cat or dog protect against later allergy development? 1999In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 29, p. 611-617Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Holdstock, C
    et al.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Karlsson, FA
    Abnormal ghrelin secretion in new onset childhood Type 1 diabetes [8]2004In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 150-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

1234 1 - 50 of 152
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