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  • 1. Alfvén, Tobias
    et al.
    Elinder, C-G
    Carlsson, Margareta
    Grubb, Anders
    Hellström, Lennart
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Pettersson, Conny
    Spång, Gunnar
    Schütz, Andrejs
    Järup, Lars
    Low-level cadmium exposure and osteoporosis.2000In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 15, p. 1579-1586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. A number of risk factors, such as age and gender, are well established. High cadmium exposure causes renal damage and in severe cases also causes osteoporosis and osteomalacia, We have examined whether long-term Pow-level cadmium exposure increases the risk of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) in the forearm was measured in 520 men and 544 women, aged 16-81 years, environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique. Cadmium in urine was used as the dose estimate and protein HC was used: as a marker of renal tubular damage. There was a clear dose-response relation between cadmium dose and the prevalence of tubular proteinuria. Inverse relations were found between cadmium dose, tubular proteinuria, and BMD, particularly apparent in persons over 60 years of age, There was a dose-response relation between cadmium dose and osteoporosis. The odds ratios (ORs) for men were 2.2 (95% CI, 1.0-4.8) in the dose group 0.5-3 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine and 5.3 (2.0-14) in the highest dose category (greater than or equal to 3 nmol/mmol creatinine) compared with the lowest dose group (<0.5 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine). For women, the OR was 1.8 (0.65-5.3) in the dose group 0.53 nmol Cd/mmol creatinine. We conclude that exposure to low levels of cadmium is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.

  • 2. Andersson, E
    et al.
    Hagberg, SA
    Nilsson, T
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Torén, K
    A case-referent study of cancer mortality among sulfate mill workers in Sweden.2001In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 58, p. 321-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aspegren Kendall, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Karl-Gösta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hurtig, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Raak, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sören, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wahren, Lis Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Differences in sensory thresholds in the skin of women with fibromyalgia syndrome: A comparison between ketamine responders and ketamine non-responders2003In: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare detection and pain thresholds in the skin of female fibromyalgia patients who were either ketamine responders or ketamine nonresponders.

    Methods: Detection thresholds to innocuous warmth, of cold, heat or cold pain, and touch and dynamic touch sensation were determined in the skin. Pressure pain thresholds, local and widespread pain intensity, and pain duration were also registered.

    Results: Ketamine nonresponse was associated with more pronounced hypersensitivity for thermal pain [especially cold pain] than ketamine response.

    Conclusions: Blockade of N-metyl-D-aspartic acid receptors by ketamine and the recording of pain thresholds in the skin, especially for cold pain, might reveal different mechanisms of allodynia.

  • 4.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Alternative for estimating the burden of lung cancer from occupational exposures - Some calculations based on data from Swedish men2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 58-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study attempts to demonstrate a calculation of the occupational lung cancer burden using economically active men in Sweden as an example. Methods. Estimates were calculated using Swedish register data on occupation in 1970, lung cancer incidence in 1971-1989, smoking frequencies in 1963, and the formula I = RI0F + I0(I-F), where I is the overall incidence, R is the relative risk associated with a factor (here smoking), F is the fraction of persons at risk (smokers), and I0 is the incidence among those not at risk (nonsmokers). Results. Farmers, gardeners, forestry workers, and fishermen had the lowest lung cancer risk (42.1 per 100 000 person-years) and a smoking frequency of 44.7%. Their I0 was 12.6 or 8.4 per 100 000 person-years, taking R for smoking as 6 or 10, respectively. From these I0 estimates, the expected rates for white- and blue-collar workers (smoking frequencies 52.7 and 57.7%, respectively) were 45.8 and 49.1 per 100 000 person-years, as compared with the 22% and 57% higher observed rates, respectively. Weighing these excesses proportionally according to the sizes of the three occupational categories gave, respectively for R equal to 6 and 10, occupation-related excesses of 39% and 32% and population-attributable risks of 28% and 24%. Conclusions. About one-fourth of the lung cancers that occur among economically active Swedish men seem to have been related to occupation. This figure agrees with estimates made by other methods in Nordic countries. Due to interaction, the population-attributable risk from smoking is still high, 73% and 83% at relative risk values of 6 and 10, respectively.

  • 5.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Ethylene oxide and cancer2004In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Negative and non-positive epidemiological studies.2004In: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Balbus, JM
    Cohen, G
    Davis, D
    Donnay, A
    Doolittle, R
    Duran, BM
    Egilman, D
    Epstein, SS
    Goldman, L
    Grandjean, P
    Hansen, ES
    Heltne, P
    Huff, J
    Infante, P
    Jacobson, MF
    Joshi, TK
    LaDou, J
    Landrigan, PJ
    Lee, PR
    Lockwood, AH
    MacGregor, G
    Melnick, R
    Messing, K
    Needleman, H
    Ozonoff, D
    Ravanesi, B
    Richter, ED
    Sass, J
    Schubert, D
    Suzuki, D
    Teitelbaum, D
    Temple, NJ
    Terracini, B
    Thompson, A
    Tickner, J
    Tomatis, L
    Upton, AC
    Whyatt, RM
    Wigmore, D
    Wilson, T
    Wing, SB
    Sharpe, VA
    Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology.2003In: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 9, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Castleman, B
    Epstein, S
    Franco, G
    Giannasi, F
    Grandjean, P
    Greenberg, M
    Hooper, K
    Huff, J
    Jacobsson, M
    Joshi, TK
    Kulkarni, GK
    La Dou, J-F
    Mazaheri, Marie
    Mekonnen, Y
    Melnick, R
    Mirabelli, DK
    Ofrin, R
    Partanen, Tony
    Pott, FJ
    Sass, J
    Soskolne, CL
    Suplido, ML
    Terracini, B
    Tomatis, L
    Ungvary, G
    Watterson, A
    Wessling, C
    Yassi, A
    Re: Implementation of WHO Guidelines on Disclosure of Interest by members of WHO Expert Panels.2002In: International journal of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1077-3525, E-ISSN 2049-3967, Vol. 8, p. 271-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Assessing dose-response relationships by cumulative exposures in epidemiological studies2007In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 217-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: If the occurrence of disease monotonically increases with the degree of exposure in an epidemiologic study, a dose-response (or exposure-response) relationship is indicated and facilitates the interpretation that the exposure has a causal role. It is not uncommon, however, that there is some effect in terms of an overall increased relative risk but no clear dose-response relationship. Methods: Models presented here show that cumulative exposure, as involving the duration of exposure, is not an adequate parameter when more recent exposure or the intensity of the exposure plays the greater role for the disease outcome. Conclusions: In lack of a dose-response pattern by cumulative exposure, the interpretation of an overall increased risk might well be that there is no definite effect. The proper consideration should be, however, that the measure of exposure could be inadequate, suggesting a need for further analyses and evaluations of the material studied. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 10.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Åkerblom, G
    Hardell, L
    Leukemia in childhood and adolescence and exposure to ionizing radiation in homes built from uranium-containing alum shale concrete2002In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 146-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns in Sweden about indoor radon around 1980 prompted measurements of gamma-radiation from the facades of houses to identify those constructed of uranium-containing alum shale concrete, with potentially high radon concentrations. To evaluate any possible risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia from exposure to elevated gamma-radiation in these homes, we identified the acute lymphocytic leukemia cases less than 20 years of age in Sweden during 1980-1989 as well as eight controls per case from the population registry, matching on age, gender, and county. Using the existing measurements, exposure was assessable for 312 cases and 1,418 controls from 151 properly measured municipalities. A conditional logistic odds ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.9) was obtained for those ever having lived in alum shale concrete houses, with the average exposure exceeding 0.10 microsieverts per hour. Comparing those who ever lived in alum shale concrete houses (divided by higher and lower annual average exposure) with those who never lived in such houses, we found a weak dose-response relation. The results suggest some risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia from indoor ionizing radiation among children and young adults.

  • 11.
    Axelson, Olav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Multiple sclerosis and ionizing radiation.2001In: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208, Vol. 120, p. 175-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) may involve exposure to infectious, chemical or physical agents damaging the blood-brain barrier and an autoimmune reaction against myelin breakdown products. Here we report a pooled analysis of 174 MS cases and 815 population controls from two case-control studies with regard to such a potentially damaging exposure, namely X-ray examinations, radiological work and treatment with ionizing radiation. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires to the subjects. We obtained odds ratios of 4.4 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.6-11.6) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) for radiological work and X-ray examinations, respectively, 5 cases, but no controls, in one of the studies had been treated with ionizing radiation. Our data and some other observations reported in the literature suggest a contributory role for ionizing radiation to the development of MS in some cases.

  • 12. Bergman, Vivi
    et al.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Starkhammar, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde after high dose radiochemotherapy preceding stem cell transplantation2004In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 300-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urinary excretion of the hydroxylated DNA base 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was monitored in 11 patients with hematological malignancies undergoing total body irradiation and high-dose chemotherapy preceding bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients showed a prompt increase in urinary 8-OHdG (8-25 times the initial baseline level) on days 0-7 after irradiation onset, the excretion then decreased during the aplastic period and increased again when engraftment took place (in 7 patients). A significant positive correlation was found between urinary 8-OHdG and whole blood leukocyte count, both on day 5 (p = .04, r = .72) and on day 22 (p = .009, r = .80) after irradiation onset. One patient who lacked the first peak of 8-OHdG excretion showed low blood leukocyte counts (less than 2×109/l) before therapy onset, this patient, however, later had a successful engraftment and then also showed considerable increases in both 8-OHdG excretion and leukocyte count. These observations suggest leukocytes play a part in the excretion of 8-OHdG after conditioning therapy preceding bone marrow transplantation. As opposed to the biphasic 8-OHdG excretion, the excretion of MDA showed a single peak appearing on days 11-19 after radiochemotherapy onset, i.e., during the period in which the patients suffered from cytopenia, mucositis, and other side effects of the treatment. It is suggested, therefore, that these clinical manifestations are associated with increased lipid peroxidation. Altogether, these findings illustrate the utility of serial urinary samples for monitoring oxidative stress due to conditioning therapy in clinical practice. They also demonstrate that different oxidative stress markers may behave quite differently regarding their appearance in the urine after whole-body oxidative stress.

  • 13.
    Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rikner, Klas
    Department of Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, and Centre for Public Sector Research, Göteborg University.
    Balogh, Istvan
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital Lund, Lund.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Sick leave before and after diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in relation to referens: A report from the Swedish TIRA project2009In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1170-1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Our study describes sick leave during 3 years before and 3 years after diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to referents and identifies predictors for sick leave during the third year after diagnosis of RA.

    Methods. One hundred twenty patients (76% women) from the Swedish early RA study TIRA were included. Disease activity and disability were registered regularly during 3 years in TIRA. Referents were matched for sex, age, and home town. Sick leave data were obtained for patients 3 years before and 3 years after diagnosis and for the referents for the corresponding 6 years.

    Results. No differences were seen between patients and referents regarding sick leave during the first 2 years, whereas sick leave increased in patients 6 months before diagnosis, from 30% to 53%. During the 3 years after diagnosis, sick leave among patients was rather stable, varying between 50% and 60%, even though disability pension increased and sickness benefit decreased. Sick leave before diagnosis, disability 1 year after diagnosis, and type of work were identified as predictors for sick leave during the third year after diagnosis.

    Conclusion. Not surprisingly, sick leave in patients increased the year before diagnosis. Although disease activity and disability diminished after diagnosis, the patients’ sick leave remained essentially unchanged. Sick leave 3 years after diagnosis was foremost predicted by earlier sick leave, disability, and type of work.

  • 14.
    Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. The Vårdal Foundation, The Swedish Institute for Health Sciences.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Hand Function and Activity Limitation According to Health Assessment Questionnaire in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Healthy Referents: 5-Year Followup of Predictors of Activity Limitation (The Swedish TIRA Project)2007In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 296-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study identifies baseline predictors of future activity limitation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To reinforce the utility of instruments assessing functional ability/activity limitation, we used reference data from healthy referents.

    Methods: This study includes 189 patients (69% women) with recent-onset RA (onset of joint swelling not more than 12 months at diagnosis) in a prospective cohort ("the Swedish TIRA project") during 27 months from 1996 through 1998. Regular followups were done for a period of 5 years, and 123 healthy persons (50% women) were recruited as referents. Hand function was assessed by the "grip ability test (GAT)" and "signals of functional impairment" (SOFI). Grip force was measured with the electronic device GrippitTM. Activity limitation was assessed with the Swedish version of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ).

    Results: Throughout the study and for both sexes, GAT, grip force, SOFI-hand, and HAQ were significantly different for the patients compared to healthy referents. In the healthy referents, HAQ was mainly related to age and GAT, whereas in RA HAQ was most obviously linked to grip force. Five years after diagnosis only 8% of HAQ outcome was explained by the baseline measures: HAQ, grip force, SOFI-lower limb, sex, walking speed, and GAT.

    Conclusion: Our study provides valuable reference data for several functional ability and activity limitation measures. The HAQ score was explained by different variables in healthy referents compared to patients with RA. Five years after diagnosis only 8% of HAQ outcome was explained by the variables assessed at inclusion.

  • 15. Bochicchio, Francesco
    et al.
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Farchi, Sara
    Quarto, Maria
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Residential radon exposure, diet and lung cancer: A case-control study in a Mediterranean region2005In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 114, no 6, p. 983-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a case-control study in Lazio, a region in central Italy characterized by high levels of indoor radon, Mediterranean climate and diet. Cases (384) and controls (404) aged 35-90 years were recruited in the hospital. Detailed information regarding smoking, diet and other risk factors were collected by direct interview. Residential history during the 30-year period ending 5 years before enrolment was ascertained. In each dwelling, radon detectors were placed in both the main bedroom and the living room for 2 consecutive 6-month periods. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for time-weighted radon concentrations using both categorical and continuous unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusting for smoking, diet and other variables. Radon measurements were available from 89% and 91% of the time period for cases and controls, respectively. The adjusted ORs were 1.30 (1.03-1.64), 1.48 (1.08-2.02), 1.49 (0.82-2.71) and 2.89 (0.45-18.6) for 50-99, 100-199, 200-399 and 400+ Bq/m3, respectively, compared with 0-49 Bq/m3 (OR = 1, 0.56-1.79). The excess odds ratio (EOR) per 100 Bq/m3 was 0.14 (-0.11, 0.46) for all subjects, 0.24 (-0.09, 0.70) for subjects with complete radon measurements and 0.30 (-0.08, 0.82) for subjects who had lived in 1 or 2 dwellings. There was a tendency of higher risk estimates among subjects with low-medium consumption of dietary antioxidants (EOR = 0.32, -0.19, 1.16) and for adenocarcinoma, small cell and epidermoid cancers. This study indicates an association, although generally not statistically significant, between residential radon and lung cancer with both categorical and continuous analyses. Subjects with presumably lower uncertainty in the exposure assessment showed a higher risk. Dietary antioxidants may act as an effect modifier. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 16. Buzio, L
    et al.
    De Palma, G
    Mozzoni, p
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Buzio, C
    Franchini, I
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Mutti, A
    Glutathione S-transferases M1-1 and T1-1 as risk modifiers for renal cell cancer associated with occupational exposure to chemicals2003In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 789-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the possible interaction between occupational risk factors and genotype for glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 (GSTM1 and GSTT1) in renal cell cancer (RCC). Methods: One hundred patients with RCC and 200 outpatient controls were enrolled at Parma University Hospital. The polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 (GSTM1) and T1-1 (GSTT1) were investigated by PCR, occupational history was collected by a structured questionnaire. Results: Subjects with GSTM1 present genotype showed higher risks for RCC, compared to GSTM1 null subjects, if exposed to metals (OR 2.73, 95% CI 0.91 to 8.22 v 1.14, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.82) or pesticides (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.12 to 10.74 v 1.59, 95% CI 0.48 to 5.34). The GSTT1 present genotype also enhanced the risk (about twofold) of RCC among subjects exposed to solvents and pesticides, compared with those GSTT1 null. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms can interact with several occupational exposures to significantly modify the risk of RCC among exposed subjects.

  • 17. Buzio, L
    et al.
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    De Palma, G
    Buzio, C
    Franchini, I
    Mutti, A
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Occupational risk factors for renal cell cancer. An Italian case-control study2002In: Medicina del Lavoro, ISSN 0025-7818, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine possible associations between occupational and environmental risk factors and renal cell cancer (RCC), a tumour with unclear aetiology and increasing incidence. Methods: A questionnaire-based case-control study of 100 histologically verified cases of RCC and 200 controls was conducted at Parma University Hospital. The control group was enrolled from patients attending different outpatient departments and represented the same residential area as the cases. For all exposure variables under study, two levels of duration were defined: "short" and "prolonged" for less than 10 years or more, respectively. Results: The highest risk estimates for RCC were found for "prolonged" exposure to organic solvents with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.2 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.0-4,8). "Prolonged" exposures to pesticides and copper sulphate were also associated with increased risk, OR 2.0 (95% CI: 0.8-4.7) and OR 2.7 (95% CI: 1.3-5.5), respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggests an association between RCC and exposure to organic solvents, pesticides and copper sulphate. A risk gradient as a function of exposure duration was found for organic solvents (p= 0.044) and copper sulphate (p= 0.036), but not for pesticides.

  • 18. Carel, RH
    et al.
    Boffetta, P-A
    Kauppinen, TN
    Teschke, K
    Andersen, A
    Jäppinen, P
    Pearce, N
    Andreassen Rix, B
    Bergeret, A
    Coggon, D
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I
    Kielkowski, D
    Henneberger, P
    Kishi, R
    Facchini, LA
    Sala, M
    Colin, D
    Krogevinas, M
    Exposure to asbestos and lung and pleural cancer mortality among pulp and paper industry workers2002In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 579-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the mortality from lung and pleural cancers in a cohort of 62, 937 male workers employed for at least 1 year in the pulp and paper industry in 13 countries during 1945 to 1996. Mill departments were classified according to probability and level of exposure to asbestos on the basis of available dust measurements and mill-specific information on exposure circumstances. Thirty-six percent of workers were classified as ever exposed to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios of lung cancer were 0.99 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.08) among unexposed and 1.00 (95 % CI, 0.90 to 1.11) among ever exposed workers. The number of pleural cancer deaths among unexposed workers was 10, that among exposed workers was 14, most of which occurred among maintenance workers. In internal analyses, a trend in mortality from either neoplasm was suggested for estimated cumulative exposure to asbestos, weighted for the individual probability of exposure within the department and for duration of exposure (relative risk for lung cancer for 0.78+ f/cc-years, as compared with = 0.01 f/cc-years: 1.44, 95 % CI, 0.85 to 2.45, corresponding relative risk for pleural cancer: 2.43, 95% CI, 0.43 to 13.63). Despite a possible nondifferential misclassification of exposure and outcome, this study suggests that the carcinogenic effect of asbestos can be detected among workers employed in industries such as the pulp and paper industry, in which it is not considered to be a major hazard.

  • 19. Carstensen, U
    et al.
    Hou, S
    Alexandrie, A-K
    Högstedt, B
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Warholm, M
    Rannung, A
    Lambert, B
    Axmon, A
    Hagmar, L
    Influence of genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes on gene mutations, strand breaks of deoxyribonucleic acid, and micronuclei in mononuclear blood cells and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in potroom workers exposed to polyaromatic hydrocarbons.1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 25, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Dick, FD
    et al.
    De Palma, G
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Osborne, A
    Scott, NW
    Prescott, GJ
    Bennett, J
    Semple, S
    Dick, S
    Mozzoni, P
    Haites, N
    Bezzina Wettinger, S
    Mutti, A
    Otelea, M
    Seaton, S
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Felice, A
    Geoparkinson Study Group:, On behalv of the
    Hällsten, Anna-Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Gene-environment interactions in parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease: The Geoparkinson study2007In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 673-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonian syndromes with polymorphic genes that influence metabolism of either foreign chemical substances or dopamine and to seek evidence of gene-environment interaction effects that modify risk. Methods: A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with PD) and 1989 controls across five European centres. Occupational hygienists estimated the average annual intensity of exposure to solvents, pesticides and metals, (iron, copper, manganese), blind to disease status. CYP2D6, PON1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, CYP1B1, MAO-A, MAO-B, SOD 2, EPHX, DATl, DRD2 and NAT2 were genotyped. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression adjusting for key confounders. Results: There was a modest but significant association between MAO-A polymorphism in males and disease risk (G vs T, OR 1.30, 95% C1 1.02 to 1.66, adjusted). The majority of gene-environment analyses did not show significant interaction effects. There were possible interaction effects between GSTM1 null genotype and solvent exposure (which were stronger when limited to PD cases only). Conclusions: Many small studies have reported associations between genetic polymorphisms and PD. Fewer have examined gene-environment interactions. This large study was sufficiently powered to examine these aspects. GSTM1 null subjects heavily exposed to solvents appear to be at increased risk of PD. There was insufficient evidence that the other gene-environment combinations investigated modified disease risk, suggesting they contribute little to the burden of PD.

  • 21.
    Flodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Jönsson, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Non-sensitising air pollution at workplaces and adult onset asthma2004In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 17-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate further whether occupational exposure to non-sensitising air pollution at workplaces increases the risk of adult onset asthma. Methods: One hundred and twenty persons with asthma diagnosed by general practitioners, aged 20-65 years, were compared with 446 referents matched for age and gender and living in the same community as the cases. Information about occupation, exposure to specific allergens, smoking habits, dwellings and atopy was obtained from a postal questionnaire. The subjects' occupations were categorised as clean or polluted, based on the judgement of the referents on their respective occupations. Results: Three years or more of work in air-polluted workplaces resulted in an odds ratio of 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.0-2.7). Stratification of the material on smoking habits, gender or atopy did not alter the results, nor did exclusion of subjects exposed to specific allergens of statistical significance in this material, e.g. flour dust. Smoking per se did not bring any risk of asthma. Working in buildings affected by dampness and mould brought a fourfold significant risk. Conclusion: In this study occupational exposure to unspecific air pollution at workplaces was associated with an increased risk of adult-onset asthma.

  • 22.
    Flodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Seneby, Agneta
    Tegenfeldt, Clas
    Provocation of electric hypersensitivity under everyday conditions2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. In most previous provocation studies subjects suffering from ?electric hypersensitivity? have not been able to determine correctly whether or not they have been subjected to a sham or true provocation to magnetic or electric fields. However, an often-discussed weakness is that most of the earlier provocation studies have been performed in a laboratory situation, often with simulated fields, which may not be representative of conditions prevailing in the homes or workplaces of the patients. Criticism has also been put forth about neglect of the long latency period of symptoms. Therefore, a provocation study was performed in the homes or workplaces of the patients, where we also studied the symptoms and on-off answer 24 hours after the exposure. Methods. Fifteen subjects selected as having fast and distinct reactions from electric equipment were provoked on 4 occasions: mainly 2 true and 2 sham provocations. The intervals between exposure were a few or more days in order to provide the subjects with an opportunity to recover before the next provocation. A control group of healthy subjects with normal hearing and vision verified that the provocations were performed in a blind manner. Results. The patients suffering from ?electric hypersensitivity? were no better than the control group in deciding whether or not they were exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Conclusions. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields per se does not seem to be a sufficient cause of the symptoms experienced by this patient group.

  • 23.
    Gerdle, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Criterion validation of surface EMG variables as fatigue indicators using peak torque: a study of repetitive maximum isokinetic knee extensions2000In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have been published that have used variables of the electromyogram (EMG) power spectrum during dynamic exercise. Despite these studies there is a shortage of studies of the validity of surface EMG registrations during repetitive dynamic contractions with respect to fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate if the surface EMG variables mean frequency (MNF [Hz]) and the signal amplitude (RMS [μV]) are valid indicators of muscular fatigue (defined as “any exercise-induced reduction in the capacity to generate force or power output”) during maximum repeated isokinetic knee extensions (i.e. criterion validity using peak torque).

    Twenty-one healthy volunteers performed 100 isokinetic knee extensions at 90° s-1. EMG signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis, the rectus femoris and the vastus medialis of the right thigh by surface electrodes. MNF and RMS of the EMG together with peak torque (PT [Nm]) were determined for each contraction. MNF showed consequently higher correlation coefficients with PT than RMS did. Positive correlations generally existed between MNF and PT. The majority of the subjects had positive correlations between RMS and PT (i.e. decreases both in PT and in RMS).

    In conclusion, at the individual level MNF generally — in contrast to RMS — showed good criterion validity with respect to biomechanical fatigue during dynamic maximum contractions.

  • 24.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mörtstedt, Harriet
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lewander, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Note: 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid instead of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as matrix in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for analyses of in-gel digests of silver-stained proteins: in Analytical Biochemistry(ISSN 0003-2697), vol 371, issue 1, pp 121-1232007In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 371, no 1, p. 121-123Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 25. Hagfors, Linda
    et al.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Sköldstam, Lars
    Andersson, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress in a randomized, controlled, parallel, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis2003In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previously we have reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) obtained a significant reduction in disease activity by adopting a Mediterranean-type diet. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant intake, the plasma levels of antioxidants and a marker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) during the study presented earlier. Methods: RA patients randomized to either a Mediterranean type diet (MD group, n = 26) or a control diet (CD group, n = 25) were compared during a three month dietary intervention study. Their antioxidant intake was assessed by means of diet history interviews and their intake of antioxidant-rich foods by a self-administered questionnaire. The plasma levels of retinol, antioxidants (a- and ?-tocopherol, ▀-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C and uric acid) and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The Student's t-test for independent samples and paired samples were used to test differences between and within groups. For variables with skewed distributions Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test were performed. To evaluate associations between dietary intake of antioxidants, as well as between disease activity, MDA and antioxidants we used Pearson's product moment correlation or Spearman's rank correlation. Results: The MD group had significantly higher intake frequencies of antioxidant-rich foods, and also higher intakes of vitamin C (p = 0.014), vitamin E (p = 0.007) and selenium (p = 0.004), and a lower intake of retinol (p = 0.049), compared to the CD group. However, the difference between the groups regarding vitamin C intake was not significant when under- and over-repoters were excluded (p = 0.066). There were no changes in urine MDA or in the plasma levels of antioxidants (after p-lipid adjustments of the tocopherol results), from baseline to the end of the study. The levels of retinol, vitamin C and uric acid were negatively correlated to disease activity variables. No correlation was found between antioxidant intake and the plasma levels of antioxidants. Conclusions: Despite an increase in reported consumption of antioxidant-rich foods during the Mediterranean diet intervention, the levels of plasma antioxidants and urine MDA did not change. However, the plasma levels of vitamin C, retinol and uric acid were inversely correlated to variables related to RA disease activity.

  • 26.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Strålning, cancer och forskarutbildning2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27. Hardell, Lennart
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Flesch-Janys, Dieter
    Epidemiological studies on cancer and exposure to dioxins and related compounds.2003In: Dioxins and health / [ed] Arnold Schecter, Thomas A. Gasiewicz, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003, 2, p. 729-764Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Now in its third edition, Dioxins and Healthis the most respected reference of its kind, presenting the latest scientific findings on dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds, and their impact on human health. The book fully examines the many toxicological effects—including immunological, neurological, developmental, dermatological, and cardiological—these chemicals have on health.

    This Third Editionhas been greatly expanded with the latest research findings on dioxins and related compounds. Moreover, it now includes coverage of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine disruptors, including:

    • Brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane

    • Perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid

    • Other endocrine disrupting chemicals similar to POPs such as bisphenol A

    Readers will also learn about the latest findings on the long-term impacts caused by the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam. Other chapters review the Seveso disaster in Italy and the Yusho and Yucheng rice oil poisoning incidents in Japan and Taiwan. In addition, there is a full chapter dedicated to the dioxin poisoning of former Ukraine President Victor Yushchenko.

    All the chapters in the book have been written by leading international experts. References at the end of each chapter guide readers to the primary literature in the field.

    Expertly organized in one volume, Dioxins and Health offers readers quick access to essential information about dioxins and related compounds written in clear, simple language that is accessible to not only scientists, clinicians and public health professionals, but also general readers.

  • 28. Hellström, L
    et al.
    Hellström, L
    Elinder, CG
    Elinder, C-G
    Dahlberg, B
    Dahlberg, B
    Lundberg, M
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Nephrology UHL.
    Lundberg, M
    Järup, L
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Cadmium exposure and end-stage renal disease2001In: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, ISSN 0272-6386, E-ISSN 1523-6838, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1001-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental exposure to cadmium may cause kidney damage and tubular proteinuria. We investigated the relationship between low-level cadmium exposure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), indicated by renal replacement therapy (RRT), in a Swedish population environmentally or occupationally exposed to cadmium. Based on records of all persons in the population previously or presently employed in cadmium-battery production or residing in cadmium-polluted areas near the battery plants, we defined exposure as high (occupational), moderate (domicile < 2 km from a plant), low (domicile 2 to 10 km from a plant), or no exposure (domicile > 10 km from a plant). Comprehensive data were available for all individuals undergoing RRT since 1978. The annual incidence of RRT increased from 41 per million in the age group 20 to 29 years to 243 per million in the age group 70 to 79 years and was greater in a priori-defined populations with cadmium exposure. Adjusting for age and sex gave an increased Mantel-Haenszel rate ratio (MH-RR) of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.3) for RRT in the cadmium-exposed population compared with the unexposed group, the MH-RR was even higher for women (MH-RR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.5). Directly age-standardized rate ratios for RRT and cadmium exposure increased from 1.4 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.0) in the low-exposure group to 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.5) and 2.3 (95% CI, 0.6 to 6.0) in the moderate- and high-exposure groups, respectively. We conclude that exposure to occupational or relatively low environmental levels of cadmium appears to be a determinant for the development of ESRD. ⌐ 2001 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  • 29.
    Hellström, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Järup, Lars
    KI.
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Using environmental concentrations of cadmium and lead to assess human exposure and close2004In: Journal of Exposure Analysis And Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1053-4245, E-ISSN 1476-5519, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 416-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Using environmental concentrations and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to model human exposure is an emerging tool in environmental epidemiology. To evaluate the usefulness of this, we investigated to what extent cadmium and lead concentrations in soil and moss could be used as potential determinants for cadmium and lead exposure for a population living near a battery plant. Methods: Cadmium in urine and blood and lead in blood, as well as food, smoking habits, places of residence, occupations and health, were determined for 512 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. Cadmium and lead contents in moss were available through previous assessments by the Geological Survey of Sweden. Soil samples had been collected at various distances from the factory, and analyzed for cadmium and lead contents in 1990. Kriging technique in GIS was used to create areas with different metal concentrations based on these measurements. By linking individual address coordinates to mapped concentration levels, each study subject home address received a value of cadmium and lead in moss and soil. Results: We found a statistically significant association between lead in soil and lead in blood, for female subjects eating homegrown vegetables regularly. No significant association was found between cadmium in soil and cadmium in urine for either gender in the study population. No clear associations were found for either gender regarding lead and cadmium in moss and lead in blood or cadmium in urine or in blood. Conclusion: In general, environmental concentrations may not be useful surrogates for assessing human exposure to lead and cadmium, but concentrations of metals in soil around emitting point sources can be a complement for estimating the exposure in certain subgroups.

  • 30.
    Hellström, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Brudin, Lars
    Petersson Grawé, Kierstin
    Öborn, Ingrid
    Järup, Lars
    Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 373, no 2-3, p. 447-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Methods: Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Results: Eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd > 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating homegrown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in homegrown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. Conclusion: The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31. Jin Lee, W
    et al.
    Teschke, K
    Kauppinen, T
    Andersen, A
    Jäppinen, P
    Szadkowska-Stanczyk, I
    Pearce, N
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Bergeret, A
    Facchini, LA
    Kishi, R
    Kielkowski, D
    Anddreassen Rix, B
    Henneberger, P
    Sunyer, J
    Colin, D
    Kogevinas, M
    Boffetta, P
    Mortality from lung cancer in workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in the pulp and paper industry.2002In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 110, p. 991-995Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Järup, Lars
    et al.
    Hellström, Lennart
    Alfvén, Tobias
    Carlsson, Margareta
    Grubb, Anders
    Persson, Bodil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Pettersson, Conny
    Spång, Gunnar
    Schütz, Andrejs
    Elinder, C-G
    Low level exposure to cadmium and early kidney damage: The OSCAR study2000In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 57, no 10, p. 668-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives - To study the dose-response relation between cadmium dose and renal tubular damage in a population of workers and people environmentally or occupationally exposed to low concentrations of cadmium. Methods - Early kidney damage in 1021 people, occuptionally or environmentally exposed to cadmium, was assessed from cadmium in urine to estimate dose, and protein HC (a1-microglobulin) in urine to assess tubular pvoteinuria. Results - There was an age and sex adjusted correlation between cadmium in urine and urinary protein HC. The prevalence of tubular proteinuria ranged from 5% among unexposed people to 50% in the most exposed group. The corresponding prevalence odds ratio was 6.0 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6 to 22) for the highest exposure group, adjusted for age and sex. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed an increasing prevalence of tubular proteinuria with urinary cadmium as well as with age. After adjusment to the mean age of the study population (53 years), the results show an increased prevalence of 10% tubular proteinuria (taking into account a background prevalence of 5%) at a urinary cadmium concentration of 1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine. Conclusion - Renal tubular damage due to exposure to cadmium develops at lower levels of cadmium body burden than previously anticipated.

  • 33.
    Kangoum, Abdul-Almawla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Prevalence of female genital mutilation among African women resident in the Swedish county of Östergötland2004In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 187-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To establish the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) among African women resident in the Swedish County of Östergötland and assess the types of FGM. Material and methods. Three hundred and four African women aged ≥ 18 years were domiciled in Östergötland by the end of 1998. The women were invited by letter. A socio-cultural questionnaire designed to give an overall picture of FGM within a socioeconomic context, and also to invite the women to an interview and examination, was sent to all African women in the county of Östergötland. Women who gave their consent (n = 63) underwent a gynecologic examination. Results. The response rate was 84%. According to the questionnaire, 68% of all the African women were genitally mutilated. The clinical examination revealed that 39 women (62%) were mutilated, 17 of them (44%) had undergone removal of part or all external genitalia and stitching ('infibulation'), 26% had undergone removal of the prepuce of the clitoris ('prepucectomy'), 23% had undergone various cultural practices on the external genitalia, and 7.7% excision of the clitoris with partial or total removal of labia minora ('clitoridectomy'). Conclusion. The influx of immigrants to Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries from cultures where FGM is practiced, requires that physicians and other health professionals familiarize themselves with the practice and the cultural beliefs underlying it. Sensitivity to the needs of these women as well as attention to the potential physical hazards posed by the practice are important factors in care.

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Helen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Kartläggning av proteiner i LDL och HDL med två-dimensionell gelelektrofores samt masspektrometri.2003In: Svenska Läkaresällskapets Handlingar,2003, 2003, p. 11-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Karlsson, T
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Daglig hantering av kemikalier ger frisörer luftvägsbesvär.2002In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 99, p. 2032-2034Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum, Socialmed FHVC.
    Kucinskiené, Zita
    Schäfer-Elinder, Liselotte
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Lower serum levels of beta-carotene in Lithuanian men are accompanied by higher urinary excretion of the oxidative DNA adduct, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine: The LiVicordia study.2003In: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), ISSN 0899-9007, E-ISSN 1873-1244, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: In 1995, middle-aged Lithuanian men had a four-fold higher risk than Swedish men of dying from coronary heart disease. The cross-sectional LiVicordia study had reported significantly lower levels of the lipid-soluble antioxidants lycopene, ▀-carotene, and ?-tocopherol among Lithuanian men than among Swedish men. We examined whether there were differences in urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, between these groups of men. METHODS: Using automated coupled column high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, we examined 50-y-old men randomly sampled from Link÷ping, Sweden (n = 99) and Vilnius, Lithuania (n = 109) with regard to urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG. RESULTS: Levels of 8-OHdG were higher in the Lithuanian men than in the Swedish men (20.9 ▒ 0.91 versus 14.9 ▒ 0.75 nM/L, P < 0.001), and this difference was evident in smokers (P < 0.01) and non-smokers (P < 0.001). Serum levels of a- and ▀-carotene were inversely correlated to urinary 8-OHdG levels (P < 0.05 in both cases). Habitual smoking and low levels of ▀-carotene contributed significantly to higher oxidative DNA damage expressed as urinary 8-OHdG. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that increased urinary 8-OHdG levels accompany lower serum levels of antioxidants in Lithuanian men. They supported previous suggestions that increased oxidative stress may be one factor behind the higher mortality in Lithuanian men. ⌐ Elsevier Science Inc. 2003.

  • 37.
    Kristjansson, I
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Faresjö, Tomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Lionis, C
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    Nosratabadi, Ali Reza
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Gudmundsson, K
    Halling, A
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, FHVC - Folkhälsovetenskapligt centrum, Förebygg.med.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Assessment of aluminium in human deciduous teeth2000In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 231-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible role of environmental aluminium exposure in the pathogenesis of various diseases has highlighted the need for methods by which the long-term exposure to aluminium can be assessed. Therefore, we have further developed a method to determine aluminium in human deciduous teeth and applied this method for studying populations in Sweden, Crete and Iceland.

  • 38.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Thuomas, KÅ
    Sjöqvist, L
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Nyland, H
    Söderfeldt, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Hypointensity in T2-weighted images of the basal ganglia in solvent-exposed patients with multiple sclerosis: Clinical, MRI and CSF characteristics2003In: Neurological Sciences, ISSN 1590-1874, E-ISSN 1590-3478, Vol. 24, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have indicated an association between MS and organic solvent exposure. Our objective was to analyse differences regarding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) properties, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and cerebral metabolites, measured by proton spectroscopy (1H-MRS), in 20 patients with spontaneous multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 20 patients with MS after solvent exposure, 15 healthy subjects served as controls. CSF examinations were retrospectively reviewed from the medical files. There were no significant differences in the CSF regarding pleocytosis, spinal-serum albumin ratio or mean extended IgG index. However, T2-weighted images of the solvent-exposed MS patients showed more hypointense areas in the basal ganglia. Hypointensity on T2-weighted images of the basal ganglia in the solvent-exposed MS patients may correspond to neurodegeneration and could be an early event in MS.

  • 39.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Tondel, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Flodin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Axelson, Olav
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    The risk for multiple sclerosis in female nurse anaesthetists: A register based study2006In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 387-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that exposure to organic solvents, including volatile anaesthetic agents, may be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), possibly in combination with genetic and other environmental factors. Aims: To further investigate the role of volatile anaesthetic agents having similar acute toxic effects to other organic solvents. Methods: Female nurse anaesthetists, other female nurses, and female teachers from middle and upper compulsory school levels were identified and retrieved from the 1985 census, Statistics Sweden. By means of the unique personal identity number in Sweden, these individuals were linked with the disability pension registers at The National Social Insurance Board and also with data on hospital care 1985-2000 at The National Board of Health and Welfare. Results: The cumulative incidence rate ratio of MS was found to be increased in female nurse anaesthetists in relation to other nurses (statistically not significant) and teachers (statistically significant), respectively. Conclusions: These findings give some support to previous findings of an increased risk for MS in nurse anaesthetists. This is interesting in the context of previous observations of organic solvents in general as a potential risk factor in MS.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Barbro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Department of Physical Education and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lindvall, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Surface electromyography and peak torque of repetitive maximum isokinetic plantar flexions in relation to aspects of muscle morphology2006In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the relationships between surface electromyography (EMG [Mean frequency of the power spectrum (MNF)]) and peak torque variables obtained during 100 maximum concentric plantar flexions with the right limb at 60° s−1 and different muscle morphological variables. Surface EMG was recorded from the right gastrocnemius lateralis and muscle biopsies were taken from the same site as the EMG electrodes were positioned. Muscle fibre area and fibre type composition were determined on serial muscle cross sections using both histochemistry (myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase) and immunohistochemistry (monoclonal antibodies against specific myosin heavy chain isoforms). Forty-three female and nine male students participated in the study. Gastrocnemius lateralis contained predominantly type I fibres (50%) and type IIA fibres (40%) in both sexes and large individual differences were found. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for the intercorrelation analyses, and projection to latent structures (PLS) was used for the multivariate regression analysis. MNF correlated positively with different fibre areas and with the proportion of type I fibres. Fibre areas and sex were the most important factors in the regression of maximum peak torque. High proportion of type I fibres and sex were the most important regressors of peak torque endurance normalised for lean body mass.

    More studies are needed to understand the complex interrelationships between intrinsic muscle properties and the frequency content of the surface EMG before theoretical models can be formulated that incorporate both fibre areas and fibre type proportions.

  • 41.
    Larsson, Barbro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Månsson, Bjarne
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlberg, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Syvertsson, Peter
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elert, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reproducibility of surface EMG variables and peak torque during three sets of ten dynamic contractions1999In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 351-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interpretation of the electromyogram (EMG) of dynamic contractions might be difficult because the movement per se introduces additional factors that could affect its characteristics. There is a lack of studies concerning the reproducibility of surface EMG registrations during dynamic contractions. The aim was to investigate the during-the-day reproducibility (using intra-class correlation; ICC) of the peak torque (PT) and the EMG variables (without removing the electrodes) of dynamic contractions. Ten healthy subjects performed three sets of 10 dynamic maximum right-knee extensions with a one-hour interval in between, using an isokinetic dynamometer and the PT was determined. EMG signals were recorded from the right vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles using surface electrodes and the mean frequency of the power spectrum (MNF [Hz]) and the signal amplitude (RMS [μV]), were computed. The ability to relax in-between the maximum extensions was calculated as a ratio of the RMS during the passive flexion phase and the RMS during the active extension phase of each contraction cycle: the signal amplitude ratio (SAR).

    Both PT (ICC=0.99) and RMS (ICC=0.83–0.98) had good reproducibility. The reproducibility of MNF was good for all muscles when the mean of contraction nos.: 1–10 was used. Vastus lateralis had the highest ICC among the three muscles. The reproducibility of SAR was generally poor (ICC<0.60). The present study showed good reproducibility for common EMG variables (MNF and RMS) obtained during maximum isokinetic contractions.

  • 42.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lidebjer, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Yuan, Ximing
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology.
    Szymanowski, Aleksander
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Backteman, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    NK cell apoptosis in coronary artery disease. Relation to oxidative stress2008In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 199, no 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Natural killer (NK) cells, key elements in initiation and modulation of immune responses, were recently found to be reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD). To clarify mechanisms behind this reduction, we here investigated NK cell apoptosis in CAD patients. Since oxidative stress has been linked to NK cell apoptosis, we related the findings to oxidative stress in vivo and evaluated the ex vivo susceptibility of NK cells to oxidized lipids. Methods and results: The number of apoptotic NK cells in peripheral blood was significantly increased in CAD patients compared to controls. Purified NK cells from CAD patients also showed a higher rate of spontaneous apoptosis ex vivo. Dose- and time-dependent effects of oxidized LDL and 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7βOH) on apoptosis and ROS production were determined in NK cells from blood donors. Thereafter, purified NK cells from CAD patients and healthy controls were exposed to the oxidized lipids in a paired design. NK cells from patients were more susceptible to apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL, in particular 7βOH, compared to cells from controls. Plasma measurements of LDL protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation did not show any differences between patients and controls. On the other hand, plasma carotenoids were significantly decreased in patients and inversely correlated to NK cell apoptosis rate. Conclusion: The rate of spontaneous NK cell apoptosis was increased in CAD patients. Although NK cells in CAD patients were more sensitive to oxidized lipids ex vivo, indicating a mechanism contributing to the reduced NK cell activity in CAD, the data could not verify an obvious link between NK cell apoptosis and increased oxidative stress in vivo. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Li, Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Xu, Lihua
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Hellsten, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Brunk, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pharmacology.
    Eaton, John Wallace
    USA .
    Yuan, Xi Ming
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology.
    Cytocidal effects of atheromatous plaque components: the death zone revisited.2006In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 20, p. 2281-2290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 44.
    Lidebjer, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leanderson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Low plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids in patients with coronary artery disease2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 448-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Low circulating levels of carotenoids have been associated with cardiovascular disease. The distribution of different carotenoids in blood may have an impact on the cardioprotective capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of 6 major carotenoids in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and relate the findings to clinical, metabolic and immune parameters. Methods and results: Plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin) and hydrocarbon carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) were determined in 39 patients with acute coronary syndrome, 50 patients with stable CAD and 50 controls. Serological assays for inflammatory activity and flow cytometrical analysis of lymphocyte subsets were performed. Both patient groups had significantly lower plasma levels of oxygenated carotenoids, in particular lutein + zeaxanthin, compared to controls. Low levels of oxygenated carotenoids were associated with smoking, high body mass index (BMI), low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and, to a minor degree, inflammatory activity. Plasma levels of lutein + zeaxanthin were independently associated with the proportions of natural killer (NK) cells, but not with other lymphocytes, in blood. Conclusion: Among carotenoids, lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin were significantly reduced in CAD patients independent of clinical setting. The levels were correlated to a number of established cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the relationship between NK cells and lutein + zeaxanthin may indicate a particular role for certain carotenoids in the immunological scenario of CAD. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 45. Liljelind, I
    et al.
    Rappaport, S
    Eriksson, K
    Andersson, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Bergdahl, IA
    Sunesson, A-L
    Järvholm, B
    Exposure assessment of monoterpenes and styrene: A comparison of air sampling and biomonitoring2003In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 60, no 8, p. 599-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Within- and between-worker variance components have seldom been reported for both environmental and biological data collected from the same persons. Aims: To estimate these variance components and their ratio for air contaminants and urinary metabolites in two different work environments and to predict the attenuation of exposure-response relationships based on these measures. Methods: Parallel measurements of air and urine were performed among workers exposed to monoterpenes in sawmills (urinary metabolite: verbenol) and styrene in reinforced plastics factories (urinary metabolite: mandelic acid). Results: Among the sawmill workers, variance components of the air and urinary verbenol results were similar, for the reinforced plastics workers the estimated between-worker variance component was greater for styrene in air than mandelic acid in urine. This suggests that attenuation bias would be about equal if air or biological monitoring were employed for monoterpene exposures, but would be greater if urinary mandelic acid were used instead of airborne styrene in an investigation of styrene exposure. Conclusions: Personal air samplers provide data with similar or superior quality to urinary metabolites as measures of exposure to these monoterpenes in sawmills and styrene in reinforced plastics factories.

  • 46.
    Lindahl, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Irander, Kristina
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Nasal lavage fluid and proteomics as means to identify the effects of the irritating epoxy chemical dimethylbenzylamine2004In: Biomarkers, ISSN 1354-750X, E-ISSN 1366-5804, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 56-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to describe the changes in the nasal lavage fluid (NLF) protein pattern after exposure to the irritating epoxy chemical dimethylbenzylamine (DMBA) and to identify the affected proteins using a proteomic approach. The protein patterns of NLF from six healthy subjects and eight epoxy workers with airway irritation were analysed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) before and after exposure to 100 μg m-3 DMBA for 2 h in an exposure chamber. NLF proteins were identified by (i) comparison with a 2-DE NLF reference database, (ii) N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and (iii) mass spectrometry. In NLF from healthy subjects, the levels of immunoglobulin A increased and the levels of Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) decreased after chamber exposure, while in NLF from epoxy workers, α2-macroglobulin and caeruloplasmin increased. Two previously unidentified proteins decreased in NLF from epoxy workers after exposure, these were identified as statherin and calgranulin B. In addition, the subjects who developed high counts of eosinophils in their nasal mucosa after chamber exposure had significantly lower levels of immunoglobulin-binding factor (IgBF) before exposure than subjects with low eosinophil infiltration. These results show that short-term exposure to DMBA causes distinct changes in NLF proteins. Moreover, three proteins that have previously not been associated with upper airway irritation were identified: statherin, calgranulin B and IgBF. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these proteins may be used as biomarkers of airway irritation and to give new insight into the ways in which occupational exposure to irritants causes inflammation of the airways.

  • 47.
    Lindahl, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Identification of a new potential airway irritation marker, palate lung nasal epithelial clone protein, in human nasal lavage fluid with two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight.2001In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 22, p. 1795-1800Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Lindahl, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ståhlbom, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Centre.
    Newly identified proteins in human nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids: Potential biomedical and clinical applications.1999In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 20, p. 3670-3676Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Lundberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Correlations between joint and spinal mobility, spinal sagittal configuration, segmental mobility, segmental pain, symptoms and disabilities in female homecare personnel2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of a study comprising 607 women working as homecare personnel was to investigate general spinal, joint and segmental mobility, different symptoms (pain and strain) and their relation to various aspects of disability. Joint mobility (mainly peripheral) was estimated using the 'Beighton' score and spinal posture and mobility were measured by kyphometer. Passive segmental mobility and pain provocation were estimated manually. Pain intensity and strain during work and leisure were estimated using visual analogue scales for defined anatomical regions. Disability was rated using defined items and two indices. The 7-day prevalence of low back pain was 48%. Peripheral joint mobility, spinal sagittal posture and thoracic sagittal mobility showed low correlations with disability. Lumbar sagittal hypomobility was associated with higher disability. Manually estimated segmental mobility and segmental pain provocation of L4-L5 and L5-S1 correlated with disability; hypo- and hypermobility or positive pain provocation tests at these levels showed higher disability than normal mobility and negative pain provocation tests, respectively. Cluster analysis revealed that the combination of positive pain provocation tests and low lumbar sagittal mobility was associated with particularly high disability levels. In conclusion, positive pain provocation tests were clearly associated with high disability levels.

  • 50.
    Lundberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Pain and Occupational Centre, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The relationships between spinal sagittal configuration, joint mobility, general low back mobility and segmental mobility in female homecare personnel1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0036-5505, E-ISSN 1940-2228, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 197-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate joint mobility, segmental and general spinal mobility and their interrelationship in 607 women working as homecare personnel. Joint mobility (mainly peripheral) was estimated using the "Beighton" score. Spinal posture and mobility were measured by Debrunner's kyphometer. Passive segmental mobility and pain provocation were estimated manually. Reliability tests between two physiotherapists of segmental mobility and pain provocation (n = 150 subjects) were performed. Positive correlations were found between joint mobility, sagittal thoraco-lumbar mobility and segmental mobility. Hyperlordosis (>39 degrees) was associated with greater lumbar mobility. The reliability of manual segmental mobility and segmental pain provocation was good, especially in the lowest back segments (kappa approximately 0.7). Joint mobility, general mobility and segmental spinal mobility intercorrelated. Segmental mobility manually estimated showed intertester reliability. The good positive correlation between sagittal lumbar mobility and manually tested segmental mobility indicates criterion validity for the latter.

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