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  • 1.
    Abarghouyi, Hadis
    et al.
    IUST, Iran; MTNi Co, Iran.
    Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad
    IUST, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    QoE-Aware Beamforming Design for Massive MIMO Heterogeneous Networks2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 67, nr 9, s. 8315-8323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main goals of the future wireless networks is improving the users quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we consider the problem of the QoE-based resource allocation in the downlink of a massive multiple-input multiple-output heterogeneous network. The network consists of a macrocell with a number of small cells embedded in it. The small cells base stations (BSs) are equipped with a few antennas, while the macro BS is equipped with a massive number of antennas. We consider the two services Video and Web Browsing and design the beamforming vectors at the BSs. The objective is to maximize the aggregated mean opinion score (MOS) of the users under constraints on the BSs powers and the required quality of service of the users. We also consider extra constraints on the QoE of users to more strongly enforce the QoE in the beamforming design. To reduce the complexity of the optimization problem, we suggest suboptimal and computationally efficient solutions. Our results illustrate that increasing the number of antennas at the BSs and also increasing the number of small cells antennas in the network leads to a higher user satisfaction.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Hide and Seek in a Social Network2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a known heuristic for decreasing a node's centrality scores while maintaining influence, called ROAM, is compared to a modified version specifically designed to decrease eigenvector centrality. The performances of these heuristics are also tested against the Shapley values of a cooperative game played over the considered network, where the game is such that influential nodes receive higher Shapley values. The modified heuristic performed at least as good as the original ROAM, and in some instances even better (especially when the terrorist network behind the World Trade Center attacks was considered). Both heuristics increased the influence score for a given targeted node when applied consecutively on the WTC network, and consequently the Shapley values increased as well. Therefore the Shapley value of the game considered in this thesis seems to be well suited for discovering individuals that are assumed to actively trying to evade social network analysis.

  • 3.
    Ahlqvist, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Evaluation of the Turbo-decoder Coprocessor on a TMS320C64x Digital Signal Processor2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En teknik som används för att minska de fel som en signal utsätts för vid transmission över en brusig kanal är felrättande kodning. Ett exempel på sådan kodning som ger ett mycket bra resultat är turbokodning. I några digitalsignalprocessorer, av sorten TMS320C64xTM, finns en inbyggd coprocessor som utför turboavkodning.

    Denna uppsats är utförd åt Communication Development inom Saab AB och presenterar en utvärdering av denna coprocessor. Utvärderingen avser såväl minnesförbrukning som datatakt och innehåller även en jämförelse med en implementering av turbokodning utan att använda coprocessorn.

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Shakeel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Management and Technol, Pakistan.
    Dabrowski, Jerzy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design of Two-Tone RF Generator for On-Chip IP3/IP2 Test2019Ingår i: Journal of electronic testing, ISSN 0923-8174, E-ISSN 1573-0727, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 77-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a built-in-self-test (BiST) aimed at the third and second intercept point (IP3/IP2) characterization of RF receiver is discussed with a focus on a stimulus generator. The generator is designed based on a specialized phase-lock loop (PLL) architecture with two voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) operating in GHz frequency range. The objective of PLL is to keep the VCOs frequency spacing under control. According to the test requirements the phase noise and nonlinear distortion of the two-tone generator are considered as a merit for the design of VCOs and analog adder. The PLL reference spurs, critical for the IP3 measurement, are avoided by means of a frequency doubling technique. The circuit is designed in 65nm CMOS. A highly linear analog adder with OIP3amp;gt;+15dBm and ring VCOs with phase noise amp;lt; -104 dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset are used to generate the RF stimulus of total power greater than -22dBm. In simulations a performance sufficient for IP3/IP2 test of a typical RF CMOS receiver is demonstrated.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Atheeq
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Human Detection Using Ultra Wideband Radar and Continuous Wave Radar2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A radar works by radiating electromagnetic energy and detecting the reflected signal returned from the target. The nature of the reflected signal provides information about the target’s distance or speed. In this thesis, we will be using a UWB radar and a CW radar to help detect the presence and rough location of trapped survivors by detecting their motions. Range is estimated in the UWB radar using clutter removal with SVD and for the dual frequency CW Radar using STFT and median filtering. The effect of the algorithm parameters on their performance was analyzed. The performance of the implemented algorithms with regards to small motion detection, distance estimation and penetration capability was analyzed. Both systems are certainly capable of human detection and tracking.

  • 6.
    Akhlaghpasand, Hossein
    et al.
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Do, Tan Tai
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Jamming Detection in Massive MIMO Systems2018Ingår i: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 242-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter considers the physical layer security of a pilot-based massive multiple-input multiple-output (MaMIMO) system in presence of a multi-antenna jammer. We propose a new jamming detection method that makes use of a generalized likelihood ratio tes

  • 7.
    Alesand, Elias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Identification of Flying Drones in Mobile Networks using Machine Learning2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Drone usage is increasing, both in recreational use and in the industry. With it comes a number of problems to tackle. Primarily, there are certain areas in which flying drones pose a security threat, e.g., around airports or other no-fly zones. Other problems can appear when there are drones in mobile networks which can cause interference. Such interference comes from the fact that radio transmissions emitted from drones can travel more freely than those from regular UEs (User Equipment) on the ground since there are few obstructions in the air. Additionally, the data traffic sent from drones is often high volume in the form of video streams. The goal of this thesis is to identify so-called "rogue drones" connected to an LTE network. Rogue drones are flying drones that appear to be regular UEs in the network. Drone identification is a binary classification problem where UEs in a network are classified as either a drone or a regular UE and this thesis proposes machine learning methods that can be used to solve it. Classifications are based on radio measurements and statistics reported by UEs in the network. The data for the work in this thesis is gathered through simulations of a heterogenous LTE network in an urban scenario. The primary idea of this thesis is to use a type of cascading classifier, meaning that classifications are made in a series of stages with increasingly complex models where only a subset of examples are passed forward to subsequent stages. The motivation for such a structure is to minimize the computational requirements at the entity making the classifications while still being complex enough to achieve high accuracy. The models explored in this thesis are two-stage cascading classifiers using decision trees and ensemble learning techniques. It is found that close to 60% of the UEs in the dataset can be classified without errors in the first of the two stages. The rest is forwarded to a more complex model which requires more data from the UEs and can achieve up to 98% accuracy. 

  • 8.
    Alodeh, Maha
    et al.
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Spano, Danilo
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Kalantari, Ashkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Tsinos, Christos G.
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Christopoulos, Dimitrios
    Newtec Satcom, Belgium.
    Chatzinotas, Symeon
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Ottersten, Bjorn
    Univ Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Symbol-Level and Multicast Precoding for Multiuser Multiantenna Downlink: A State-of-the-Art, Classification, and Challenges2018Ingår i: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, ISSN 1553-877X, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 1733-1757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precoding has been conventionally considered as an effective means of mitigating or exploiting the interference in the multiantenna downlink channel, where multiple users are simultaneously served with independent information over the same channel resources. The early works in this area were focused on transmitting an individual information stream to each user by constructing weighted linear combinations of symbol blocks (codewords). However, more recent works have moved beyond this traditional view by: 1) transmitting distinct data streams to groups of users and 2) applying precoding on a symbol-persymbol basis. In this context, the current survey presents a unified view and classification of precoding techniques with respect to two main axes: 1) the switching rate of the precoding weights, leading to the classes of block-level and symbol-level precoding and 2) the number of users that each stream is addressed to, hence unicast, multicast, and broadcast precoding. Furthermore, the classified techniques are compared through representative numerical results to demonstrate their relative performance and uncover fundamental insights. Finally, a list of open theoretical problems and practical challenges are presented to inspire further research in this area.(1)

  • 9.
    Al-Salihi, Hayder
    et al.
    The Department of Informatics, King’s College London, UK.
    Van Chien, Trinh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Le, Tuan Anh
    The Department of Design Engineering and Mathematics, Middlesex University, London, UK.
    Nakhai, Mohammad Reza
    The Department of Informatics, King’s College London, London, UK.
    A Successive Optimization Approach to Pilot Design for Multi-Cell Massive MIMO Systems2018Ingår i: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 1086-1089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this letter, we introduce a novel pilot designapproach that minimizes the total mean square errors of theminimum mean square error estimators of all base stations (BSs)subject to the transmit power constraints of individual users inthe network, while tackling the pilot contamination in multicellmassive MIMO systems. First, we decompose the originalnon-convex problem into distributed optimization sub-problemsat individual BSs, where each BS can optimize its own pilotsignals given the knowledge of pilot signals from the remainingBSs. We then introduce a successive optimization approach totransform each optimization sub-problem into a linear matrixinequality form, which is convex and can be solved by availableoptimization packages. Simulation results confirm the fast convergenceof the proposed approach and prevails a benchmarkscheme in terms of providing higher accuracy.

  • 10.
    Amarasuriya, Gayan
    et al.
    Princeton University, NJ 08544 USA.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vincent Poor, H.
    Princeton University, NJ 08544 USA.
    Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Multiway Massive MIMO Relay Networks2016Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 3837-3855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer techniques for multiway massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relay networks are investigated. By using two practically viable relay receiver designs, namely 1) the power splitting receiver and 2) the time switching receiver, asymptotic signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) expressions are derived for an unlimited number of antennas at the relay. These asymptotic SINRs are then used to derive asymptotic symmetric sum rate expressions in closed form. Notably, these asymptotic SINRs and sum rates become independent of radio frequency-to-direct current (RF-to-DC) conversion efficiency in the limit of infinitely many relay antennas. Moreover, tight average sum rate approximations are derived in closed form for finitely many relay antennas. The fundamental tradeoff between the harvested energy and the sum rate is quantified for both relay receiver structures. Notably, the detrimental impact of imperfect channel state information (CSI) on the MIMO detector/precoder is investigated, and thereby, the performance degradation caused by pilot contamination, which is the residual interference due to nonorthogonal pilot sequence usage in adjacent/cochannel systems, is quantified. The presence of cochannel interference (CCI) can be exploited to be beneficial for energy harvesting at the relay, and consequently, the asymptotic harvested energy is an increasing function of the number of cochannel interferers. Notably, in the genie-aided perfect CSI case, the detrimental impact of CCI for signal decoding can be cancelled completely whenever the number of relay antennas grows without bound. Nevertheless, the pilot contamination severely degrades the sum rate performance even for infinitely many relay antennas.

  • 11.
    Anchora, Luca
    et al.
    IMT of Lucca.
    Badia, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zorzi, Mikele
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Capacity Gains due to Orthogonal Spectrum Sharing in Multi-Operator LTE Cellular Networks2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), 2012, s. 286-290Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Static spectrum allocation leads to resource wastage and inter-operator spectrum sharing is a possible way to improve spectrum efficiency. In this work, we assume that two cellular network operators agree upon sharing part of their spectrum, which can then be dynamically accessed by either of them in a mutually exclusive way. Our goal is to numerically assess the gain, in terms of cell capacity, due to such orthogonal spectrum sharing. Hence, we propose a centralized algorithm that performs coordinated scheduling, in order to numerically evaluate an upper bound on the achievable sum capacity. The algorithm is centralized and exploits complete information on both networks to perform the optimum allocation. The simulation results illustrate the impact of the multiuser diversity and the asymmetry in the traffic load among the networks on the overall achievable gain.

  • 12.
    Anchora, Luca
    et al.
    IMT of Lucca.
    Badia, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi di Padova.
    Zhang, Haibin
    TNO ICT.
    Fahldieck, Torsten
    Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent.
    Zhang, Jianshu
    Ilmenau University of Technology.
    Szydelko, Michal
    Wroclaw Research Centre EIT+ .
    Schubert, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications HHI.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Haardt, Martin
    Ilmenau University of Technology.
    Resource Allocation and Management in Multi-Operator Cellular Networks with Shared Physical Resources2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), IEEE , 2012, s. 296-300Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we focus on next-generation cellular networks and discuss physical resources sharing among the operators. This implies cooperative usage of the available radio frequencies and also infrastructure sharing. In particular, we analyze the spectrum sharing gain achievable at different time scales and the main factors impacting on it. Then, we move towards a wider idea of resource sharing and consider a joint spectrum and infrastructure sharing (full sharing). We describe a two-layer resource management architecture that enables operators to reduce costs while still guaranteeing a good service level. The main findings of our investigations are to quantify the effectiveness of resource sharing and open up new perspectives for the operators of next-generation networks.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Rickard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Algorithm for Handoff in VDL mode 42010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    VDL mode 4 is a digital data link operating in the VHF band, its mainly use is for the aviation industry.VDL4 can as an example provide with positioning data, speed information of aircrafts or vehicles equipped with a VDL4 transponder. A connection between the groundsystem and the airborne system is called a point to point connection, which can be used for various applications. This data link needs to be transferred between groundstations during flights in order maintain the connection, which is called handoff.

    The handoff process needs to be quick enough to not drop the link and at the same time a low rate of handoffs is desirable. The data link is regarded as a narrow resource and link management data for handoff is considered as overhead.

    This thesis studies how to make the handoff procedure optimal with respect to involved aspects. Previous research of handoff algorithms and models of the VHF-channel are treated. Standardized parameters and procedures in VDL4 and are explored in order to find an optimal solution for the handoff procedure in VDL4.

    The studied topics are analyzed and it is concluded to suggest an algorithm based on an adaptive hysteresis including signal quality and positioning data provided in VDL4. Standardized parameters which could be useful in the handoff procedure are commented, since the VDL4 standards are under development.

  • 14.
    Aronsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Objektdetektering i SAR- och IR-bilder2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten behandlar detektering i IR-bilder som är tagna från flygplan över marken. Detekteringen är i det här arbetet uppdelat i två delar. Först görs en detektering med filterkärnor som har till uppgift att peka ut mål och målliknande objekt. Den andra delen är en diskriminator som är något mer beräkningskrävande och har till uppgift att sortera bort de falskmål som detektorn fått med. Både detektorn och diskriminatorn innehåller trösklar som har tränats fram med träningsdata. Detektorn gav bättre resultat än väntat och diskriminatorn har därför inte kunnat testas ordentligt.

  • 15.
    Aslam, Mohammed Zahid
    et al.
    SIRADEL, France.
    Corre, Yoann
    SIRADEL, France.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Large-scale Massive MIMO Network Evaluation Using Ray-based Deterministic Simulations2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 29TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS (PIMRC), IEEE , 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale massive MIMO network deployments can provide higher spectral efficiency and better coverage for future communication systems like 5G. Due to the large number of antennas at the base station, the system achieves stable channel quality and spatially separable channels to the different users. In this paper, linear, planar, circular and cylindrical arrays are used in the evaluation of a large-scale multi-cell massive MIMO network. The system-level performance is predicted using two different kinds of channel models. First, a ray-based deterministic tool is utilized in a real North American city environment. Second, an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channel model is considered, as often used in previously published massive MIMO studies. The analysis is conducted in a 16-macro-cell network with outdoor and randomly distributed users. It is shown that the array configuration has a large impact on the throughput statistics. Although the system level performance with i.i.d. Rayleigh fading can be close to the deterministic prediction in some situations (e.g., with large linear arrays), significant differences are noticed when considering other types of arrays.

  • 16.
    Aslam, Mohammed Zahid
    et al.
    SIRADEL, France.
    Corre, Yoann
    SIRADEL, France.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Performance of a dense urban massive MIMO network from a simulated ray-based channel2019Ingår i: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, artikel-id 106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO network deployments are expected to be a key feature of the upcoming 5G communication systems. Such networks are able to achieve a high level of channel quality and can simultaneously serve multiple users with the same resources. In this paper, realistic massive MIMO channels are evaluated both in single and multi-cell environments. The favorable propagation property is evaluated in the single-cell scenario and provides perspectives on the minimal criteria required to achieve such conditions. The dense multi-cell urban scenario provides a comparison between linear, planar, circular, and cylindrical arrays to evaluate a large-scale multi-cell massive MIMO network. The system-level performance is predicted using two different kinds of channel models. First, a ray-based deterministic tool is utilized in a real North American city environment. Second, an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channel model is considered, as often used in previously published massive MIMO studies. The analysis is conducted in a 16-macro-cell network with both randomly distributed outdoor and indoor users. It is shown that the physical array properties like the shape and configuration have a large impact on the throughput statistics. Although the system-level performance with i.i.d. Rayleigh fading can be close to the deterministic prediction in some situations (e.g., with large linear arrays), significant differences are noticed when considering other types of arrays. The differences in the performance of the various arrays utilizing the exact same network parameters and the same number of total antenna elements provide insights into the selection of these physical parameters for upcoming 5G networks.

  • 17.
    Avazkonandeh Gharavol, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Robust Joint Optimization of MIMO Interfering Relay Channels with Imperfect CSI2011Ingår i: 2001 4th IEEE International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing (CAMSAP), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2011, , s. 5s. 209-212Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we deal with the problem of the joint optimization of the precoders, equalizers and relay beamformer of a multiple-input multiple-output interfering relay channel. This network can be regarded az a generalized model for both one-way and two-way relay channels with/without direct interfering links. Unlike the conventional design procedures, we assume that the Channel State Information (CSI) is not known perfectly. The imperfect CSI is described using the norm bounded error framework. We use a system-wide Sum Mean Square Error (SMSE) based problem formulation which is constrained using the transmit power of the terminals and the relay node. The problem at hand, from a worst-case design perspective, is a multilinear, and hence, a nonconvex problem which is also semiinfinite in its constraints. We use a generalized version of the Peterson’s lemma to handle the semi-infiniteness and reduce the original problem to a single Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). However, this LMI is not convex, and to resolve this issue we propose an iterative algorithm based on the alternating convex search methodology to solve the aforementioned problem. Finally simulation results, i.e., the convergence of the proposed algorithm and the SMSE properties, are included to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  • 18.
    Avazkonandeh Gharavol, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Robust Joint Optimization of Non-regenerative MIMO Relay Channels with Imperfect CSI2011Ingår i: Conference Record of the Forty Fifth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR), 2011, IEEE Computer Society, 2011, s. 1589-1593Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of joint optimization of the source precoder, the relay beamformer and the destination equalizer in a nonregenerative relay network with only a partial knowledge of the Channel State Information (CSI).

    We model the partial CSI using a deterministic norm bounded error model, and we use a system-wide mean square error performance measure which is constrained based on the transmit power regulations for both source and relay nodes.

    Most conventional designs employ the average performance optimization, however, we solve this problem from a worst-case design perspective.

    The original problem formulation is a semi-infinite trilinear optimization problem which is not convex.

    To solve this problem we extend the existing theories to deal with the constraints which are semi-infinite in different independent complex matrix variables.

    We show that the equivalent approximate problem is a set of linear matrix inequalities, that can be solved iteratively.

    Finally simulation results assess the performance of the proposed scheme.

  • 19.
    Avazkonandeh Gharavol, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Sign-Definiteness Lemma and Its Applications to Robust Transceiver Optimization for Multiuser MIMO Systems2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 238-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We formally generalize the sign-definiteness lemma to the case of complex-valued matrices and multiple norm-bounded uncertainties. This lemma has found many applications in the study of the stability of control systems, and in the design and optimization of robust transceivers in communications. We then present three different novel applications of this lemma in the area of multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) robust transceiver optimization. Specifically, the scenarios of interest are: (i) robust linear beamforming in an interfering adhoc network, (ii) robust design of a general relay network, including the two-way relay channel as a special case, and (iii) a half-duplex one-way relay system with multiple relays. For these networks, we formulate the design problems of minimizing the (sum) MSE of the symbol detection subject to different average power budget constraints. We show that these design problems are non-convex (with bilinear or trilinear constraints) and semiinfinite in multiple independent uncertainty matrix-valued variables. We propose a two-stage solution where in the first step the semi-infinite constraints are converted to linear matrix inequalities using the generalized signdefiniteness lemma, and in the second step, we use an iterative algorithm based on alternating convex search (ACS). Via simulations we evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  • 20.
    Axell, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spectrum Sensing Algorithms Based on Second-Order Statistics2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio is a new concept of reusing spectrum in an opportunistic manner. Cognitive radio is motivated by recent measurements of spectrum utilization, showing unused resources in frequency, time and space. Introducing cognitive radios in a primary network inevitably creates increased interference to the primary users. Secondary users must sense the spectrum and detect primary users' signals at very low SNR, to avoid causing too much interference.This dissertation studies this detection problem, known as spectrum sensing.

    The fundamental problem of spectrum sensing is to discriminate an observation that contains only noise from an observation that contains a very weak signal embedded in noise. In this work, detectors are derived that exploit known properties of the second-order moments of the signal. In particular, known structures of the signal covariance are exploited to circumvent the problem of unknown parameters, such as noise and signal powers or channel coefficients.

    The dissertation is comprised of six papers, all in different ways related to spectrum sensing based on second-order statistics. In the first paper, we considerspectrum sensing of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexed (OFDM) signals in an additive white Gaussian noise channel. For the case of completely known noise and signal powers, we set up a vector-matrix model for an OFDM signal with a cyclic prefix and derive the optimal Neyman-Pearson detector from first principles. For the case of completely unknown noise and signal powers, we derive a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based on empirical second-order statistics of the received data. The proposed GLRT detector exploits the non-stationary correlation structure of the OFDM signal and does not require any knowledge of the noise or signal powers.

    In the second paper, we create a unified framework for spectrum sensing of signals which have covariance matrices with known eigenvalue multiplicities. We derive the GLRT for this problem, with arbitrary eigenvalue multiplicities under both hypotheses. We also show a number of applications to spectrum sensing for cognitive radio.

    The general result of the second paper is used as a building block, in the third and fourth papers, for spectrum sensing of second-order cyclostationary signals received at multiple antennas and orthogonal space-time block coded (OSTBC) signals respectively. The proposed detector of the third paper exploits both the spatial and the temporal correlation of the received signal, from knowledge of the fundamental period of the cyclostationary signal and the eigenvalue multiplicities of the temporal covariance matrix.

    In the fourth paper, we consider spectrum sensing of signals encoded with an OSTBC. We show how knowledge of the eigenvalue multiplicities of the covariance matrix are inherent owing to the OSTBC, and propose an algorithm that exploits that knowledge for detection. We also derive theoretical bounds on the performance of the proposed detector. In addition, we show that the proposed detector is robust to a carrier frequency offset, and propose another detector that deals with timing synchronization using the detector for the synchronized case as a building block.

    A slightly different approach to covariance matrix estmation is taken in the fifth paper. We consider spectrum sensing of Gaussian signals with structured covariance matrices, and propose to estimate the unknown parameters of the covariance matrices using covariance matching estimation techniques (COMET). We also derive the optimal detector based on a Gaussian approximation of the sample covariance matrix, and show that this is closely connected to COMET.

    The last paper deals with the problem of discriminating samples that containonly noise from samples that contain a signal embedded in noise, when the variance of the noise is unknown. We derive the optimal soft decision detector using a Bayesian approach. The complexity of this optimal detector grows exponentially with the number of observations and as a remedy, we propose a number of approximations to it. The problem under study is a fundamental one andit has applications in signal denoising, anomaly detection, and spectrum sensing for cognitive radio.

    Delarbeten
    1. Optimal and Sub-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in Known and Unknown Noise Variance
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Optimal and Sub-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in Known and Unknown Noise Variance
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 290-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider spectrum sensing of OFDM signals in an AWGN channel. For  the case of completely known noise and signal powers, we set up  a vector-matrix model for an OFDM signal with a cyclic prefix and  derive the optimal Neyman-Pearson detector from first  principles. The optimal detector exploits the inherent correlation  of the OFDM signal incurred by the repetition of data in the cyclic  prefix, using knowledge of the length of the cyclic prefix and the  length of the OFDM symbol. We compare the optimal detector to the energy  detector numerically. We show that the energy detector is  near-optimal (within 1 dB SNR) when the noise variance is  known. Thus, when the noise power is known, no substantial gain can  be achieved by using any other detector than the energy detector.

    For the case of completely unknown noise and signal powers, we  derive a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based onempirical second-order statistics of  the received data. The proposed GLRT detector exploits the  non-stationary correlation structure of the OFDM signal and does not  require any knowledge of the noise power or the signal power. The  GLRT detector is compared to state-of-the-art OFDM signal detectors,  and shown to improve the detection performance with 5 dB SNR in  relevant cases.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2011
    Nyckelord
    spectrum sensing, signal detection, OFDM, cyclic prefix, subspace detection, second-order statistics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58515 (URN)10.1109/JSAC.2011.110203 (DOI)000286676500003 ()
    Anmärkning

    ©2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Erik Axell and Erik G. Larsson, Optimal and Sub-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in Known and Unknown Noise Variance, 2011, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, (29), 2, 290-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2011.110203

    The previous status of this article was Manuskript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2010-08-12 Skapad: 2010-08-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. A Unified Framework for GLRT-Based Spectrum Sensing of Signals with Covariance Matrices with Known Eigenvalue Multiplicities
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Unified Framework for GLRT-Based Spectrum Sensing of Signals with Covariance Matrices with Known Eigenvalue Multiplicities
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and SignalProcessing (ICASSP), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 2956-2959Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we create a unified framework for spectrum sensing of signals which have covariance matrices with known eigenvalue multiplicities. We derive the generalized likelihood-ratio test (GLRT) for this problem, with arbitrary eigenvalue multiplicities under both hypotheses. We also show a number of applications to spectrum sensing for cognitive radio and show that the GLRT for these applications, of which some are already known, are special cases of the general result.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE conference proceedings, 2011
    Serie
    IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and SignalProcessing, ISSN 1520-6149
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-64320 (URN)10.1109/ICASSP.2011.5946277 (DOI)000296062403092 ()
    Anmärkning
    ©2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Erik Axell and Erik G. Larsson, A Unified Framework for GLRT-Based Spectrum Sensing of Signals with Covariance Matrices with Known Eigenvalue Multiplicities, 2011, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and SignalProcessing (ICASSP), 2956-2959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2011.5946277 Tillgänglig från: 2011-01-19 Skapad: 2011-01-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-31
    3. Multiantenna Spectrum Sensing of a Second-Order Cyclostationary Signal
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Multiantenna Spectrum Sensing of a Second-Order Cyclostationary Signal
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing (CAMSAP'11), 2011, s. 329-332Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider spectrum sensing of a second-order cyclostationary signal receivedat multiple antennas. The proposed detector exploits both the spatial andthe temporal correlation of the received signal, from knowledge of thefundamental period of the cyclostationary signal and the eigenvaluemultiplicities of the temporal covariance matrix. All other parameters, suchas the channel gains or the noise power, are assumed to be unknown. The proposeddetector is shown numerically to outperform state-of-the-art detectors forspectrum sensing of anOFDM signal, both when using a single antenna and with multiple antennas.

    Nyckelord
    spectrum sensing, multiple antennas, cyclostationarity, GLRT
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kommunikationssystem Signalbehandling
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70858 (URN)10.1109/CAMSAP.2011.6136017 (DOI)978-1-4577-2103-8 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    4th IEEE International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing (CAMSAP), December 13-16 2011, San Juan, Puerto Rico (USA)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    eLLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsVetenskapsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-09-20 Skapad: 2011-09-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-31Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals with Multiple Receive Antennas
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals with Multiple Receive Antennas
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010, s. 3110-3113Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider detection of signals encoded with orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBC), using multiple receive antennas. Such signals contain redundancy and they have a specific structure, that can be exploited for detection. We derive the optimal detector, in the Neyman-Pearson sense, when all parameters are known. We also consider unknown noise variance, signal variance and channel coefficients. We propose a number of GLRT based detectors for the different cases, that exploit the redundancy structure of the OSTBC signal. We also propose an eigenvalue-based detector for the case when all parameters are unknown. The proposed detectors are compared to the energy detector. We show that when only the noise variance is known, there is no gain in exploiting the structure of the OSTBC. However, when the noise variance is unknown there can be a significant gain.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010
    Serie
    Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), ISSN 1520-6149, E-ISSN 2379-190X
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51745 (URN)10.1109/ICASSP.2010.5496088 (DOI)000287096003014 ()9781424442959 (ISBN)9781424442966 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2010, 14-19 March, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.
    Anmärkning

    ©2010 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.: Erik Axell and Erik G. Larsson, Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals with Multiple Receive Antennas, 2010, Proceedings of the 35th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP'10).

    The previous status of this articel was Manuscript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-11-17 Skapad: 2009-11-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-02-02Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Spectrum Sensing of Signals with Structured Covariance Matrices Using Covariance Matching Estimation Techniques
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Spectrum Sensing of Signals with Structured Covariance Matrices Using Covariance Matching Estimation Techniques
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2011, s. 1-5Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we consider spectrum sensing of Gaussian signals with structured covariance matrices. We show that the optimal detector based on the probability distribution of the sample covariance matrix is equivalent to the optimal detector based on the raw data, if the covariance matrices are known. However, the covariance matrices are unknown in general. Therefore, we propose to estimate the unknown parameters using covariance matching estimation techniques (COMET). We also derive the optimal detector based on a Gaussian approximation of the sample covariance matrix, and show that this is closely connected to COMET.

    Nyckelord
    spectrum sensing, sample covariance, COMET
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69639 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2011.6133506 (DOI)978-1-4244-9267-1 (ISBN)978-1-4244-9266-4 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 3-7 December, Anaheim, California, USA
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-07-08 Skapad: 2011-07-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-31
    6. A Bayesian Approach to Spectrum Sensing, Denoising and Anomaly Detection
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Bayesian Approach to Spectrum Sensing, Denoising and Anomaly Detection
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 34th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP'09), 2009, s. 2333-2336Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the problem of discriminating samples that contain only noise from samples that contain a signal embedded in noise. The focus is on the case when the variance of the noise is unknown. We derive the optimal soft decision detector using a Bayesian approach. The complexity of this optimal detector grows exponentially with the number of observations and as a remedy, we propose a number of approximations to it. The problem under study is a fundamental one and it has applications in signal denoising, anomaly detection, and spectrum sensing for cognitive radio. We illustrate the results in the context of the latter.

    Serie
    Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ISSN 1520-6149 ; 2009
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25592 (URN)10.1109/ICASSP.2009.4960088 (DOI)978-1-4244-2354-5 (ISBN)978-1-4244-2353-8 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    34th IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing,19-24 April, Taipei, Taiwan
    Anmärkning
    ©2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Erik Axell and Erik G. Larsson, A Bayesian Approach to Spectrum Sensing, Denoising and Anomaly Detection, 2009, Proceedings of the 34th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP'09), 2333-2336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2009.4960088Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-08 Skapad: 2009-10-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-31Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 21.
    Axell, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Topics in Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio2009Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio is a new concept of reusing licensed spectrum in an unlicensed manner. Cognitive radio is motivated by recent measurements of spectrum utilization, showing unused resources in frequency, time and space. The spectrum must be sensed to detect primary user signals, in order to allow cognitive radios in a primary system. In this thesis we study some topics in spectrum sensing for cognitive radio.

    The fundamental problem of spectrum sensing is to discriminate samples that contain only noise from samples that contain a very weak signal embedded in noise. We derive detectors that exploit known structures of the signal, for the cases of an OFDM modulated signal and an orthogonal space-time block coded signal. We derive optimal detectors, in the Neyman-Pearson sense, for a few different cases when all parameters are known. Moreover we study detection when the parameters, such as noise variance, are unknown. We propose solutions the problem of unknown parameters.

    We also study system aspects of cognitive radio. More specifically, we investigate spectrum reuse of geographical spectrum holes in a frequency planned primary network. System performance is measured in terms of the achievable rate for the cognitive radio system. Simulation results show that a substantial sum-rate could be achieved if the cognitive radios communicate over small distances. However, the spectrum hole gets saturated quite fast, due to interference caused by the cognitive radios.

    Delarbeten
    1. A Bayesian Approach to Spectrum Sensing, Denoising and Anomaly Detection
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Bayesian Approach to Spectrum Sensing, Denoising and Anomaly Detection
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 34th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP'09), 2009, s. 2333-2336Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the problem of discriminating samples that contain only noise from samples that contain a signal embedded in noise. The focus is on the case when the variance of the noise is unknown. We derive the optimal soft decision detector using a Bayesian approach. The complexity of this optimal detector grows exponentially with the number of observations and as a remedy, we propose a number of approximations to it. The problem under study is a fundamental one and it has applications in signal denoising, anomaly detection, and spectrum sensing for cognitive radio. We illustrate the results in the context of the latter.

    Serie
    Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ISSN 1520-6149 ; 2009
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25592 (URN)10.1109/ICASSP.2009.4960088 (DOI)978-1-4244-2354-5 (ISBN)978-1-4244-2353-8 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    34th IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing,19-24 April, Taipei, Taiwan
    Anmärkning
    ©2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Erik Axell and Erik G. Larsson, A Bayesian Approach to Spectrum Sensing, Denoising and Anomaly Detection, 2009, Proceedings of the 34th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP'09), 2333-2336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2009.4960088Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-08 Skapad: 2009-10-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-31Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. On the Optimal K-term Approximation of a Sparse Parameter Vector MMSE Estimate
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>On the Optimal K-term Approximation of a Sparse Parameter Vector MMSE Estimate
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing (SSP'09), IEEE , 2009, s. 245-248Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers approximations of marginalization sums thatarise in Bayesian inference problems. Optimal approximations ofsuch marginalization sums, using a fixed number of terms, are analyzedfor a simple model. The model under study is motivated byrecent studies of linear regression problems with sparse parametervectors, and of the problem of discriminating signal-plus-noise samplesfrom noise-only samples. It is shown that for the model understudy, if only one term is retained in the marginalization sum, thenthis term should be the one with the largest a posteriori probability.By contrast, if more than one (but not all) terms are to be retained,then these should generally not be the ones corresponding tothe components with largest a posteriori probabilities.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE, 2009
    Nyckelord
    MMSE estimation, Bayesian inference, marginalization
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25591 (URN)10.1109/SSP.2009.5278594 (DOI)000274988800062 ()978-1-4244-2709-3 (ISBN)
    Anmärkning
    ©2009 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Erik Axell, Erik G. Larsson and Jan-Åke Larsson, On the Optimal K-term Approximation of a Sparse Parameter Vector MMSE Estimate, 2009, Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing (SSP'09), 245-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SSP.2009.5278594 Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-08 Skapad: 2009-10-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-31Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Optimal and Sub-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in Known and Unknown Noise Variance
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Optimal and Sub-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in Known and Unknown Noise Variance
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 290-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider spectrum sensing of OFDM signals in an AWGN channel. For  the case of completely known noise and signal powers, we set up  a vector-matrix model for an OFDM signal with a cyclic prefix and  derive the optimal Neyman-Pearson detector from first  principles. The optimal detector exploits the inherent correlation  of the OFDM signal incurred by the repetition of data in the cyclic  prefix, using knowledge of the length of the cyclic prefix and the  length of the OFDM symbol. We compare the optimal detector to the energy  detector numerically. We show that the energy detector is  near-optimal (within 1 dB SNR) when the noise variance is  known. Thus, when the noise power is known, no substantial gain can  be achieved by using any other detector than the energy detector.

    For the case of completely unknown noise and signal powers, we  derive a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based onempirical second-order statistics of  the received data. The proposed GLRT detector exploits the  non-stationary correlation structure of the OFDM signal and does not  require any knowledge of the noise power or the signal power. The  GLRT detector is compared to state-of-the-art OFDM signal detectors,  and shown to improve the detection performance with 5 dB SNR in  relevant cases.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2011
    Nyckelord
    spectrum sensing, signal detection, OFDM, cyclic prefix, subspace detection, second-order statistics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58515 (URN)10.1109/JSAC.2011.110203 (DOI)000286676500003 ()
    Anmärkning

    ©2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Erik Axell and Erik G. Larsson, Optimal and Sub-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in Known and Unknown Noise Variance, 2011, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, (29), 2, 290-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2011.110203

    The previous status of this article was Manuskript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2010-08-12 Skapad: 2010-08-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals with Multiple Receive Antennas
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals with Multiple Receive Antennas
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010, s. 3110-3113Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider detection of signals encoded with orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBC), using multiple receive antennas. Such signals contain redundancy and they have a specific structure, that can be exploited for detection. We derive the optimal detector, in the Neyman-Pearson sense, when all parameters are known. We also consider unknown noise variance, signal variance and channel coefficients. We propose a number of GLRT based detectors for the different cases, that exploit the redundancy structure of the OSTBC signal. We also propose an eigenvalue-based detector for the case when all parameters are unknown. The proposed detectors are compared to the energy detector. We show that when only the noise variance is known, there is no gain in exploiting the structure of the OSTBC. However, when the noise variance is unknown there can be a significant gain.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010
    Serie
    Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), ISSN 1520-6149, E-ISSN 2379-190X
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51745 (URN)10.1109/ICASSP.2010.5496088 (DOI)000287096003014 ()9781424442959 (ISBN)9781424442966 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    IEEE International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2010, 14-19 March, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.
    Anmärkning

    ©2010 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.: Erik Axell and Erik G. Larsson, Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals with Multiple Receive Antennas, 2010, Proceedings of the 35th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP'10).

    The previous status of this articel was Manuscript.

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-11-17 Skapad: 2009-11-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-02-02Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Capacity Considerations for Uncoordinated Communication in Geographical Spectrum Holes
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Capacity Considerations for Uncoordinated Communication in Geographical Spectrum Holes
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Physical Communication, ISSN 1874-4907, Vol. 2, nr 1-2, s. 3-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio is a new concept of reusing a licensed spectrum in an unlicensed manner. The motivation for cognitive radio is various measurements of spectrum utilization, that generally show unused resources in frequency, time and space. These "spectrum holes" could be exploited by cognitive radios. Some studies suggest that the spectrum is extremely underutilized, and that these spectrum holes could provide ten times the capacity of all existing wireless devices together. The spectrum could be reused either during time periods where the primary system is not active, or in geographical positions where the primary system is not operating. In this paper, we deal primarily with the concept of geographical reuse, in a frequency-planned primary network. We perform an analysis of the potential for communication in a geographical spectrum hole, and in particular the achievable sum-rate for a secondary network, to some order of magnitude. Simulation results show that a substantial sum-rate could be achieved if the secondary users communicate over small distances. For a small number of secondary links, the sum-rate increases linearly with the number of links. However, the spectrum hole gets saturated quite fast, due to interference caused by the secondary users. A spectrum hole may look large, but it disappears as soon as someone starts using it.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2009
    Nyckelord
    achievable rate, capacity, cognitive radio, spectrum hole
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21547 (URN)10.1016/j.phycom.2009.03.002 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    Original Publication: Erik Axell, Erik G. Larsson and Danyo Danev, Capacity Considerations for Uncoordinated Communication in Geographical Spectrum Holes, 2009, Physical Communication, (2), 1-2, 3-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phycom.2009.03.002 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam http://www.elsevier.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-03 Skapad: 2009-10-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-08-31Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 22.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Bayesian Approach to Spectrum Sensing, Denoising and Anomaly Detection2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 34th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP'09), 2009, s. 2333-2336Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the problem of discriminating samples that contain only noise from samples that contain a signal embedded in noise. The focus is on the case when the variance of the noise is unknown. We derive the optimal soft decision detector using a Bayesian approach. The complexity of this optimal detector grows exponentially with the number of observations and as a remedy, we propose a number of approximations to it. The problem under study is a fundamental one and it has applications in signal denoising, anomaly detection, and spectrum sensing for cognitive radio. We illustrate the results in the context of the latter.

  • 23.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Unified Framework for GLRT-Based Spectrum Sensing of Signals with Covariance Matrices with Known Eigenvalue Multiplicities2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and SignalProcessing (ICASSP), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 2956-2959Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we create a unified framework for spectrum sensing of signals which have covariance matrices with known eigenvalue multiplicities. We derive the generalized likelihood-ratio test (GLRT) for this problem, with arbitrary eigenvalue multiplicities under both hypotheses. We also show a number of applications to spectrum sensing for cognitive radio and show that the GLRT for these applications, of which some are already known, are special cases of the general result.

  • 24.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Comments on "Multiple Antenna Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios"2011Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 1678-1680Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We point out an error in a derivation in the recent paper [1], and provide a correct and much shorter calculation of the result in question. In passing, we also connect the results in [1] to the literature on array signal processing and on principal component analysis, and show that the main findings of [1] follow as special cases of standard results in these fields.

  • 25.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eigenvalue-Based Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals2012Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 60, nr 12, s. 6724-6728Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider spectrum sensing of signals encoded with an orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC). We propose a CFAR detector based on knowledge of the eigenvalue multiplicities of the covariance matrix which are inherent owing to the OSTBC and derive theoretical performance bounds. In addition, we show that the proposed detector is robust to a carrier frequency offset, and propose a detector that deals with timing synchronization using the detector for the synchronized case as a building block. The proposed detectors are shown numerically to perform well.

  • 26.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Multiantenna Spectrum Sensing of a Second-Order Cyclostationary Signal2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Workshop on Computational Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing (CAMSAP'11), 2011, s. 329-332Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider spectrum sensing of a second-order cyclostationary signal receivedat multiple antennas. The proposed detector exploits both the spatial andthe temporal correlation of the received signal, from knowledge of thefundamental period of the cyclostationary signal and the eigenvaluemultiplicities of the temporal covariance matrix. All other parameters, suchas the channel gains or the noise power, are assumed to be unknown. The proposeddetector is shown numerically to outperform state-of-the-art detectors forspectrum sensing of anOFDM signal, both when using a single antenna and with multiple antennas.

  • 27.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimal and Near-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in AWGN Channels2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cognitive Information Processing (CIP), 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider spectrum sensing of OFDM signals in an AWGN channel. For the case of completely unknown noise and signal powers, we  derive a GLRT detector based on empirical second-order statistics of  the received data. The proposed GLRT detector exploits the  non-stationary correlation structure of the OFDM signal and does not  require any knowledge of the noise power or the signal power. The  GLRT detector is compared to state-of-the-art OFDM signal detectors,  and shown to improve the detection performance with 5 dB SNR in  relevant cases.

    For the case of completely known noise power and signal power, we present a brief  derivation of the optimal Neyman-Pearson detector from first  principles. We compare the optimal detector to the energy  detector numerically, and show that the energy detector is  near-optimal (within 0.2 dB SNR) when the noise variance is  known. Thus, when the noise power is known, no substantial gain can  be achieved by using any other detector than the energy detector.

  • 28.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimal and Sub-Optimal Spectrum Sensing of OFDM Signals in Known and Unknown Noise Variance2011Ingår i: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 290-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider spectrum sensing of OFDM signals in an AWGN channel. For  the case of completely known noise and signal powers, we set up  a vector-matrix model for an OFDM signal with a cyclic prefix and  derive the optimal Neyman-Pearson detector from first  principles. The optimal detector exploits the inherent correlation  of the OFDM signal incurred by the repetition of data in the cyclic  prefix, using knowledge of the length of the cyclic prefix and the  length of the OFDM symbol. We compare the optimal detector to the energy  detector numerically. We show that the energy detector is  near-optimal (within 1 dB SNR) when the noise variance is  known. Thus, when the noise power is known, no substantial gain can  be achieved by using any other detector than the energy detector.

    For the case of completely unknown noise and signal powers, we  derive a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based onempirical second-order statistics of  the received data. The proposed GLRT detector exploits the  non-stationary correlation structure of the OFDM signal and does not  require any knowledge of the noise power or the signal power. The  GLRT detector is compared to state-of-the-art OFDM signal detectors,  and shown to improve the detection performance with 5 dB SNR in  relevant cases.

  • 29.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spectrum Sensing of Orthogonal Space-Time Block Coded Signals with Multiple Receive Antennas2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010, s. 3110-3113Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider detection of signals encoded with orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBC), using multiple receive antennas. Such signals contain redundancy and they have a specific structure, that can be exploited for detection. We derive the optimal detector, in the Neyman-Pearson sense, when all parameters are known. We also consider unknown noise variance, signal variance and channel coefficients. We propose a number of GLRT based detectors for the different cases, that exploit the redundancy structure of the OSTBC signal. We also propose an eigenvalue-based detector for the case when all parameters are unknown. The proposed detectors are compared to the energy detector. We show that when only the noise variance is known, there is no gain in exploiting the structure of the OSTBC. However, when the noise variance is unknown there can be a significant gain.

  • 30.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spectrum Sensing of Signals with Structured Covariance Matrices Using Covariance Matching Estimation Techniques2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2011, s. 1-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we consider spectrum sensing of Gaussian signals with structured covariance matrices. We show that the optimal detector based on the probability distribution of the sample covariance matrix is equivalent to the optimal detector based on the raw data, if the covariance matrices are known. However, the covariance matrices are unknown in general. Therefore, we propose to estimate the unknown parameters using covariance matching estimation techniques (COMET). We also derive the optimal detector based on a Gaussian approximation of the sample covariance matrix, and show that this is closely connected to COMET.

  • 31.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Danev, Danyo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Capacity Considerations for Uncoordinated Communication in Geographical Spectrum Holes2009Ingår i: Physical Communication, ISSN 1874-4907, Vol. 2, nr 1-2, s. 3-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive radio is a new concept of reusing a licensed spectrum in an unlicensed manner. The motivation for cognitive radio is various measurements of spectrum utilization, that generally show unused resources in frequency, time and space. These "spectrum holes" could be exploited by cognitive radios. Some studies suggest that the spectrum is extremely underutilized, and that these spectrum holes could provide ten times the capacity of all existing wireless devices together. The spectrum could be reused either during time periods where the primary system is not active, or in geographical positions where the primary system is not operating. In this paper, we deal primarily with the concept of geographical reuse, in a frequency-planned primary network. We perform an analysis of the potential for communication in a geographical spectrum hole, and in particular the achievable sum-rate for a secondary network, to some order of magnitude. Simulation results show that a substantial sum-rate could be achieved if the secondary users communicate over small distances. For a small number of secondary links, the sum-rate increases linearly with the number of links. However, the spectrum hole gets saturated quite fast, due to interference caused by the secondary users. A spectrum hole may look large, but it disappears as soon as someone starts using it.

  • 32.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Informationskodning. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On the Optimal K-term Approximation of a Sparse Parameter Vector MMSE Estimate2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing (SSP'09), IEEE , 2009, s. 245-248Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers approximations of marginalization sums thatarise in Bayesian inference problems. Optimal approximations ofsuch marginalization sums, using a fixed number of terms, are analyzedfor a simple model. The model under study is motivated byrecent studies of linear regression problems with sparse parametervectors, and of the problem of discriminating signal-plus-noise samplesfrom noise-only samples. It is shown that for the model understudy, if only one term is retained in the marginalization sum, thenthis term should be the one with the largest a posteriori probability.By contrast, if more than one (but not all) terms are to be retained,then these should generally not be the ones corresponding tothe components with largest a posteriori probabilities.

  • 33.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Dept. of Robust Telecommunications, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden .
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    GNSS spoofing detection using multiple mobile COTS receivers2015Ingår i: ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, s. 3192-3196Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we deal with spoofing detection in GNSS receivers. We derive the optimal genie detector when the true positions are perfectly known, and the observation errors are Gaussian, as a benchmark for other detectors. The system model considers three dimensional positions, and includes correlated errors. In addition, we propose several detectors that do not need any position knowledge, that outperform recently proposed detectors in many interesting cases.

  • 34.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Leus, Geert
    Delft University of Technology.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Overview of Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cognitive Information Processing (CIP), 2010, s. 322-327Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of state-of-the-art algorithms for spectrum  sensing in cognitive radio. The algorithms discussed range from  energy detection to sophisticated feature detectors. The feature  detectors that we present all have in common that they exploit some  known structure of the transmitted signal.  In particular we treat  detectors that exploit cyclostationarity properties of the signal,  and detectors that exploit a known eigenvalue structure of the  signal covariance matrix.  We also consider cooperative  detection. Specifically we present data fusion rules for soft and  hard combining, and discuss the energy efficiency of several  different sensing, sleeping and censoring schemes in detail.

  • 35.
    Axell, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Leus, Geert
    Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Poor, H. Vincent
    Princeton University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Spectrum sensing for cognitive radio: State-of-the-art and recent advances2012Ingår i: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 101-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ever-increasing demand for higher data rates in wireless communications in the face of limited or underutilized spectral resources has motivated the introduction of cognitive radio. Traditionally, licensed spectrum is allocated over relatively long time periods and is intended to be used only by licensees. Various measurements of spectrum utilization have shown substantial unused resources in frequency, time, and space [1], [2]. The concept behind cognitive radio is to exploit these underutilized spectral resources by reusing unused spectrum in an opportunistic manner [3], [4]. The phrase cognitive radio is usually attributed to Mitola [4], but the idea of using learning and sensing machines to probe the radio spectrum was envisioned several decades earlier (cf., [5]).

  • 36.
    Ayanoglu, Ender
    et al.
    University of California, Irvine.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Computational Complexity of Decoding Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2010, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The computational complexity of optimum decoding for an orthogonal space-time block code is quantified. Four equivalent techniques of optimum decoding which have the same computational complexity are specified. Modifications to the basic formulation in special cases are calculated and illustrated by means of examples.

  • 37. Ayanoglu, Ender
    et al.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karipidis, Eleftherios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Computational Complexity of Decoding Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes2011Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 936-941Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The computational complexity of optimum decoding for an orthogonal space-time block code {cal G}_N satisfying {cal G}_N^H{cal G}_N=c(∑_{k=1}^Kos_ko^2)I_N where c is a positive integer is quantified. Four equivalent techniques of optimum decoding which have the same computational complexity are specified. Modifications to the basic formulation in special cases are calculated and illustrated by means of examples. This paper corrects and extends and unifies them with the results from the literature. In addition, a number of results from the literature are extended to the case c>1.

  • 38.
    Azhar, Rizwan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Upgrading and Performance Analysis of Thin Clients in Server Based Scientific Computing2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Server Based Computing (SBC) technology allows applications to be deployed, managed, supported and executed on the server and not on the client; only the screen information is transmitted between the server and client. This architecture solves many fundamental problems with application deployment, technical support, data storage, hardware and software upgrades.

    This thesis is targeted at upgrading and evaluating performance of thin clients in scientific Server Based Computing (SBC). Performance of Linux based SBC was assessed via methods of both quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative method used benchmarks that measured typical-load performance with SAR and graphics performance with X11perf, Xbench and SPECviewperf. Structured interview, a qualitative research method, was adopted in which the number of open-ended questions in specific order was presented to users in order to estimate user-perceived performance.

    The first performance bottleneck identified was the CPU speed. The second performance bottleneck, with respect to graphics intensive applications, includes the network latency of the X11 protocol and the subsequent performance of old thin clients. An upgrade of both the computational server and thin clients was suggested.

    The evaluation after the upgrade involved performance analysis via quantitative and qualitative methods. The results showed that the new configuration had improved the performance.

  • 39.
    Azizzadeh, Azad
    et al.
    Razi Univ, Iran.
    Mohammadkhani, Reza
    Univ Kurdistan, Iran.
    Makki, Seyed Vahab Al-Din
    Razi Univ, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    BER performance analysis of coarsely quantized uplink massive MIMO2019Ingår i: Signal Processing, ISSN 0165-1684, E-ISSN 1872-7557, Vol. 161, s. 259-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Having lower quantization resolution, has been introduced in the literature, to reduce the power consumption of massive MIMO and millimeter wave MIMO systems. Here, we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance of quantized uplink massive MIMO employing few-bit resolution ADCs. Considering ZF detection, we derive a signal-to-interference, quantization and noise ratio (SIQNR) to achieve an analytical BER approximation for coarsely quantized M-QAM massive MIMO systems, by using a linear quantization model. The proposed expression is a function of the quantization resolution in bits. We further numerically investigate the effects of different quantization levels, from 1-bit to 4-bits, on the BER of three modulation types QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM. The uniform and non-uniform quantizers are employed in our simulation. Monte Carlo simulation results reveal that our approximate formula gives a tight upper bound on the BER performance of b-bit resolution quantized systems using non-uniform quantizers, whereas the use of uniform quantizers cause a lower performance. We also found a small BER performance degradation in coarsely quantized systems, for example 2-3 bits QPSK and 3-4 bits 16-QAM, compared to the full-precision (unquantized) case. However, this performance degradation can be compensated by increasing the number of antennas at the BS. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 40.
    Bashar, Manijeh
    et al.
    Univ York, England.
    Quoc Ngo, Hien
    Queens Univ Belfast, North Ireland.
    Burr, Alister G.
    Univ York, England.
    Maryopi, Dick
    Univ York, England.
    Cumanan, Kanapathippillai
    Univ York, England.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On the Performance of Backhaul Constrained Cell-Free Massive MIMO with Linear Receivers2018Ingår i: 2018 CONFERENCE RECORD OF 52ND ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS, AND COMPUTERS, IEEE , 2018, s. 624-628Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited-backhaul cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), in which the fog radio access network (F-RAN) is implemented to exchange the information between access points (APs) and the central processing unit (CPU), is investigated. We introduce a novel approach where the APs estimate the channel and send back the quantized version of the estimated channel and the quantized version of the received signal to the central processing unit. The Max algorithm and the Bussgang theorem are exploited to model the optimum uniform quantization. The ergodic achievable rates are derived. We show that exploiting microwave wireless backhaul links and using a small number of hits to quantize the estimated channel and the received signal, the performance of limited-backhaul cell-free Massive MIMO closely approaches the performance of cell-free Massive MIMO with perfect backhaul links.

  • 41.
    Becirovic, Ema
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    On Social Choice in Social Networks2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kollektiva beslut blir en del av vardagen när grupper av människor står inför val. Vi anpassar ofta våra personliga övertygelser med hänsyn till våra vänner. Vi är naturligt beroende av lyckan hos dem som står oss nära.

    I det här exjobbet undersöker vi en befintlig empatimodell som används för att välja en vinnare från en uppsättning alternativ genom att använda poängbaserade omröstningsprocedurer. Vi visar att en liten modifikation av modellen är tillräcklig för att kunna använda överlägsna omröstningsprocedurer som bygger på parvisa jämförelser av alternativen.

    Sammanfattningsvis visar vi att det i grunden inte finns någon anledning att använda poängbaserade omröstningsprocedurer i de föreslagna modellerna, eftersom ett mer önskvärt resultat uppnås genom att använda de överlägsna omröstningsprocedurerna.

  • 42.
    Becirovic, Ema
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    How Much Will Tiny IoT Nodes Profit from Massive Base Station Arrays?2018Ingår i: 2018 26TH EUROPEAN SIGNAL PROCESSING CONFERENCE (EUSIPCO), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2018, s. 832-836Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the benefits that Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices will have from connecting to a massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base station. In particular, we study how many users that could be simultaneously spatially multiplexed and how much the range can be increased by deploying massive base station arrays. We also investigate how the devices can scale down their uplink power as the number of antennas grows with retained rates. We consider the uplink and utilize upper and lower bounds on known achievable rate expressions to study the effects of the massive arrays. We conduct a case study where we use simulations in the settings of existing IoT systems to draw realistic conclusions. We find that the gains which ultra narrowband systems get from utilizing massive MIMO are limited by the bandwidth and therefore those systems will not be able to spatially multiplex any significant number of users. We also conclude that the power scaling is highly dependent on the nominal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the single-antenna case.

  • 43.
    Berglund, Joel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Extended LTE Coverage For Indoor Machine Type Communication2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest of Machine Type Communication (MTC) is increasing and is expected to play an important role in the future network society. In the process of increasing the number of connected devices, the coverage plays an important role. This thesis work aims to study the possibility of supporting coverage limited MTC-devices within LTE by extending the LTE coverage.

    It shows that coverage increase by means of repetition is a good candidate, which allows for a significant increase without hardware upgrades at a low cost in terms of radio resources. For inter-site distances up to 2500 m, the proposed repetition scheme with an increase of 20 dB allows for almost complete coverage where today’s LTE have significant lack of coverage. It also shows that even though the increased coverage implies higher resource usage, the limitation is not in the number of users supported, but rather the coverage at longer inter-site distances.

  • 44.
    berglund, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    Bluetooth LE Mesh Network in an Industrial Environment2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With wireless signals, it is possible to send all kind of data through a communication system. Many companies today having problems implementing wireless communication system because of big areas and many obstacles that blocks the wireless signals. Recent releases of mesh network standards that has the main objective to provide a network over a large area. Toyota Material Handling Europe (TMHE) that develops and produce trucks is one company that wants to use this new network topology to get to the next level of communication.

    TMHE is developing a new communication system between their trucks and the goal is to be independent of Wi-Fi and fixed structures in an industry. The aim is to establish communication through Bluetooth and create a mesh network between the trucks at a site. This kind of communication can create many new possibilities for new features, which can make the daily work easier.

    The problem with obstacles and interferences is still a problem and TMHE created a thesis to research Bluetooth mesh networks to see if this kind of implementation is suitable for the environments that exists in an industry. This thesis research the architecture of a Bluetooth mesh network and different setups of a network and tests how it stands in an industry with many different surrounding.

  • 45.
    Bergqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Overview of recent advances in numerical tensor algebra2010Ingår i: Proceedings of Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, 2010, s. 3-7Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey of some recent developments for decompositions of multi-way arrays or tensors, with special emphasis on results relevant for applications and modeling in signal processing. A central problem is how to find lowrank approximations of tensors, and we describe some new results, including numerical methods, algorithms and theory, for the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) and the parallel factors expansion or canonical decomposition (CP expansion).

  • 46.
    Bergqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem.
    The Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition Theory and an Application2010Ingår i: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 151-154Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Tensor modeling and algorithms for computing various tensor decompositions (the Tucker/HOSVD and CP decompositions, as discussed here, most notably) constitute a very active research area in mathematics. Most of this research has been driven by applications. There is also much software available, including MATLAB toolboxes [4]. The objective of this lecture has been to provide an accessible introduction to state of the art in the field, written for a signal processing audience. We believe that there is good potential to find further applications of tensor modeling techniques in the signal processing field.

  • 47.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Modular Base Station Architecture for Massive MIMO with Antenna and User Scalability per Processing Node2018Ingår i: 2018 CONFERENCE RECORD OF 52ND ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS, AND COMPUTERS, IEEE , 2018, s. 1649-1653Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO is key technology for the upcoming fifth generation cellular networks (5G), promising high spectral efficiency, low power consumption, and the use of cheap hardware to reduce costs. Previous work has shown how to create a distributed processing architecture, where each node in a network performs the computations related to one or more antennas. The required total number of antennas, M, at the base station depends on the number of simultaneously operating terminals, K. In this work, a flexible node architecture is presented, where the number of terminals can he traded for additional antennas at the same node. This means that the same node can be used with a wide range of system configurations. The computational complexity, along with the order in which to compute incoming and outgoing symbols is explored.

  • 48.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Scalable Architecture for Massive MIMO Base Stations Using Distributed Processing2016Ingår i: 2016 50TH ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS, Washington: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2016, s. 864-868Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO-systems have received considerable attention in recent years as an enabler in future wireless communication systems. As the idea is based on having a large number of antennas at the base station it is important to have both a scalable and distributed realization of such a system to ease deployment. Most work so far have focused on the theoretical aspects although a few demonstrators have been reported. In this work, we propose a base station architecture based on connecting the processing nodes in a K-ary tree, allowing simple scalability. Furthermore, it is shown that most of the processing can be performed locally in each node. Further analysis of the node processing shows that it should be enough that each node contains one or two complex multipliers and a few complex adders/subtracters operating at some hundred MHz. It is also shown that a communication link of some Gbps is required between the nodes, and, hence, it is fully feasible to have one or a few links between the nodes to cope with the communication requirements.

  • 49.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gustafsson, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Computation Limited Matrix Inversion Using Neumann Series Expansion for Massive MIMO2017Ingår i: 2017 FIFTY-FIRST ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS, AND COMPUTERS, 2017, s. 466-469Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neumann series expansion is a method for performing matrix inversion that has received a lot of interest in the context of massive MIMO systems. However, the computational complexity of the Neumann methods is higher than for the lowest complexity exact matrix inversion algorithms, such as LDL, when the number of terms in the series is three or more. In this paper, the Neumann series expansion is analyzed from a computational perspective for cases when the complexity of performing exact matrix inversion is too high. By partially computing the third term of the Neumann series, the computational complexity can be reduced. Three different preconditioning matrices are considered. Simulation results show that when limiting the total number of operations performed, the BER performance of the tree different preconditioning matrices is the same.

  • 50.
    Biswas, Kamal
    et al.
    IITD, India.
    Mohammed, Saif Khan
    IITD, India.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Kommunikationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Efficient Techniques for Broadcast of System Information in mmWave Communication Systems2018Ingår i: 2018 IEEE 19TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SIGNAL PROCESSING ADVANCES IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS (SPAWC), IEEE , 2018, s. 366-370Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider Millimeter wave (mmWave) Massive MIMO systems where a large antenna array at the base station (BS) serves a few scheduled terminals. The high dimensional null space of the channel matrix to the scheduled terminals is utilized to broadcast system information to the non-scheduled terminals on the same time-frequency resource. Our analysis reveals the interesting result that with a sufficiently large antenna array this non-orthogonal broadcast strategy requires significantly less total transmit power when compared to the traditional orthogonal strategy where a fraction of the total resource is reserved for broadcast of system information.

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