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  • 1.
    Antepohl, Wolfram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Thorfinn, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Interleukin-8 is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid following high-voltage electrical injury with late-onset paraplegia suggesting neuronal damage at the microlevel as causative factor2010In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 36, no 3, p. e7-e9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The patient, a 31-year-old male, sustained an electric burn injury (16 kV, AC/DC) while working with electric power lines. He was acutely admitted to a national burn center in Southeast Sweden, where burns equalling 29% of the total body surface area were noted. The burns were located at the front of the abdomen, upper arms bilaterally, and the left hip region, and the lesions were estimated to be mainly of the dermal type, what was believed initially to be caused mainly by an electric flash. There were no obvious entry or exit sites of the electric current. However, myoglobin in plasma was elevated as a sign of muscular degradation, suggesting that at least some current had passed through the tissues. According to the paramedic report there was an episode of a few minutes of unconsciousness immediately after the injury, but the patient was fully awake and alert on admission. There was no concomitant trauma.

  • 2.
    Backstrom, D.
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Al-Ayoubi, Fawzi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Letter: Outcome of trauma patients2010In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 902-903Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 3.
    Bergek, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Accuracy of noninvasive haemoglobin measurement by pulse oximetry depends on the type of infusion fluid2013In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Measurement of blood haemoglobin concentration by pulse oximetry could be of value in determining when erythrocytes should be transfused during surgery, but the effect of infusion fluids on the results is unclear.

    Objective: To study the effect of crystalloid and colloid fluid on the accuracy (bias) and precision of pulse oximetry haemoglobin estimation to indicate the venous haemoglobin concentration in volunteers.

    Design: Open interventional crossover study.

    Setting: Single university hospital.

    Participants: Ten male volunteers aged 18–28 (mean 22) years.

    Interventions: Each volunteer underwent three infusion experiments on separate days and in random order. The infusions were Ringer's acetate (20 ml kg−1), hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (10 ml kg−1) and a combination of both.

    Results: At the end of the infusions of Ringer's acetate, pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration had decreased more than the true haemoglobin concentration (15 vs. 8%; P < 0.005; n  = 10) whereas starch solution decreased pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration less than true haemoglobin concentration (7 vs. 11%; P < 0.02; n  = 20). The same differences were seen when the fluids were infused separately and when they were combined. The overall difference between all 956 pairs of pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration and true haemoglobin concentrations (the bias) averaged only −0.7 g l−1 whereas the 95% prediction interval was wide, ranging from −24.9 to 23.7 g l−1. In addition to the choice of infusion fluid, the bias was strongly dependent on the volunteer (each factor, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The bias of measuring haemoglobin concentration by pulse oximetry is dependent on whether a crystalloid or a colloid fluid is infused.

  • 4.
    Bergek, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Accuracy of noninvasive haemoglobin measurement by pulse oximetry depends on the type of infusion fluid2012In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 586-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Measurement of blood haemoglobin concentration by pulse oximetry could be of value in determining when erythrocytes should be transfused during surgery, but the effect of infusion fluids on the results is unclear.

    Objective: To study the effect of crystalloid and colloid fluid on the accuracy (bias) and precision of pulse oximetry haemoglobin estimation to indicate the venous haemoglobin concentration in volunteers.

    Design: Open interventional crossover study.

    Setting: Single university hospital.

    Participants: Ten male volunteers aged 18–28 (mean 22) years.

    Interventions: Each volunteer underwent three infusion experiments on separate days and in random order. The infusions were Ringer's acetate (20 ml kg−1), hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (10 ml kg−1) and a combination of both.

    Results: At the end of the infusions of Ringer's acetate, pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration had decreased more than the true haemoglobin concentration (15 vs. 8%; P < 0.005; n  = 10) whereas starch solution decreased pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration less than true haemoglobin concentration (7 vs. 11%; P < 0.02; n  = 20). The same differences were seen when the fluids were infused separately and when they were combined. The overall difference between all 956 pairs of pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration and true haemoglobin concentrations (the bias) averaged only −0.7 g l−1 whereas the 95% prediction interval was wide, ranging from −24.9 to 23.7 g l−1. In addition to the choice of infusion fluid, the bias was strongly dependent on the volunteer (each factor, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The bias of measuring haemoglobin concentration by pulse oximetry is dependent on whether a crystalloid or a colloid fluid is infused.

  • 5.
    Berkius, J
    et al.
    Västervik, Sweden .
    Engerström, L
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN.
    Orwelius, Lotti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN COPD PATIENTS FOLLOWED 24 MONTHS AFTER ICU CARE in INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE, vol 36, issue , pp S228-S2282010In: INTENSIVE CARE MEDICINE, Springer Science Business Media , 2010, Vol. 36, p. S228-S228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 6.
    Brauer, Kirk I
    et al.
    University of Texas Medical Branch.
    Brauer, Lance P
    University of Texas Medical Branch.
    Prough, Donald S
    University of Texas Medical Branch.
    Rodhe, Peter
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Traber, Daniel L
    University of Texas Medical Branch.
    Traber, Lilian D
    University of Texas Medical Branch.
    Svensen, Christer H
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hypoproteinemia does not alter plasma volume expansion in response to a 0.9% saline bolus in awake sheep2010In: CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, ISSN 0090-3493, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 2011-2015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that hypoproteinemia reduces plasma volume expansion produced by a bolus of crystalloid solution given to awake sheep. Design: Prospective and observational. Setting: Laboratory. Subjects: Five female merino sheep (n = 5) weighing 37 +/- 3 kg were anesthetized. Interventions: Each animal was subjected to a 5-day test period: day 1: 50 mL/min 0.9% saline infusion over 20 mins. Days 2-4: daily plasmapheresis and replacement of the shed plasma with 6 L of 0.9% saline were performed in increments. Measurements and Main Results: Fractional plasma volume expansion after rapid infusion of saline on days 1 and 5 was calculated from changes in hemoglobin concentration. There was a significant reduction in total plasma protein concentration after plasmapheresis (p andlt; .05). Colloid osmotic pressures were also significantly lowered (p andlt; .05). A crystalloid infusion of 0.9% saline did not alter any of these values compared with baseline. The hemodynamic measurements did not show significant differences between the experiments. The plasma volume expansion reached approximately 20% at the end of infusion and stayed at 10-15% during the experiments. No difference was found in plasma volume expansion produced by a bolus of 50 mL/min of 0.9% in the hypoproteinemic state when compared with the euproteinemic state (p = .61). No difference in cumulative urinary output was found between the two states. Conclusions: In contrast to our hypothesis, severe acute hypoproteinemia does not reduce plasma volume expansion in response to 50 mL/min 0.9% saline infusion in nonspleenectomized sheep when compared with the resultant plasma volume expansion after a 50 mL/min of 0.9% infusion in the euproteinemic state.

  • 7.
    Bäckman, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Orwelius, Lotti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Walther, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Long-term effect of the ICU-diary concept on quality of life after critical illness2010In: ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0001-5172, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 736-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Critically ill patients often spend time in the intensive care unit (ICU) either unconscious or sedated. On recovery, they are often in a state of confusion with memory loss that may be associated with a longstanding reduction in health-related quality of life (QoL). We hypothesised that the ICU-diary concept could improve their QoL by filling in their memory gaps. Methods A non-randomised, prospective study in a non-academic eight-bedded general ICU. A group of patients (n=38) were selected to receive the ICU-diary concept (keeping a diary with photos while on the ICU plus a follow-up meeting) when a long and complicated course was expected. Health-related QoL at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months was compared with a group that did not receive the ICU-diary (n=224). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) was used to measure health-related QoL. Multiple regression models adjusted for age, sex, illness severity, pre-existing disease and diagnostic category was used to analyse the effects of the ICU-diary concept at 6 months, and changes over time were analysed using repeated measures MANOVA. Results Crude and adjusted scores for two dimensions of SF-36 (general health and vitality) and the physical component summary score were significantly higher at 6 months in the ICU-diary group (P andlt; 0.05) and some of the effects remained during the 3-year follow-up period (P andlt; 0.05). Conclusion The ICU-diary concept was associated with improved health-related QoL during the 3-year follow-up period after a critical illness. The effect of this intervention needs to be confirmed in a larger randomised study.

  • 8.
    Darvish, B.
    et al.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Alahuhta, S.
    University Oulu.
    Dahl, V.
    Asker and Baerum Hospital.
    Helbo-Hansen, S.
    Odense University Hospital.
    Thorsteinsson, A.
    Landspitali University Hospital.
    Irestedt, L.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Dahlgren, G.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Management of accidental dural puncture and post-dural puncture headache after labour: a Nordic survey2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 46-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A major risk with epidural analgesia is accidental dural puncture (ADP), which may result in post-dural puncture headache (PDPH). This survey was conducted to explore the incidence of ADP, the policy for management of PDPH and the educational practices in epidural analgesia during labour in the Nordic countries. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to the anaesthesiologist responsible for Obstetric anaesthesia service in all maternity units (n=153) with questions relating to the year 2008. Results The overall response rate was 93%. About 32% (22-47%) of parturients received epidural analgesia for labour. There were databases for registering obstetric epidural complications in 13% of Danish, 24% of Norwegian and Swedish, 43% of Finnish and 100% of hospitals in Iceland. The estimated incidence of ADP was 1% (n approximate to 900). Epidural blood patch (EBP) was performed in 86% (n approximate to 780) of the parturients. The most common time interval from diagnosis to performing EBP was 24-48 h. The success rate for EBP was greater than 75% in 67% (62-79%) of hospitals. The use of diagnostic CT/MRI before the first or the second EBP was exceptional. No major complication was reported. Teaching of epidurals was commonest (86%) in the non-obstetric population and 53% hospitals desired a formal training programme in obstetric analgesia. Conclusion We found the incidence of ADP to be approximately 1%. EBP was the commonest method used for its management, and the success rate was high in most hospitals. Formal training in epidural analgesia was absent in most countries and trainees first performed it in the non-obstetric population.

  • 9.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Tonsil Surgery in Youths: Good Results With A Less Invasive Method2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ericsson, Hans
    et al.
    AstraZeneca RandD, Sweden .
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Heijer, Maria
    AstraZeneca RandD, Sweden .
    Dorani, Hassan
    AstraZeneca RandD, Sweden .
    Johansson, Peter
    AstraZeneca RandD, Sweden .
    Wollbratt, Maria
    AstraZeneca RandD, Sweden .
    Norjavaara, Ensio
    AstraZeneca RandD, Sweden .
    The glucokinase activator AZD6370 decreases fasting and postprandial glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with effects influenced by dosing regimen and food2012In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 436-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and safety of the glucokinase activator AZD6370 after 1 day of administration under fed and fasted conditions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: This was a two-part study. In Part A, patients received a single oral dose of AZD6370 (20, 60 or 180 mg) or placebo in the fasted or fed states (both n = 8). In Part B, patients (n = 8) received placebo and a total dose of AZD6370 180 mg given in one, two or four divided doses. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide changes versus placebo were assessed. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: AZD6370 provided dose-dependent reductions in plasma glucose of up to 30% versus placebo in both fasted and fed patients (p andlt; 0.001 at 60 and 180 mg doses). Insulin secretion increased with dose, but absolute increases were relatively small in the fasted versus fed state (0-4 h). Dosing AZD6370 twice or four-times over 1 day gave a smoother 24-h glucose profile than single-dose. AZD6370 was rapidly absorbed. Pharmacokinetics of AZD6370 were dose-independent and unaffected by food. AZD6370 was generally well tolerated. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: AZD6370 produced dose-dependent glucose reductions and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in patients with T2DM.

  • 11.
    Essving, Per
    et al.
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Axelsson, Kjell
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Aberg, Elisabeth
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Spannar, Henrik
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Lundin, Anders
    University Hospital, Örebro.
    Local Infiltration Analgesia Versus Intrathecal Morphine for Postoperative Pain Management After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial2011In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, ISSN 0003-2999, E-ISSN 1526-7598, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 926-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Local infiltration analgesia (LIA)-using a combination of local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and epinephrine, injected periarticularly during surgery-has become popular in postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared intrathecal morphine with LIA after TKA. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: In this double-blind study, 50 patients scheduled to undergo TKA under spinal anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups: group M, 0.1 mg morphine was injected intrathecally together with the spinal anesthetic and in group L, LIA using ropivacaine, ketorolac, and epinephrine was infiltrated in the knee during the operation, and 2 bolus injections of the same mixture were given via an intraarticular catheter postoperatively. Postoperative pain, rescue analgesic requirements, mobilization, and home readiness were recorded. Patient-assessed health quality was recorded using the Oxford Knee Score and EQ-5D during 3 months follow-up. The primary endpoint was IV morphine consumption the first 48 postoperative hours. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: Mean morphine consumption was significantly lower in group L than in group M during the first 48 postoperative hours: 26 +/- 15 vs 54 +/- 29 mg, i.e., a mean difference for each 24-hour period of 14.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6 to 20.9) mg. Pain scores at rest and on movement were lower during the first 48 hours in group L than in group M (P andlt; 0.001). Pain score was also lower when walking in group L than in group M at 24 hours and 48 hours postoperatively (P andlt; 0.001). In group L, more patients were able to climb stairs at 24 hours: 50% (11 of 22) versus 4% (1 of 23), i.e., a difference of 46% (95% CI 23.5 to 68.5) and at 48 hours: 70% (16 of 23) versus 22% (5 of 23), i.e., a difference of 48% (95% CI 23 to 73). Median (range) time to fulfillment of discharge criteria was shorter in group L than in group M, 51 (24-166) hours versus 72 (51-170) hours. The difference was 23 (95% CI 18 to 42) hours (P = 0.001). Length of hospital stay was also shorter in group L than in group M: median (range) 3 (2-17) versus 4 (2-14) days (P = 0.029). Patient satisfaction was greater in group L than in group M (P = 0.001), but no differences were found in knee function, side effects, or in patient-related outcomes, Oxford Knee score, or EQ-5D. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS: LIA technique provided better postoperative analgesia and earlier mobilization, resulting in shorter hospital stay, than did intrathecal morphine after TKA.

  • 12.
    Essving, Per
    et al.
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Axelsson, Kjell
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Kjellberg, Jill
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Wallgren, Orjan
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Lundin, Anders
    University Hospital Örebro.
    Reduced morphine consumption and pain intensity with local infiltration analgesia (LIA) following total knee arthroplasty A randomized double-blind study involving 48 patients2010In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 354-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose Postoperative pain is often severe after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We investigated the efficacy of the local infiltration analgesia (LIA) technique, both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Methods 48 patients undergoing TKA were randomized into 2 groups in a double-blind study. In group A, 400 mg ropivacaine, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.5 mg epinephrine were infiltrated periarticularly during operation. In group P, no injections were given. 21 h postoperatively, 200 mg ropivacaine, 30 mg ketorolac, and 0.1 mg epinephrine were injected intraarticularly in group A, and the same volume of saline was injected in group P. All patients were followed up for 3 months. Results Median morphine consumption was lower in group A during the first 48 h: 18 (1-74) mg vs. 87 (36-160) mg in group P. Postoperative pain was lower at rest in group A during the first 27 h, and on movement during the first 48 h, except at 21 h. Time to fulfillment of discharge criteria was shorter in group A than in group P: 3 (1-7) vs. 5 (2-8) days. Patient satisfaction was higher in group A than in group P on days 1 and 7. The unbound venous blood concentration of ropivacaine was below systemic toxic blood concentrations. Interpretation The local infiltration analgesia (LIA) technique provides excellent pain relief and lower morphine consumption following TKA, resulting in shorter time to home readiness and higher patient satisfaction. There were few side effects and systemic LA concentrations were low.

  • 13.
    Fagerstrom, Tim
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Nyman, Claes R.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Complications and Clinical Outcome 18 Months After Bipolar and Monopolar Transurethral Resection of the Prostate2011In: Journal of endourology, ISSN 0892-7790, E-ISSN 1557-900X, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1043-1049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare bipolar resection with the conventional monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with respect to peri- and postoperative complications and long-term outcome. Patients and Methods: Patients with consecutive benign prostatic hyperplasia needing surgery (n = 185) from the hospitals waiting list were randomized to TURP using either a bipolar or a monopolar system. Peri-and postoperative parameters were monitored, complications were registered, and timed micturition/International Prostate Symptom Score (TM/IPSS) forms were collected at 3 and 6 weeks and at 6 and 18 months. Results: Bipolar surgery was followed by a 16% to 20% higher percentage of the patients reporting ongoing improvement (fractional IPSS change greater than2) at 3 and 6 weeks after the surgery (p less than 0.05). There were fewer readmissions in the bipolar group than in the monopolar (5 vs. 13, p less than 0.05). No differences between the groups with respect to hospital stay and catheter duration was recorded. Bipolar and monopolar TURP resulted in marked and sustained improvements of IPSS, bother score, and TM. Conclusions: Bipolar TURP, using the transurethral resection in saline (TURis) system, resulted in significantly fewer postoperative readmissions, faster postoperative recovery, and equally long-lasting good results in TM/IPSS and bother score, as in monopolar TURP.

  • 14.
    Fagerstrom, Tim
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Nyman, Claes R
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Degree of Vaporization in Bipolar and Monopolar Resection2012In: Journal of endourology, ISSN 0892-7790, E-ISSN 1557-900X, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1473-1477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the in vitro degree of vaporization in bipolar and monopolar resection. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMaterials and Methods: Using either a bipolar system or a monopolar system, samples of chicken muscle and lamb kidney were resected in an isolated basin and then desiccated in an incubator. The percentual degree of vaporization for each sample was obtained as a difference between the total fresh weight of the sample and the calculated fresh weights of the resected tissue and remains. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Reference samples showed that the water content was 73% in muscle and 77% in kidney. More muscle (mean 52%) than kidney (32%; P andlt; 0.0001) tissue was vaporized. The fraction of vaporized tissue was significantly higher in the bipolar technique. In muscle, the differences between monopolar and bipolar were 17% (P andlt; 0.05) and 26% (P andlt; 0.001), respectively, depending on the type of irrigation used. For kidney, the differences were 27% (P andlt; 0.01) and 34% (P andlt; 0.01), respectively. Further exploration of the degree of vaporization when using the bipolar resection showed that the choice of loop (P andlt; 0.0001), fluid (P andlt; 0.03), and tissue (P andlt; 0.0001) were all independently associated with the degree of vaporization. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: This study indicated that vaporization removes 50% more tissue than the weight of the resected tissue during conventional tissue resection. Bipolar standard loop resection resulted in a significantly higher degree of vaporization in both muscle and kidney than did monopolar technique. Bipolar resection worked satisfactorily in Ringers acetate.

  • 15.
    Fant, F
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Axelsson, K
    Örebro University.
    Sandblom, D
    Örebro University.
    Magnuson, A
    Örebro University.
    Andersson, S-O
    Örebro University.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Thoracic epidural analgesia or patient-controlled local analgesia for radical retropubic prostatectomy: a randomized, double-blind study2011In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 782-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Postoperative pain after radical retropubic prostatectomy is moderate to severe. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether intra-abdominal local anaesthetics provide similar analgesia compared with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. Fifty patients, ASA I-II, participated in this prospective, double-blinded study. All patients had TEA. After operation, they were randomized into two groups of 25 patients: Group PCLA (patient-controlled local analgesia): self-administration of 10 ml of ropivacaine 2 mg ml(-1) via the intra-abdominal catheter for 48 h. Group TEA: infusion of 10 ml h(-1) of ropivacaine 1 mg ml(-1), fentanyl 2 mg ml(-1), and epinephrine 2 mg ml 21 epidurally for 48 h. The primary endpoint was pain on coughing at 4 h after operation. Rescue medication was morphine i.v. as required. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. Pain on coughing at 4, 24, and 48 h was significantly lower in Group TEA [0 (0-10)] compared with Group PCLA [4 (0-10)] (Pandlt;0.05). Significantly lower pain intensity was also found in Group TEA compared with Group PCLA at the incision site, deep pain, and pain on coughing at 4 and 24 h (Pandlt;0.05). Morphine consumption was significantly greater in Group PCLA [12 (0-46)] compared with Group TEA [0 (0-20)] at 0-48 h after operation [median (range)] (P=0.015). Maximum expiratory pressure was higher in Group TEA compared with Group PCLA at 24 h (Pandlt;0.01). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. TEA provides superior postoperative pain relief with better preservation of expiratory muscle strength compared with PCLA.

  • 16.
    Farnebo, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Samuelsson, A.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Henriksson, J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol and Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlander, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Urea clearance: a new method to register local changes in blood flow in rat skeletal muscle based on microdialysis2010In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 57-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pgreater thanIncreasing evidence suggests that local blood flow should be monitored during microdialysis (MD) as the recovery of analytes is affected by local blood flow. At present ethanol clearance is the standard technique for this purpose, but it is not functional at very low perfusion velocities. Here, we introduce a technique for MD whereby local tissue blood flow is recorded by the use of urea clearance (changes inflow/outflow concentration), in conjunction with measurements of tissue metabolism (glucose, lactate and puruvate). MD probes were inserted into the gracilis muscle of 15 rats and perfused with a medium containing urea (20 mmol l-1). Changes in muscle blood flow were made by addition of noradrenaline (5 mu g ml-1) to the perfusion medium at two perfusion velocities (0 center dot 6 and 0 center dot 4 mu l min-1). The clearance of urea from the perfusion medium was then calculated and examined in relation to the dose of noradrenaline and to the coexisting changes in extracellular metabolites. The results showed reproducible and dose-dependent changes in blood flow that were induced by noradrenaline. These were characterized by dose-dependent changes in the urea clearance as well as blood-flow-specific changes in the MD metabolic markers (reduction in glucose and increase in lactate). The sensitivity for blood flow changes as assessed by urea clearance (MD) was increased at 0 center dot 4 compared with the 0 center dot 6 mu l min-1 perfusion speed. The results indicate that inclusion of urea to the perfusion medium may be used to monitor changes in skeletal muscle blood flow at low perfusion velocities and in parallel assess metabolic variables with a high recovery (greater than 90%).

  • 17.
    Farnebo, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Winbladh, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zettersten, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Gullstrand, P
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Samuelsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Urea Clearance: A New Technique Based on Microdialysis to Assess Liver Blood Flow Studied in a Pig Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion2010In: EUROPEAN SURGICAL RESEARCH, ISSN 0014-312X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delayed detection of ischemia is one of the most feared postoperative complications. Early detection of impaired blood flow and close monitoring of the organ-specific metabolic status may therefore be critical for the surgical outcome. Urea clearance is a new technique for continuous monitoring of alterations in blood flow and metabolic markers with acceptable temporal characteristics. We compare this new microdialysis technique with the established microdialysis ethanol technique to assess hepatic blood flow. Six pigs were used in a liver ischemia/reperfusion injury model. Microdialysis catheters were placed in liver segment IV and all circulation was stopped for 80 min, followed by reperfusion for 220 min. Urea and ethanol clearance was calculated from the dialysate and correlated with metabolic changes. A laser Doppler probe was used as reference of restoration of blood flow. Both urea and ethanol clearance reproducibly depicted changes in liver blood flow in relation to metabolic changes and laser Doppler measurements. The two techniques highly correlated both overall and during the reperfusion phase (r = 0.8) and the changes were paralleled by altered perfusion as recorded by laser Doppler.

  • 18.
    Farnebo, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zettersten, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Assessment of blood flow changes in human skin by microdialysis urea clearance2011In: Microcirculation, ISSN 1073-9688, E-ISSN 1549-8719, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 198-204Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the urea clearance technique for the measurement of drug-induced blood flow changes in human skin, and compare it with two non-invasive techniques: polarization light spectroscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging.

    Methods: Fifteen microdialysis catheters were placed intracutaneously on the volar aspect of the forearms of healthy human subjects, and were perfused with nitroglycerine, noradrenaline, and again nitroglycerine, to induce local tissue hyperaemia, hypoperfusion, and hyperaemia, respectively.

    Results: Urea clearance, but not the other techniques, detected the changes in blood flow during all three periods of altered flow.  The last hyperaemic response was detected by all three methods.

    Conclusion: Urea clearance can be used as a relatively simple method to estimate blood flow changes during microdialysis of vasoactive substances, in particular when the tissue is preconditioned in order to enhance the contrast between baseline and the responses to the provocations. Our results support that, in the model described, urea clearance was superior to the optical methods as it detected both the increases and decrease in blood flow, and the returns to baseline between these periods.

  • 19.
    Folkesson, Tchou
    et al.
    Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden,.
    Samuelsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Tesselaar, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, B.
    Berzelius Clinical Research Center, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    A human vascular model based on microdialysis for the assessment of the vasoconstrictive dose-response effects of noradrenaline and vasopressin in skin: in JOURNAL OF VASCULAR RESEARCH, vol 48, pp 320-3202011In: JOURNAL OF VASCULAR RESEARCH, Karger , 2011, p. 320-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microdialysis is a well-established technique for continuous sampling of small, water-soluble molecules within the extracellular fluid space in vivo. It also allows the use of microdoses of drugs, and the simultaneous evaluation of their related effects at the site of action. The present study was an experimental, randomized microdose trial to develop a human vascular model of dose response. We aimed to evaluate a microdialysis dosing method using urea clearance as a marker of druginduced changes in dermal blood flow and metabolism (glucose and lactate) in 12 healthy volunteers. We found that asymptomatic vasoconstriction can be detected by continuous microdialysis measurements of urea clearance in dermal tissue. More importantly, dose-effect relations using the Emax model could be constructed using the corresponding data on drug doses and both the urea clearance-based flow estimates and the changes in concentrations of tissue metabolites. This in vivo human experimental skin model offers an interesting tool with which both the dose-response effects on blood flow and concentrations of tissue metabolites of potent vasoactive substances can be evaluated.

  • 20.
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Wound infiltration with local anaesthetics in ambulatory surgery2010In: CURRENT OPINION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY, ISSN 0952-7907, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 708-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review Wound infiltration analgesia using local anaesthetics has been used for several decades. Recently, newer techniques to prolong analgesia have developed, including the use of catheters and injection of local anaesthetics or other adjuvants, and local infiltration analgesia using large volumes of local anaesthetics injected into different tissue planes. The aim of this review is to present the current status of wound infiltration analgesia in management of postoperative pain and to highlight the risks of this technique in clinical practice. Recent findings Several studies have shown beneficial effects of local anaesthetics, with or without adjuvant drugs, in the management of postoperative pain. Specifically, the use of local anaesthetics injected via catheters to prolong analgesia reduces postoperative pain, albeit to a limited extent. The use of large volumes of local anaesthetics into tissue planes during surgery is also beneficial in pain management. Single doses of local anaesthetics provide pain relief, but the short duration of effect can be a limiting factor. There is a growing concern about some side-effects associated with the use of local anaesthetics, specifically toxicity when drugs are injected in large doses, chondrotoxicity when bupivacaine is injected intra-articularly in higher concentrations and over a period and finally, infection when using catheters that are retained in situ. Summary Used correctly and in adequate doses, wound infiltration analgesia can be used in a multimodal analgesic regime without major complications. It offers the benefit of providing analgesia at a low cost when used as a single injection.

  • 21.
    Gupta, Anil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Bjornsson, A.
    Department Anaesthesiol and Intens Care, Orebro.
    Fredriksson, M.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Eintrei, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Reduction in mortality after epidural anaesthesia and analgesia in patients undergoing rectal but not colonic cancer surgery: a retrospective analysis of data from 655 patients in Central Sweden2011In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is some evidence that epidural analgesia (EDA) reduces tumour recurrence after breast and prostatic cancer surgery. We assessed whether EDA reduces long-term mortality after colorectal cancer surgery. Methods. All patients having colorectal cancer surgery between January 2004 and January 2008 at Linkoping and Orebro were included. Exclusion criteria were: emergency operations, laparoscopic-assisted colorectal resection, and stage 4 cancer. Statistical information was obtained from the Swedish National Register for Deaths. Patients were analysed in two groups: EDA group or patient-controlled analgesia (PCA group) as the primary method of analgesia. Results. A total of 655 patients could be included. All-cause mortality for colorectal cancer (stages 1-3) was 22.7% (colon: 20%, rectal: 26%) after 1-5 yr of surgery. Multivariate regression analysis identified the following statistically significant factors for death after colon cancer (Pless than0.05): age (greater than72 yr) and cancer stage 3 (compared with stage 1). A similar model for rectal cancer found that age (greater than72 yr) and the use of PCA rather than EDA and cancer stages 2 and 3 (compared with stage 1) were associated with a higher risk for death. No significant risk of death was found for colon cancer when comparing EDA with PCA (P=0.23), but a significantly increased risk of death was seen after rectal cancer when PCA was used compared with EDA (P=0.049) [hazards ratio: 0.52 (0.27-1.00)]. Conclusions. We found a reduction in all-cause mortality after rectal but not colon cancer in patients having EDA compared with PCA technique.

  • 22.
    Gupta, Anil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Favaios, S.
    EPE.
    Perniola, A.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Magnuson, A.
    University Orebro.
    Berggren, L.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    A meta-analysis of the efficacy of wound catheters for post-operative pain management2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 785-796Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local anesthetics (LA) are injected via catheters placed in surgical wounds for post-operative analgesia. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess whether LA reduce pain intensity when injected via wound catheters. A literature search was performed from Medline via PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane database from 1966 until November 2009. The search strategy included the following key words: pain, postoperative, catheters and local anesthetics. Two co-authors independently read every article that was initially included and extracted data into a pre-defined study record form. A total of 753 studies primarily fit the search criteria and 163 were initially extracted. Of these, 32 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Wound catheters provided no significant analgesia at rest or on activity, except in patients undergoing gynecological and obstetric surgery at 48 h (P = 0.03). The overall morphine consumption was lower (approximate to 13 mg) during 0-24 h (P less than 0.001) in these patients. No significant differences in side effects were found, except for a lower risk of wound breakdown (P = 0.048) and a shorter length of hospital stay (P = 0.04) in patients receiving LA. A statistically significant heterogeneity was seen between the studies in most end-points. LA injected via wound catheters did not reduce pain intensity, except at 48 h in a subgroup of patients undergoing obstetric and gynecological surgery. Rescue analgesic consumption was also lower in this group at 0-24 h. The magnitude of these effects was small and compounded by pronounced heterogeneity.

  • 23.
    Gupta, Anil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Rawal, Narinder
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Magnuson, Anders
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Alnehill, Hakan
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Kurt
    University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden .
    Patient controlled regional analgesia after carpal tunnel release: a double-blind study using distal perineural catheters2011In: JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-EUROPEAN VOLUME, ISSN 1753-1934, Vol. 36E, no 3, p. 219-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was done to assess the efficacy of a perineural catheter for pain relief following carpal tunnel release (CTR). Sixty-six patients undergoing open CTR under local anaesthesia (LA) were randomly divided into three groups: Groups A and B had a perineural catheter and Group C served as non-blinded control group. Postoperative pain relief was by self-administration of either ropivacaine (Group A) or saline (Group B) via an elastometric pump and by oral paracetamol in Group C. Patients in Group A had a significantly greater difference in summed pain intensity than Group B. Fewer patients in Group A requested supplementary analgesics than in Group C. Patient satisfaction was higher in Group A than in Group B on day 1. However better analgesia was not associated with better functional recovery.

  • 24.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Body volumes and fluid kinetics2011In: Clinical Fluid Therapy in the Perioperative Setting / [ed] Robert G. Hahn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2011, p. 127-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sizes of body fluid volumes have been measured under steady state conditions by the use of tracer methods. In an adult weighing 70 kg, they average 3 L for the plasma, 11 L for the interstitial fluid, and 28 L for the intracellular fluid (ICF) volume. Hence, the sum of the plasma and interstitial fluid volumes (the extracellular fluid, or ECF, volume) amounts to 14 L, or 20% of the body weight.

    Substances known to distribute solely within one body fluid compartment can be injected and the size of the compartment be calculated by means of dilution of the substance.

    The total body water (sum of ECF and ICF) can be measured with water isotopes, which include tritium (radioactive) and deuterium (not radioactive). The plasma volume has frequently been measured by radioactive iodated albumin.

    The indocyanine green (ICG) is a dye that binds to plasma globulins. The half-life is only 3 min due to rapid uptake by the liver. Therefore, ICG can be used both to measure the liver blood flow and the plasma volume.

    The volume effect of an infusion fluid implies how much of the infused volume that expands the blood volume. A simplistic approach to quantify the volume effect of an infusion fluid is to measure the Hb concentration before and after the infusion. Hb mathematics can also be elaborated upon to create a pharmacokinetic system for the analysis and simulation of the distribution and elimination if infusion fluids, an approach called volume kinetics.

  • 25.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Colloid fluids2011In: Clinical Fluid Therapy in the Perioperative Setting / [ed] Robert G. Hahn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2011, p. 11-17Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term colloid fluid refers to a sterile water solution with macromolecules added that pass the capillary wall only with great difficulty. The osmotic strength of the macromolecules is not great and, therefore, a colloid fluid must also contain electrolytes to be non-hemolytic. As long as macromolecules reside inside the capillary wall their contribution to the total osmolality (the colloid osmotic pressure) is still sufficient to distribute a large proportion of the infused fluid volume inside the bloodstream. 

    Colloid fluids are used as plasma volume expanders and have more long-lasting effect than crystalloid fluids. They carry a risk of allergic reactions not shared by crystalloid fluids.

    Albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and, therefore, has an important role in maintaining the intravascular colloid osmotic pressure.

    Long chains of glucose molecules (polysaccharides) are synthesized by bacteria to serve as macromolecules in the group of infusion fluids called the dextrans.

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) also consists of polysaccharides and is prepared from plants, such as grain or maize. The variability in chemical composition determines the differences in clinical effect between the solutions. Hetastarch contains the largest molecules (450 kD) and pentastarch intermediate-sized molecules (260 kD). The most recently developed HES preparations have an even lower molecular size, 130 kD on the average.

     

  • 26.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Crystalloid fluids2011In: Clinical Fluid Therapy in the Perioperative Setting   / [ed] Robert G. Hahn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2011, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term crystalloid fluid refers to sterile water solutions that contain small molecules, such as salt and glucose, which are able to crystallize. These solutes easily pass though the capillary membrane, which is the thin fenestrated endothelium that divides the plasma volume (PV) from the interstitial fluid volume. This process of solute distribution brings along water. Hence, the volume of a crystalloid fluid is spread throughout the extracellular fluid (ECF) space. 

    Ringer´s solution is a composition created by Sydney Ringer in the 1880s to be as similar as possible to the ECF. Hartmann later added a buffer, lactate, to the fluid and made it “Hartmann´s solution” or “lactated “Ringer´s solution”. Ringer solutions distribute from the plasma to the interstitial fluid space in a process that requires 25-30 min to be completed. The half-life in plasma is approximately 8 min. In contrast, elimination is greatly retarded during surgery where Ringer´s always exhibit two-compartment kinetics.

    Glucose (dextrose) solutions are used to administer calories to prevent starvation, and also to provide body water. They are the only available infusion fluids that add volume to both the ECF and the ICF volumes. Infused glucose distributes rapidly over 2/3 of the expected ECF space. Elimination occurs by insulin-dependent uptake to the body cells. The half-life is 15 min in healthy volunteersbut twice as long during surgery. The basic need for glucose in an adult corresponds to 4 L of 5% glucose per 24 hours (800 kcal) which prevents blunt starvation while not providing adequate nutrition.

    The hypertonic nature of 15% mannitol has made it a means of acutely reducing the intracranial pressure in patients with head trauma.

  • 27.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Editorial Material: Why are crystalloid and colloid fluid requirements similar during surgery and intensive care?2013In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 515-518Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 28.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Glycine 1.5% for Irrigation Should Be Abandoned2013In: Urologia internationalis, ISSN 0042-1138, E-ISSN 1423-0399, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 249-255Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Glycine 1.5% has long maintained a dominating role as an irrigating solution for monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), as well as for certain other transurethral procedures. Materials and Methods: This review summarizes the findings of systematic experimental and clinical studies in which glycine 1.5% for irrigation was infused/absorbed and the outcome compared to at least one other irrigating fluid, including the isotonic saline used for bipolar TURP. Results: There were 11 studies in animals, 3 in volunteers and 6 in patients undergoing TURP. With only one exception, which is probably due to low power, these studies either show a poorer outcome after administration or absorption of glycine solution or else that glycine 2.2% is more toxic than glycine 1.5%. The poorer outcomes consisted of more tissue damage or higher mortality (animals) or more symptoms (volunteers and patients). Conclusion: The safety of monopolar TURP would be improved by replacing glycine 1.5% with some other electrolyte-free fluid. The author argues that glycine 1.5% should be abandoned completely.

  • 29.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Irrigating fluids2011In: Clinical Fluid Therapy in the Perioperative Setting / [ed] Robert G. Hahn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2011, p. 148-156Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients developing overt symptoms due to absorption of irrigating fluid were first described in connection with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). This “transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome” soon proved to be due to uptake of more than 3 L of irrigant.

    The most commonly used irrigating fluids used today contain glycine, sorbitol or mannitol, to prevent hemolysis in case they are absorbed. These fluids are intended for monopolar electrocautery.

    Symptoms of fluid absorption occurs in between 1% and 8% of the TURPs performed. Absorption in excess of 1Lof glycine solution is associated with a statistically increased risk of symptoms. This has been reported in between 5% and 20% of the TURPs performed. Extravasation is the cause in about 20% of these patients.    

    The TUR syndrome induced by an electrolyte-free irrigating fluid has a complex pathophysiology. Key elements comprise a two-stage cardiovascular disturbance, hyponatremia, and cerebral edema.

    Absorption of electrolyte-free irrigating fluid can be estimated by measuring serum sodium at the very end of surgery. Ethanol has been added to the irrigating fluid to a concentration of 1% and the body concentration measured used an index of the fluid absorption. Both experimental and clinicalstudies support the usefulness of treating the TUR syndrome with hypertonic saline. Supporting the hemodynamics with adrenergic drugs is also warranted.

    Large-scale fluid absorption with normal saline is a possibility during bipolar resection. Treatment should probably be limited to general supportive measures and diuretics. Hypertonic saline is not indicated.

  • 30.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery. Södertälje Hospital, Sweden.
    Bergek, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gebäck, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Interactions between the volume effects of hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer´s acetate2013In: Critical Care, ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 17, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    The turnover of Ringer´s solutions is greatly dependent on the physiological situation, such as the presence of dehydration or anaesthesia. The present study evaluates whether the kinetics is affected by previous infusion of colloid fluid.

    METHODS:

    Ten male volunteers with a mean age of 22 years underwent three infusion experiments, on separate days and in random order. The experiments included 10 mL/kg of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven™), 20 mL/kg of Ringer's acetate, and a combination of both, where Ringer´s was administered 75 minutes after the starch infusion ended. The kinetics of the volume expansion was analysed by non-linear least- squares regression, based on urinary excretion and serial measurement of blood haemoglobin concentration for up to 420 minutes.

    RESULTS:

    The mean volume of distribution of the starch was 3.12 L which agreed well with the plasma volume (3.14 L) estimated by anthropometry. The volume expansion following the infusion of starch showed monoexponential elimination kinetics with a half-life of two hours. Two interaction effects were found when Ringer´s acetate was infused after the starch. First, there was a higher tendency for Ringer´s acetate to distribute to a peripheral compartment at the expense of the plasma volume expansion. The translocated amount of Ringer´s was 70% higher when HES had been infused earlier. Second, the elimination half-life of Ringer´s acetate was five times longer when administered after the starch (88 versus 497 minutes, P <0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Starch promoted peripheral accumulation of the later infused Ringer´s acetate solution and markedly prolonged the elimination half-life.

  • 31.
    Hahn, Robert G.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Clinical Fluid Therapy in the Perioperative Setting2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical Fluid Therapy in the Peri-Operative Setting brings together some of the world's leading clinical experts in fluid management to explain what you should know when providing infusion fluids to surgical and critical care patients. Current evidence-based knowledge, essential basic science and modern clinical practice are explained in 25 focused and authoritative chapters. Each chapter guides the reader in the use of fluid therapy in all aspects of peri-operative patient care. Guidance is given on the correct selection, quantity and composition of fluids required as a consequence of the underlying pathology and state of hydration of the patient, and the type and duration of surgery. Edited by Robert G. Hahn, a highly experienced clinician and award-winning researcher in fluid therapy, this is essential reading for all anaesthetists, intensivists and surgeons.

  • 32.
    Hahn, Robert G.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Clinical pharmacology of infusion fluids2012In: Acta Medica Lituanica, ISSN 1392-0138, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 210-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluids are used for intravenous infusion during practically all surgeries, but several different compositions are available on the market.

    Crystalloid fluids comprise lactated or acetated Ringer solutions, normal saline, Plasma-Lyte, hypertonic saline, and glucose. They lack allergic properties but are prone to cause peripheral tissue oedema. Their turn­ over is governed by physiological factors such as dehydration and drug effects.

    Colloid fluids include hydroxyethyl starch, albumin, dextran, and gelatin. These fluids have various degrees of allergic properties and do not promote peripheral oedema. Their half-life is usually about hours. Factors increasing the turnover rate are poorly known but might include inflammatory states.

    Current debates include the widespread use of normal saline, which should be replaced by Ringer’s or Plasma-Lyte in most situations, and the kidney damage associated with the use of starch in septic patients. New studies show that hypertonic saline does not improve survival or neurological damage in prehospital care.

  • 33.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Fluid therapy in uncontrolled hemorrhage - what experimental models have taught us2013In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 16-28Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intravenous fluid is life-saving in hypovolemic shock, but fluid sometimes aggravates the bleeding. During the past 25 years, animal models have helped our understanding of the mechanisms involved in this unexpected effect. A key issue is that vasoconstriction is insufficient to arrest the bleeding when damage is made to a major blood vessel. ‘Uncontrolled hemorrhage’ is rather stopped by a blood clot formed at the outside surface of the vessel, and the immature clot is sensitive to mechanical and chemical interactions. The mortality increases if rebleeding occurs. In the aortic tear model in swine, hemorrhage volume and the mortality increase from effective restoration of the arterial pressure. The mortality vs. amount of fluid curve is U-shaped with higher mortality at either end. Without any fluid at all, irreversible shock causes death provided the hemorrhage is sufficiently large. Crystalloid fluid administered in a 3 : 1 proportion to the amount of lost blood initiates serious rebleeding. Hypertonic saline 7.5% in 6% dextran 70 (HSD) also provokes rebleeding resulting in higher mortality in the recommended dosage of 4 ml/kg. Uncontrolled hemorrhage models in rats, except for the ‘cut-tail’ model, confirm the results from swine. To avoid rebleeding, fluid programs should not aim to fully restore the arterial pressure, blood flow rates, or blood volume. For a hemorrhage of 1000 ml, computer simulations show that deliberate hypovolemia (−300 ml) would be achieved by infusing 600–750 ml crystalloid fluid over 20–30 min or 100 ml of HSD over 10–20 min in an adult male.

  • 34.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Li, Yuhong
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Non-invasive monitoring of blood haemoglobin for analysis of fluid volume kinetics2010In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1233-1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A commercially available pulse oximeter that reports blood haemoglobin (Hb) concentration is evaluated. This study considers whether this device can provide serial Hb data that would be sufficiently reliable for volume kinetic analysis of infusion fluids.

    Methods: Forty infusions of 5 or 10 ml/kg of acetated Ringer's solution were given over 15 min in 10 healthy volunteers. Hb was measured on 17 different occasions over 120 min using the Radical 7 pulse oximeter and compared with the result of invasive blood sampling (control). A one-volume kinetic model was applied to each data series. The pulse oximeter also reported the perfusion index (PI).

    Results: The median deviation between the 680 invasive and non-invasive Hb samples (the accuracy) was 1.6% and the absolute median deviation (precision) was 4.6%. Between-subject factors explained half of the variation in the difference between non-invasive vs. invasive sampling.

    Ten of the 40 non-invasive series of Hb values were discarded from kinetic analysis due to poor quality. The remaining 30 series showed a smaller distribution volume for the infused fluid when kinetic analysis was based on the non-invasive method (3.0 vs. 5.3 l; P<0.001). This was due to co-variance with the PI, which exaggerated the decrease in Hb caused by the infusions. The non-invasive method might provide useful kinetic data at the group level, but individual curves deviated too much from the invasive data to be reliable.

    Conclusions: Non-invasive measurement of the Hb concentration during volume loading could not provide useful kinetic data for individuals.

  • 35.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Lindahl, C C
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Drobin, D
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Volume kinetics of acetated Ringer's solution during experimental spinal anaesthesia2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 987-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    General anaesthesia lowers the clearance of crystalloid fluid, but the volume kinetics of such fluid throughout the duration of spinal anaesthesia has not been studied.

    Methods:

    Ten female volunteers (mean age 29 years) received an intravenous infusion of 25 ml/kg of acetated Ringer's solution with and without spinal anaesthesia. A volume kinetic model was fitted to serial measurements of the haemoglobin concentration over 240 min based on arterial, cubital vein, and femoral vein blood. The measured urine flow was compared to the model-predicted elimination.

    Results:

    The arterial pressure remained stable, although the block reached to Th3-Th5 in half of the volunteers. There were no differences in fluid kinetics between the spinal anaesthesia and the control experiments. The administered volume was well confined to the kinetic system, which consisted of two communicating fluid spaces that were 2.8 l and approximately 7 l in size at baseline. The arteriovenous difference in plasma dilution remained positive for 30 min post-infusion in those having analgesia reaching to Th3-Th5, which differed significantly from low-level analgesia (Th12-L2, P < 0.03) when venous plasma was sampled from the leg. The urinary excretion averaged 1.13 l and 1.01 l for the spinal and control experiments, respectively. Volume kinetics predicted the urinary excretion at 5- to 10-min intervals with an overall bias of 52 ml.

    Conclusion:

    Acetated Ringer's solution showed the same kinetics during experimental spinal anaesthesia as when the fluid was infused alone. Hence, spinal anaesthesia is not associated with the reduced fluid clearance reported for general anaesthesia.

  • 36.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Södertalje Hospital.
    Larsen, Filip
    Karolinska Institute.
    Nystrom, Thomas
    Karolinska Institute.
    A simple intravenous glucose tolerance test for assessment of insulin sensitivity2011In: Theoretical Biology Medical Modelling, ISSN 1742-4682, E-ISSN 1742-4682, Vol. 8, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim of the study was to find a simple intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) that can be used to estimate insulin sensitivity.

    Methods

    In 20 healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 51 years (mean, 28) comparisons were made between kinetic parameters derived from a 12-sample, 75-min IVGTT and the Mbw (glucose uptake) obtained during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp. Plasma glucose was used to calculate the volume of distribution (Vd) and the clearance (CL) of the injected glucose bolus. The plasma insulin response was quantified by the area under the curve (AUCins). Uptake of glucose during the clamp was corrected for body weight (Mbw).

    Results

    There was a 7-fold variation in Mbw. Algorithms based on the slope of the glucose-elimination curve (CL/Vd) in combination with AUCins obtained during the IVGTT showed statistically significant correlations with Mbw, the linearity being r2 = 0.63-0.83. The best algorithms were associated with a 25-75th prediction error ranging from -10% to +10%. Sampling could be shortened to 30-40 min without loss of linearity or precision.

    Conclusion

    Simple measures of glucose and insulin kinetics during an IVGTT can predict between 2/3 and 4/5 of the insulin sensitivity.

  • 37.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Nystrom, Thomas
    Karolinska Institute.
    Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test2011In: Computational & Mathematical Methods in Medicine, ISSN 1748-670X, E-ISSN 1748-6718, Vol. 2011, no 965075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years) underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (𝑉𝑑) and the clearance (𝐶𝐿) of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced 𝐶𝐿 for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.                                    

  • 38.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Nyström, Thomas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Södertalje Hospital, Sweden.
    Plasma volume expansion from the intravenous glucose tolerance test before and after hip replacement surgery2013In: Theoretical Biology Medical Modelling, ISSN 1742-4682, E-ISSN 1742-4682, Vol. 10, no 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Hyperosmotic glucose is injected intravenously when an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) is initiated. The extent and time period of plasma volume expansion that occurs in response to the glucose load has not been studied in the perioperative setting.

    Methods

    Twenty-two non-diabetic patients aged between 57 and 76 years (mean 68) underwent an IVGTT, during which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% (1 ml/kg) was injected as a bolus over one minute, one day before and two days after hip replacement surgery. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 minutes from each patient. The turnover of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume was calculated by means of mass balance and volume kinetic analysis.

    Results

    The IVGTT raised plasma glucose by 9 mmol/L and the plasma volume by 8%. The extracellular fluid volume increased by 320 (SD 60) ml of which 2/3 could be accounted for in the plasma. The half-life of the exogenous glucose averaged 30 minutes before surgery and 36 minutes postoperatively (P < 0.02). The glucose elimination governed 86% of the decay of the plasma volume expansion, which occurred with a half-life of 12 minutes before to 21 minutes after the surgery (median, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Hyperosmotic glucose translocated intracellular water to the plasma volume rather than to the entire extracellular fluid volume. The preferential re-distribution acts to dilute the plasma concentrations used to quantify insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function from an IVGTT. The greater-than-expected plasma dilution lasted longer after than before surgery.

  • 39.
    Hahn, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Waldréus, Nana
    Södertälje Hospital, Sweden .
    An Aggregate Urine Analysis Tool to Detect Acute Dehydration2013In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 303-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    Urine sampling has previously been evaluated for detecting dehydration in young male athletes. The present study investigated whether urine analysis can serve as a measure of dehydration in men and women of a wide age span.

    METHODS:

    Urine sampling and body weight measurement were undertaken before and after recreational physical exercise (median time: 90 minutes) in 57 volunteers aged between 17 and 69 years (mean age: 42). Urine analysis included urine color, osmolality, specific gravity, and creatinine.

    RESULTS:

    The volunteers' body weight decreased 1.1% (mean) while they exercised. There were strong correlations between all four urinary markers of dehydration (r = 0.73 to 0.84, P < 0.001). Researchers constructed a composite dehydration index graded from 1 to 6 based on these markers. This index changed from 2.70 before exercising to 3.55 after exercising, which corresponded to dehydration of 1.0% as given by a preliminary reference curve based on seven previous studies in athletes. Men were slightly dehydrated at baseline (mean: 1.9%) compared to women (mean: 0.7%; P < 0.001), while age had no influence on the results. A final reference curve that considered both the present results and the seven previous studies was constructed in which exercise-induced weight loss (x) was predicted by the exponential equation x= 0.20 dehydration index.

    CONCLUSION:

    Urine sampling can be used to estimate weight loss due to dehydration in adults up to the age of 70 years. A robust dehydration index based on four indicators reduces the influence of confounders.

  • 40.
    Heinius, Goran
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Sonden, Anders
    Karolinska Institute.
    HYPOTHERMIA INCREASES REBLEEDING DURING UNCONTROLLED HEMORRHAGE IN THE RAT2011In: Shock, ISSN 1073-2322, E-ISSN 1540-0514, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trauma registers show that hypothermia (HT) is an independent risk factor for death during hemorrhagic shock, although experimental animal studies indicate that HT may be beneficial during these conditions. However, the animal models were not designed to detect the expected increase in bleeding caused by HT. In a new model for uncontrolled bleeding, 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a standardized femoral artery injury and randomized to either normothermia or HT. Ketamine/midazolam was used to minimize hemodynamic changes due to the anesthesia. The hypothermic rats were cooled to 30 degrees C and rewarmed again at 90 min. The study period was 3 h. The incidence, onset time, duration, and volume of bleedings as well as hemodynamic and metabolic changes were recorded. There was no difference between groups with respect to the initial bleeding. Rebleedings occurred among 60% of the animals in both groups. Hypothermic rebleeders had more, larger, and longer rebleedings, resulting in a total rebleeding volume amounting to 41% of their estimated blood volume. The corresponding figure for the normothermic rebleeders was 3% (P less than 0.001). Total rebleeding volume was significantly larger in the hypothermic group, even at body temperatures greater than 35 degrees C. We conclude that the risk of rebleeding from a femoral injury is greater in the presence of cooling and HT. The larger rebleeding volumes seen even at body temperatures greater than 35 degrees C indicate that factors other than temperature-induced coagulopathy also contributed to the increased hemorrhage.

  • 41.
    Heinius, Göran
    et al.
    Section of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sondén, Anders
    Section of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Effects of Different Fluid Regimes and Desmopressin on Uncontrolled Hemorrhage During Hypothermia in the Rat2012In: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management, ISSN 2153-7658, E-ISSN 2153-7933, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resuscitation with large volumes of crystalloids during traumatic hemorrhagic shock might increase the mortality by inducing rebleeding. However, few studies have addressed this problem during hypothermic conditions. Sixty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a standardized femoral artery injury and resuscitated with low (LRe), medium (MRe), or high (HRe) intensity using lactated Ringer's solution after being cooled to 30°C. An additional MRe group was also given desmopressin since this drug might reverse hypothermic-induced impairment of the primary hemostasis. The rats were rewarmed after 90 minutes and observed for 3 hours. The incidence, on-set time, duration, and volume of bleedings and hemodynamic changes were recorded. Rebleedings occurred in 60% of all animals and were more voluminous in the HRe group than in the LRe group (p=0.01). The total rebleeding volume per animal increased with the rate of fluid administration (r=0.50, p=0.01) and the duration of each rebleeding episode was longer in the HRe group than in the LRe group (p<0.001). However, the mortality tended to be higher in the LRe group (LRe=6/15, MRe=1/15, HRe=2/15, p=0.07). Desmopressin did not change the bled volume or the mortality. Overall, the mortality increased if rebleeding occurred (10/35 rebleeders died vs. 1/25 nonrebleeders, p=0.015). Liberal fluid administration increased the rebleeding volume while a trend toward higher mortality was seen with the restrictive fluid program. Desmopressin had no effect on the studied parameters.

  • 42.
    Henricson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Baiat, Yashma
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Local Heating as a Predilatation Method for Measurement of Vasoconstrictor Responses with Laser-Doppler Flowmetry2011In: Microcirculation, ISSN 1073-9688, E-ISSN 1549-8719, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 214-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studying microvascular responses to iontophoresis of vasoconstricting drugs contributes to a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of cutaneous vessels, but measuring these responses with laser-Doppler flowmetry at basal blood flow conditions is technically challenging. This study aimed to investigate whether the measurement of cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline (NA) and phenylephrine (PE), delivered by iontophoresis, is facilitated by predilatation of the microvascular bed using local heating. We used different drug delivery rates (100 s x 0.12 mA, 200 s x 0.06 mA, 300 s x 0.04 mA) to investigate whether predilatation affects the local drug dynamics by an increased removal of drugs from the skin. In a predilatated vascular bed, iontophoresis of NA and PE resulted in a significant decrease in perfusion from the thermal plateau (p andlt; 0.001). The decrease was 25-33%, depending on drug delivery rate. In unheated skin, a significant vasoconstriction was observed (p andlt; 0.001), with 17% and 14% decrease from baseline for NA and PE, respectively. These results indicate that predilatating the cutaneous vascular bed by local heating facilitates measurement of vasoconstriction with laser-Doppler flowmetry and does not seem to significantly affect the result by an increased removal of drugs from the skin.

  • 43.
    Holm, Jonas
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery in Östergötland. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkanson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Intensive care. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Vánky, Farkas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery in Östergötland.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery in Östergötland.
    Mixed venous oxygen saturation predicts short- and long-term outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a retrospective cohort analysis2011In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 344-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Complications of an inadequate haemodynamic state are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Unfortunately, commonly used methods to assess haemodynamic status are not well documented with respect to outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate SV(O2) as a prognostic marker for short-and long-term outcome in a large unselected coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) cohort and in subgroups with or without treatment for intraoperative heart failure. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. Two thousand seven hundred and fifty-five consecutive CABG patients and subgroups comprising 344 patients with and 2411 patients without intraoperative heart failure, respectively, were investigated. SV(O2) was routinely measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) follow-up was 10.2 (1.5) yr. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. The best cut-off for 30 day mortality related to heart failure based on receiver-operating characteristic analysis was SV(O2) 60.1%. Patients with SV(O2) andlt;60% had higher 30 day mortality (5.4% vs 1.0%; P andlt; 0.0001) and lower 5 yr survival (81.4% vs 90.5%; P andlt; 0.0001). The incidences of perioperative myocardial infarction, renal failure, and stroke were also significantly higher, leading to a longer ICU stay. Similar prognostic information was obtained in the subgroups that were admitted to ICU with or without treatment for intraoperative heart failure. In patients admitted to ICU without treatment for intraoperative heart failure and SV(O2) andgt;= 60%, 30 day mortality was 0.5% and 5 yr survival 92.1%. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions. SV(O2) andlt;60% on admission to ICU was related to worse short- and long-term outcome after CABG, regardless of whether the patients were admitted to ICU with or without treatment for intraoperative heart failure.

  • 44.
    Hong Li, Yu
    et al.
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Bin Zhu, Hai
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Zheng, Xiaozhu
    Zhejiang Hospital, China.
    Jian Chen, Han
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Shao, Liang
    Yuhuan County Peoples Hospital, China.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Low doses of esmolol and phenylephrine act as diuretics during intravenous anesthesia2012In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 16, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The renal clearance of infused crystalloid fluid is very low during anaesthesia and surgery, but experiments in conscious sheep indicate that the renal fluid clearance might approach a normal rate when the adrenergic balance is modified.

    Methods

    Sixty females (mean age, 32 years) undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery were randomized to control group and received only the conventional anesthetic drugs and 20 ml/kg of lactated Ringer's over 30 mins. The others were also given an infusion of 50 μg/kg/min of esmolol (beta1-receptor blocker) or 0.01 μg/kg/min of phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenergic agonist) over 3 hours. The distribution and elimination of infused fluid were studied by volume kinetic analysis based on urinary excretion and blood hemoglobin level.

    Results

    Both drugs significantly increased urinary excretion while heart rate and arterial pressure remained largely unaffected. The urine flows during non-surgery were 43, 147, and 176 ml in the control, esmolol, and phenylephrine groups, respectively (medians, P < 0.03). When surgery had started the corresponding values were 34, 65 and 61 ml (P < 0.04). At 3 hours, averages of 9%, 20%, and 25% of the infused volume had been excreted in the three groups (P < 0.01). The kinetic analyses indicated that both treatments slowed down the distribution of fluid from the plasma to the interstitial fluid space, thereby preventing hypovolemia.

    Conclusions

    Esmolol doubled and phenylephrine almost tripled urinary excretion during anesthesia-induced depression of renal fluid clearance.

  • 45.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Hemlin, Claes
    Aleris specialistvård Sabbatsberg, Stockholm.
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Avd. för Samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa/allmänmedicin, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lundeborg-Hammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Marcusson, Agneta
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie
    Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri, Psykiatriska kliniken, Höglandet Eksjö/Nässjö.
    Stjernquist-Desatnik, Anna
    Öron-näsa-hals-kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset Lund.
    Zettergren-Wijk, Lena
    Avdelningen för tandreglering, Folktandvården Gävleborg AB, Gävle.
    Moa, Gunnar
    Projektledare Nationella medicinska indikationer.
    Törnqvist, Helene
    Projektledare Nationella medicinska indikationer.
    Indikation för tonsillotomi på barn och ungdomar2011Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Jeschke, Marc G.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Kamolz, Lars-PeterMedizinische Universität Wien, Austria.Sjöberg, FolkeLinköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.Wolf, Steven E.University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Handbook of Burns: Acute Burn Care Volume 12012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Jildenstal, Pether K
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Hallen, Jan L
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Rawal, Narinder
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Gupta, Anil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Berggren, Lars
    Örebro University Hospital .
    Effect of Auditory Evoked Potential-Guided Anaesthesia on Consumption of Anaesthetics and Early Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: a randomised controlled trial2011In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIOLOGY, ISSN 0265-0215, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 213-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after non-cardiac surgery is a well known problem in some categories of patients. This study aims to evaluate the influence of auditory evoked potential (AEP)-guided anaesthesia on the requirement for anaesthetic drugs and their influence on POCD. Methods Four hundred and fifty patients aged between 18 and 92 years scheduled for ophthalmic surgery under general anaesthesia were assigned randomly to one of two groups. In group A (AEP group), the depth of anaesthesia (DoA) was aimed at an AEP index (AAI) between 15 and 25. In group C (control group), DoA was guided by clinical signs. Hypotension was treated with fluids and vasopressors using a standardised algorithm. A mini-mental test and the Cognitive Failure Questionnaire were used to evaluate cognitive function. Results Anaesthetic drug requirements were significantly lower in group A than in group C: propofol 92.5 +/- 26.5 vs. 103.8 +/- 39.5 mg (P = andlt;0.001) and desflurane end-tidal concentration 2.5 +/- 0.58 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.79% (P andlt; 0.001). In group A, 36 patients (16%) received additional fluids and vasopressors compared to 65 patients (29%) in group C (P andlt; 0.01). AAI values differed significantly between the groups: 18 (11-21) in group A vs. 12 (10-19) in group C (P andlt; 0.001). The number of patients with POCD was 16 in group C compared to two in group A (P andlt; 0.001) at day 1 post-operation. Conclusion AEP monitoring allows dose reduction of anaesthetic agents, leading to better cardiovascular stability and decreased requirements for intra-operative fluids and vasopressors. Cognitive decline seen following minor ophthalmic surgery, even when anaesthesia is assessed clinically, is short-lived with no long-term sequelae.

  • 48.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granerus, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology UHL.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Urinary excretion of histamine and methylhistamine after burns2012In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1005-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased vascular permeability seen after burn contribute to morbidity and mortality as it interferes with organ function and the healing process. Large efforts have been made to explore underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that generate increased vascular permeability after burns. Many different substances have been proposed as mediators of which histamine, serotonin and oxygen radicals are claimed most important. However, no specific blocker has convincingly been shown to be clinically effective. Early work has claimed increased histamine plasma-concentrations in humans after burn and data from animal models pointed at histamine as an important mediator. Modern human clinical studies investigating the role of histamine as a mediator of the generalized post burn increase in vascular permeability are lacking. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: We examined histamine turnover by measuring the urinary excretion of histamine and methyl histamine for 48 h after burns in 8 patients (mean total burn surface area 24%). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Over time, in this time frame and compared to healthy controls we found a small increase in the excretion of histamine, but no increase of its metabolite methylhistamine. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Our findings do not support that histamine is an important mediator of the increased systemic vascular permeability seen after burn.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Sjögren, Florence
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Bodelsson, Mikael
    Lund University.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Dynamics of leukocyte receptors after severe burns: An exploratory study2011In: BURNS, ISSN 0305-4179, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with burns are susceptible to organ failure, and there is indirect evidence that leukocytes may contribute to this process. They may change the expression of cell-surface receptors after certain stimuli, for example, the burn. We therefore aimed to assess the changes induced by the burn in the expression of leukocyte cell-surface receptors CD11b, CD14, CD16, and CD62L on the surface of PMNs and monocytes. We also wanted to examine the dynamics of this activation during the first week after the burn, and to relate it to the size of the injury. Methods: Ten patients with burns of andgt;15% (TBSA) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected on arrival and every consecutive morning during the first week. Healthy volunteers acted as controls. Results: PMN CD11b expression was increased. The extent of PMN CD11b expression correlated negatively to the size of the full thickness burn. Monocyte CD14 expression increased initially but there was no relation to the size of the burn. PMN CD16 expression decreased initially during the first days and the decrease was related to burn size. CD62L did not vary depending on the burn in either PMN or monocytes during the first week after the burn. Conclusion: This study showed that specific receptors on the surface of leukocytes (PMN CD11b, monocyte CD14 and PMN CD16) are affected by the burn. Expression of PMN CD11b and CD16 are related to burn size. Burn-induced effects on the expression of PMN receptors, such as PMN CD11b and CD16, may contribute to burn-induced infection susceptibility.

  • 50.
    Kjellman, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Glad Mattsson, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery UHL.
    Huss, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Burn Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Comparing ambient, air-convection, and fluid-convection heating techniques in treating hypothermic burn patients, a clinical RCT2011In: Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research, ISSN 1750-1164, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hypothermia in burns is common and increases morbidity and mortality. Several methods are available to reach and maintain normal core body temperature, but have not yet been evaluated in critical care for burned patients. Our units ordinary technique for controlling body temperature (Bair Hugger®+ radiator ceiling + bed warmer + Hotline®) has many drawbacks e.g.; slow and the working environment is hampered.The aim of this study was to compare our ordinary heating technique with newly-developed methods: the Allon™2001 Thermowrap (a temperature regulating water-mattress), and Warmcloud (a temperature regulating air-mattress).Methods: Ten consecutive burned patients (andgt; 20% total burned surface area and a core temperature andlt; 36.0C) were included in this prospective, randomised, comparative study. Patients were randomly exposed to 3 heating methods. Each treatment/measuring-cycle lasted for 6 hours. Each heating method was assessed for 2 hours according to a randomised timetable. Core temperature was measured using an indwelling (bladder) thermistor. Paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of differences between the treatments within the patients. ANOVA was used to assess the differences in temperature from the first to the last measurement among all treatments. Three-way ANOVA with the Tukey HSD post hoc test and a repeated measures ANOVA was used in the same manner, but included information about patients and treatment/measuring-cycles to control for potential confounding. Data are presented as mean (SD) and (range). Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant.Results: The mean increase, 1.4 (SD 0.6C; range 0.6-2.6C) in core temperature/treatment/measuring-cycle highly significantly favoured the Allon™2001 Thermowrap in contrast to the conventional method 0.2 (0.6)C (range -1.2 to 1.5C) and the Warmcloud 0.3 (0.4)C (range -0.4 to 0.9C). The procedures for using the Allon™2001 Thermowrap were experienced to be more comfortable and straightforward than the conventional method or the Warmcloud.Conclusions: The Allon™2001 Thermowrap was more effective than the Warmcloud or the conventional method in controlling patients temperatures. © 2011 Kjellman et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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