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  • 1.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    ADULT, HHJ, Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Avd. för rehabilitering, HHJ, Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Pain and daily activities in Rheumatoid Arthritis2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 15, p. 1245-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe experiences of pain and its relationship to daily activities in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method: Seven semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 33 men and women of different ages with RA. Data were analysed with content analysis. Results: Pain affected everyday life and may be a barrier to perform valued activities. Regarding the impact of pain on participation and independence, personal factors and the social environment were found to be important. It could be a struggle to find the right activity balance, since it was easy to be overactive, triggering subsequent elevation of pain levels. However, the participants also described activities as a mediator of pain and a distraction from it. Conclusion: The relationship between pain and daily activities in RA was complex. Pain as an impairment was expressed to be related to activity limitations and participation restrictions, as well as to contextual factors. These findings highlight the clinical importance of paying attention to the complexity of pain and its relation to daily activities and participation.

  • 2.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Movement-evoked breakthrough cancer pain despite intrathecal analgesia: a prospective series2011In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 1139-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intrathecal analgesia (ITA) is a valuable treatment option for intractable cancer-related pain. However, the issue of movement-evoked breakthrough pain (BTP) has not been specifically investigated in the ITA setting. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ITA on spontaneous resting pain intensity (SRPI), doses of non-ITA opioids, and specifically on movement-evoked pain intensity (MEPI). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: We prospectively studied 28 consecutive patients who graded SRPI and MEPI on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) at the time of ITA procedure, after 1 week, and after 1 month. Mild pain was defined as NRS andlt;= 3 and severe pain as NRS andgt;= 7. Concomitant doses of opioids were registered. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: After 1 week, no patient had severe SRPI compared with 31% before ITA, and the proportion of patients with mild SRPI had increased from 27% to 76%. Meanwhile, the median daily dose of non-ITA opioids decreased from 575 to 120 mg of oral morphine equivalents. The effect on SRPI and on doses of non-ITA opioids remained essentially unchanged during the study month, but the proportion of patients having severe MEPI did not change significantly: 44% still had severe MEPI after 1 week and 40% after 1 month. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Movement-evoked BTP was a major clinical problem throughout the study month despite otherwise successful ITA. Improving the quality of life of patients with intractable cancer-related pain should include developing strategies to better deal with movement-evoked BTP.

  • 3.
    Donlau, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Imms, Christine
    School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University and Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Glad Mattsson, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mattsson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Children and youth with myelomeningoceles independence in managing clean intermittent catheterization in familiar settings2011In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 429-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine the ability of children and youth with myelomeningocele to independently manage clean intermittent catheterization. Methods: There were 50 participants with myelomeningocele (5-18 years); 13 of them had also participated in a previous hospital-based study. Their abilities and interest in completing the toilet activity were examined at home or in school using an interview and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Actual performance was observed and rated. Background variables were collected from medical records and KatAD+E tests. Results: In total, 48% were observed to perform the toilet activity independently, in comparison with 74% who self-reported independence. Univariate analyses found KatAD+E could predict who was independent. COPM failed to do so. Ability to remain focused and ambulation were predictors of independence, but age, sex and IQ were not. Multivariable analysis found time to completion to be the strongest predictor of independence. Four children were independent in their familiar environment, but not in the hospital setting, and six of 13 children maintained focus only in their familiar environment. Conclusions: Interviews were not sufficiently accurate to assess independence in the toilet activity. Instead, observations including time to completion are recommended. The execution of the toilet activity is influenced by the environmental context.

  • 4.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Karrdahl Bedics, Beate
    Koping Hospital.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES: A 10-YEAR FOLLOW-UP2011In: JOURNAL OF REHABILITATION MEDICINE, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 323-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective and design: Long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries were investigated based on a 10-year follow-up of patients from a previously-published randomized controlled study of mild traumatic brain injuries. One aim was to describe changes over time after mild traumatic brain injuries in terms of the extent of persisting post-concussion symptoms, life satisfaction, perceived health, activities of daily living, changes in life roles and sick leave. Another aim was to identify differences between the intervention and control groups. Patients: The intervention group comprised 142 persons and the control group 56 persons. Methods: Postal questionnaires with a response rate of 56%. Results: No differences over time were found for the intervention and control groups in terms of post-concussion symptoms. In the intervention group some variables in life satisfaction, perceived health and daily life were decreased. Some roles had changed over the years for both groups. No other differences between the intervention and control groups were found. However, in both groups sick leave decreased. Conclusion: Early individual intervention by a qualified rehabilitation team does not appear to impact on the long-term outcome for persons with symptoms related to mild traumatic brain injuries. The status after approximately 3 weeks is indicative of the status after 10 years.

  • 5.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    The influences of static and interactive dynamic facial stimuli on visual strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2011In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 935-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies, using eye tracking methodology, suggest that different visual strategies in persons with autism spectrum conditions, compared with controls, are applied when viewing facial stimuli. Most eye tracking studies are, however, made in laboratory settings with either static (photos) or non-interactive dynamic stimuli, such as video clips. Whether or not these results are transferable to a "real world" dialogue situation remains unclear. In order to examine the consistency of visual strategies across conditions, a comparison of two static conditions and an interactive dynamic "real world" condition, in 15 adults with Asperger syndrome and 15 matched controls, was made using an eye tracker. The static stimuli consisted of colour photos of faces, while a dialogue between the participants and the test leader created the interactive dynamic condition. A within-group comparison showed that people with AS, and their matched controls, displayed a high degree of stability in visual strategies when viewing faces, regardless of the facial stimuli being static or real, as in the interactive dynamic condition. The consistency in visual strategies within the participants suggests that results from studies with static facial stimuli provide important information on individual visual strategies that may be generalized to "real world" situations.

  • 6.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jonköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    From my perspective - Perceived participation in mainstream schools in students with autism spectrum conditions2012In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 191-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine perceived participation in students with ASC and their classmates in mainstream schools and to investigate correlations between activities the students wanted to do and actually participated in. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Twenty-two students with ASC and their 382 classmates responded to a 46-item questionnaire regarding perceived participation in mainstream schools. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: On 57% of the items, students with ASC perceived lower participation than their classmates. These results emphasize the importance of knowledge about students perceived participation. However, positive correlations between what the students wanted to do and actually did indicate that students with ASC may be participating to the extent that they wanted. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Students with ASC perceived lower overall participation in mainstream school than their classmates. The correlations between "I want to" and "I do" statements in students with ASC indicated that aspects of autonomy are important to incorporate when studying, and interpreting, self-rated participation in mainstream schools.

  • 7.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Anderson, Katie
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Diagnostic procedures in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic literature review2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 329-340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, gold standard diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a lengthy and time consuming process that requires suitably qualified multi-disciplinary team (MDT) personnel to assess behavioural, historical, and parent-report information to determine a diagnosis. A number of different tools have been developed to assist in determination. To optimise the diagnostic procedures, the best diagnostic instruments need to be identified. This study is a systematic review addressing the accuracy, reliability, validity and utility of reported diagnostic tools and assessments. To be included in this review, studies must have (1) identified an ASD diagnostic tool; (2) investigated either diagnostic procedure or the tools or personnel required; (3) be presented in English; (4) be conducted in the Western world; (5) be one of three types of studies [adapted from Samtani et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:1-13, 2011], viz. (a) cohort studies or cross-sectional studies, (b) randomised studies of test accuracy, (c) case-control studies. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were scrutinised for relevant literature published from 2000 inclusive on 20th January 2012. In total, 68 articles were included. 17 tools were assessed. However, many lacked an evidence base of high quality-independent studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) stood out with the largest evidence base and highest sensitivity and specificity. When the ADI-R and ADOS were used in combination they revealed levels of accuracy very similar to the correct classification rates for the current gold standard diagnostic procedure viz. 80.8 % for ASD. There is scope for future studies on the use of the ADI-R and ADOS in combination.

  • 8.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia Jonköping University, Sweden .
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    The influence of static versus naturalistic stimuli on face processing in children with and without Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism2013In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 1617-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions regarding the use of static or dynamic facial stimuli in experimental studies investigating facial processing of individuals with AS/HFA raises issues of both ecological validity and the applicability of experimental findings to clinical or everyday practice. Children with and without AS/HFA (n = 38) were fitted with a head-mounted eye-tracker and exposed to either static or interactive dynamic facial stimuli. Average fixation duration, the proportion of fixations in areas of interest and a comparative index that was independent of differences in presentation length between stimuli types were calculated. Visual scanning patterns of individuals with AS/HFA were not affected by stimuli type. However, control participants exhibited different scanning patterns between dynamic and static stimuli for certain regions of the face. Visual scanning patterns in children with AS/HFA are consistent regardless of the stimuli being a static photo or dynamic in the form of a real face. Hence, information from experimental studies with static photos of faces provide information that is valid and can be generalised to "real world" interactions.

  • 9.
    Lee, Hoe C
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Yanting Chee, Derserri
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Selander, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Is it reliable to assess visual attention of drivers affected by Parkinson's disease from the backseat? - a simulator study2012In: Emerging health threats journal, ISSN 1752-8550, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Current methods of determining licence retainment or cancellation is through on-road driving tests. Previous research has shown that occupational therapists frequently assess drivers' visual attention while sitting in the back seat on the opposite side of the driver. Since the eyes of the driver are not always visible, assessment by eye contact becomes problematic. Such procedural drawbacks may challenge validity and reliability of the visual attention assessments. In terms of correctly classified attention, the aim of the study was to establish the accuracy and the inter-rater reliability of driving assessments of visual attention from the back seat. Furthermore, by establishing eye contact between the assessor and the driver through an additional mirror on the wind screen, the present study aimed to establish how much such an intervention would enhance the accuracy of the visual attention assessment.

    METHODS: Two drivers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and six control drivers drove a fixed route in a driving simulator while wearing a head mounted eye tracker. The eye tracker data showed where the foveal visual attention actually was directed. These data were time stamped and compared with the simultaneous manual scoring of the visual attention of the drivers. In four of the drivers, one with Parkinson's disease, a mirror on the windscreen was set up to arrange for eye contact between the driver and the assessor. Inter-rater reliability was performed with one of the Parkinson drivers driving, but without the mirror.

    RESULTS: Without mirror, the overall accuracy was 56% when assessing the three control drivers and with mirror 83%. However, for the PD driver without mirror the accuracy was 94%, whereas for the PD driver with a mirror the accuracy was 90%. With respect to the inter-rater reliability, a 73% agreement was found.

    CONCLUSION: If the final outcome of a driving assessment is dependent on the subcategory of a protocol assessing visual attention, we suggest the use of an additional mirror to establish eye contact between the assessor and the driver. The clinicians' observations on-road should not be a standalone assessment in driving assessments. Instead, eye trackers should be employed for further analyses and correlation in cases where there is doubt about a driver's attention.

  • 10.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Bolin, Ingrid
    Mobilitetscenter, Gothenburg.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Does Automatic Transmission Improve Driving Behavior in Older Drivers?2012In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most older drivers continue to drive as they age. To maintain safe and independent transport, mobility is important for all individuals, but especially for older drivers. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate whether automatic transmission, compared with manual transmission, may improve the driving behavior of older drivers. Method: In total, 31 older drivers (mean age 75.2 years) and 32 younger drivers used as a control group (mean age 39.2 years) were assessed twice on the same fixed route; once in a car with manual transmission and once in a car with automatic transmission. The cars were otherwise identical. The driving behavior was assessed with the Ryd On-Road Assessment driving protocol. Time to completion of left turns (right-hand side driving) and the impact of a distraction task were measured. Results:The older group had more driving errors than the younger group, in both the manual and the automatic transmission car. However, and contrary to the younger drivers, automatic transmission improved the older participants driving behavior as demonstrated by safer speed adjustment in urban areas, greater maneuvering skills, safer lane position and driving in accordance with the speed regulations. Conclusion: Switching to automatic transmission may be recommended for older drivers as a means to maintain safe driving and thereby the quality of their transport mobility.

  • 11.
    Selander, Helena
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results2011In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 1348-1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eighty-five volunteer drivers, 65-85 years old, without cognitive impairments impacting on their driving were examined, in order to investigate driving errors characteristic for older drivers. In addition, any relationships between cognitive off-road and on-road tests results, the latter being the gold standard, were identified. Performance measurements included Trail Making Test (TMT), Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA), Useful Field of View (UFOV), self-rating driving performance and the two on-road protocols P-Drive and ROA. Some of the older drivers displayed questionable driving behaviour. In total, 21% of the participants failed the on-road assessment. Some of the specific errors were more serious than others. The most common driving errors embraced speed: exceeding the speed limit or not controlling the speed. Correlations with the P-Drive protocol were established for NorSDSA total score (weak), UFOV subtest 2 (weak), and UFOV subtest 3 (moderate). Correlations with the ROA protocol were established for UFOV subtest 2 (weak) and UFOV subtest 3 (weak). P-Drive and self ratings correlated weakly, whereas no correlation between self ratings and the ROA protocol was found. The results suggest that specific problems or errors seen in an older persons driving can actually be "normal driving behaviours".

  • 12.
    Sjodin, Linda
    et al.
    Landstinget Kronoberg.
    Buchanan, Angus
    Curtin University.
    Mundt, Beate
    Jonköping University.
    Karlsson, Emelie
    Jonköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Do vehicle grants and vehicle adaptations grants promote transport mobility and community access for children with disabilities in Sweden?2012In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aim: A vast majority of the journeys made by children with disabilities in Sweden are in the family car, which usually is bought and adapted for the child with governmental subsidies. Despite the important philosophical views about accessible vehicles, little is known about the impact of vehicle adaptations on families lives. The aim of the study was to investigate parent views about the impact of vehicle grants and vehicle adaptation grants on their childrens transport mobility and community access. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: In total, 434 parents of children with disabilities in Sweden who had received vehicle grants and/or vehicle adaptation grants between 1998-2007 responded to a questionnaire comprising questions with both preselected and open-ended answers. A non-responder analysis was performed. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Children with disabilities were found to increase their transport mobility and community access in society as vehicle grants and / or vehicle adaptation grants were given to their parents. Their travel patterns and their travel priorities with their family car indicated that family friends and relatives and leisure activities were frequently visited and prioritised destinations. The grants were linked to access to social and family activities, provided environmental gains and led to increased experienced security. The results also showed that the potential to make spontaneous trips had increased substantially and that families experienced feelings of freedom and enhanced community access. The non-responder analysis confirmed these results. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: According to parents, vehicle grants and vehicle adaptation grants for children with disabilities have a positive impact on the childrens transport mobility and community access.

  • 13.
    Sjörs, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Human Factors, Shipping and Marine Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval performance and on psychophysiological responses2010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion sickness has previously been found to deteriorate performance, e.g., regarding psychomotor functions and short term memory. Sustained ability to perform, despite motion sickness, is crucial in complex working environments. This study focuses on effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words through the use of long term memory. In addition, the temporal development of different psychophysiological responses and their relationship with perceived motion sickness were investigated. Forty healthy participants performed an encoding and retrieval task during exposure to an optokinetic drum. The results were compared with data from 20 controls that performed the task without motion sickness exposure. Measurements of heart rate, heart rate variability, skin conductance, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and skin temperature were made throughout optokinetic drum exposure. Data analyses revealed no significant effects of moderate levels of motion sickness on the ability to encode or retrieve words. We found positive relationships between subjective motion sickness ratings and heart rate, blood volume pulse and skin temperature whereas respiration rate was negatively related to perceived motion sickness. The psychophysiological measurements did not show consistent patterns of sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal, as could be expected. Hence, they are not recommended as predictors of motion sickness.

  • 14.
    Söderberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Khalid, Junaid
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rayees, Mohammed
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    In video war games, are military personnel's fixation patterns different compared with those of civilians?2012In: The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, ISSN 1557-380X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For combat personnel in urban operations, situational awareness is critical and of major importance for a safe and efficient performance. One way to train situational awareness is to adopt video games. Twenty military and 20 civilian subjects played the game “Close Combat: First to Fight” on two different platforms, Xbox and PC, wearing an eye tracker. The purpose was to investigate if the visual search strategies used in a game correspond to live training, and how military-trained personnel search for visual information in a game environment. A total of 27,081 fixations were generated through a centroid mode algorithm and analyzed frame-by-frame, 48% of them from military personnel. Military personnel’s visual search strategies were different from those of civilians. Fixation durations were, however, equally short, that is, about 170 ms, for both groups. Surprisingly, the military-trained personnel’s fixation patterns were less orientated towards tactical objects and areas of interest than the civilians’; the underlying mechanisms remaining unclear. Military training was apparently not advantageous with respect to playing “Close Combat: First to Fight”. Further research within the area of gaming, military training and visual search strategies is warranted.

  • 15.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Curtin University, Australia .
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Andreou, Pantelis
    Dalhousie University, Canada .
    The Case for Using the Repeatability Coefficient When Calculating Test-Retest Reliability2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of standardised tools is an essential component of evidence-based practice. Reliance on standardised tools places demands on clinicians to understand their properties, strengths, and weaknesses, in order to interpret results and make clinical decisions. This paper makes a case for clinicians to consider measurement error (ME) indices Coefficient of Repeatability (CR) or the Smallest Real Difference (SRD) over relative reliability coefficients like the Pearsons (r) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), while selecting tools to measure change and inferring change as true. The authors present statistical methods that are part of the current approach to evaluate test-retest reliability of assessment tools and outcome measurements. Selected examples from a previous test-retest study are used to elucidate the added advantages of knowledge of the ME of an assessment tool in clinical decision making. The CR is computed in the same units as the assessment tool and sets the boundary of the minimal detectable true change that can be measured by the tool.

  • 16.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Passmore, Anne Elizabeth
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Andreou, Pantelis
    Dalhousie University, Canada .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Curtin University, Australia .
    Internal Consistency, Test-Retest Reliability and Measurement Error of the Self-Report Version of the Social Skills Rating System in a Sample of Australian Adolescents2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e. g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  • 17.
    Wagman, Petra
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Håkansson, Carita
    Jönköping University, Sweden .
    Jacobsson, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University, Sweden .
    What is considered important for life balance? Similarities and differences among some working adults2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 377-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life balance seems subjective, health related, and multidimensional. However, the concept is complex. Exploring what people themselves consider more or less important for their life balance and whether this differs between people would develop new knowledge. Q methodology was chosen for the present study, in which 32 working men and women without recent long-term sick leave participated. They sorted 42 statements regarding life balance according to their importance for each participants life balance. The analysis resulted in four different viewpoints concerning life balance. All four viewpoints considered good relationships with those closest to them, as well as knowing that these people were doing well, as important. Each viewpoint also showed a unique orientation towards what was considered important for life balance: occupational balance (viewpoint 1), self-actualization (viewpoint 2), self-awareness (viewpoint 3), and reciprocal relationships (viewpoint 4). The results. showed support for life balance as being a subjective, multidimensional, and health-related phenomenon. The results demonstrated the importance of relationships for life balance and heterogeneity in what people considered important for their own life balance.

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