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  • 1.
    Aho, Nikolas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Proczkowska Björklund, Marie
    Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Peritraumatic reactions in relation to trauma exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress in high school students2017Ingår i: European Journal of Psychotraumatology, ISSN 2000-8066, E-ISSN 2000-8066, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 1380998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to traumatic events is clearly associated with a diversity of subsequent mental health problems, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as the most prevalent disorder. Epidemiologically, trauma exposure rates are more prevalent than PTSD, indicating that most trauma victims do not develop PTSD. More knowledge is needed to understand the development of the different posttraumatic pathways including the significance of pretraumatic, peritraumatic and posttraumatic risk factors. Objective: To study peritraumatic reactions in relation to trauma exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and to enhance our understanding of peritraumatic reactions as mediators between trauma and later symptomatology. Method: The study was composed of a representative community sample of 5332 second year high school students (mean age 17.3 years) who completed the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (SAQ/JVQ), Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC) and answered questions about peritraumatic reactions. Mediation effects of peritraumatic reactions on the trauma exposure relationship to symptoms was tested using the PROCESS macro for SPSS. Results: Traumatic events are common (84.1%) and are accompanied in three-quarters of the students with at least one form of peritraumatic reaction. Peritraumatic reactions, especially peritraumatic dissociative reactions, mediate the relationship between trauma exposure and symptoms, and gender moderates the effect of peritraumatic dissociation. This moderating effect was found to be larger for boys than for girls, indicating gender differences in response to trauma. Conclusions: The results indicate the need to screen for peritraumatic reactions as early as possible after a traumatic event in order to identify those at risk for PTSD.

  • 2.
    Aoun, E. G.
    et al.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA.
    Jimenez, V. A.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Vendruscolo, L. F.
    Scripps Res Inst, CA 92037 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Walter, N. A. R.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ferrulli, A.
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Italy.
    Haass-Koffler, C. L.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Darakjian, P.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Lee, M. R.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    Addolorato, G.
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Italy.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Hitzemann, R.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Koob, G. F.
    Scripps Res Inst, CA 92037 USA; NIAAA, MD 20852 USA.
    Grant, K. A.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97201 USA.
    Leggio, L.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA; NIAAA, MD 20892 USA; NIDA, MD 20892 USA.
    A relationship between the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway and alcohol drinking: preliminary translational findings across rats, monkeys and humans2018Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1466-1473Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aldosterone regulates electrolyte and fluid homeostasis through binding to the mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). Previous work provides evidence for a role of aldosterone in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We tested the hypothesis that high functional activity of the mineralocorticoid endocrine pathway contributes to vulnerability for AUDs. In Study 1, we investigated the relationship between plasma aldosterone levels, ethanol self-administration and the expression of CYP11B2 and MR (NR3C2) genes in the prefrontal cortex area (PFC) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in monkeys. Aldosterone significantly increased after 6- and 12-month ethanol self-administration. NR3C2 expression in the CeA was negatively correlated to average ethanol intake during the 12 months. In Study 2, we measured Nr3c2 mRNA levels in the PFC and CeA of dependent and nondependent rats and the correlates with ethanol drinking during acute withdrawal. Low Nr3c2 expression levels in the CeA were significantly associated with increased anxiety-like behavior and compulsive-like drinking in dependent rats. In Study 3, the relationship between plasma aldosterone levels, alcohol drinking and craving was investigated in alcohol-dependent patients. Non-abstinent patients had significantly higher aldosterone levels than abstinent patients. Aldosterone levels positively correlated with the number of drinks consumed, craving and anxiety scores. These findings support a relationship between ethanol drinking and the aldosterone/MR pathway in three different species.

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theorell, Tores
    University of Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Grape, Tom
    Health Care Centre, Sweden.
    Hammarstrom, Anne
    University of Umeå, Sweden.
    Högstedt, Christer
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Skoog, Ingmar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Traskman-Bendz, Lil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hall, Charlotte
    Swedish Council Health Technology Assessment, Sweden.
    A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and burnout symptoms2017Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, artikel-id 264Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies -original as well as reviews-restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms. Methods: A wide range of work exposure factors was screened. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Study performed in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand 1990-2013. 2) Prospective or comparable case control design. 3) Assessments of exposure (work) and outcome at baseline and at least once again during follow up 1-5 years later. Twenty-five articles met the predefined relevance and quality criteria. The GRADE-system with its 4-grade evidence scale was used. Results: Most of the 25 studies focused emotional exhaustion, fewer cynicism and still fewer personal accomplishment. Moderately strong evidence (grade 3) was concluded for the association between job control and reduced emotional exhaustion and between low workplace support and increased emotional exhaustion. Limited evidence (grade 2) was found for the associations between workplace justice, demands, high work load, low reward, low supervisor support, low co-worker support, job insecurity and change in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism was associated with most of these work factors. Reduced personal accomplishment was only associated with low reward. There were few prospective studies with sufficient quality on adverse chemical, biological and physical factors and burnout. Conclusion: While high levels of job support and workplace justice were protective for emotional exhaustion, high demands, low job control, high work load, low reward and job insecurity increased the risk for developing exhaustion. Our approach with a wide range of work exposure factors analysed in relation to the separate dimensions of burnout expanded the knowledge of associations, evidence as well as research needs. The potential of organizational interventions is illustrated by the findings that burnout symptoms are strongly influenced by structural factors such as job demands, support and the possibility to exert control.

  • 4.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dulman, Russell S
    Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    Licheri, Valentina
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, 413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Augier, Gaëlle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Domi, Esi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Barchiesi, Riccardo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Farris, Sean
    The Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
    Nätt, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Mayfield, R Dayne
    The Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
    Adermark, Louise
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, 413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    A molecular mechanism for choosing alcohol over an alternative reward.2018Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, nr 6395, s. 1321-1326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol addiction leads to increased choice of alcohol over healthy rewards. We established an exclusive choice procedure in which ~15% of outbred rats chose alcohol over a high-value reward. These animals displayed addiction-like traits, including high motivation to obtain alcohol and pursuit of this drug despite adverse consequences. Expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-3 was selectively decreased within the amygdala of alcohol-choosing rats, whereas a knockdown of this transcript reversed choice preference of rats that originally chose a sweet solution over alcohol. GAT-3 expression was selectively decreased in the central amygdala of alcohol-dependent people compared to those who died of unrelated causes. Impaired GABA clearance within the amygdala contributes to alcohol addiction, appears to translate between species, and may offer targets for new pharmacotherapies for treating this disorder.

  • 5.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dulman, Russell S.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Damadzic, Ruslan
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Pilling, Andrew
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Hamilton, Paul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    The GABA(B) Positive Allosteric Modulator ADX71441 Attenuates Alcohol Self-Administration and Relapse to Alcohol Seeking in Rats2017Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 42, nr 9, s. 1789-1799Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    GABAergic signaling is involved in modulating the reinforcing properties of alcohol, and GABA(B) receptors have been proposed as a potential target for clinical treatment of alcoholism. The orthosteric GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to suppress operant self-administration of alcohol in animals and alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients, but its utility is limited by a narrow therapeutic index. We tested the effects of ADX71441, a novel GABA(B) receptor positive allosteric modulator, on alcohol-related behaviors in rats. We first assessed the effects of ADX71441 ( 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, I.P.) on both non-dependent and dependent male Wistar rats trained to self-administer 20% alcohol. We then determined the effects of ADX71441 on stress-induced as well as cue-induced relapse-like behavior. Finally, we sought to identify the brain regions through which ADX71441 may act to prevent relapse-like behavior by mapping the neuronal activation induced by stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking using c-Fos immunohistochemistry. ADX71441 dose-dependently decreased alcohol self-administration of both dependent and non-dependent animals, but its potency was higher in alcohol-dependent rats. Furthermore, both cue-and stress-induced alcohol seeking were blocked by the GABA(B) receptor positive allosteric modulator. Finally, pretreatment with 3 mg/kg of ADX71441 before stress-induced reinstatement significantly decreased c-Fos expression in a network of brain regions implicated in stress-induced relapse, comprising the nucleus accumbens shell, the dorsal raphe nucleus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings support a causal role of GABAB receptors in alcohol reinforcement and relapse to alcohol seeking. These effects are observed in the absence of significant sedative side effects. Jointly, these observations indicate that GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulators merit being tested clinically for the treatment of alcoholism. Our data also point to a potential biomarker of target engagement for early clinical studies.

  • 6.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dulman, Russell S.
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Singley, Erick
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    A Method for Evaluating the Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol in Rats without Water Deprivation, Saccharin Fading or Extended Access Training2017Ingår i: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, nr 119, artikel-id e53305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operant oral self-administration methods are commonly used to study the reinforcing properties of ethanol in animals. However, the standard methods require saccharin/sucrose fading, water deprivation and/or extended training to initiate operant responding in rats. This paper describes a novel and efficient method to quickly initiate operant responding for ethanol that is convenient for experimenters and does not require water deprivation or saccharin/sucrose fading, thus eliminating the potential confound of using sweeteners in ethanol operant self-administration studies. With this method, Wistar rats typically acquire and maintain self-administration of a 20% ethanol solution in less than two weeks of training. Furthermore, blood ethanol concentrations and rewards are positively correlated for a 30 min self-administration session. Moreover, naltrexone, an FDA-approved medication for alcohol dependence that has been shown to suppress ethanol self-administration in rodents, dose-dependently decreases alcohol intake and motivation to consume alcohol for rats self-administering 20% ethanol, thus validating the use of this new method to study the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats.

  • 7.
    Aziz, Abdul Maruf Asif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Neuropeptide Receptors as Treatment Targets in Alcohol Use Disorders2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex disorder with multiple pathophysiological processes contributing to the initiation, progression and development of the disease state. AUD is a chronic relapsing disease with escalation of alcohol-intake over time in repeated cycles of tolerance, abstinence and relapse and hence, it is very difficult to treat. There are only a few currently available treatments with narrow efficacy and variable patient response. Thus it is important to find new, more effective medications to increase the number of patients who can benefit from pharmacological treatment of AUD.

    The research presented in this thesis work focuses on the critical involvement of central neuropeptides in alcohol-related behaviors. The overall aim was to evaluate the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor and the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor 1 as novel and potential pharmacological treatment targets for AUD by testing the NOP receptor agonist SR-8993, the NPY-Y2 receptor antagonist CYM-9840 and the MCH1 receptor antagonist GW803430 in established animal models.

    In the first study (Paper I), the novel and selective NOP agonist SR-8993 was assessed in rat models of motivation to obtain alcohol and relapse to alcohol seeking behavior using the operant self-administration (SA) paradigm. Firstly, treatment with SR-8993 (1 mg/kg) showed a mildly anxiolytic effect and reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced “hangover” anxiety in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Next, it potently attenuated alcohol SA and motivation to obtain alcohol in the progressive ratio responding (PRR) and reduced both alcohol cue-induced and yohimbine stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, without affecting the pharmacology and metabolism of alcohol nor other control behaviors. To extend these findings, SR-8993 was evaluated in escalated alcohol-intake in rats.  Treatment with SR-8993 significantly suppressed alcohol-intake and preference in rats that were trained to consume high amounts of alcohol in the two-bottle free choice intermittent access (IA) paradigm. SR-8993 also blocked operant SA of alcohol in rats that showed robust escalation in operant alcohol SA following chronic IA exposure to alcohol.

    In the second study (Paper II), SR-8993 was further evaluated in a model for escalated alcohol-intake induced by long-term IA exposure to alcohol. The effect of previous experience on operant alcohol SA on two-bottle free choice preference drinking was evaluated and sensitivity to treatment with SR-8993 was tested in rats selected for escalated and non-escalated alcohol seeking behavior. We found that rats exposed to the combined SA-IA paradigm showed greater sensitivity to SR-8993 treatment. In addition, acute escalation of alcohol SA after a three-week period of abstinence was completely abolished by pretreatment with SR-8993.

    In the third study (Paper III), the effects of the novel, small molecule NPY-Y2 antagonist CYM-9840 were tested in operant alcohol SA, PRR which is a model for motivation to work for alcohol and reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. Treatment with CYM-9840 (10 mg/kg) potently attenuated alcohol SA, progressive ratio responding and stress-induced reinstatement using yohimbine as the stressor, while alcohol cue-induced reinstatement was unaffected. Moreover, a range of control behaviors including taste sensitivity, locomotor and pharmacological sensitivity to the sedative effects of alcohol remained unaffected by CYM-9840 pretreatment, indicating that its effects are specific to the rewarding and motivational aspects of alcohol-intake and related behaviors. CYM-9840 also reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced “hangover” anxiety measured in the EPM and reduced alcohol-intake in the 4 hour limited access two-bottle free choice preference drinking model.

    Finally, in the fourth study (Paper IV), the selective MCH1-R antagonist GW803430 was tested in rat models of escalated alcohol-intake. Pretreatment with GW803430 (effective at 10 & 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced alcohol and food-intake in rats that consumed high amounts of alcohol during IA, while it only decreased food-intake in rats that consumed low amounts of alcohol during IA, likely due to a floor effect. Upon protracted abstinence following IA, GW803430 significantly reduced operant alcohol SA and this was associated with adaptations in MCH and MCH1-R gene-expression. In contrast, GW803430 did not affect escalated alcohol SA induced by chronic alcohol vapor exposure and this was accompanied by no change in MCH or MCH1-R gene expression. Overall, these results suggest that the MCH1-R antagonist affects alcohol-intake through regulation of both motivation for caloric-intake and the rewarding properties of alcohol.

    In conclusion, our results suggest critical roles for these central neuropeptides in the regulation of anxiety and of alcohol reward, making them potential pharmacological targets in the treatment of AUD.

    Delarbeten
    1. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist SR-8993 as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders: validation in rat models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist SR-8993 as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders: validation in rat models
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 233, nr 19-20, s. 3553-3563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    RATIONALE: Alcoholism is a complex disorder in which diverse pathophysiological processes contribute to initiation and progression, resulting in a high degree of heterogeneity among patients. Few pharmacotherapies are presently available, and patient responses to these are variable. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor has been suggested to play a role both in alcohol reward and in negatively reinforced alcohol seeking. Previous studies have shown that NOP-receptor activation reduces alcohol intake in genetically selected alcohol-preferring as well as alcohol-dependent rats. NOP activation also blocks stress- and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior.

    OBJECTIVES: Here, we aimed to examine a novel, potent, and brain-penetrant small-molecule NOP-receptor agonist, SR-8993, in animal models of alcohol- as well as anxiety-related behavior using male Wistar rats.

    RESULTS: SR-8993 was mildly anxiolytic when given to naïve animals and potently reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced ("hangover") anxiety. SR-8993 reduced both home-cage limited access drinking, operant responding for alcohol, and escalation induced through prolonged intermittent access to alcohol. SR-8993 further attenuated stress- as well as cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. For the effective dose (1.0 mg/kg), non-specific effects such as sedation may be limited, since a range of control behaviors were unaffected, and this dose did not interact with alcohol elimination.

    CONCLUSION: These findings provide further support for NOP-receptor agonism as a promising candidate treatment for alcoholism and establish SR-8993 or related molecules as suitable for further development as therapeutics.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Nociception/orphanin FQ, Agonist, Wistar rat, Alcohol, Operant, Reinstatement, Elevated plus-maze
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Beroendelära
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132347 (URN)10.1007/s00213-016-4385-8 (DOI)000383672500006 ()27515665 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|National Institutes of Health [R01-DA035055]; Swedish Research Council [2010-3219]

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-12 Skapad: 2016-11-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-08-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone and Its MCH-1 Receptor: Relationship Between Effects on Alcohol and Caloric Intake
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Melanin-Concentrating Hormone and Its MCH-1 Receptor: Relationship Between Effects on Alcohol and Caloric Intake
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 40, nr 10, s. 2199-2207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reward and energy homeostasis are both regulated by a network of hypothalamic neuropeptide systems. The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and its MCH-1 receptor (MCH1-R) modulate alcohol intake, but it remains unknown to what extent this reflects actions on energy balance or reward. Here, we evaluated the MCH1-R in regulation of caloric intake and motivation to consume alcohol in states of escalated consumption.

    Methods: Rats had intermittent access (IA) to alcohol and were divided into high- and low-drinking groups. Food and alcohol consumption was assessed after administration of an MCH1-R antagonist, GW803430. Next, GW803430 was evaluated on alcohol self-administration in protracted abstinence induced by IA in high-drinking rats. Finally, the effect of GW803430 was assessed on alcohol self-administration in acute withdrawal in rats exposed to alcohol vapor. Gene expression of MCH and MCH1-R was measured in the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both acute and protracted abstinence.

    Results: High-drinking IA rats consumed more calories from alcohol than chow and GW803430 decreased both chow and alcohol intake. In low-drinking rats, only food intake was affected. In protracted abstinence from IA, alcohol self-administration was significantly reduced by pretreatment with GW803430 and gene expression of both MCH and the MCH1-R were dysregulated in hypothalamus and NAc. In contrast, during acute withdrawal from vapor exposure, treatment with GW803430 did not affect alcohol self-administration, and no changes in MCH or MCH1-R gene expression were observed.

    Conclusions: Our data suggest a dual role of MCH and the MCH1-R in regulation of alcohol intake, possibly through mechanisms involving caloric intake and reward motivation. A selective suppression of alcohol self-administration during protracted abstinence by GW803430 was observed and accompanied by adaptations in gene expression of MCH and MCH1-R. Selective suppression of escalated consumption renders the MCH1-R an attractive target for treatment of alcohol use disorders.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Alcohol Escalation, Reward, Motivation, Calorie Intake, Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Receptor-1
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Beroendelära
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132522 (URN)10.1111/acer.13181 (DOI)000385542900017 ()27579857 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-14 Skapad: 2016-11-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-19Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 8.
    Badiani, Aldo
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Sussex Addiction Research and Intervention Centre (SARIC), University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
    Berridge, Kent C.
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Nutt, David J.
    Imperial College, London, UK.
    Robinson, Terry E.
    Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Comments: Addiction research and theory: a commentary on the Surgeon Generals Report on alcohol, drugs, and health2018Ingår i: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 3-5Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Office of the Surgeon General recently produced its first Report on the consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on health, making several very laudable policy recommendations. The Report also emphasizes the importance of adequate funding for biomedical research, which is good news for both researchers and patients. However, the Report is marred by a biased viewpoint on the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. We highlight here four controversial issues that were depicted as facts in the Report, thereby potentially misleading non-expert readers about the current state-of-the-art understanding of the psychology and neurobiology of drug addiction. It will be important to recognize a fuller range of scientific viewpoints in addiction neuroscience to avoid amplifying this bias in the coming years.

  • 9.
    Baker, Maggie
    et al.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Lindell, Stephen G.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Driscoll, Carlos A.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Zhou, Zhifeng
    NIAAA, USA.
    Yuan, Qiaoping
    NIAAA, USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie L.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Miller-Crews, Isaac
    NIAAA, USA.
    Simpson, Elizabeth A.
    Eunice Shriver Kennedy National Institute Child Health and Huma, MD 20837 USA.
    Paukner, Annika
    Eunice Shriver Kennedy National Institute Child Health and Huma, MD 20837 USA.
    Francesco Ferrari, Pier
    University of Claude Bernard Lyon, France.
    Kumar Sindhu, Ravi
    NIAAA, MD 20852 USA.
    Razaqyar, Muslima
    NIAAA, USA.
    Sommer, Wolfgang H.
    Heidelberg University, Germany; Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Lopez, Juan F.
    University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Thompson, Robert C.
    University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Goldman, David
    NIAAA, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Dee Higley, J.
    Brigham Young University, UT 84602 USA.
    Suomi, Stephen J.
    Eunice Shriver Kennedy National Institute Child Health and Huma, MD 20837 USA.
    Barr, Christina S.
    NIAAA, USA.
    Early rearing history influences oxytocin receptor epigenetic regulation in rhesus macaques2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, nr 44, s. 11769-11774Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptations to stress can occur through epigenetic processes and may be a conduit for informing offspring of environmental challenge. We employed ChIP-sequencing for H3K4me3 to examine effects of early maternal deprivation (peer-rearing, PR) in archived rhesus macaque hippocampal samples (male, n = 13). Focusing on genes with roles in stress response and behavior, we assessed the effects of rearing on H3K4me3 binding by ANOVA. We found decreased H3K4me3 binding at genes critical to behavioral stress response, the most robust being the oxytocin receptor gene OXTR, for which we observed a corresponding decrease in RNA expression. Based on this finding, we performed behavioral analyses to deter mine whether a gain-of-function nonsynonymous OXTR SNP inter acted with early stress to influence relevant behavioral stress reactivity phenotypes (n = 194), revealing that this SNP partially rescued the PR phenotype. PR infants exhibited higher levels of separation anxiety and arousal in response to social separation, but infants carrying the alternative OXTR allele did not exhibit as great a separation response. These data indicate that the oxytocin system is involved in social-separation response and suggest that epigenetic down-modulation of OXTR could contribute to behavior al differences observed in PR animals. Epigenetic changes at OXTR may represent predictive adaptive responses that could impart readiness to respond to environmental challenge or maintain proximity to a caregiver but also contribute to behavioral pathology. Our data also demonstrate that OXTR polymorphism can permit animals to partially overcome the detrimental effects of early maternal deprivation, which could have translational implications for human psychiatric disorders.

  • 10.
    Barbier, Estelle
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    mTORC and ProSAPiP1: How Alcohol Changes Synapses of Reward Circuitry2017Ingår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 96, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol addiction is characterized by broad and persistent changes in brain function, but the underlying neural adaptations remain largely unknown. In this issue of Neuron, Laguesse et al. (2017) describe a neural mechanism through which long-term alcohol exposure induces structural and synaptic adaptations that promote excessive alcohol use.

  • 11.
    Barbier, Estelle
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Johnstone, A. L.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Khomtchouk, B. B.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Tapocik, J. D.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Pitcairn, C.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Rehman, F.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Augier, Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Borich, A.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Schank, J. R.
    University of Georgia, GA 30602 USA.
    Rienas, C. A.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Van Booven, D. J.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Sun, H.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Nätt, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wahlestedt, C.
    University of Miami, FL 33136 USA; University of Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken. NIAAA, MD USA.
    Dependence-induced increase of alcohol self-administration and compulsive drinking mediated by the histone methyltransferase PRDM22017Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 22, nr 12, s. 1746-1758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetic processes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but the specific molecular mechanisms mediating dependence-induced neuroadaptations remain largely unknown. Here, we found that a history of alcohol dependence persistently decreased the expression of Prdm2, a histone methyltransferase that monomethylates histone 3 at the lysine 9 residue (H3K9me1), in the rat dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). Downregulation of Prdm2 was associated with decreased H3K9me1, supporting that changes in Prdm2 mRNA levels affected its activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing showed that genes involved in synaptic communication are epigenetically regulated by H3K9me1 in dependent rats. In non-dependent rats, viral-vector-mediated knockdown of Prdm2 in the dmPFC resulted in expression changes similar to those observed following a history of alcohol dependence. Prdm2 knockdown resulted in increased alcohol self-administration, increased aversion-resistant alcohol intake and enhanced stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking, a phenocopy of postdependent rats. Collectively, these results identify a novel epigenetic mechanism that contributes to the development of alcohol-seeking behavior following a history of dependence.

  • 12.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Clinical Neuroscience Stockholm, Sweden .
    Landén, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Sweden.
    Waern, Magda
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska akademin, Sweden.
    Socialstyrelsens målnivåer signalerar brist på tillit in Lakartidningen, vol 114, issue , pp2017Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Bendas, Johanna
    et al.
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Georgiadis, Janniko R.
    University of Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands.
    Ritschel, Gerhard
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Weidner, Kerstin
    Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    Croy, Ilona
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Technical University of Dresden, Germany.
    C-Tactile Mediated Erotic Touch Perception Relates to Sexual Desire and Performance in a Gender-Specific Way2017Ingår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 645-653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors-the so-called C-tactile (CT) afferents-play a crucial role in the perception and conduction of caressing and pleasant touch sensations and significantly contribute to the concept of erotic touch perception. Aim: To investigate the relations between sexual desire and sexual performance and the perception of touch mediated by CT afferents. Methods: Seventy healthy participants (28 men, 42 women; mean age+/-SD = 24.84+/-4.08 years, range = 18-36 years) underwent standardized and highly controlled stroking stimulation that varied in the amount of CT fiber stimulation by changing stroking velocity (CT optimal = 1, 3 and 10 cm/s; CT suboptimal = 0.1, 0.3, and 30 cm/s). Participants rated the perceived pleasantness, eroticism, and intensity of the applied tactile stimulation on a visual analog scale, completed the Sexual Desire Inventory, and answered questions about sexual performance. Outcomes: Ratings of perceived eroticism of touch were related to self-report levels of sexual desire and sexual performance. Results: Pleasantness and eroticism ratings showed similar dependence on stroking velocity that aligned with the activity of CT afferents. Erotic touch perception was related to sexual desire and sexual performance in a gender-specific way. In women, differences in eroticism ratings between CT optimal and suboptimal velocities correlated positively with desire for sexual interaction. In contrast, in men, this difference correlated to a decreased frequency and longer duration of partnered sexual activities. Clinical Implications: The present results lay the foundation for future research assessing these relations in patients with specific impairments of sexual functioning (eg, hypoactive sexual desire disorder). Strengths and Limitations: The strength of the study is the combination of standardized neurophysiologic methods and behavioral data. A clear limitation of the study design is the exclusion of exact data on the female menstrual cycle and the recruitment of an inhomogeneous sample concerning sexual orientation. Conclusion: The present results provide further evidence that unmyelinated CT afferents play a role in the complex mechanism of erotic touch perception. The ability to differentiate between CT optimal and suboptimal stimuli relates to sexual desire and performance in a gender-specific way. Copyright (C) 2017, International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Bergamino, Maurizio
    et al.
    Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, USA.
    Farmer, Madison
    Roosevelt University, Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Yeh, Hung-Wen
    Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, USA.
    Paul, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hamilton, Paul J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Statistical differences in the white matter tracts in subjects with depression by using different skeletonized voxel-wise analysis approaches and DTI fitting procedures2017Ingår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1669, s. 131-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most significant contributors to the global burden of illness. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a procedure that has been used in several studies to characterize abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructural integrity in MDD. These studies, however, have provided divergent findings, potentially due to the large variety of methodological alternatives available in conducting DTI research. In order to determine the importance of different approaches to coregistration of DTI-derived metrics to a standard space, we compared results from two different skeletonized voxel-wise analysis approaches: the standard TBBS pipeline and the Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTs) approach incorporating a symmetric image normalization (SyN) algorithm and a group-wise template (ANTs TBSS). We also assessed effects of applying twelve different fitting procedures for the diffusion tensor. For our dataset, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) in depressed subjects compared with healthy controls were found for both methods and for all fitting procedures. No group differences were found for radial and mean diffusivity indices. Importantly, for the AD metric, the normalization methods and fitting procedures showed reliable differences, both in the volume and in the number of significant between-groups difference clusters detected. Additionally, a significant voxel-based correlation, in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, between AD and self-reported stress was found only for one of the normalization procedure (ANTs TBSS). In conclusion, the sensitivity to detect group-level effects on DTI metrics might depend on the DTI normalization and/or tensor fitting procedures used.

  • 15.
    Bershad, Anya K.
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Mayo, Leah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Van Hedger, Kathryne
    Univ Western Ontario, Canada.
    McGlone, Francis
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England; Univ Liverpool, England.
    Walker, Susannah C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, England.
    de Wit, Harriet
    Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Effects of MDMA on attention to positive social cues and pleasantness of affective touch2019Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 44, nr 10, s. 1698-1705Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychostimulant drug +/- 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reportedly produces distinctive feelings of empathy and closeness with others. MDMA increases social behavior in animal models and has shown promise in psychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). How it produces these prosocial effects is not known. This behavioral and psychophysiological study examined the effects of MDMA, compared with the prototypical stimulant methamphetamine (MA), on two measures of social behavior in healthy young adults: (i) responses to socially relevant, "affective" touch, and (ii) visual attention to emotional faces. Men and women (N = 36) attended four sessions in which they received MDMA (0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg), MA (20 mg), or a placebo in randomized order under double-blind conditions. Responses to experienced and observed affective touch (i.e., being touched or watching others being touched) were assessed using facial electromyography (EMG), a proxy of affective state. Responses to emotional faces were assessed using electrooculography (EOG) in a measure of attentional bias. Subjective ratings were also included. We hypothesized that MDMA, but not MA, would enhance the ratings of pleasantness and psychophysiological responses to affective touch and increase attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. Consistent with this, we found that MDMA, but not MA, selectively enhanced ratings of pleasantness of experienced affective touch. Neither drug altered the ratings of pleasantness of observed touch. On the EOG measure of attentional bias, MDMA, but not MA, increased attention toward happy faces. These results provide new evidence that MDMA can enhance the experience of positive social interactions; in this case, pleasantness of physical touch and attentional bias toward positive facial expressions. The findings are consistent with evidence that the prosocial effects are unique to MDMA relative to another stimulant. Understanding the behavioral and neurobiological processes underlying the distinctive social effects of MDMA is a key step to developing the drug for psychiatric disorders.

  • 16.
    Birznieks, Ingvars
    et al.
    UNSW Sydney, Australia; Neurosci Res Australia, Australia; Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Mcintyre, Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Neurosci Res Australia, Australia; Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Nilsson, Hanna Maria
    Linköpings universitet. Sweden; Neurosci Res Australia, Australia.
    Nagi, Saad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Macefield, Vaughan G.
    Neurosci Res Australia, Australia; Western Sydney Univ, Australia; Baker Heart and Diabet Inst, Australia.
    Mahns, David A.
    Western Sydney Univ, Australia.
    Vickery, Richard M.
    UNSW Sydney, Australia; Neurosci Res Australia, Australia.
    Tactile sensory channels over-ruled by frequency decoding system that utilizes spike pattern regardless of receptor type2019Ingår i: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 8, artikel-id e46510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The established view is that vibrotactile stimuli evoke two qualitatively distinctive cutaneous sensations, flutter (frequencies amp;lt; 60 Hz) and vibratory hum (frequencies amp;gt; 60 Hz), subserved by two distinct receptor types (Meissners and Pacinian corpuscle, respectively), which may engage different neural processing pathways or channels and fulfil quite different biological roles. In psychological and physiological literature, those two systems have been labelled as Pacinian and non-Pacinian channels. However, we present evidence that low-frequency spike trains in Pacinian afferents can readily induce a vibratory percept with the same low frequency attributes as sinusoidal stimuli of the same frequency, thus demonstrating a universal frequency decoding system. We achieved this using brief low-amplitude pulsatile mechanical stimuli to selectively activate Pacinian afferents. This indicates that spiking pattern, regardless of receptor type, determines vibrotactile frequency perception. This mechanism may underlie the constancy of vibrotactile frequency perception across different skin regions innervated by distinct afferent types.

  • 17.
    Björnsdotter Åberg, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Davidovic, Monika
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karjalainen, Louise
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Starck, Goran
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurofysiologiska kliniken US. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wentz, Elisabet
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Grey matter correlates of autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa2018Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, ISSN 1180-4882, E-ISSN 1488-2434, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 79-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls. The Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) scale was used to assess autistic traits. Results: Women with anorexia nervosa (n = 25) had higher AQ scores and lower bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) grey matter volumes than the control group (n = 25). The AQ scores correlated negatively with average left STS grey matter volume in women with anorexia nervosa. Limitations: We did not control for cognitive ability and examined only women with ongoing anorexia nervosa. Conclusion: Elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa are associated with morphometric alterations of brain areas linked to social cognition. This finding provides neurobiological support for the behavioural link between anorexia nervosa and ASD and emphasizes the importance of recognizing autistic traits in preventing and treating-anorexia nervosa.

  • 18.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Engblom, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Neural Mechanisms of Inflammation-Induced Fever2018Ingår i: The Neuroscientist, ISSN 1073-8584, E-ISSN 1089-4098, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 381-399Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fever is a common symptom of infectious and inflammatory disease. It is well-established that prostaglandin E-2 is the final mediator of fever, which by binding to its EP3 receptor subtype in the preoptic hypothalamus initiates thermogenesis. Here, we review the different hypotheses on how the presence of peripherally released pyrogenic substances can be signaled to the brain to elicit fever. We conclude that there is unequivocal evidence for a humoral signaling pathway by which proinflammatory cytokines, through their binding to receptors on brain endothelial cells, evoke fever by eliciting prostaglandin E-2 synthesis in these cells. The evidence for a role for other signaling routes for fever, such as signaling via circumventricular organs and peripheral nerves, as well as transfer into the brain of peripherally synthesized prostaglandin E-2 are yet far from conclusive. We also review the efferent limb of the pyrogenic pathways. We conclude that it is well established that prostaglandin E-2 binding in the preoptic hypothalamus produces fever by disinhibition of presympathetic neurons in the brain stem, but there is yet little understanding of the mechanisms by which factors such as nutritional status and ambient temperature shape the response to the peripheral immune challenge.

  • 19.
    Bouwmeester, S
    et al.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Aczel, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Barbosa, F
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Bègue, L
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Brañas-Garza, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Chmura, TGH
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Cornelissen, G
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Døssing, FS
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Espín, AM
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Evans, AM
    Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Ferreira-Santos, S
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Fiedler, S
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Flegr, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ghaffari, M
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Glöckner, A
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Goeschl, T
    University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Guo, L
    University of California, USA.
    Hauser, OP
    Harvard University, USA.
    Hernan-Gonzalez, R
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Herrero, A
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Horne, Z
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Houdek, P
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Johannesson, M
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kujal, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Laine, T
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Lohse, J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Martins, EC
    Maia University, Institute ISMI/CPUP, USA.
    Mauro, C
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Mischkowski, D
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Mukherjee, S
    Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, India.
    Myrseth, KOR
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Navarro-Martínez, D
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Neal, TMS
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Novakova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pagà, R
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paiva, TO
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Palfi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Piovesan, M
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rahal, RM
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Salomon, E
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Srinivasan, N
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Srivastava, A
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Szaszi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Szollosi, A
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Thor, K Ø
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trueblood, JS
    Vanderbilt University, USA.
    van Bavel, JJ
    New York University, USA.
    van ‘t Veer, A. E.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Warner, M
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wengström, E
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wills, J
    New York University, USA.
    Wollbrant, CE
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; NTNU Business School, Norway.
    Registered Replication Report: Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012): Multilab direct replication of: Study 7 from Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012) Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430.2017Ingår i: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 527-542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time-pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation. 

  • 20.
    Brus, O.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Cao, Y.
    Örebro University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, E.
    Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hulten, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Landen, M.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Nordanskog, Pia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Nordenskjold, A.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Self-assessed remission rates after electroconvulsive therapy of depressive disorders2017Ingår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, s. 154-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) effectively treats severe depression, but not all patients remit. The aim of the study was to identify clinical factors that associate with ECT-induced remission in a community setting. Methods: Depressed patients who underwent ECT in 2011-2014 were identified from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Remission was defined as self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores of 0-10 after ECT. Other registers provided data on previous antidepressant use, comorbidities, and demographics. Results: Of 1671 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 42.8% achieved remission. Older age, education length over 9 years, psychotic symptoms, shorter duration of preceding antidepressant use, pulse width stimulus amp;gt;= 0.50 ms, absence of substance use disorders, anxiety diagnosis, lamotrigine, and benzodiazepines, were associated with remission. Conclusions: This study shows that psychotic subtype of depression and older age are clinically relevant predictors of a beneficial ECT effect. Additionally, ECT outcomes can be further improved by optimizing the treatment technique and concomitant medication. (C) 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  • 21.
    Bäckryd, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Stiftelsen NEPI - nätverk för läkmedelsepidemiologi - Linköping, Sweden .
    Dynamiken i förskrivningen av opioider i Sverige 2000–2015 - Markanta omfördelningar inom opioidgruppen, men ingen »epidemi«2017Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Opioid prescription changes in Sweden 2000-2015 In contrast to the well-established »opioid epidemic« in the US, very little is known about how the prescription of opioids in Sweden has developed during the last decade. Aggregated data from the open Statistical database of the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare were analyzed descriptively. The yearly prevalence of opioid prescription did not change 2006-2015, but there were dramatic shifts in the choice of opioids. During this period, dextropropoxyphene was pulled off the market. Tramadol was used by fewer individuals (-54 % over the decade), but dosages expressed as Defined Daily Dose/patient/year (DDD/pat/y) increased (+41 %). In contrast, oxycodone and morphine were used by more individuals (+465 % and +137 %, respectively), but DDD/pat/y decreased during the period (-56% and -54%). Studies on non-aggregated data from available registries are needed to further elucidate the circumstances and possible consequences of these shifts in opioid prescription patterns.

  • 22.
    Böhme, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Hauser, Steven
    Univ Virginia, VA 22904 USA.
    Gerling, Gregory J.
    Univ Virginia, VA 22904 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurofysiologiska kliniken US.
    Distinction of self-produced touch and social touch at cortical and spinal cord levels2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, nr 6, s. 2290-2299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation between self-produced tactile stimuli and touch by others is necessary for social interactions and for a coherent concept of "self." The mechanisms underlying this distinction are unknown. Here, we investigated the distinction between self-and other-produced light touch in healthy volunteers using three different approaches: fMRI, behavioral testing, and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) at spinal and cortical levels. Using fMRI, we found self-other differentiation in somatosensory and sociocognitive areas. Other-touch was related to activation in several areas, including somatosensory cortex, insula, superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, striatum, amygdala, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex. During self-touch, we instead found deactivation in insula, anterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and prefrontal areas. Deactivation extended into brain areas encoding low-level sensory representations, including thalamus and brainstem. These findings were replicated in a second cohort. During self-touch, the sensorimotor cortex was functionally connected to the insula, and the threshold for detection of an additional tactile stimulus was elevated. Differential encoding of self-vs. other-touch during fMRI correlated with the individual self-concept strength. In SEP, cortical amplitudes were reduced during self-touch, while latencies at cortical and spinal levels were faster for other-touch. We thus demonstrated a robust self-other distinction in brain areas related to somatosensory, social cognitive, and interoceptive processing. Signs of this distinction were evident at the spinal cord. Our results provide a framework for future studies in autism, schizophrenia, and emotionally unstable personality disorder, conditions where symptoms include social touch avoidance and poor self-vs.-other discrimination.

  • 23.
    Böhme, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Charite, Germany.
    Lorenz, Robert C.
    Charite, Germany; Max Planck Institute Human Dev, Germany.
    Gleich, Tobias
    Charite, Germany; NeuroCure Excellence Cluster, Germany.
    Romund, Lydia
    Charite, Germany.
    Pelz, Patricia
    Charite, Germany.
    Golde, Sabrina
    Charite, Germany.
    Flemming, Eva
    Charite, Germany.
    Wold, Andrew
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Deserno, Lorenz
    Charite, Germany; Max Planck Institute Human Cognit and Brain Science, Germany; Otto von Guericke University, Germany.
    Behr, Joachim
    Charite, Germany; Charite, Germany; Medical School Brandenburg, Germany.
    Raufelder, Diana
    Freie University, Germany.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Charite, Germany.
    Beck, Anne
    Charite, Germany.
    Reversal learning strategy in adolescence is associated with prefrontal cortex activation2017Ingår i: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 129-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is a critical maturation period for human cognitive control and executive function. In this study, a large sample of adolescents (n=85) performed a reversal learning task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We analyzed behavioral data using a reinforcement learning model to provide individually fitted parameters and imaging data with regard to reward prediction errors (PE). Following a model-based approach, we formed two groups depending on whether individuals tended to update expectations predominantly for the chosen stimulus or also for the unchosen one. These groups significantly differed in their problem behavior score obtained using the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and in a measure of their developmental stage. Imaging results showed that dorsolateral striatal areas covaried with PE. Participants who relied less on learning based on task structure showed less prefrontal activation compared with participants who relied more on task structure. An exploratory analysis revealed that PE-related activity was associated with pubertal development in prefrontal areas, insula and anterior cingulate. These findings support the hypothesis that the prefrontal cortex is implicated in mediating flexible goal-directed behavioral control.

  • 24.
    Carlhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Källén, Karin
    Institution of Clinical Sciences Lund, Center for Reproductive Epidemiology, Tornblad Institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Maternal plasma leptin levels in relation to the duration of the active phase of labor2018Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 97, nr 10, s. 1248-1256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Introduction Obese women have increased leptin levels and longer duration of labor compared with normal-weight women. Leptin has an inhibitory effect on myometrial contractility in vitro. Our purpose was to examine whether maternal leptin levels in active labor were associated with the duration of the active phase of labor. Material and methods This prospective cohort study included 914 women. Maternal blood samples were collected in active labor. The plasma-leptin concentration was obtained using a direct sandwich-based ELISA. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used to study the association between leptin levels and the duration of labor. Results A 1 ng/mL increase in maternal plasma leptin was associated with a 0.015 hour increase in duration of labor (P < .007). This association was not statistically significant in the adjusted analyses nor when analyzing nulliparous and multiparous women separately. In women with spontaneous labor (n = 766) leptin levels were not associated with an increase in duration of labor in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions There was no significant association between leptin levels and duration of the active phase of labor. Leptin in vivo might display a similar dose-response effect on myometrial contractility as demonstrated in in vitro studies. Future studies need to explore the association between leptin levels and time in labor in obese women with high leptin levels to evaluate a possible dose-response effect.

  • 25.
    Carvalho, Andre F.
    et al.
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Perez, Augusto
    Corp Nuevos Rumbos, Colombia.
    Probst, Charlotte
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada.
    Rehm, Jurgen
    Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada; Ctr Addict and Mental Hlth, Canada; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Russia.
    Alcohol use disorders2019Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 394, nr 10200, s. 781-792Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol use disorders consist of disorders characterised by compulsive heavy alcohol use and loss of control over alcohol intake. Alcohol use disorders are some of the most prevalent mental disorders globally, especially in high-income and upper-middle-income countries; and are associated with high mortality and burden of disease, mainly due to medical consequences, such as liver cirrhosis or injury. Despite their high prevalence, alcohol use disorders are undertreated partly because of the high stigma associated with them, but also because of insufficient systematic screening in primary health care, although effective and cost-effective psychosocial and pharmacological interventions do exist. Primary health care should be responsible for most treatment, with routine screening for alcohol use, and the provision of a staggered treatment response, from brief advice to pharmacological treatment. Clinical interventions for these disorders should be embedded in a supportive environment, which can be bolstered by the creation of alcohol control policies aimed at reducing the overall level of consumption.

  • 26.
    Case, Laura K.
    et al.
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Laubacher, Claire M.
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Richards, Emily A.
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Spagnolo, P. A.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Bushnell, M. Catherine
    NIH, MD 20892 USA.
    Inhibitory rTMS of secondary somatosensory cortex reduces intensity but not pleasantness of gentle touch2017Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 653, s. 84-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the discriminative and affective aspects of touch are processed differently in the brain. Primary somatosensory cortex is strongly implicated in touch discrimination, whereas insular and prefronal regions have been associated with pleasantness aspects of touch. However, the role of secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) is less clear. In the current study we used inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to temporarily deactivate S2 and probe its role in touch perception. Nineteen healthy adults received two sessions of 1-Hz rTMS on separate days, one targeting right S2 and the other targeting the vertex (control). Before and after rTMS, subjects rated the intensity and pleasantness of slow and fast gentle brushing of the hand and performed a 2-point tactile discrimination task, followed by fMRI during additional brushing. rTMS to S2 (but not vertex) decreased intensity ratings of fast brushing, without altering touch pleasantness or spatial discrimination. MRI showed a reduced response to brushing in S2 (but not in S1 or insula) after S2 rTMS. Together, our results show that reducing touch evoked activity in S2 decreases perceived touch intensity, suggesting a causal role of S2 in touch intensity perception. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  • 27.
    Chae, Younbyoung
    et al.
    Kyung Hee University, South Korea.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The role of touch in acupuncture treatment2017Ingår i: Acupuncture in Medicine, ISSN 0964-5284, E-ISSN 1759-9873, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 148-152Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is characterised by the insertion of a needle at a particular location on the body. Acupuncture stimulation includes sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch dimensions. In this review, we discuss the role of touch during acupuncture stimulation with an emphasis on the therapeutic, sensory-discriminative and affective-social aspects. In the discriminative dimension, de qi, which is associated with needling, includes a combination of various sensations, such as heaviness, numbness, soreness and distension. Achieving the appropriate de qi sensation appears to be fundamental to the therapeutic outcome following acupuncture treatment. In the affective dimension, the acupuncture procedure typically includes gentle manual touch stimulation, which induces feelings of calm and well-being, perhaps by activating C tactile fibres. Enhanced activity of C tactile afferents may induce a limbic touch response, resulting in emotional and hormonal reactions. Because acupuncture is a therapist intensive and complex intervention, it is necessary to understand the role of social touch between the practitioner and patient. Both sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch aspects play an important role in the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment in clinical practice.

  • 28.
    Chau, David T.
    et al.
    Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
    Fogelman, Phoebe
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
    Nordanskog, Pia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Drevets, Wayne C.
    Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA; Janssen Research and Development, Janssen Pharmaceuticals of Johnson and Johnson, Titusville, New Jersey, USA.
    Hamilton, Paul J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.
    Distinct Neural-Functional Effects of Treatments With Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Electroconvulsive Therapy, and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Their Relations to Regional Brain Function in Major Depression: A Meta-analysis2017Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, ISSN 2451-9030, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 318-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional neuroimaging studies have examined the neural substrates of treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). Low sample size and methodological heterogeneity, however, undermine the generalizability of findings from individual studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify reliable neural changes resulting from different modes of treatment for MDD and compared them with each other and with reliable neural functional abnormalities observed in depressed versus control samples.

  • 29.
    Checa, Antonio
    et al.
    Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Anna
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flyckt, Lena
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwieler, Lilly
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Skogh, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahl, Marja-Liisa
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wheelock, Craig E.
    Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cerebrospinal fluid levels of sphingolipids associate with disease severity in first episode psychosis patients2018Ingår i: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 199, s. 438-441Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 30.
    Chermá, Maria D.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk farmakologi. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rydberg, Irene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Woxler, Per
    Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Beroendekliniken.
    Trygg, Tomas
    Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Beroendekliniken.
    Hollertz, Olle
    Department of General Psychiatry, Västervik Hospital, Västervik, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Methylphenidate for Treating ADHD: A Naturalistic Clinical Study of Methylphenidate Blood Concentrations in Children and Adults With Optimized Dosage.2017Ingår i: European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, ISSN 0378-7966, E-ISSN 2107-0180, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 295-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH), along with behavioral and psychosocial interventions, is the first-line medication to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Sweden. The dose of MPH for good symptom control differs between patients. However, studies of MPH concentration measurement in ADHD treatment are limited.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe blood and oral fluid (OF) concentrations of MPH after administration of medication in patients with well-adjusted MPH treatment for ADHD, and to identify the most suitable matrix for accurate MPH concentration during treatment.

    METHODS: Patients were recruited from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP), General Psychiatry (GP), and the Department of Dependency (DD). Blood and OF samples were collected in the morning before MPH administration as well as 1 and 6 h after administration of the prescribed morning dose of MPH.

    RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients aged between 9 and 69 years, 76 % males. The daily dose of MPH varied from 18 to 180 mg, but the median daily dose per body weight was similar, approximately 1.0 mg/kg body weight. The median MPH concentration in blood 1 and 6 h after the morning dose was 5.4 and 9.3 ng/mL, respectively. Highly variable OF-to-blood ratios for MPH were found at all time points for all three groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Weight is a reliable clinical parameter for optimal dose titration. Otherwise, MPH blood concentration might be used for individual dose optimization and for monitoring of the prescribed dose. Relying only on the outcome in OF cannot be recommended for evaluation of accurate MPH concentrations for treatment monitoring.

  • 31.
    Cocozza, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Forma din professionella personlighet2019 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur vårdar du din professionella personlighet? Hur kommunicerar du, verbalt och icke-verbalt, t.ex. med klädsel och andra attribut, med kroppsspråk och positionering i rummet? Hur kan du använda dina emotioner i jobbet utan att sudda ut gränsen mellan din privata och din professionella plattform? Hur hanterar du maktskillnader och intressekonflikter i ditt arbete?

    Vår inställning till professionalism har förändrats de senaste femtio åren. Tydliga uppförandekoder knutna till olika professioner har ersatts av en friare inställning till hur var och en väljer att utforma sin professionella roll. Det finns gott om böcker i samtalsmetodik för professionella inom människobehandlande organisationer. Däremot har det saknats reflektionsverktyg att använda i formandet av den bredare professionella rollen – ett tomrum som denna bok fyller.

    I boken diskuteras och problematiseras olika professionella uppförandekoder och uttryckssätt inom människobehandlande organisationer. Här ges också tips och råd på hur professionella kan vårda sin professionella plattform. Varje kapitel avslutas med frågeställningar att ta ställning till i formandet av det egna professionella förhållningssättet.

    Boken riktar sig till professionella, men mer specifikt till studerande och yrkesverksamma inom vård, skola och omsorg.

  • 32.
    Cortes, Carlos R.
    et al.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Grodin, Erica N.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Mann, Claire L.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Mathur, Karan
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Kerich, Michael
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Zhu, Xi
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Schwandt, Melanie
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Diazgranados, Nancy
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    George, David T.
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Momenan, Reza
    NIAAA, MD 20892 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Insula Sensitivity to Unfairness in Alcohol Use Disorder2018Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 201-208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Social decision making has recently been evaluated in alcohol use disorder (AUD) using the ultimatum game (UG) task, suggesting a possible deficit in aversive emotion regulation elicited by the unfairness during this task. Despite the relevance to relapse of this possible faulty regulation, the brain correlates of the UG in AUD are unknown. Methods: In total, 23 AUD and 27 healthy controls (HC) played three consecutive fMRI runs of the UG, while behavioral and brain responses were recorded. Results: Overall, acceptance rate of unfair offers did not differ between groups, but there was a difference in the rate of behavioral change across runs. We found significant anterior insula (aINS) activation in both groups for both fair and unfair conditions, but only HC showed a trend towards increased activation during unfair vs. fair offers. There were not overall whole-brain between-group significant differences. We found a trend of signal attenuation, instead of an increase, in the aINS for AUD when compared to HC during the third run, which is consistent with our recent findings of selective insula atrophy in AUD. Conclusion: We found differential group temporal dynamics of behavioral response in the UG. The HC group had a low acceptance rate for unfair offers in the first two runs that increased markedly for the third run; whereas the AUD group was consistent in their rejection of unfair offers across the three runs. We found a strong significant decrease in neural response across runs for both groups. Short summary: This fMRI study of UG in alcohol use disorder found behavioral group differences in acceptance rate across runs, which together with significant BOLD-signal decrease across runs in UG-related regions in both groups, highlights the impairment of strategy in AUD and the effect of repetitive exposure to unfairness in this task.

  • 33.
    Croy, Ilona
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Sehlstedt, Isac
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wasling, Helena Backlund
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ackerley, Rochelle
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gentle touch perception: From early childhood to adolescence2019Ingår i: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 35, s. 81-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective touch plays an important role in childrens social interaction and is involved in shaping the development of the social brain. The positive affective component of touch is thought to be conveyed via a group of unmyelinated, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, known as C-tactile fibers that are optimally activated by gentle, slow, stroking touch. Touch targeting these C-tactile fibers has been shown to decrease the heart rate in infants. The current study investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to affective touch. A total of n = 43 participants (early childhood: aged 5-8 years, 9 girls, 12 boys; late childhood: aged 9-12 years, 12 girls, 10 boys) were presented with C-tactile optimal and sub-optimal stroking velocities and rated touch pleasantness on an affective pictorial scale. For both age groups, we found that children preferred C-tactile-targeted stimulation. A comparison with previously published data showed that the childrens preference for C-tactile-targeted stimulation was similar to those obtained in adolescents and adults. We speculate that the effect of C-tactile-targeted touch, which is linked with pleasantness, shapes the childrens preference for C-tactile over non-C-tactile-targeted stimulation, and that C-tactile afferent stimulation is important for social development.

  • 34.
    Davidovic, Monika
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karjalainen, Louise
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Starck, Göran
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Wentz, Elisabet
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björnsdotter Åberg, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurofysiologiska kliniken US. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abnormal brain processing of gentle touch in anorexia nervosa2018Ingår i: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 281, s. 53-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Body image disturbance is a core symptom in anorexia nervosa (AN). Recent research suggests that abnormalities in touch perception may contribute to the disease mechanisms in AN. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study possible abnormalities in cortical processing of affective touch in AN. Gentle skin strokes were applied to the right forearm during fMRI scanning in women diagnosed with AN (n = 25) and in matched healthy controls (HC; n = 25). Blocks of skin stroking were alternated with blocks of static skin indentation. Participants provided ratings of the pleasantness of skin stroking stimulation. AN participants perceived skin stroking as significantly less pleasant than HC. We observed no group differences for the contrast between skin stroking and skin indentation in primary tactile regions. We did find, however, significantly less activity in the AN group in areas including left caudate nucleus. Also, we found less activity in the AN group in bilateral lateral occipital cortex for the main effect of skin stroking. Our results suggest that abnormal functioning of the dorsal striatum could affect evaluation of pleasant tactile stimuli, and that abnormal functioning of the lateral occipital cortex might be related to disturbed body image perception.

  • 35.
    Davidovic, Monika
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Starck, Goran
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Processing of affective and emotionally neutral tactile stimuli in the insular cortex2019Ingår i: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 35, s. 94-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The insula is important for the processing of pleasant aspects of touch whereas its role in the processing of emotionally neutral touch has been less explored. Here, we used a network approach to investigate the insular processing of pleasant stroking touch and emotionally neutral vibratory touch, analysing functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy adult participants. Vibration and skin stroking activated areas in the posterior, middle and anterior insula. Psychophysiological interaction analyses suggested that skin stroking increased functional connectivity between the posterior and ventral anterior insula. Vibration instead increased functional connectivity between the posterior and dorsal anterior insula, and induced a stronger decrease of the default mode network activity compared to stroking. These results confirmed findings from previous studies showing that the posterior insula processes affective touch information. We suggest that this is accomplished by relaying tactile information from the posterior insula to ventral anterior insula, an area tightly connected to the emotional parts of the brain. However, our results also suggested that the insula processes tactile information with less emotional valence. A central hub in this processing seemed to be the right dorsal anterior insula.

  • 36.
    Domi, Esi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Augier, Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Augier, Gaëlle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gehlert, D.
    Cerecor, MD USA; Matrix Pharmaceut Consulting, CO USA.
    Barchiesi, Riccardo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Holm, Lovisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Preclinical evaluation of the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist CERC-501 as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders2018Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, nr 9, s. 1805-1812Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior work suggests a role of kappa-opioid signaling in the control of alcohol drinking, in particular when drinking is escalated due to alcohol-induced long-term neuroadaptations. Here, we examined the small molecule selective kappa antagonist CERC-501 in rat models of alcohol-related behaviors, with the objective to evaluate its potential as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders. We first tested the effect of CERC-501 on acute alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. CERC-501 was then tested on basal as well as escalated alcohol self-administration induced by 20% alcohol intermittent access. Finally, we determined the effects of CERC-501 on relapse to alcohol seeking triggered by both stress and alcohol-associated cues. Control experiments were performed to confirm the specificity of CERC-501 effects on alcohol-related behaviors. CERC-501 reversed anxiety-like behavior induced by alcohol withdrawal. It did not affect basal alcohol self-administration but did dose-dependently suppress self-administration that had escalated following long-term intermittent access to alcohol. CERC-501 blocked relapse to alcohol seeking induced by stress, but not when relapse-like behavior was triggered by alcohol-associated cues. The effects of CERC-501 were observed in the absence of sedative side effects and were not due to effects on alcohol metabolism. Thus, in a broad battery of preclinical alcohol models, CERC-501 has an activity profile characteristic of anti-stress compounds. Combined with its demonstrated preclinical and clinical safety profile, these data support clinical development of CERC-501 for alcohol use disorders, in particular for patients with negatively reinforced, stress-driven alcohol seeking and use.

  • 37.
    Dunn, James S.
    et al.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Mahns, David A.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Nagi, Saad S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Why does a cooled object feel heavier? Psychophysical investigations into the Webers Phenomenon2017Ingår i: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 18, artikel-id 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It has long been known that a concomitantly cooled stimulus is perceived as heavier than the same object at a neutral temperature-termed Webers Phenomenon (WP). In the current study, we re-examined this phenomenon using well-controlled force and temperature stimuli to explore the complex interplay between thermal and tactile systems, and the peripheral substrates contributing to these interactions. A feedback-controlled apparatus was constructed using a mechanical stimulator attached to a 5- x 5-mm thermode. Force combinations of 0.5 and 1 N (superimposed on 1-N step) were applied to the ulnar territory of dorsal hand. One of the forces had a thermal component, being cooled from 32 to 28 degrees C at a rate of 2 degrees C/s with a 3-s static phase. The other stimulus was thermally neutral (32 degrees C). Participants were asked to report whether the first or the second stimulus was perceived heavier. These observations were obtained in the all-fibre-intact condition and following the preferential block of myelinated fibres by compression of ulnar nerve. Results: In normal condition, when the same forces were applied, all subjects displayed a clear preference for the cooled tactile stimulus as being heavier than the tactile-only stimulus. The frequency of this effect was augmented by an additional similar to 17% when cooling was applied concurrently with the second stimulus. Following compression block, the mean incidence of WP was significantly reduced regardless of whether cooling was applied concurrently with the first or the second stimulus. However, while the effect was abolished in case of former (elicited in amp;lt; 50% of trials), the compression block had little effect in four out of nine participants in case of latter who reported WP in at least 80% of trials (despite abolition of vibration and cold sensations). Conclusions: WP was found to be a robust tactile-thermal interaction in the all-fibre-intact condition. The emergence of inter-individual differences during myelinated block suggests that subjects may adopt strategies, unbeknownst to them, that focus on the dominant input (myelinated fibres, hence WP abolished by block) or the sum of convergent inputs (myelinated and C fibres, hence WP preserved during block) in order to determine differences in perceived heaviness.

  • 38.
    Emilsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Health Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Treatment adherence in Asthma and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Personality traits, Beliefs about medication and Illness perception2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följsamhet till läkemedelsbehandling vid astma och ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) är viktigt eftersom optimal behandling kan förebygga allvarliga och livslånga konsekvenser. Flera faktorer som påverkar följsamhetsbeteendet har tidigare identifierats exempelvis ekonomiska faktorer, men vikten av personlighetsdrag, uppfattning om läkemedel och sjukdomsuppfattning har tidigare inte undersökts tillräckligt. Det övergripande syftet för avhandlingen var att studera följsamhet till läkemedel hos personer med astma och ADHD och i synnerhet påverkande faktorer. Avhandlingen utgörs av fem delstudier.

    Personlighet kan beskrivas som grundläggande egenskaper som kännetecknar likheter och skillnader mellan individer, den så kallade egenskapsteorin. Personlighet kan beskrivas utifrån fem grundläggande personlighetsdrag: känslomässig instabilitet, utåtriktning, öppenhet, vänlighet och målmedvetenhet, den så kallade fem-faktor modellen. När det gäller uppfattning om läkemedel så vägs uppfattningen om nödvändigheten av läkemedelsbehandlingen för att kontrollera sjukdomen mot oron för läkemedlens negativa effekter-biverkningar. Följsamhetsbeteendet beror på vilken uppfattning som dominerar. Uppfattning om sjukdom påverkas bland annat av personens uppfattning om hur mycket sjukdomen påverkar personens liv och sjukdomens varaktighet.

    Resultaten av denna avhandling visar att följsamheten var högre hos tonåringar med ADHD än hos vuxna med astma. Följsamheten till astma- och ADHD-medicinering var signifikant associerad med uppfattning att läkemedel var nödvändigt såväl som personlighetsdragen, särskilt antagonism. Följsamheten var inte associerad med ålder eller kön. Med anledning av att kön är relaterad till andra faktorer bör det beaktas i utredning av följsamhet till läkemedel. Personlighetsdraget känslomässig instabilitet, var relaterat till många uppfattningar om läkemedlen och sjukdomsuppfattningar. Avhandlingen visar på sambandet mellan vissa personrelaterade faktorer och följsamhet till läkemedel, hos personer med astma och ADHD. Den svenska översättningen av frågeformulären: Uppfattning om läkemedel (BMQ-Specific) och Uppfattning om ADHD (B-IPQ) visade sig ha god kvalitet för användning i kliniska utvärderingar och forskning som involverar ungdomar med ADHD.

    Delarbeten
    1. Personality, adherence, asthma control and health-related quality of life in young adult asthmatics
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Personality, adherence, asthma control and health-related quality of life in young adult asthmatics
    Visa övriga...
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 103, nr 7, s. 1033-1040Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Striving for improved adherence and asthma control is of vital concern in today's asthma management. Several influential factors have been identified, but the importance of personality traits has been insufficiently explored. The aim was first to determine whether personality traits in young adult asthmatics are related to asthma control and health-related quality of life (HRQL), and second to examine the influences of personality traits on adherence to regular asthma medication treatment.

    Methods

    Young adult asthmatics, 22 years of age (n = 268) completed questionnaires. Statistical analyses were performed.

    Results

    The personality traits Negative Affectivity and Impulsivity correlated negatively with asthma control, whereas in women Hedonic Capacity correlated positively with asthma control. Negative Affectivity, Impulsivity, Hedonic Capacity, Alexithymia and asthma control predicted the mental dimension of HRQL. Asthma control and physical activity predicted the physical dimension of HRQL. Among respondents with regular asthma medication (n = 109), Impulsivity correlated negatively with adherence. In men, Antagonism and Alexithymia were associated with low adherence. Additionally, Alexithymia, Hedonic Capacity and Negative Affectivity showed non-linear relationships with adherence, meaning that initially increased scores on these personality traits scales were associated with increased adherence but higher scores did not increase adherence. Respondents who were prescribed a single inhaler combining ICS and LABA reported higher adherence than those with monotherapies.

    Conclusion

    These data suggest that personality can influence how asthma patients adhere to asthma medication treatment, and report their control and HRQL. Tools determining personality traits may be useful in the future in individualizing management of asthma patients.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2009
    Nyckelord
    Adherence, Asthma, Asthma control, Health-related quality of life, Personality traits, Young adults
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    VÅRD- OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP, Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142758 (URN)10.1016/j.rmed.2009.01.013 (DOI)09546111 (ISSN) (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-21 Skapad: 2017-11-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-02Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. The Influence of personality traits and beliefs about medicines on adherence to asthma treatment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Influence of personality traits and beliefs about medicines on adherence to asthma treatment
    Visa övriga...
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Primary Care Respiratory Journal, ISSN 1471-4418, E-ISSN 1475-1534, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 141-147Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:To explore the influence of personality traits and beliefs about medicines on adherence to treatment with asthma medication.

    Methods:Respondents were 35 asthmatic adults prescribed controller medication. They answered questionnaires about medication adherence, personality traits, and beliefs about medicines.

    Results:In gender comparisons, the personality traits “Neuroticism” in men and “adherence to medication” were associated with lower adherent behaviour. Associations between personality traits and beliefs in the necessity of medication for controlling the illness were identified. Beliefs about the necessity of medication were positively associated with adherent behaviour in women. In the total sample, a positive “necessity-concern” differential predicted adherent behaviour.

    Conclusion:The results imply that personality and beliefs about medicines may influence how well adults with asthma adhere to treatment with asthma medication.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    The Primary Care Respiratory Society U K, 2011
    Nyckelord
    adherence, asthma, medication beliefs, personality traits, treatment
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Omvårdnad
    Forskningsämne
    VÅRD- OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP, Vårdvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142759 (URN)10.4104/pcrj.2011.00005 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-02-18 Skapad: 2017-11-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-29Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Beliefs regarding medication and side effects influence treatment adherence in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Beliefs regarding medication and side effects influence treatment adherence in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 559-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is important because, when untreated, it may have serious consequences with lifelong effects. In the case of adolescents on long-term medicine prescription, more knowledge is needed regarding adherence and factors influencing adherence, which was the purpose of this study. Adolescents (n = 101) on ADHD medication ≥6 months were administrated questionnaires at a monitoring appointment: Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), beliefs about medicines (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Adherence was high, the mean value was 88% of the maximum MARS score, and correlated positively with the “BMQ-necessity-concerns differential” but negatively with “BMQ-concerns” and “BMQ-side effects”. Adolescents with more belief in the necessity of the medication, less concerns and less experience of side effects tended to be more adherent to medication prescription (“intentional non-adherence”), while “unintentional non-adherence” (forgetfulness) was associated with how much they perceived that their ADHD affected their lives. In a multiple regression model, the variance of MARS total (R2 = 0.21) and “intentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.24) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “BMQ-experienced side effects”. The variance of “unintentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.12) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “B-IPQ-consequences of ADHD”. In conclusion, adolescents on long-term medication reported good adherence, mainly influenced by more beliefs in the necessity versus concerns of the medications, less experienced side effects and more perceived consequences of ADHD. BMQ could be useful to identify risks of low adherence, which should be counteracted by partially gender-specific interventions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Electron beam melting, IN718, microstructure, texture, hardness
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykiatri
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132825 (URN)10.1007/s00787-016-0919-1 (DOI)000399701900007 ()27848023 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden [FORSS-466211]; "Child and Youth Studies" at the University West

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-30 Skapad: 2016-11-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-04-18Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 39.
    Emilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Health Science, Section of Nursing Graduate Level, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Öhnström, Gisela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Beliefs regarding medication and side effects influence treatment adherence in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2017Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 559-571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherence to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment is important because, when untreated, it may have serious consequences with lifelong effects. In the case of adolescents on long-term medicine prescription, more knowledge is needed regarding adherence and factors influencing adherence, which was the purpose of this study. Adolescents (n = 101) on ADHD medication ≥6 months were administrated questionnaires at a monitoring appointment: Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS), beliefs about medicines (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Adherence was high, the mean value was 88% of the maximum MARS score, and correlated positively with the “BMQ-necessity-concerns differential” but negatively with “BMQ-concerns” and “BMQ-side effects”. Adolescents with more belief in the necessity of the medication, less concerns and less experience of side effects tended to be more adherent to medication prescription (“intentional non-adherence”), while “unintentional non-adherence” (forgetfulness) was associated with how much they perceived that their ADHD affected their lives. In a multiple regression model, the variance of MARS total (R2 = 0.21) and “intentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.24) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “BMQ-experienced side effects”. The variance of “unintentional non-adherence” (R2 = 0.12) was explained by the “BMQ-necessity–concern differential” and “B-IPQ-consequences of ADHD”. In conclusion, adolescents on long-term medication reported good adherence, mainly influenced by more beliefs in the necessity versus concerns of the medications, less experienced side effects and more perceived consequences of ADHD. BMQ could be useful to identify risks of low adherence, which should be counteracted by partially gender-specific interventions.

  • 40.
    Epstein, David H.
    et al.
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Shaham, Yavin
    NIDA, MD 21224 USA.
    Science-Based Actions Can Help Address the Opioid Crisis2018Ingår i: TIPS - Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN 0165-6147, E-ISSN 1873-3735, Vol. 39, nr 11, s. 911-916Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemic of addiction and over-dose is real. Addiction among pain patients accounts for only a small proportion but a large number. Scientific opinion leaders can be most effective on two fronts, each relatively low-tech: dissemination and oversight of empirically established treatments, and promulgation of social-science-based strategies for population-level prevention.

  • 41.
    Eskilsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Matsuwaki, Takashi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Shionoya, Kiseko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Mirrasekhian, Elahe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Zajdel, Joanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Schwaninger, Markus
    University of Lubeck, Germany.
    Engblom, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Immune-Induced Fever Is Dependent on Local But Not Generalized Prostaglandin E-2 Synthesis in the Brain2017Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 37, nr 19, s. 5035-5044Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fever occurs upon binding of prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) to EP3 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, but the origin of the pyrogenic PGE(2) has not been clearly determined. Here, using mice of both sexes, we examined the role of local versus generalized PGE(2) production in the brain for the febrile response. In wild-type mice and in mice with genetic deletion of the prostaglandin synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 in the brain endothelium, generated with an inducible CreER(T2) under the Slco1c1 promoter, PGE(2) levels in the CSF were only weakly related to the magnitude of the febrile response, whereas the PGE(2) synthesizing capacity in the hypothalamus, as reflected in the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA, showed strong correlation with the immune-induced fever. Histological analysis showed that the deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 in brain endothelial cells occurred preferentially in small-and medium-sized vessels deep in the brain parenchyma, such as in the hypothalamus, whereas larger vessels, and particularly those close to the neocortical surface and in the meninges, were left unaffected, hence leaving PGE(2) synthesis largely intact in major parts of the brain while significantly reducing it in the region critical for the febrile response. Furthermore, injection of a virus vector expressing microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) into the median preoptic nucleus of fever-refractive mPGES-1 knock-out mice, resulted in a temperature elevation in response to LPS. We conclude that the febrile response is dependent on local release of PGE(2) onto its target neurons and not on the overall PGE(2) production in the brain.

  • 42.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Max
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelning för neurobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kågedal, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design and Outcome of a CDIO Syllabus Survey for a Biomedicine Program2019Ingår i: The 15th International CDIO Conference: Proceedings – Full Papers / [ed] Jens Bennedsen, Aage Birkkjær Lauritsen, Kristina Edström, Natha Kuptasthien, Janne Roslöf & Robert Songer, Aarhus: Aarhus University , 2019, s. 191-200Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The CDIO Syllabus survey has successfully been applied to the Bachelor’s and Master’s programs in Experimental and Medical Biosciences, within the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences at Linköping University, Sweden. The programs are and have been, subject to considerable redesign with strong influence from the CDIO framework. One of the main drivers for the redesign is a shift concerning the main job market after graduation, from an academic career to industry and healthcare. One of the steps in the development process has been to carry out a Syllabus survey based on an adapted version of the CDIO Syllabus. The survey was sent out to students and to various categories of professionals, and in total 87 responses were received. The adapted version of the Syllabus and the design, execution, and outcome of the survey is presented.

  • 43.
    Filipcic, Igor
    et al.
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia; Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Croatia; Univ Zagreb, Croatia.
    Filipcic, Ivona Simunovic
    Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Croatia.
    Milovac, Zeljko
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Sucic, Strahimir
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Gajsak, Tomislav
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Ivezic, Ena
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia; Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Croatia.
    Basic, Silvio
    Josip Juraj Strossmayer Univ Osijek, Croatia; Dubrava Univ Hosp, Croatia.
    Bajic, Zarko
    Psychiat Hosp Sveti Ivan, Croatia.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation using a figure-8-coil or an H1-Coil in treatment of major depressive disorder; A randomized clinical trial2019Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 114, s. 113-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an evidence-based treatment option for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, comparisons of efficacy between the two FDA-approved protocols of rTMS modalities are lacking. The aim of this industry-independent, randomized-controlled, single-blind trial was to evaluate clinical outcome of the two FDA-approved rTMS protocols delivered by H1-coil and the figure-8-coil, in MDD patients. A total of 228 MDD patients were randomized to 20 sessions of H1-coil or 8-coil as an adjunct to standard-of-care pharmacotherapy, or standard-of-care pharmacotherapy alone. Baseline MDD symptom severity was almost the same in the three groups. Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D17) mean score was 17 (5.3) in H1-coil, 17 (5.4) in 8-coil, and 19 (6.1) in control group. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving remission defined as HAM-D17 score amp;lt;= 7 at end-of-treatment at week-4. In the intention-to-treat analysis odds ratio for remission was 1.74 (CI95% 0.79-3.83) in H1-coil compared to the 8-coil group. The difference between two rTMS protocols was not significant. Remission rate was significantly greater in both HF-rTMS groups compared to the control: 60% (CI95% 48-71%), 43% (C195% 31-55%) and 11% (CI95% 5-20%) respectively. The response was significantly better in H1-coil, than in 8-coil group OR = 2.33; CI95% 1.04-5.21 (P = 0.040). The HAM-D17 was lowered by 59% in the H1-coil, 41% in the 8-coil (P = 0.048), and 17% in the control group (P amp;lt; 0.001 vs H1-coil; P = 0.003 vs 8-coil). Safety, tolerability, and the changes in quality of life were comparable. We confirmed the safety and efficacy of both FDA-approved protocols as adjunctive treatments of MDD. Better response rate and greater reduction of depression severity were observed in the H1-coil group, but without a significant difference in the remission rate between the two rTMS modalities.

  • 44.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Adolescents Selling Sex and Sex as Self-Injury2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There are today only a few population-based studies in the world investigating the prevalence of and associated risk-factors with adolescents selling sex and so far no earlier population-based study has been found investigating adolescents motives for selling sex. Further, to use sex in means of self-injury (SASI) is a behaviour that has been highlighted in Sweden the last years but it is a new field of research and a behaviour in need of conceptualization.

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the prevalence of, associated risk factors with, motives for and manifestations of adolescents selling sex and the use of sex as self-injury (SASI). For the thesis, two nationally representative cross-sectional population surveys with third year students at Swedish high schools were collected in 2009 (n = 3498, mean age 18.3 +/- 0.6 years, response rate 60.4%) and in 2014 (n = 5839, mean age 18.0 +/- 0.6 years, response rate 59.7%). Further, the motives and manifestations of SASI were investigated in an anonymous self-selected, open-ended questionnaire published on websites of non-governmental organizations offering help and support to women and adolescents (n = 199, mean age 27.9 +/- 9.3 years). Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data analyses.

    In the 2009 population-based survey, 1.5% (n = 51) of the adolescents reported having sold sex on at least one occasion, but in 2014 the prevalence was slightly lower at 0.9% (n = 51). SASI was reported by 3.2% of girls (n = 100) and 0.8% of boys (n = 20). Both selling sex and SASI were associated with various adverse factors such as experience of sexual abuse, emotional and physical abuse, poor mental health and self-injury. Adolescents selling sex had sought help and support for different problems and worries to a greater extent compared to peers. Contact with healthcare for various psychiatric problems such as suicide attempts, depression and eating disorders was common for adolescents using SASI. Further analysis showed that adolescents selling sex are a heterogeneous group in regard to underlying motives for selling sex, which included emotional and material reasons as well as pleasure. Depending on their underlying motives, adolescents selling sex were found to differ in regard to compensation received, age of the buyer, means of contact with the buyer, sexual orientation, experience of sexual abuse and the use of SASI. By using data from an open-ended questionnaire, SASI was described as deliberate or self-inflicted sexual situations that could include psychological and physical harm. SASI was used as a way to regulate negative feelings, such as anxiety, or to get positive or negative confirmation and the behaviour could be hard to stop.

    In conclusion, selling sex and SASI occurs among Swedish adolescents and the behaviours are associated with sexual, physical and emotional abuse and poor mental health, including trauma symptoms. In regard of the motives and manifestations of SASI, the behaviour could be compared to direct self-injurious behaviours. Data from this thesis suggest that more attention should be paid in healthcare to recognizing adolescents selling sex and SASI in order to prevent further traumatization and victimization.

    Delarbeten
    1. Adolescents selling sex: Exposure to abuse, mental health, self-harm behaviour and the need for help and support - a study of a Swedish national sample
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Adolescents selling sex: Exposure to abuse, mental health, self-harm behaviour and the need for help and support - a study of a Swedish national sample
    Visa övriga...
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 81-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Selling sex is not uncommon among adolescents and we need to increase our knowledge of how this affects them. The aim of this study was to investigate adolescents who sell sex regarding sexual, mental and physical abuse, mental health as estimated by using the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 (HSCL-25), self-harm behaviour and the adolescents' experience of receiving help and support. The study was carried out on a national representative sample of adolescents (mean age 18.3 years) in Swedish high schools in the final year of their 3-year programme. The study had 3498 participants and a response rate of 60.4%. Of the adolescents, 1.5% stated that they had sold sexual services. The selling of sex was associated with a history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. Poorer mental health and a higher degree of self-harm behaviour were reported among the adolescents who had sold sex. Help and support was sought to a greater extent by adolescents who had sold sex but these adolescents were not as satisfied with this help and support as the other adolescents. Adolescents that sell sex are a group especially exposed to sexual, mental and physical abuse. They have poorer metnal health and engage in more self-harm behaviour than other adolescents. They are in need of more help and support than other adolescents ant it is reasonable to assert that more resources, research and attention should be directed to this group to provide better help and support in the future.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Informa Healthcare, 2013
    Nyckelord
    adolescents, child abuse, help and support, mental health, self-harm behaviour, selling sex
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan medicin och hälsovetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91850 (URN)10.3109/08039488.2012.679968 (DOI)000316956800001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-05-03 Skapad: 2013-05-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 81, s. 286-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to money or other compensation, other motives for selling sex may be important in a welfare country such as Sweden. The aim of this study was to carry out an exploratory investigation of adolescents motives for selling sex in a population-based survey in Sweden. A total of 5839 adolescents from the third year of Swedish high school, mean age 18.0 years, participated in the study. The response rate was 59.7% and 51 students (0.9%) reported having sold sex. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify groups of adolescents according to underlying motives for selling sex. Further analyses were carried out for characteristics of selling sex and risk factors. Three groups of adolescents were categorized according to their motives for selling sex: Adolescents reporting; 1) Emotional reasons, being at a greater risk of sexual abuse, using sex as a means of self-injury and having a non-heterosexual orientation. 2) Material but no Emotional reasons, who more often receive money as compensation and selling sex to a person over 25 years of age, and 3) Pleasure or no underlying motive for selling sex reported, who were mostly heterosexual males selling sex to a person under 25 years of age, the buyer was not known from the Internet, the reward was seldom money and this group was less exposed to penetrative sexual abuse or using sex as a means of self-injury. In conclusion, adolescents selling sex are a heterogeneous group in regard to underlying motives.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Selling sex; Adolescent; Child sexual exploitation; Motives; Prostitution
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Psykiatri
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149697 (URN)10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.04.030 (DOI)000436375800026 ()29775872 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Ministry of Health and Social Affairs/the Childrens Welfare Foundation Sweden; County of Stockholm, Sweden

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-07-24 Skapad: 2018-07-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-01
    3. Self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury (SASI) in a national study of Swedish adolescents and association to sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, abuse and mental health
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury (SASI) in a national study of Swedish adolescents and association to sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, abuse and mental health
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sex as self-injury has become a concept in Swedish society; however it is a largely unexplored area of research, not yet conceptualized and far from accepted in the research field. The use of sex as a way of affect regulation is known in the literature and has, in interviews with young women who sell sex, been compared to direct self-injury, such as cutting or burning the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury and the association to sociodemographic factors, sexual orientation, voluntary sexual experiences, sexual risk-taking behaviors, sexual, physical and mental abuse, trauma symptoms, healthcare for psychiatric disorders and non-suicidal self-injury.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BioMed Central, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Neurovetenskaper Reumatologi och inflammation Psykiatri
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134927 (URN)10.1186/s13034-017-0146-7 (DOI)000395328600001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-03-02 Skapad: 2017-03-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-21Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 45.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Pribe, Gisela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study2018Ingår i: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 81, s. 286-295Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to money or other compensation, other motives for selling sex may be important in a welfare country such as Sweden. The aim of this study was to carry out an exploratory investigation of adolescents motives for selling sex in a population-based survey in Sweden. A total of 5839 adolescents from the third year of Swedish high school, mean age 18.0 years, participated in the study. The response rate was 59.7% and 51 students (0.9%) reported having sold sex. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify groups of adolescents according to underlying motives for selling sex. Further analyses were carried out for characteristics of selling sex and risk factors. Three groups of adolescents were categorized according to their motives for selling sex: Adolescents reporting; 1) Emotional reasons, being at a greater risk of sexual abuse, using sex as a means of self-injury and having a non-heterosexual orientation. 2) Material but no Emotional reasons, who more often receive money as compensation and selling sex to a person over 25 years of age, and 3) Pleasure or no underlying motive for selling sex reported, who were mostly heterosexual males selling sex to a person under 25 years of age, the buyer was not known from the Internet, the reward was seldom money and this group was less exposed to penetrative sexual abuse or using sex as a means of self-injury. In conclusion, adolescents selling sex are a heterogeneous group in regard to underlying motives.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-05-05 00:01
  • 46.
    Fredlund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Pribe, Gisela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Barnafrid. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    Self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury (SASI) in a national study of Swedish adolescents and association to sociodemographic factors, sexual behaviors, abuse and mental health2017Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex as self-injury has become a concept in Swedish society; however it is a largely unexplored area of research, not yet conceptualized and far from accepted in the research field. The use of sex as a way of affect regulation is known in the literature and has, in interviews with young women who sell sex, been compared to direct self-injury, such as cutting or burning the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the self-reported frequency of sex as self-injury and the association to sociodemographic factors, sexual orientation, voluntary sexual experiences, sexual risk-taking behaviors, sexual, physical and mental abuse, trauma symptoms, healthcare for psychiatric disorders and non-suicidal self-injury.

  • 47.
    Fritz, Michael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Klawonn, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jaarola, Maarit
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Engblom, David
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap.
    Interferon-ɣ mediated signaling in the brain endothelium is critical for inflammation-induced aversion2018Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 67, s. 54-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic inflammation elicits malaise and a negative affective state. The mechanism underpinning the aversive component of inflammation include cerebral prostaglandin synthesis and modulation of dopaminergic reward circuits, but the messengers that mediate the signaling between the peripheral inflammation and the brain have not been sufficiently characterized. Here we investigated the role of interferon-ɣ (IFN-ɣ) in the aversive response to systemic inflammation induced by a low dose (10μg/kg) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. LPS induced IFN-ɣ expression in the blood and deletion of IFN-ɣ or its receptor prevented the development of conditioned place aversion to LPS. LPS induced expression of the chemokine Cxcl10 in the striatum of normal mice, but this induction was absent in mice lacking IFN-ɣ receptors or Myd88 in blood brain barrier endothelial cells. Furthermore, inflammation-induced aversion was blocked in mice lacking Cxcl10 or its receptor Cxcr3. Finally, mice with a selective deletion of the IFN-ɣ receptor in brain endothelial cells did not develop inflammation-induced aversion, demonstrating that the brain endothelium is the critical site of IFN-ɣ action. Collectively, these findings show that circulating IFN-ɣ that binds to receptors on brain endothelial cells and induces Cxcl10, is a central link in the signaling chain eliciting inflammation-induced aversion.

  • 48.
    Frost, Morgan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Galazka, Martyna Alexandra
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Carina
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Billstedt, Eva
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hadjikhani, Nouchine
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Harvard Med Sch, MA 02115 USA.
    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Social scene perception in autism spectrum disorder: An eye-tracking and pupillometric study2019Ingår i: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, ISSN 1380-3395, E-ISSN 1744-411XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, developing humans innately place subjective value on social information and orient attention to it. This can be shown through tracking of gaze patterns and pupil size, the latter of which taps into an individuals cognitive engagement and affective arousal. People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) present with atypical social, communicative and behavioral patterns, but underlying substrates of these behavioral differences remain unclear. Moreover, due to high comorbidity with other neurodevelopmental disorders, it is often difficult to distinguish which differences are distinctive to ASD. In this study, a group of 35 adolescents and young adults with neurodevelopmental disorders were tested to investigate the processing of social and non-social scenes in individuals who meet the diagnostic criteria for autism and those who do not. Eye tracking and pupillometry measures were collected while participants observed images of tightly controlled natural scenes with or without a human being. Contrary to individuals without autism diagnosis, participants with autism did not show greater pupillary response to images with a human. Participants with autism were slower to fixate on social elements in the social scenes, and this latency metric correlated with clinical measures of poor social functioning. The results confirm the clinical relevance of eye-tracking and pupillometric indices in the field of ASD. We discuss the clinical implications of the results and propose that analysis of changes in visual attention and physiological level to social stimuli might be an integral part of a neurodevelopmental assessment.

  • 49.
    Gandhi, Wiebke
    et al.
    McGill University, Canada; University of Reading, England.
    Morrison, India
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Schweinhardt, Petra
    McGill University, Canada; McGill University, Canada; Balgrist University Hospital, Switzerland.
    How Accurate Appraisal of Behavioral Costs and Benefits Guides Adaptive Pain Coping2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 8, artikel-id 103Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coping with pain is a complex phenomenon encompassing a variety of behavioral responses and a large network of underlying neural circuits. Whether pain coping is adaptive or maladaptive depends on the type of pain (e.g., escapable or inescapable), personal factors (e.g., individual experiences with coping strategies in the past), and situational circumstances. Keeping these factors in mind, costs and benefits of different strategies have to be appraised and will guide behavioral decisions in the face of pain. In this review we present pain coping as an unconscious decision-making process during which accurately evaluated costs and benefits lead to adaptive pain coping behavior. We emphasize the importance of passive coping as an adaptive strategy when dealing with ongoing pain and thus go beyond the common view of passivity as a default state of helplessness. In combination with passive pain coping, we highlight the role of the reward system in reestablishing affective homeostasis and discuss existing evidence on a behavioral and neural level. We further present neural circuits involved in the decision-making process of pain coping when circumstances are ambiguous and, therefore, costs and benefits are difficult to anticipate. Finally, we address the wider implications of this topic by discussing its relevance for chronic pain patients.

  • 50.
    Grodin, Erica N.
    et al.
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
    Sussman, Lauren
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Sundby, Kelsey
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Brennan, Grace M
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Diazgranados, Nancy
    Office of the Clinical Directory, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Momenan, Reza
    Clinical NeuroImaging Research Core, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
    Neural Correlates of Compulsive Alcohol Seeking in Heavy Drinkers2018Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, ISSN 2451-9022, Vol. 3, nr 12, s. 1022-1031Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Compulsive alcohol use, the tendency to continue alcohol seeking and taking despite negative consequences, is a hallmark of alcohol use disorder. Preclinical rodent studies have suggested a role for the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and nucleus accumbens in compulsive alcohol seeking. It is presently unknown whether these findings translate to humans. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm and tested the hypothesis that heavy drinkers would compulsively seek alcohol despite the risk of an aversive consequence, and that this behavior would be associated with the activity of frontostriatal circuitry.

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