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  • 1.
    Alizadeh, Javad
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Zeki, Amir A.
    Centre Comparat Resp Biol and Med, CA USA.
    Mirzaei, Nima
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Tewary, Sandipan
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Rezaei Moghadam, Adel
    University of Manitoba, Canada; University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Glogowska, Aleksandra
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Nagakannan, Pandian
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Eftekharpour, Eftekhar
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Wiechec, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gordon, Joseph W.
    University of Manitoba, Canada; University of Manitoba, Canada; University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Xu, Fred. Y.
    University of Manitoba, Canada; University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Field, Jared T.
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Yoneda, Ken Y.
    Centre Comparat Resp Biol and Med, CA USA.
    Kenyon, Nicholas J.
    Centre Comparat Resp Biol and Med, CA USA.
    Hashemi, Mohammad
    Zehedan University of Medical Science, Iran.
    Hatch, Grant M.
    University of Manitoba, Canada; University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Klonisch, Thomas
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Ghavami, Saeid
    University of Manitoba, Canada; University of Manitoba, Canada; Shiraz University of Medical Science, Iran.
    Mevalonate Cascade Inhibition by Simvastatin Induces the Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway via Depletion of Isoprenoids in Tumor Cells2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mevalonate (MEV) cascade is responsible for cholesterol biosynthesis and the formation of the intermediate metabolites geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP) and farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) used in the prenylation of proteins. Here we show that the MEV cascade inhibitor simvastatin induced significant cell death in a wide range of human tumor cell lines, including glioblastoma, astrocytoma, neuroblastoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and breast cancer. Simvastatin induced apoptotic cell death via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In all cancer cell types tested, simvastatin-induced cell death was not rescued by cholesterol, but was dependent on GGPP-and FPP-depletion. We confirmed that simvastatin caused the translocation of the small Rho GTPases RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1/2/3 from cell membranes to the cytosol in U251 (glioblastoma), A549 (lung adenocarcinoma) and MDA-MB231( breast cancer). Simvastatin-induced Rho-GTP loading significantly increased in U251 cells which were reversed with MEV, FPP, GGPP. In contrast, simvastatin did not change Rho-GTP loading in A549 and MDA-MB-231. Inhibition of geranylgeranyltransferase I by GGTi-298, but not farnesyltransferase by FTi-277, induced significant cell death in U251, A549, and MDA-MB-231. These results indicate that MEV cascade inhibition by simvastatin induced the intrinsic apoptosis pathway via inhibition of Rho family prenylation and depletion of GGPP, in a variety of different human cancer cell lines.

  • 2.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nordqvist, Peter
    Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Öberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids: Data From a Large Swedish Quality Register Database2017In: American Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1059-0889, E-ISSN 1558-9137, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze a database of completed International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) questionnaires obtained from over 100,000 clients fitted with new hearing aids in Sweden during the period of 2012-2016. Mean IOI-HA total scores were correlated with degree of hearing loss, unilateral versus bilateral fitting, first-time versus return clients, gender, and variation among dispensing clinics. The correlations with expectations, service quality, and technical functioning of the hearing aids were also analyzed. Method: Questionnaires containing the 7 IOI-HA items as well as questions concerning some additional issues were mailed to clients 3-6 months after fitting of new hearing aids. The questionnaires were returned to and analyzed by an independent research institute. Results: More than 100 dispensing clinics nationwide take part in this project. A response rate of 52.6% resulted in 106,631 data sets after excluding incomplete questionnaires. Forty-six percent of the responders were women, and 54% were men. The largest difference in mean score (0.66) was found for the IOI-HA item "use" between return clients and first-time users. Women reported significantly higher (better) scores for the item "impact on others" compared with men. The bilaterally fitted subgroup reported significantly higher scores for all 7 items compared with the unilaterally fitted subgroup. Experienced users produced higher scores on benefit and satisfaction items, whereas first-time users gave higher scores for residual problems. No correlation was found between mean IOI-HA total score and average hearing threshold level (pure-tone average [ PTA]). Mean IOI-HA total scores were found to correlate significantly with perceived service quality of the dispensing center and with the technical functionality of the hearing aids. Conclusions: When comparing mean IOI-HA total scores from different studies or between groups, differences with regard to hearing aid experience, gender, and unilateral versus bilateral fitting have to be considered. No correlation was found between mean IOI-HA total score and degree of hearing loss in terms of PTA. Thus, PTA is not a reliable predictor of benefit and satisfaction of hearing aid provision as represented by the IOI-HA items. Identification of a specific lower fence in PTA for hearing aid candidacy is therefore to be avoided. Large differences were found in mean IOI-HA total scores related to different dispensing centers.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Björkegren, Joline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Personer som har traumatisk hjärnskada: Upplevelser av skadan och kommunikation efter skadan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An alteration in the function of the brain caused by an external force is called a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). There are language features located in different areas of the brain, and depending on where a person gets a TBI, the person can experience different communicative difficulties. These can manifest as aphasia, dysarthria or cognitive communicative disorders. The experiences of TBI that have been discovered in previous studies are for instance about how persons with TBI experience their diminished functions, life adjustment after the injury, the role and support of the relatives, that the environment treats them differently after the injury and emotional consequences. For the purpose of investigation and intervention, ICF is a useful tool since the difficulties that a person may have can be connected to its various components.

    The purpose of this study is to examine what experiences persons with TBI have regarding their brain injury and their communicative difficulties, and also how these can be connected to ICF. To answer the research questions, a qualitative method involving content analysis was used, based on semi-structured interviews with four participants.

    The participants expressed that their TBI had affected them in various ways, communicative, cognitive, physically and socially. The participants experienced their injuries and difficulties as limiting and that some periods had been lonely. However they also stated that there were some positive aspects in the situation, for example improved family relations and that they valued life in another way.

    Although the injuries, difficulties and rehabilitation of the participants have differed, the participants stories have been similar to some extent. In the future it would be interesting to conduct further studies in Sweden that examine which experiences persons with TBI have regarding the injury itself, but particularly regarding their communication after the TBI. It is important with more studies since that would give speech language pathologists a greater understanding for how people with TBI experience their situation and their communication after the injury. 

  • 4.
    Billaud Feragen, Kristin
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway; Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Semb, Gunvor
    University of Manchester, England; National Hospital Norway, Norway.
    Heliovaara, Arja
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Johannessen, Emma Christine
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Boysen, Betty Marie
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Havstam, Christina
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyberg, Jill
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nina-Helen
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Bogh-Nielsen, Joan
    Cleft Palate Centre, Denmark.
    Eyres, Philip
    University of Manchester, England.
    Bradbury, Eileen
    Private Practice, Manchester, UK.
    Rumsey, Nichola
    University of West England, England.
    Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate: 10. Parental perceptions of appearance and treatment outcomes in their 5-year-old child2017In: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, ISSN 2000-656X, E-ISSN 2000-6764, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Few studies have explored childrens emotional and behavioural reactions to cleft surgery and treatment-related stress. The objective was to investigate parents evaluations of appearance and treatment outcomes in their 5-year-old child with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), and their perceptions of how their child was coping with treatment, comparing this information with recorded postsurgical complications.Design: Three parallel group randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and the UK.Methods: Three different surgical procedures for primary palatal repair were tested against a common procedure in the total cohort of 448 children born with a non-syndromic UCLP. A total of 356 parents completed the Scandcleft Parent Questionnaire, and 346 parents completed the Cleft Evaluation Profile.Results: The results indicated that the majority of parents were satisfied with cleft-related features of their childs appearance. Further, most children coped well with treatment according to their parents. Nevertheless, 17.5% of the children showed minor or short-term reactions after treatment experiences, and 2% had major or lasting difficulties. There were no significant relationships between parent perceptions of treatment-related problems and the occurrence of post-surgical medical complications.Conclusions: Most parents reported satisfaction with their childs appearance. However, treatment-related problems were described in some children, urging cleft centres to be aware of potential negative emotional and behavioural reactions to treatment in some young children, with a view to preventing the development of more severe treatment-related anxiety.

  • 5.
    Borch Petersen, Eline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Wöstmann, Malte
    Department of Psychology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    Obleser, Jonas
    Department of Psychology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss2017In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 18-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62–86 yr; hearing thresholds 11–73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  • 6.
    Chang, You
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A Finite Element Model of the Human Head for Simulation of Bone-conducted Sound2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone conduction is usually understood as the hearing sensation based on the vibrations of the skull bone and surrounding tissues. The fact that vibration of the skull bones can result in a sound percept has been known for a long time. However, it is difficult to give a general definition of BC sound. Normally, BC sound is described as the sound energy transmitted through the body (comprising the solid and fluid parts) then the outer, middle and inner ear are involved and finally produce a perception of sound.

    Even if BC sound perception has been studied for more than a century, the whole pattern of BC sound transmission is still not complete. There are limitations for experimental investigation of BC sound, such as the complexity of experimental manipulations and individual differences between subjects resulting in difficult to interpret outcomes. One way to overcome some of those issues is the use of a simulation model for BC sound. However, until now, the published models are unable to provide a holistic response of BC sound in the human. Therefore, the primary aim of this thesis is to develop a finite element model that could simulate BC sound transmission in the human. Based on cryosectional images of a female, the LiUHead was developed as a FE model of the human head with the structure and material properties of real human. Most the structures and tissues which could contribute to the BC transmission were included in the LiUHead. The simulation results of the LiUHead agreed with experimental data obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans.

    After the development and validation of the LiUHead, the model was used to investigate BC sound.  Since BC sound is transmitted in and between the tissues, the power transmission of BC sound was investigated in the LiUHead in the frequency domain. When the stimulation was applied on the surface of the skull at the mastoid position, the results of the simulations show that, as the name suggest, the skull bone dominants the BC sound transmission. The soft tissues and cartilages are as the second most important media of the BC sound while the skull interior is the least important for the BC transmission. Moreover, according to the power flux in the skull, the BC vibrations are mainly concentrated at the skull base. Other important transmission pathways are located at the occipital bone at the posterior side of the head, but the power transmitted over the face, forehead and vertex is minor. There is power interaction between the skull bone and skull interior near the stimulation position but the transmission of sound power through the brain seem to be minimal. Since the power or energy is difficult to measure in an experimental setting, this investigation gave unique knowledge about BC sound transmission in the head and the interaction between the tissues.

    As a common application for BC sound, bone-conduction devices are used to stimulate the hearing and is a method for hearing loss rehabilitation. Nowadays many different kinds of BCDs are available. However, most studies failed to compare the different types of BCDs in the same conditions as well as between several BCDs as it is not possible to compare several BCDs within the same subject due to the implantation required for several BCDs. The model gives a unique opportunity to evaluate various BCDs in the same head. Eight different BCDs, including four kinds of skin-drive BCDs, three kinds of direct-drive BCDs, and one in-the-mouth device, were applied to the LiUHead and the simulation results were evaluated. The results proved that the direct-drive BCDs and the in-the-mouth device gave similar vibration responses at the cochlea. At low frequencies, the skin-drive BCDs had similar or even better cochlear responses than the direct-drive BCDs. However, the direct-drive BCDs gave stable responses at mid-frequencies and gave higher responses than the skin-drive BCDs at high frequencies. These results are beneficial evaluating and for designing and improving current BCDs.

    The ultimate goal of this thesis is to provide a computational model for BC sound that can be used for evaluation of BC sound transmission. This was accomplished by the LiUHead that gave results comparable to experimental data and enabled investigations that cannot easily be conducted in experiments.

    List of papers
    1. A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Human Dry Skull for Bone-Conduction Hearing
    2014 (English)In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2014, no 519429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of a human dry skull was devised for simulation of human bone-conduction (BC) hearing. Although a dry skull is a simplification of the real complex human skull, such model is valuable for understanding basic BC hearing processes. For validation of the model, the mechanical point impedance of the skull as well as the acceleration of the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear bone was computed and compared to experimental results. Simulation results showed reasonable consistency between the mechanical point impedance and the experimental measurements when Youngs modulus for skull and polyurethane was set to be 7.3 GPa and 1 MPa with 0.01 and 0.1 loss factors at 1 kHz, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration in the medial-lateral direction showed the best correspondence with the published experimental data, whereas the acceleration in the inferior-superior direction showed the largest discrepancy. However, the results were reasonable considering that different geometries were used for the 3D FE skull and the skull used in the published experimental study. The dry skull model is a first step for understanding BC hearing mechanism in a human head and simulation results can be used to predict vibration pattern of the bone surrounding the middle and inner ear during BC stimulation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112658 (URN)10.1155/2014/519429 (DOI)000344143300001 ()25243148 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Union [600933]

    Available from: 2014-12-05 Created: 2014-12-05 Last updated: 2018-04-09
    2. The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The development of a whole-head human finite-element model for simulation of the transmission of bone-conducted sound
    2016 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 140, no 3, p. 1635-1651Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A whole head finite element model for simulation of bone conducted (BC) sound transmission was developed. The geometry and structures were identified from cryosectional images of a female human head and eight different components were included in the model: cerebrospinal fluid, brain, three layers of bone, soft tissue, eye, and cartilage. The skull bone was modeled as a sandwich structure with an inner and outer layer of cortical bone and soft spongy bone (diploe) in between. The behavior of the finite element model was validated against experimental data of mechanical point impedance, vibration of the cochlear promontories, and transcranial BC sound transmission. The experimental data were obtained in both cadaver heads and live humans. The simulations showed multiple low-frequency resonances where the first was caused by rotation of the head and the second was close in frequency to average resonances obtained in cadaver heads. At higher frequencies, the simulation results of the impedance were within one standard deviation of the average experimental data. The acceleration response at the cochlear promontory was overall lower for the simulations compared with experiments but the overall tendencies were similar. Even if the current model cannot predict results in a specific individual, it can be used for understanding the characteristic of BC sound transmission in general. (C) 2016 Acoustical Society of America.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACOUSTICAL SOC AMER AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133011 (URN)10.1121/1.4962443 (DOI)000386932500026 ()27914383 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Union [600933]; Incheon Nation University (International Cooperative) Research Grant

    Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-07 Last updated: 2018-03-20
  • 7.
    Dobrev, Ivo
    et al.
    University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hoon Sim, Jae
    University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ihrle, Sebastian
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Gerig, Rahel
    University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Pfiffner, Flurin
    University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Eiber, Albrecht
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Huber, Alexander M.
    University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Roosli, Christof
    University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Sound wave propagation on the human skull surface with bone conduction stimulation2017In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bone conduction (BC) is an alternative to air conduction to stimulate the inner ear. In general, the stimulation for BC occurs on a specific location directly on the skull bone or through the skin covering the skull bone. The stimulation propagates to the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlea, mainly via the skull bone and possibly via other skull contents. This study aims to investigate the wave propagation on the surface of the skull bone during BC stimulation at the forehead and at ipsilateral mastoid. Methods: Measurements were performed in five human cadaveric whole heads. The electro-magnetic transducer from a BCHA (bone conducting hearing aid), a Baha (R) Cordelle II transducer in particular, was attached to a percutaneously implanted screw or positioned with a 5-Newton steel headband at the mastoid and forehead. The Baha transducer was driven directly with single tone signals in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz, while skull bone vibrations were measured at multiple points on the skull using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) system and a 3D LDV system. The 3D velocity components, defined by the 3D LDV measurement coordinate system, have been transformed into tangent (in-plane) and normal (out-of-plane) components in a local intrinsic coordinate system at each measurement point, which is based on the cadaver heads shape, estimated by the spatial locations of all measurement points. Results: Rigid-body-like motion was dominant at low frequencies below 1 kHz, and clear transverse traveling waves were observed at high frequencies above 2 kHz for both measurement systems. The surface waves propagation speeds were approximately 450 m/s at 8 kHz, corresponding trans-cranial time interval of 0.4 ms. The 3D velocity measurements confirmed the complex space and frequency dependent response of the cadaver heads indicated by the ID data from the SLDV system. Comparison between the tangent and normal motion components, extracted by transforming the 3D velocity components into a local coordinate system, indicates that the normal component, with spatially varying phase, is dominant above 2 kHz, consistent with local bending vibration modes and traveling surface waves. Conclusion: Both SLDV and 3D LDV data indicate that sound transmission in the skull bone causes rigid body-like motion at low frequencies whereas transverse deformations and travelling waves were observed above 2 kHz, with propagation speeds of approximately of 450 m/s at 8 kHz. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Ekström, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ferm, Ulrika
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Digital communication support and Alzheimer’s disease2017In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 711-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is one of the areas where people with dementia and their caregivers experience most challenges. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of possibilities and pitfalls of using personalized communication applications installed on tablet computers to support communication for people with dementia and their conversational partners. The study is based on video recordings of a woman, 52 years old, with Alzheimer’s disease interacting with her husband in their home. The couple was recorded interacting with and without a tablet computer including a personalized communication application. The results from the present study reveal both significant possibilities and potential difficulties in introducing a digital communication device to people with dementia and their conversational partners. For the woman in the present study, the amount of interactive actions and the number of communicative actions seem to increase with the use of the communication application. The results also indicate that problems associated with dementia are foregrounded in interaction where the tablet computer is used.

  • 9.
    Hengen, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Peterson, Malin
    Specialpedagogiskt Centre, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Patient characteristics and intervention effect as measured by Voice Handicap Index2017In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 93-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyze patients with a confirmed voice disorder in order to identify patterns regarding age, gender, and occupation compared to the general public. To explore effects of voice therapy according to the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) score pre- and post-therapy in relation to the number of sessions, age, and gender. Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and methods: This study was conducted as a collaborative project between Linkoping University and hospitals in the south-east health care region in Sweden. Six voice clinics participated by asking their patients voluntarily to complete the Swedish version of the VHI at the beginning and end of therapy. Results and conclusions: The two most prevalent diagnoses were dysphonia (43%) and phonasthenia (25%). Among the working population, the three most common occupational fields were education, health care, and child-care. The majority of the patients were women (74.3%), and the mean age of all patients was 55 years. A significant improvement in VHI scores was found after therapy, with an average decrease of 19 median points in total score and a substantial effect size (0.55). The number of sessions did not significantly correlate with the mean VHI score difference but had a weak correlation to the start and end scores. Increasing age correlated with a higher median VHI score both at the start and end of therapy but did not affect the average decrease between the two measurements.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Thormeyer, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Språkliga förmågor i relation till läsförmåga hos ungdomar och unga vuxna med lindrig intellektuell funktionsnedsättning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that individuals exhibiting mild intellectual disability show a lower reading ability than individuals with typical development. The reasons behind these differences are unclear. However, research shows that specific language abilities affect reading ability. The present study aims to investigate any possible correlations between language ability and reading ability in young people with mild intellectual disability, aged 12 to 25 years. The examined linguistic abilities were phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), vocabulary, grammatical comprehension and language comprehension. Testing was held at the participants’ schools in various parts of central and southern Sweden. The raw scores were used in correlation and regression analyses to map out any correlations.

    A total of 27 participants with ages ranging between 13;06 years and 25;09 years were included in the study. The results showed that RAN and phonological awareness had strong significant correlations to decoding and that they together can account for 72.3 % of its variance. Reading comprehension showed strong significant correlations to phonological awareness, grammatical comprehension, decoding, and language comprehension. Language comprehension and vocabulary explained 62.4 % of the variance in reading comprehension. Word decoding showed a stronger correlation to reading comprehension than phonological decoding.

    The results of the present study are in large parts compatible with previous research, which supports the findings that phonological awareness and RAN are of importance to decoding ability, and that decoding in turn has an impact on reading comprehension in individuals with both typical development and intellectual disability. However, the results in the present study are at odds with previous research, which has not found significant correlations between vocabulary and reading comprehension in individuals with mild intellectual disability.

    In summation, results of the present study show that a number of linguistic abilities can explain the variance of both decoding and reading comprehension. Hopes are that the results from the present study can contribute to furthering knowledge of the underlying factors which explain why individuals with mild intellectual disabilities generally are poor readers. More research is needed to confirm which other factors can explain the remaining variance and to strengthen the results of the present study.

  • 11.
    Kim, Jeewon
    et al.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Ho Shin, June
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Chen, Che-Hong
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Cruz, Leslie
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Farnebo, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Yang, Jieying
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Borges, Paula
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Kang, Gugene
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Mochly-Rosen, Daria
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Sunwoo, John B.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA; Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Targeting aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with a novel small molecule inhibitor2017In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 32, p. 52345-52356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemoresistant cancer cells express high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), particularly in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The ALDH family of enzymes detoxify both exogenous and endogenous aldehydes. Since many chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, result in the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that cells expressing high levels of ALDH may be more chemoresistant due to their increased detoxifying capacity and that inhibitors of ALDHs may sensitize them to these drugs. Here, we show that overall ALDH activity is increased with cisplatin treatment of HNSCC and that ALDH3A1 protein expression is particularly enriched in cells treated with cisplatin. Activation of ALDH3A1 by a small molecule activator (Alda-89) increased survival of HNSCC cells treated with cisplatin. Conversely, treatment with a novel small molecule ALDH inhibitor (Aldi-6) resulted in a marked decrease in cell viability, and the combination of Aldi-6 and cisplatin resulted in a more pronounced reduction of cell viability and a greater reduction in tumor burden in vivo than what was observed with cisplatin alone. These data indicate that ALDH3A1 contributes to cisplatin resistance in HNSCC and that the targeting of ALDH, specifically, ALDH3A1, appears to be a promising strategy in this disease.

  • 12.
    Kim, Jun Woo
    et al.
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Bae, Kiho
    Korea Univ, South Korea; KIST, South Korea.
    Kim, Hyun Joong
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Son, Ji-won
    KIST, South Korea; Korea Univ Sci and Technol UST, South Korea.
    Kim, Nam Keun
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Incheon Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Prinz, Fritz B.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA; Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Shim, Joon Hyung
    Korea Univ, South Korea; Stanford Univ, CA 94305 USA.
    Three-dimensional thermal stress analysis of the re-oxidized Ni-YSZ anode functional layer in solid oxide fuel cells2018In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 752, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) cermet is widely used as an anode material in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); however, Ni re-oxidation causes critical problems due to volume expansion, which causes high thermal stress. We fabricated a Ni-YSZ anode functional layer (AFL), which is an essential component in high-performance SOFCs, and re-oxidized it to investigate the related three-dimensional (3D) microstructural and thermo-mechanical effects. A 3D model of the re-oxidized AFL was generated using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography. Re-oxidation of the Ni phase caused significant volumetric expansion, which was confirmed via image analysis and calculation of the volume fraction, connectivity, and two-phase boundary density. Finite element analysis (FEA) with simulated heating to 500-900 degrees C confirmed that the thermal stress in re-oxidized Ni-YSZ is concentrated at the boundaries between YSZ and re-oxidized NiO (nickel oxide). NiO is subjected to more stress than YSZ. Stress exceeding the fracture stress of 8 mol% YSZ appears primarily at 800 degrees C or higher. The stress is also more severe near the electrolyte-anode boundary than in the Ni-YSZ cermet and the YSZ regions. This may be responsible for the electrolyte membrane delamination and fracture that are observed during high-temperature operation. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Kytovuori, Laura
    et al.
    Oulu University Hospital, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
    Hannula, Samuli
    Oulu University Hospital, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
    Sorri, Martti
    Oulu University Hospital, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland.
    Majamaa, Kari
    Oulu University Hospital, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland; University of Oulu, Finland; Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
    A nonsynonymous mutation in the WFS1 gene in a Finnish family with age-related hearing impairment2017In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 355, p. 97-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is caused by recessive mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene. Sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) is a frequent feature in WS and, furthermore, certain mutations in WFS1 cause nonsyndromic dominantly inherited low-frequency sensorineural HI. These two phenotypes are clinically distinct indicating that WFS1 is a reasonable candidate for genetic studies in patients with other phenotypes of HI. Here we have investigated, whether the variation in WFS1 has a pathogenic role in age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). WFS1 gene was investigated in a population sample of 518 Finnish adults born in 1938-1949 and representing variable hearing phenotypes. Identified variants were evaluated with respect to pathogenic potential. A rare mutation predicted to be pathogenic was found in a family with many members with impaired hearing. Twenty members were recruited to a segregation study and a detailed clinical examination. Heterozygous p.Tyr528His variant segregated completely with late-onset HI in which hearing deteriorated first at high frequencies and progressed to mid and low frequencies later in life. We report the first mutation in the WFS1 gene causing late-onset HI with audiogram configurations typical for ARHI. Monogenic forms of ARHI are rare and our results add WFS1 to the short list of such genes. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Larsson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Recycling narratives as a joint accomplishment in interaction with people with dementia2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on recycling of stories in conversations involving people with dementia. In dementia, communicative ability gradually deteriorates as the disease progresses typically leading to profound decline of communicative skills in the late stage. Of all of the domains affected by dementia diseases, communication is one of the areas where people with dementia and their caregivers experience most challenges. A significant characteristic for persons with dementia is a tendency to tell the same stories over and over (e.g. Hydén et al., 2013). While the significance conversational partners have on the organization of stories told by people with dementia are highly recognized (e.g. Hydén, et al., 2013; Hydén, 2011), how conversational partners to people with dementia orient toward recycling of stories are still in need of further investigation. In previous research, the phenomenon of recycling stories is mainly credited to the person with dementia. In our present study, we would like to propose another parallel point of view in which caregivers also tend to recycle stories repetitively in conversation with persons with dementia. We argue that recycling of stories in interaction involving people with dementia is a highly collaborative activity, and sometimes even initiated by conversational partners to people with dementia. In this presentation, we focus on how recycling of stories are sequentially organized is ordinary interaction between people with dementia and professional caregivers. The data consist of video recordings of 4 dyads (one person diagnosed with dementia and a professional caregiver in each dyad) totaling approximately 2,5 hours of recordings. In the analyses, we have focused specifically on how the telling of recycled stories is initiated in conversation, and what kind of feedback such stories receive. Our analyses show that recycled stories told by persons with dementia receive strong interactional support from conversational partners by, for example, the use of responses signaling newness and surprise (cf. Hydén et al., 2013). Conversational partners are also actively involved in the telling of recycled stories by, for example, asking guiding questions expanding the stories and use prompting techniques in cases where the person with dementia seem to have difficulties telling the whole story. In our analyses, we have also seen examples where conversational partners to people with dementia not only support the telling of recycled stories, but actually initiate such stories by instructing the person with dementia to talk about a specific topic.

  • 15.
    Lindblad, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Löfström, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Påverkan på tal- och språkproduktion vid transkraniell magnetstimulering, TMS, hos personer med hjärntumör2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When an individual is diagnosed with a brain tumour, intervention by neurosurgery might be needed. In case of neurosurgery, a preoperative assessment of the individual’s language functions is carried out, if possible, in order to identify sensitive language areas in cortical structures. Today, nTMS, navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation, is being used, which temporarily shuts down functions in specific cortical areas and thus is a useful method to fulfill this aim. The patient is asked to name a series of pictures representing nouns while focal parts of the brain is stimulated with magnetic stimulation.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the naming ability of nouns changed during nTMS in individuals with brain tumour and in what way, as well as whether the location of the tumour affected the participants naming abilities during nTMS.

    All participants in the present study were patients with brain tumour, previously examined with nTMS in a neurophysiological clinic at a hospital in the South East of Sweden. The examinations were video recorded and have subsequently formed the material for data analysis in the present study. Analysis was made on group and population level. The groups were created based on the participants tumour localisation.

    The result shows that the naming ability changes as a number of language related phenomenon aroused in the preoperative examination using nTMS. The five most common phenomena on population level were hesitation sound, latency, sound interjection, no response and inaccurate articulation. Comparison on group level revealed no significant difference regarding tumour location.

    The result might indicate that the neurophysiology of language consists of collaborating complex networks. The result can also support theories regarding tumour induced plasticity.

  • 16.
    Lindskog, Alma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Renström, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    En jämförelse av expressiv fonologisk förmåga hos barn remitterade till logoped och en åldersmatchad kontrollgrupp2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phonological system can be described and analyzed on three levels; word, syllable and segment. The non-linear nature of the system enables an analysis from different viewpoints on phonology. LINköpingsUnderSökningen (LINUS) is a phonological test for children between the ages of 3 to 6 years which enables a non-linear analysis. Previous studies at  Linköping University have shown that children with phonological language impairment have phonological deviations on all three levels. Even though there is research involving Swedish-speaking children with expressive phonological impairment, further research is needed due to lacking in sample size and age span of participants. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the expressive phonological ability of children between the ages of 3 to 5 years who have been referred to a speech and language pathologist (SLP) for suspected phonological difficulties with a control group consisting of peers without known difficulties.

    In the study 10 children participated who were recruited from a speech and language pathologist clinic in a big city in Sweden, and raw data was also used from a previous study on an additional 11 children. Children with language impairment were matched with a control group with children of the same age. The age interval of participating children was between 3 years and 2 months and 4 years and 11 months.  The LINUS test was issued at a speech and language pathologist clinic together with a SLP. 

    The results showed similar deviations on word, syllable and segment level for both the study group and the control group. However the results of the study group contained a higher amount of deviations. The word and syllable level caused the greatest challenge for both groups. Additionally, both the study group and the control group exhibited deviations in terms of word structure where the most frequent shortcoming was reduction of consonant clusters.

    To conclude, similar types of deviations occurred in both groups, although the study group had a higher amount of deviations on all levels. For stronger conclusions, a larger sample size and younger participants are needed.

  • 17.
    Lohmander, Anette
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Emilie
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Persson, Christina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Willadsen, Elisabeth
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Davies, Julie
    Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital, England.
    Havstam, Christina
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Boers, Maria
    University Hospital Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kisling-Moller, Mia
    Cleft Palate Centre, Denmark.
    Alaluusua, Suvi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Aukner, Ragnhild
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Helen Pedersen, Nina
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Turunen, Leena
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Jill
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Validity of auditory perceptual assessment of velopharyngeal function and dysfunction - the VPC-Sum and the VPC-Rate2017In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 31, no 7-9, p. 589-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overall weighted or composite variables for perceptual auditory estimation of velopharyngeal closure or competence have been used in several studies for evaluation of velopharyngeal function during speech. The aim of the present study was to investigate the validity of a composite score (VPC-Sum) and of auditory perceptual ratings of velopharyngeal competence (VPC-Rate). Available VPC-Sum scores and judgments of associated variables (hypernasality, audible nasal air leakage, weak pressure consonants, and non-oral articulation) from 391 5-year olds with repaired cleft palate (the Scandcleft project) were used to investigate content validity, and 339 of these were compared with an overall judgment of velopharyngeal competence (VPC-Rate) on the same patients by the same listeners. Significant positive correlations were found between the VPC-Sum and each of the associated variables (Cronbachs alpha 0.55-0.87, P amp;lt; 0.001), and a moderately significant positive correlation between VPC-Sum and VPC-Rate (Rho 0.698, P amp;lt; 0.01). The latter classified cases well when VPC-Sum was dichotomized with 67% predicted velopharyngeal competence and 90% velopharyngeal incompetence. The validity of the VPC-Sum was good and the VPC-Rate a good predictor, suggesting possible use of both measures depending on the objective.

  • 18.
    Lohmander, Anette
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Christina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    SVANTE - The Swedish Articulation and Nasality Test - Normative data and a minimum standard set for cross-linguistic comparison2017In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 137-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normative language-based data are important for comparing speech performances of clinical groups. The Swedish Articulation and Nasality Test (SVANTE) was developed to enable a detailed speech assessment. This studys aim was to present normative data on articulation and nasality in Swedish speakers. Single word production, sentence repetition and connected speech were collected using SVANTE in 443 individuals. Mean (SD) and prevalences in the groups of 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 16- and 19-year-olds were calculated from phonetic transcriptions or ordinal rating. For the 3- and 5-year-olds, a consonant inventory was also determined. The mean percent of oral consonants correct ranged from 77% at age 3 to 99% at age 19. At age 5, a mean of 96% was already reached, and the consonant inventory was established except for /s/, /r/, /?/. The norms on the SVANTE, also including a short version, will be useful in the interpretation of speech outcomes.

  • 19.
    Lohmander, Anette
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Persson, Christina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Willadsen, Elisabeth
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alaluusua, Suvi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Aukner, Ragnhild
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Bau, Anja
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Boers, Maria
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Bowden, Melanie
    Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital, England.
    Davies, Julie
    Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital, England.
    Emborg, Berit
    Cleft Palate Centre, Denmark.
    Havstam, Christina
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hayden, Christine
    Royal Hospital Sick Children, North Ireland.
    Henningsson, Gunilla
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Holmefjord, Anders
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Hölttä, Elina
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kisling-Moller, Mia
    Cleft Palate Centre, Denmark.
    Kjoll, Lillian
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Lundberg, Maria
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    McAleer, Eilish
    Royal Hospital Sick Children, North Ireland.
    Nyberg, Jill
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Paaso, Marjukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Pedersen, Nina Helen
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Rasmussen, Therese
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Reisaeter, Sigvor
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Sogaard Andersen, Helene
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Schoeps, Antje
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Tordal, Inger-Beate
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Semb, Gunvor
    Statped Sorost, Norway; University of Manchester, England; National Hospital Norway, Norway.
    Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate: 4. Speech outcomes in 5-year-olds - velopharyngeal competency and hypernasality2017In: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, ISSN 2000-656X, E-ISSN 2000-6764, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Adequate velopharyngeal function and speech are main goals in the treatment of cleft palate. The objective was to investigate if there were differences in velopharyngeal competency (VPC) and hypernasality at age 5 years in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) operated on with different surgical methods for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. Design: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, and the UK. Methods: Three different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair were tested against a common procedure in the total cohort of 448 children born with a non-syndromic UCLP. Speech audio and video recordings of 391 children (136 girls, 255 boys) were available and perceptually analysed. The main outcome measures were VPC and hypernasality from blinded assessments. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the prevalences in the arms in any of the trials. VPC: Trial 1, A: 58%, B: 61%; Trial 2, A: 57%, C: 54%; Trial 3, A: 35%, D: 51%. No hypernasality: Trial 1, A: 54%, B: 44%; Trial 2, A: 47%, C: 51%; Trial 3, A: 34%, D: 49%. Conclusions: No differences were found regarding VPC and hypernasality at age 5 years after different methods for primary palatal repair. The burden of care in terms of secondary pharyngeal surgeries, number of fistulae, and speech therapy visits differed.

  • 20.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Word-initial /r/-clusters in Swedish speaking children with typical versus protracted phonological development2018In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 32, no 5-6, p. 446-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated word-initial (WI) /r/-clusters in Central Swedish-speaking children with and without protracted phonological development (PPD). Data for WI singleton /r/ and singleton and cluster /l/ served as comparisons. Participants were twelve 4-year-olds with PPD and twelve age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) controls. Native speakers audio-recorded and transcribed 109 target single words using a Swedish phonology test with 12 WI C+/r/-clusters and three WI CC+/r/-clusters. The results showed significantly higher match scores for the TD children, a lower match proportion for the /r/ targets and for singletons compared with clusters, and differences in mismatch patterns between the groups. There were no matches for /r/-cluster targets in the PPD group, with all children except two in that group showing deletions for both /r/-cluster types. The differences in mismatch proportions and types between the PPD group and controls suggests new directions for future clinical practice.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-09-28 11:16
  • 21.
    Majlesi, Ali Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University. Department of Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ekström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Video data as a method to understand non-verbal communication in couples where one person is living wih dementia2018In: Social research methods in dementia studies: inclusion and innovation / [ed] John Keady, Lars-Christer Hydén, Ann Johnson, Caroline Swarbrink, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 56-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Makitie, A.
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki Univ Hosp, Finland; Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Ruuskanen, M.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Bentzen, J.
    Herlev Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Brun, E.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Gebre-Medhin, M.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Friesland, S.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Marsk, E.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, L.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gille, E.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Reizenstein, J.
    Örebro Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Adell, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Farnebo, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Rzepecki, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Haugen, H.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Soderstrom, K.
    Umeå Univ, Sweden.
    Zackrisson, B.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Bergstrom, S.
    Gävle Cent Hosp, Sweden.
    Loden, B.
    Karlstad Hosp, Sweden.
    Cederblad, L.
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Laurell, G.
    Uppsala Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Smeland, E.
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Norway.
    Evensen, J. Folkvard
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Lund, J. A.
    Trondheim Reg and Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Tondel, H.
    Trondheim Reg and Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Karlsdottir, A.
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway.
    Johannsson, J.
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Johansen, J.
    Odense Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Kristensen, C. A.
    Rigshosp, Denmark.
    Jensen, K.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Andersen, L. J.
    Aalborg Hosp, Denmark.
    Koivunen, P.
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Korpela, M.
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Voutilainen, L.
    Kuopio Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Wigren, T.
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Minn, H.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Joensuu, H.
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Finland; Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Overgaard, J.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Saarilahti, K.
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Finland; Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    The management and survival outcomes of nasopharyngeal cancer in the Nordic countries2018In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 557-560Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 23.
    Myrberg, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Different approaches in aphasia assessments: a comparison between test and everyday conversations2018In: Aphasiology, ISSN 0268-7038, E-ISSN 1464-5041, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 417-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When it comes to aphasia assessments, many speech and language pathologists (SLPs) rely heavily on norm-referenced language tests, even though they are aware that certain important language skills can only be evaluated by analysis of conversational discourse. The formalized aphasia test situation is a typical example of institutional interaction, which differs in systematic ways from everyday conversations. This article examines conversations between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and SLPs in the two different contexts, a topic where previous research is limited. Aims: The aim is to compare the interactions between PWAs and SLPs in test conversations and in more everyday-like conversations and to relate the interactional data to the participants performance on the aphasia test battery. Methods amp; Procedures: Ten PWAs and three SLPs participated in the study. Each PWA participated in two conversations with an SLP, a test conversation, while performing tasks targeting the ability to produce sentences and narratives from an aphasia test battery, and a more everyday-like conversation. The conversations were audio and video recorded and thereafter transcribed. Three main observations considered to be important mechanisms for interaction organization were identified and calculated in the transcriptions. The test results were summarized and analyzed. Outcomes amp; results: The results demonstrated that there were a larger number of turns produced by the PWAs in the everyday conversations compared to the test conversations. Furthermore, there were more communicative initiatives and nonverbal contributions in the everyday conversations. The number of repairs initiated by the PWAs were equivalent, but looking at repair characteristics, it was found that repairs resolved within the same turn were found in the test conversations while repairs stretching over several turns were more frequent in the everyday conversations. Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrated differences of the interaction between PWAs and SLPs in test conversations and in more everyday-like conversations. Furthermore, there seemed to be no obvious relationship between the participants actual test scores on the aphasia test battery and aspects of conversation that can be related to being a competent speaker.

  • 24.
    Olsson, Nelly
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Norström Darlin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    En studie av lexikon och gestproduktion hos barn med respektive utan språkstörning genom utförandet av ordförrådstestet PiNG2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine receptive and expressive lexicon, as well as gesture production among children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD), Using the Swedish translation of the Picture Naming Game (PiNG). The parental evaluation Swedish Communicative Development Inventory III (SCDI III) was used to determine whether the results from PiNG and SCDI III were consistent. In this study, 10 children with DLD (study group) and 11 age-matched children with typical language development (control group) between 52 and 70 months of age participated. The participants were tested with PiNG, which is a test that examines reception and production of single nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions. The guardians then completed SCDI III, which contains questions about the language abilities of the child. Gesture production in the form of deictic, iconic and conventional gestures was examined in conjunction with the use of PiNG.

    The results showed lower results for the study group on PiNG and SCDI III in comparison with the control group. The study group displayed a higher number of gestures than the control group, and in the former group, the use of gestures was positively correlated with the results from PiNG. In the study group, iconic gestures were used to compensate for language difficulties. The results from PiNG and SCDI III were not consistent. The age of the participants problably did not affect any results. The results from the present study indicate that PiNG may be useful when examining lexicon and gesture production among children with DLD. Both groups achieved high results on PiNG which may have affected the use of gestures and also possible correlations. For future studies, it is therefore recommended to apply PiNG on a group of younger children with DLD.

  • 25.
    Ruhi Soylu, Abdullah
    et al.
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Yavas, Gorkem
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Ergin, Bora
    Hacettepe University, Turkey.
    Keceli, Sumru
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Effect of touch coordinate display as a form of augmented, concurrent visual feedback on the accuracy of single-handed typing via smartphone virtual keyboards2017In: Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, ISSN 1300-0632, E-ISSN 1303-6203, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 1724-1732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the effect of an easily perceived real-time visual feedback method on touchscreen typing accuracy. Thirty subjects were asked to hold a smartphone with a capacitive touchscreen in one hand and enter a text using the thumb of the same hand via a custom designed virtual keyboard. There were two types of text entry sessions: with or without visual feedback. The visual feedback consisted of a full-screen crosshair, representing the accurate coordinate of touch in real time. In each session, touch-down time on the virtual keyboard and touch coordinates were recorded for every touch action. Two types of typing errors were defined: 1) centering error (CE), which was calculated as the mm distance between the coordinate of the touch and the center of the key, and 2) incorrect entry (IE), which was the number of missed keys. Student t-tests and Wilcoxon tests were used for mean and mean-rank comparisons of CE and IE, respectively. The results showed that visual feedback decreased CE (mean SD) significantly from 1.34 +/- 0.38 mm to 0.85 +/- 0.24 mm (P amp;lt; 0.0005), and decreased IE (median and range, # of incorrect entries) significantly from 5.50 and 32.00 to 1.00 and 7.00 (P amp;lt; 0.005). In conclusion, the accurate, easily perceived, and 2D real-time feedback decreases touch-typing error rates markedly and therefore can be of practical importance for increasing the productivity of smartphone users.

  • 26.
    Samuelsson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hydén, Lars-Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, NISAL - National Institute for the Study of Ageing and Later Life. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Collaboration, trouble and repair in multiparty interactions involving couples with dementia or aphasia2017In: International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1754-9507, E-ISSN 1754-9515, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 454-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to identify problems with communication with persons with aphasia and persons with dementia in a collaborative interview setting with their significant others. In particular, to compare interactional practices used in order to resolve problems caused by specific symptoms. Method: Five persons with aphasia and five persons with dementia and their spouses participated in the study. Interviews were carried out couple by couple, and the interviews had a task-oriented character. The interviews were video and audio recorded. All interviews were transcribed. From the transcriptions categorisations according to previous literature were made. Result: The results demonstrated that repair sequences were frequent in interaction involving people with aphasia (PWA), and even more so in interaction involving persons with dementia (PWD). In general, it was the PWA/PWD that initiated the repair sequence more often than the spouse, thus keeping the general rule of a preference for self-initiated repair compared to other-initiated repair. Conclusion: The active involvement of the conversational partners in trouble solving sequences in interaction with PWA/PWD demonstrated in the present study indicates that the interactional style of the conversational partner to PWA/PWD important. This implies that conversation partner training programmes would be useful both for PWA and for PWD.

  • 27.
    Schultz, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Östenberg, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Undersökning av lexikal organisation hos äldre utan diagnostiserad kognitiv nedsättning genom kartläggning av associationsmönster2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lexical organisation in the elderly is a relatively unexplored area. The aim of this study was to broaden the understanding of lexical organisation in an elderly, Swedish population through the mapping of associative patterns. The study also aimed to examine if relationships existed between association patterns and naming ability, age and level of education in the above-mentioned population. Participants in the present study were 45 persons between the ages of 60 to 89 years. They all had Swedish as their first language and they did not have any known aphasia or cognitive disorder. Participants were divided into three different groups based on age regardless of level of education, as well as three different groups based on level of education regardless of age level. All participants completed a test battery including Boston Naming Test and a remodelled version of the Kent and Rosanoff Association Test. A Swedish version of the Mini Mental State Examination was carried out to give basic view of cognitive ability in the participants. In comparison with earlier research on association patterns in young adults up to 26 years, older individuals have a higher number of paradigmatic associations. There was a tendency to a relationship between a higher level of education and a high number of syntagmatic associations, in comparison with groups with lower level of education. No relationship was found between association patterns and naming ability or between association patterns and age variation. 

  • 28.
    Semb, Gunvor
    et al.
    Division of Dentistry, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway; Department of Speech and Language Disorders , Statped sørøst , Oslo , Norway..
    Enemark, Hans
    Cleft Palate Center , Aarhus , Denmark.
    Friede, Hans
    Department of Orthodontics , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Paulin, Gunnar
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Lilja, Jan
    Department of Plastic Surgery , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Rautio, Jorma
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Andersen, Mikael
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Åbyholm, Frank
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology , Karolinska Institute, and Karolinska University Hospital , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Shaw, William
    Division of Dentistry, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Mølsted, Kirsten
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Heliövaara, Arja
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Bolund, Stig
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Hukki, Jyri
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Vindenes, Hallvard
    Centre for Cleft Lip and Palate, Bergen University Hospital Haukeland , Bergen , Norway.
    Davenport, Peter
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Arctander, Kjartan
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway.
    Larson, Ola
    Stockholm Craniofacial Team , Karolinska University Hospital , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Berggren, Anders
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Whitby, David
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Leonard, Alan
    The Royal Hospital for Sick Children , Belfast , N. Ireland.
    Neovius, Erik
    Stockholm Craniofacial Team , Karolinska University Hospital , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Elander, Anna
    Department of Plastic Surgery , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Willadsen, Elisabeth
    Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics , University of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Bannister, R. Patricia
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Bradbury, Eileen
    Private Practitioner , Manchester , UK.
    Henningsson, Gunilla
    Stockholm Craniofacial Team , Karolinska University Hospital , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Persson, Christina
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Speech and Language; Division for Speech and Language Pathology , Sahlgrenska University Hospital , Gothenburg , Sweden Pathology Unit , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden; .
    Eyres, Philip
    Division of Dentistry, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Emborg, Berit
    Cleft Palate Center , Aarhus , Denmark.
    Kisling-Møller, Mia
    Division of Dentistry, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Küseler, Annelise
    Division of Dentistry, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Granhof Black, Birthe
    Division of Dentistry, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Schöps, Antje
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Bau, Anja
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Boers, Maria
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Søgaard Andersen, Helene
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Jeppesen, Karin
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Marxen, Dorte
    Copenhagen Cleft Palate Center, University Hospital of Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Paaso, Marjukka
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Hölttä, Elina
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Alaluusua, Suvi
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Turunen, Leena
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Humerinta, Kirsti
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Elfving-Little, Ulla
    Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Tørdal, Inger Beate
    Department of Speech and Language Disorders , Statped sørøst , Oslo , Norway.
    Kjøll, Lillian
    Department of Speech and Language Disorders , Statped sørøst , Oslo , Norway.
    Aukner, Ragnhild
    Department of Speech and Language Disorders , Statped sørøst , Oslo , Norway.
    Hide, Øydis
    Department of Speech and Language Disorders , Statped sørøst , Oslo , Norway.
    Feragen, Kristin Billaud
    Department of Speech and Language Disorders , Statped sørøst , Oslo , Norway.
    Rønning, Elisabeth
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway.
    Skaare, Pål
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway.
    Brinck, Eli
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway.
    Semmingsen, Ann-Magritt
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway.
    Lindberg, Nina
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet , Oslo , Norway.
    Bowden, Melanie
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Davies, Julie
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Mooney, Jeanette
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Bellardie, Haydn
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Schofield, Nina
    Greater Manchester Cleft Lip and Palate Unit , Royal Manchester Childrens' Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Nyberg, Jill
    Stockholm Craniofacial Team , Karolinska University Hospital , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Lundberg, Maria
    Stockholm Craniofacial Team , Karolinska University Hospital , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Linder-Aronson Karsten, Agneta
    Stockholm Craniofacial Team, Department of Dental Medicine , Karolinska Institute , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Larson, Margareta
    Eastman Institute, Stockholms Läns Landsting , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Holmefjord, Anders
    Statped vest , Bergen , Norway.
    Reisæter, Sigvor
    Statped vest , Bergen , Norway.
    Pedersen, Nina-Helen
    Statped vest , Bergen , Norway.
    Rasmussen, Therese
    Statped vest , Bergen , Norway.
    Tindlund, Rolf
    Dental School, University of Bergen , Bergen , Norway.
    Sæle, Paul
    Oral Health Center of Expertise/Western Norway , Bergen , Norway.
    Blomhoff, Reidunn
    Centre for Cleft Lip and Palate, Bergen University Hospital Haukeland , Bergen , Norway.
    Jacobsen, Gry
    Centre for Cleft Lip and Palate, Bergen University Hospital Haukeland , Bergen , Norway.
    Havstam, Christina
    Division for Speech and Language Pathology , Sahlgrenska University Hospital , Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Rizell, Sara
    Department of Orthodontics , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Enocson, Lars
    Department of Orthodontics , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Hagberg, Catharina
    Department of Orthodontics , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Najar Chalien, Midia
    Department of Orthodontics , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Paganini, Anna
    Department of Plastic Surgery , Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Marcusson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Mjönes, Anna-Britta
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Gustavsson, Annica
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Hayden, Christine
    The Royal Hospital for Sick Children , Belfast , N. Ireland.
    McAleer, Eilish
    The Royal Hospital for Sick Children , Belfast , N. Ireland.
    Slevan, Emma
    The Royal Hospital for Sick Children , Belfast , N. Ireland.
    Gregg, Terry
    The Royal Hospital for Sick Children , Belfast , N. Ireland.
    Worthington, Helen
    Division of Dentistry, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    A Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate: 1. Planning and management.2017In: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, ISSN 2000-656X, E-ISSN 2000-6764, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 2-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Longstanding uncertainty surrounds the selection of surgical protocols for the closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate, and randomised trials have only rarely been performed. This paper is an introduction to three randomised trials of primary surgery for children born with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). It presents the protocol developed for the trials in CONSORT format, and describes the management structure that was developed to achieve the long-term engagement and commitment required to complete the project.

    METHOD: Ten established national or regional cleft centres participated. Lip and soft palate closure at 3-4 months, and hard palate closure at 12 months served as a common method in each trial. Trial 1 compared this with hard palate closure at 36 months. Trial 2 compared it with lip closure at 3-4 months and hard and soft palate closure at 12 months. Trial 3 compared it with lip and hard palate closure at 3-4 months and soft palate closure at 12 months. The primary outcomes were speech and dentofacial development, with a series of perioperative and longer-term secondary outcomes.

    RESULTS: Recruitment of 448 infants took place over a 9-year period, with 99.8% subsequent retention at 5 years.

    CONCLUSION: The series of reports that follow this introductory paper include comparisons at age 5 of surgical outcomes, speech outcomes, measures of dentofacial development and appearance, and parental satisfaction. The outcomes recorded and the numbers analysed for each outcome and time point are described in the series.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN29932826.

  • 29.
    Sinkvist, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Five Year Data and Results of Continuous Quality Improvement Using SKURT2017In: Educational Research Applications, E-ISSN 2575-7032, Vol. 2017, no 05, article id ERCA-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student rating of teaching isessentialfor attaining and maintaining higheducational quality.A quality improvement system, SKURT,based on digital online weekly combined quantitative, ten-graded scale, and qualitative, open-ended free text, group feedback from medical students was developed. Students rated all educational, non-clerkship, items throughout the entire medical program, spanning eleven terms. The results were semi-publicly available for students and faculty at a Swedish university. This study describes datafrom five-year use of the system,focusing on how the use of SKURT influenced educational items found to be in the most substantial need for improvements.

    Statistically but hardly practically significant improvement in average feedback grade was found during the observation period (average 7.07 in 2009 to 7.24 in 2013 (p<0.001)).The medical program was already in 2007recognized ascenter of excellent quality in higher education. When analyzing the 18 lectures with lowest outcome in the spring 2009 compared to the fall 2013, five were discontinued. The remaining 13 lectures improved significantly (p<0.001) 116% from 2.94 (SD 0.92) to 6.34 (SD 2.58). 

    A weekly group feedback system employing the principles used in SKURTis useful forimproving the quality of medical education particularlyby improvingthe items with the lowest ratings.

  • 30.
    Sinkvist, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Theodorsson, Annette
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    SKURT: Quality Improvement System with Comprehensive Weekly Digital Student Group Feedback2017In: Educational Research Applications, E-ISSN 2575-7032, Vol. 2017, no 5, article id RCA-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ role in evaluation and rating of teachers and education has been extensively researched for nearly a century. Applied worldwide, students’ ratings account for the majority of the available data.We created a new quality improvement system, SKURT, using digital online weekly combined quantitative, ten-graded scale, and qualitative, open-ended free text, group feedback from medical students. Students rated all educational, non-clerkship, items throughout the entire medical program, spanning eleven terms. The rating process is since 2008 an integral part of a medical program at a Swedish university. The results are, after a screening process, semi-publicly available on-demand, for students and faculty, creating a feedback loop enabling continuous improvement of quality.A thorough literature search of students rating of teaching found no other corresponding weekly group rating system spanning all educational items. Quality improvement systems based on similar principles as SKURT can uncover problem areas that are difficult to find using other rating systems and has the potential to circumvent several biases, risks and shortcomings of traditional rating systems in current use.

  • 31.
    Skagerstrand, Åsa
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden; Swedish Institute Disabil Research, Sweden.
    Kobler, Susanne
    Örebro University Hospital, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden; Swedish Institute Disabil Research, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish Institute Disabil Research, Sweden.
    Loudness and annoyance of disturbing sounds - perception by normal hearing subjects2017In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 775-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Sounds in the daily environment may cause loudness and annoyance. The present study investigated the perception of loudness and annoyance for eight different sounds present in a daily sound environment and at nine different levels varying by +/- 20 dB around the recorded level. The outcomes were related to tests of participants auditory and cognitive abilities. Design: The participants undertook auditory and working memory (WM) tests prior to ratings of everyday sounds previously shown to be disturbing for persons with hearing impairment (hearing aid users). Study sample: Twenty-one participants aged between 24 and 71 years, with normal hearing threshold levels. Results: Both perceived loudness and annoyance were primarily driven by the sound level. Sounds emitted from paper were rated as having greater loudness and being more annoying than the other sound sources at the same sound level. Auditory and cognitive abilities did not influence the perception of loudness and annoyance. Conclusions: Loudness and annoyance ratings were mainly driven by sound level. Expectations of a sound seemed to influence the assessment of loudness and annoyance while auditory performance and WM capacity showed no influence on the ratings.

  • 32.
    Skonieczna, Magdalena
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology.
    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur
    Centre for Molecular Medicine, Norway .
    Saenko, Yuriy
    S.P.Kapitsa Technological Research Institute.
    Foksinski, Marek
    Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Olinski, Ryszard
    Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Poland.
    Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Wiechec, Emilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The impact of DIDS-induced inhibition of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) on cellular response of lymphoblastoid cells to ionizing radiation.2017In: Medicinal chemistry, ISSN 1573-4064, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 477-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The voltage-dependent ion channels (VDAC) play an essential role in the cross talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. Their implication in cell life and cell death has been studied extensively in recent years. In this work we studied the impact of mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) on cell survival and response to X-ionizing radiation (IR) of human lymphoblastoid K562 cells. Methods: The inhibition of VDACs was achieved by 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibitor and in vitro experiments including clonogenity assay, UV-visible spectrophotometry, comet assay and FACS analysis were implemented. Results: Inhibition of VDAC led to augmentation of IR-induced apoptosis and ROS production. Additionally, DIDS affected repair of IR-induced DNA strand breaks and was in line with both induction of apoptosis and caspase activity. The IR-induced NO production was potently reduced by inhibition of VDAC. Conclusion: Our results suggest that VDAC control cellular response to ionizing radiation through modulation of the ROS- and NO-dependent signaling pathways. Inhibition of VDAC with DIDS induced apoptosis in irradiated K562 lymphoblastoid cells points at DIDS, as a promising agent to enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy.

  • 33.
    Strömbäck, Ellinor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Linder, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology.
    Skapande av gemensam grund mellan tolkar och tolkanvändare vid Taltjänst2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People with communication disorders involving language, speech, voice, and cognitive impairment affecting the ability to communicate, can be provided with an interpreter from Speech Interpreter Service as a means of support. The interpreter provides the user with support specified to their needs. Preparatory conversations held between the interpreter and the user prior to a meeting with a third party are customary. A previous study has shown that preparatory conversations were crucial in order to reach common ground between interpreter, user and a third party. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate how the interpreter and the user establish common ground during preparatory conversations. A further aim was to investigate how interpreters and users experience Speech Interpreter Service.

     

    Eight users with various communication disorders and five interpreters participated in the study. The data consisted of eight preparatory conversations and twelve interviews. The interviews with interpreters and users were analysed based on content. The interviews with users showed that they think it is easier to talk to people they know. The interviews with interpreters showed that they consider preparatory conversations before a meeting with a third party to be important. The data from preparatory conversations was transcribed and analysed. The result shows that various conversational strategies may be used in order to establish common ground between interpreter and user. The analysis revealed three conversational strategies beneficial to establishment of common ground between interpreter and user; clarification request & candidate understanding, visual support, and sounds & body language. Interpreters used clarification requests and candidate understandings in all preparatory conversations. Both users and interpreters used visual support in most conversations. Non-lexical sounds and body language was also used in most conversations, particulary by users but also by interpreters. The result of the present study may contribute to awareness raising of which conversation strategies interpreters are using, that might possibly lead to even more effective interpreting in the future.

  • 34.
    Sundström, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Prosodic and Phonological Ability in Children with Developmental Language Disorder and Children with Hearing Impairment: In the Context of Word and Nonword Repetition2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many children with developmental language disorder (DLD) exhibit difficulties with phonology, i.e. the sounds of language. Children with any degree of hearing impairment (HI) are at an increased risk of problems with spoken language, including phonology. The cause of these difficulties is unknown in children with DLD, and is often assumed to result from reduced hearing acuity in children with HI. Variability in terms of language outcomes is large in both groups, and determining if a child’s language ability is within normal limits or not is problematic. A task that has proven useful in differentiating typical from atypical language development is nonword repetition, in which the child listens to a word form without meaning and repeats it back immediately. Performance in nonword repetition tasks is a potential indicator of language ability in both children with DLD and children with HI. However, it has not been established exactly what the task measures.

    In the present thesis, the ability to repeat prosodic and segmental features of real words and nonwords was investigated in Swedish-speaking four- to six-year-old children with DLD and HI, as well as in children with normal hearing and typical language development (TLD) (papers I, II and III). Further, relations of word and nonword repetition ability to language and hearing were explored (papers II and III), along with comparisons of phonological and grammatical production between the groups (paper IV).

    The findings indicated that the prosodic features stress and tonal word accent affect repetition performance in children with DLD, HI, and TLD. In general, the children with DLD and HI achieved lower results than the children with TLD on repetition of segments (consonants and vowels) and prosodic features, but tonal word accent was repeated with relatively high accuracy. Tonal word accent 1 was more accurately repeated than tonal word accent 2 by the DLD and HI children. The children with TLD repeated tonal word accent with few errors, but segments in nonwords with tonal word accent 2 were easier to repeat than segments in nonwords with tonal word accent 1.

    The results further revealed that the ability of children with DLD to repeat stress in real words is related to expressive grammar, but repetition of prosodic features does not reflect general language knowledge. In contrast, repetition of both segmental and prosodic nonword features may be indicative of receptive vocabulary, phonological production during naming of familiar words, and expressive grammar in children with HI. Repetition performance might be related to the degree of HI before cochlear implantation or fitting of hearing aids.

    Children with DLD and children with HI demonstrate similar strengths and weaknesses in phonological and grammatical production, despite the fact that they develop language under different conditions—with and without normal hearing. Tonal word accent use and syntax are relatively unimpaired in DLD and HI children.

    This thesis highlights prosodic and phonological strengths and weaknesses in children who have, or are at risk of, deficits in language and communication abilities. It also supports word and nonword repetition as potential predictors of some aspects of language ability in children with DLD and HI. Further, it emphasizes the importance of taking prosody into account when constructing, or interpreting results from, repetition tasks. Future research aiming to investigate the relationship between prosody in repetition and language, cognition and hearing, should use longitudinal study designs, and include younger children. Studies comparing prosodic and phonological ability in children with DLD and children with HI should employ both quantitative and qualitative analyses.

    List of papers
    1. Repetition of words and non-words in typically developing children: The role of prosody
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repetition of words and non-words in typically developing children: The role of prosody
    2014 (English)In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 428-449Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, segmental and prosodic aspects of word repetition and non-word repetition in typically developing children aged four to six years were investigated. Focus was on developmental differences, and on how tonal word accent and word length affect segment production accuracy. Prosodically controlled words and non-words were repeated by 44 Swedish-speaking children. Repetition accuracy for both words and non-words increased with age, and was higher for words than non-words. Further, tonal word accents I and II provided different conditions for segment repetition in favor of accent II during both word repetition and non-word repetition for older children, but only during word repetition for younger children. This suggests age-dependent differences regarding how prosody is stored and integrated with segments. The findings have theoretical significance regarding the role of prosody in the perception, processing and production of phonological information. There are also clinical implications concerning the interpretation of repetition tasks and the potential use of prosody in speech and language intervention.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2014
    Keywords
    Non-word repetition, phonology, prosody, Swedish, tonal word accent, typical language development, word repetition, Nonordsrepetition, fonologi, prosodi, svenska, ordaccent, typisk språkutveckling, ordrepetition
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111521 (URN)10.1177/0142723714550213 (DOI)000343246200003 ()
    Available from: 2014-10-21 Created: 2014-10-21 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
  • 35.
    Tiefenböck Hansson, Katharina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Haapaniemi, Aaro
    Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Farnebo, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Palmgren, Bjorn
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Tarkkanen, Jussi
    University of Helsinki, Finland; Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.
    Farnebo, Marianne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Munck-Wikland, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Makitie, Antti
    Helsinki University Hospital, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Garvin, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    WRAP53 beta, survivin and p16(INK4a) expression as potential predictors of radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy response in T2N0-T3N0 glottic laryngeal cancer2017In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 2062-2068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current treatment recommendation for T2-3N0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the Nordic countries comprises of radiotherapy (RT) and chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Tumor radiosensitivity varies and another option is primary surgical treatment, which underlines the need for predictive markers in this patient population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of the proteins WRAP53 beta, survivin and p16INK4a to RT/CRT response and ultimate outcome of patients with T2-T3N0 glottic SCC. Protein expression was determined using immunohistochemistry on tumors from 149 patients consecutively treated with RT or CRT at Helsinki University Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, and Linkping University Hospital during 1999-2010. Our results demonstrate a significantly better 5-year relapse-free survival, disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival and overall survival of patients with T3N0 tumors treated with CRT compared with RT alone. Patients with tumors showing a cytoplasmic staining of WRAP53 beta revealed significantly worse DFS compared with those with nuclear staining. For survivin, we observed a trend towards better 5-year DFS in patients with strong nuclear survivin expression compared with those with weak nuclear survivin expression (p=0.091). Eleven (7%) tumors showed p16 positivity, with predilection to younger patients, and this age group of patients with p16-positive SCC had a significantly better DFS compared with patients with p16-negative SCC. Taken together, our results highlight WRAP53 beta as a potential biomarker for predicting RT/CRT response in T2-T3N0 glottic SCC. p16 may identify a small but distinct group of glottic SCC with favorable outcome. Furthermore, for T3N0 patients better outcome was observed following CRT compared to RT alone.

  • 36.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sundstrom, Martina
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Enqvist, Karin
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Assessing speech perception in Swedish school-aged children: preliminary data on the Listen-Say test2018In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the need for a linguistic speech perception test in Swedish, the Listen-Say test was developed. Minimal word pairs were used as speech material to assess seven phonetic contrasts in two auditory backgrounds. In the present study, childrens speech discrimination skills in quiet and in four-talker (4T) speech background were examined. Associations with lexical-access skills and academic achievement were explored. The study included 27 school children 7-9 years of age. Overall, the children discriminated phonetic contrasts well in both conditions (quiet: Mdn 95%; 4T speech; Mdn 91% correct). A significant effect of 4T speech background was evident in three of the contrasts, connected to place of articulation, voicing and syllable complexity. Reaction times for correctly identified target words were significantly longer in the quiet condition, possibly reflecting a need for further balancing of the test order. Overall speech discrimination accuracy was moderately to highly correlated with lexical-access ability. Children identified as having high concentration ability by their teacher had the highest speech discrimination scores in both conditions followed by children identified as having high reading ability. The first wave of data collection with the Listen-Say test indicates that the test appears to be sensitive to predicted perceptual difficulties of phonetic contrasts particularly in noise. The clinical benefit of using a procedure where speech discrimination, lexical-access ability and academic achievement are taken into account is discussed as well as issues for further test refinement.

  • 37.
    Willadsen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lohmander, Anette
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Persson, Christina
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alaluusua, Suvi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Aukner, Ragnhild
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Bau, Anja
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Boers, Maria
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Bowden, Melanie
    Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital, England.
    Davies, Julie
    Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital, England.
    Emborg, Berit
    Cleft Palate Centre, Denmark.
    Havstam, Christina
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden.
    Hayden, Christine
    Royal Hospital Sick Children, North Ireland.
    Henningsson, Gunilla
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Holmefjord, Anders
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Hölttä, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kisling-Moller, Mia
    Cleft Palate Centre, Denmark.
    Kjoll, Lillian
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Lundberg, Maria
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    McAleer, Eilish
    Royal Hospital Sick Children, North Ireland.
    Nyberg, Jill
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Paaso, Marjukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Helen Pedersen, Nina
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Rasmussen, Therese
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Reisaeter, Sigvor
    Statped Vest, Norway.
    Sogaard Andersen, Helene
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Schops, Antje
    University of Copenhagen Hospital, Denmark.
    Tordal, Inger-Beate
    Statped Sorost, Norway.
    Semb, Gunvor
    Statped Sorost, Norway; University of Manchester, England; National Hospital Norway, Norway.
    Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate: 5. Speech outcomes in 5-year-olds - consonant proficiency and errors2017In: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, ISSN 2000-656X, E-ISSN 2000-6764, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 38-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Normal articulation before school start is a main objective in cleft palate treatment. The aim was to investigate if differences exist in consonant proficiency at age 5 years between children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) randomised to different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair. A secondary aim was to estimate burden of care in terms of received additional secondary surgeries and speech therapy. Design: Three parallel group, randomised clinical trials were undertaken as an international multicentre study by 10 cleft teams in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the UK. Methods: Three different surgical protocols for primary palatal repair were tested against a common procedure in the total cohort of 448 children born with non-syndromic UCLP. Speech audio- and video-recordings of 391 children (136 girls and 255 boys) were available and transcribed phonetically. The main outcome measure was Percent Consonants Correct (PCC) from blinded assessments. Results: In Trial 1, arm A showed statistically significant higher PCC scores (82%) than arm B (78%) (p=.045). No significant differences were found between prevalences in Trial 2, A: 79%, C: 82%; or Trial 3, A: 80%, D: 85%. Across all trials, girls achieved better PCC scores, excluding s-errors, than boys (91.0% and 87.5%, respectively) (p=.01). Conclusions: PCC scores were higher in arm A than B in Trial 1, whereas no differences were found between arms in Trials 2 or 3. The burden of care in terms of secondary pharyngeal surgeries, number of fistulae, and speech therapy visits differed.

  • 38.
    Zarenoe, Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Bohn Eriksson, Therese
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Dahl, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multidisciplinary group information for patients with tinnitus: an open trial2018In: Hearing, Balance and Communication, ISSN 2169-5717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary group information as a part of a Stepped Care tinnitus management model. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered before and after the group information to evaluate the effects.

    Method: In total, 627 patients participated in half-day tinnitus information meetings from 2004 to 2011 in our clinic. We retrieved 426 patients for analysis with complete scores on the THI, HADS, and a questionnaire covering background information. These three questionnaires were used before the information meeting, and the THI and HADS at a 1-month follow-up.

    Results: Significant decreases were found in scores on the THI (p < .001) and the HADS-A (p < .05), pre- and post-information session. However, no significant changes were observed on the HADS-D.

    Conclusion: An information meeting as a part of multidisciplinary Stepped Care model can be an effective initial approach to manage tinnitus, and serve as a filter for patients who need additional treatment.

  • 39.
    Zarenoe, Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Working Memory, Sleep, and Hearing Problems in Patients with Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Fitted with Hearing Aids2017In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 141-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Tinnitus is a common condition and there is a need to evaluate effects of tinnitus management in relation to moderating factors such as degree of hearing loss. As it is possible that tinnitus influences concentration, and thus is likely to disturb cognitive processing, the role of cognitive functioning also needs to be investigated.

    Purpose: To compare a group of patients with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus to a control group with only sensorineural hearing loss (and no tinnitus). To investigate working memory, sleep, and hearing problems measured before and after hearing rehabilitation.

    Research Design: A prospective study.

    Study Sample: The sample consisted of 100 patients, 50 with hearing loss and tinnitus, and 50 controls with hearing loss but no tinnitus. All patients were between 40 and 82 yr old and had a pure-tone average (PTA; average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) ,70 dB HL.

    Intervention: Patients were tested before and after rehabilitation with hearing aids with regard to their working memory capacity, sleep quality, hearing problems, speech recognition, and tinnitus annoyance.

    Data Collection and Analysis: Eight patients dropped out of the study. Thus, a total of 92 patients were included for analysis, with 46 in each group. As a consequence of unplanned age and PTA differences between the groups, an age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30) was selected for further analysis. Tests including the Reading Span, Hearing-in-Noise Test (HINT), Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were administered before and after hearing aid rehabilitation.

    Results: There were no between-group differences at baseline in the full sample (n 5 92), with the exception of the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.002), on which the hearing loss and tinnitus group had significantly higher scores. Pre/post changes were significant for both groups on the Reading Span, and HHIE. However, these improvements were significantly larger for the patients in the hearing loss and tinnitus group on the Reading Span test (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.001). Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss also exhibited significantly improved THI scores at follow-up, compared to baseline ( p, 0.001). We conducted the same analyses for the age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30). For the baseline data, only the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) difference remained significant. With regard to the pre/post changes, we found the same differences in improvement in Reading Span ( p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) as in the full sample.

    Conclusions: Patients with tinnitus benefited from hearing aid rehabilitation. The observed differences in cognitive function were unexpected, and there were larger score improvements on the Reading Span test in the hearing loss and tinnitus group than in the hearing loss group. Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss may receive extra benefit in terms of cognitive function following hearing aid rehabilitation.

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