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  • 1.
    Alici, Gursel
    et al.
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Mutlu, Rahim
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Melling, Daniel
    Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaneto, Keiichi
    Kyushu Institute of Technology, Eamex Co. Ltd, Chuoku, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Device Configurations2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 257-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on device configurations based on conjugated polymer transducers. After the actuation and sensing configurations in the literature are presented, some successful device configurations are reviewed, and a detailed account of their operation principles is described. The chapter is concluded with critical research issues. With reference to the significant progress made in the field of EAP transducers in the last two decades, there is an increasing need to change our approach to the establishment of new device configurations, novel device concepts, and cutting-edge applications. To this aim, we should start from the performance specifications and end up with the material synthesis conditions and properties which will meet the performance specifications (top-to-down approach). The question should be “what electroactive material or materials can be used for a specific purpose or application,” rather than looking for an application or a device concept suitable to the unique properties of the EAPs and transducers already made of these materials. The field is mature enough to undertake this paradigm change.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Möller, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huotari, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Puustinen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Field Effect Based Gas Sensors, from Basic Mechanisms to the Latest Commercial Device Designs2016In: SENSORS AND ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION ADVANCES (SEIA), INT FREQUENCY SENSOR ASSOC-IFSA , 2016, p. 19-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution treats the latest developments in the understanding of basic principles regarding device design, transduction mechanisms, gas-materials-interactions, and materials processing for the tailored design and fabrication of SiC FET gas sensor devices, mainly intended as products for the automotive sector.

  • 3.
    Asres, Georgies Alene
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Baldovi, Jose J.
    Max Planck Inst Struct and Dynam Matter, Germany; Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Dombovari, Aron
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvinen, Topias
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Lorite, Gabriela Simone
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Mohl, Melinda
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Perez Paz, Alejandro
    Univ Basque Country, Spain; Yachay Tech Univ, Ecuador.
    Xian, Lede
    Max Planck Inst Struct and Dynam Matter, Germany; Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Abo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Jantunen, Heli
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Rubio, Angel
    Max Planck Inst Struct and Dynam Matter, Germany; Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Kordas, Krisztian
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Ultrasensitive H2S gas sensors based on p-type WS2 hybrid materials2018In: Nano Reseach, ISSN 1998-0124, E-ISSN 1998-0000, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 4215-4224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to their higher intrinsic electrical conductivity and chemical stability with respect to their oxide counterparts, nanostructured metal sulfides are expected to revive materials for resistive chemical sensor applications. Herein, we explore the gas sensing behavior of WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials and demonstrate their excellent sensitivity (0.043 ppm(-1)) as well as high selectivity towards H2S relative to CO, NH3, H-2, and NO (with corresponding sensitivities of 0.002, 0.0074, 0.0002, and 0.0046 ppm(-1), respectively). Gas response measurements, complemented with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, suggest that the intrinsic electronic properties of pristine WS2 alone are not sufficient to explain the observed high sensitivity towards H2S. A major role in this behavior is also played by O doping in the S sites of the WS2 lattice. The results of the present study open up new avenues for the use of transition metal disulfide nanomaterials as effective alternatives to metal oxides in future applications for industrial process control, security, and health and environmental safety.

  • 4.
    Asres, Georgies Alene
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvinen, Topias
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Lorite, Gabriela S.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Mohl, Melinda
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Pitkanen, Olli
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Dombovari, Aron
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Toth, Geza
    VTT Finland, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Vajtai, Robert
    Rice Univ, TX 77005 USA.
    Ajayan, Pulickel M.
    Rice Univ, TX 77005 USA.
    Lei, Sidong
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Talapatra, Saikat
    Southern Illinois Univ, IL 62901 USA.
    Kordas, Krisztian
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    High photoresponse of individual WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 23, article id 233103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    van der Waals solids have been recognized as highly photosensitive materials that compete conventional Si and compound semiconductor based devices. While 2-dimensional nanosheets of single and multiple layers and 1-dimensional nanowires of molybdenum and tungsten chalcogenides have been studied, their nanostructured derivatives with complex morphologies are not explored yet. Here, we report on the electrical and photosensitive properties of WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials we developed lately. We probe individual hybrid nanostructured particles along the structure using focused ion beam deposited Pt contacts. Further, we use conductive atomic force microscopy to analyze electrical behavior across the nanostructure in the transverse direction. The electrical measurements are complemented by in situ laser beam illumination to explore the photoresponse of the nanohybrids in the visible optical spectrum. Photodetectors with responsivity up to similar to 0.4 AW(-1) are demonstrated outperforming graphene as well as most of the other transition metal dichalcogenide based devices. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 5.
    Azzouzi, Sawsen
    et al.
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ, Biosensors and Bioelect Ctr, Dept Phys Chem and Biol IFM, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; Univ Sousse, Tunisia; Ctr Res Microelect and Nanotechnol Sousse, Tunisia.
    Fredj, Zina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Sousse, Tunisia; Ctr Res Microelect and Nanotechnol Sousse, Tunisia.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield Univ, England.
    Ben Ali, Mounir
    Univ Sousse, Tunisia; Ctr Res Microelect and Nanotechnol Sousse, Tunisia.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Generic Neutravidin Biosensor for Simultaneous Multiplex Detection of MicroRNAs via Electrochemically Encoded Responsive Nanolabels2019In: ACS SENSORS, ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current electrochemical biosensors for multiple miRNAs require tedious immobilization of various nucleic acid probes. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach using a generic neutravidin biosensor combined with electrochemically encoded responsive nanolabels for facile and simultaneous multiplexed detection of miRNA-21 and miRNA-141. The selectivity of the biosensor arises from the intrinsic properties of the electrochemically encoded responsive nanolabels, comprising biotinylated molecular beacons (biotin-MB) and metal nanoparticles (metal-NPs). The procedure is a simple one-pot assay, where the targeted miRNA causes the opening of biotin-MB followed by capturing of the biotin-MB-metal-NPs by the neutravidin biosensor and simultaneous detection of the captured metal-NPs by stripping square-wave voltammetry (SSWV). The multiplexed detection of miRNA-21 and miRNA-141 is achieved by differentiation of the electrochemical signature (i.e., the peak current) for the different metal-NP labels. The biosensor delivers simultaneous detection of miRNAs with a linear range of 0.5-1000 pM for miRNA-21 and a limit of detection of 0.3 pM (3 sigma/sensitivity, n = 3), and a range of 50-1000 pM for miRNA-141, with a limit of detection of 10 pM. Furthermore, we demonstrate multiplexed detection of miRNA-21 and miRNA-141 in a spiked serum sample.

  • 6.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improving the Performance of Gas Sensor Systems with Advanced Data Evaluation, Operation, and Calibration Methods2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the widespread use of gas sensors, some challenges must still be overcome. Many of those are related to the reliable quantification of ultra-low concentrations of specific compounds in a background of other gases. This thesis focuses on three important items in the measurement chain: sensor material and operating modes, evaluation of the resulting data, and test gas generation for efficient sensor calibration.

    New operating modes and materials for gas-sensitive field-effect transistors have been investigated. Tungsten trioxide as gate oxide can improve the selectivity to hazardous volatile organic compounds like naphthalene even in a strong and variable ethanol background. The influence of gate bias and ultraviolet light has been studied with respect to the transport of oxygen anions on the sensor surface and was used to improve classification and quantification of different gases.

    DAV3E, an internationally recognized MATLAB-based toolbox for the evaluation of cyclic sensor data, has been developed and published as opensource. It provides a user-friendly graphical interface and specially tailored algorithms from multivariate statistics.

    The laboratory tests conducted during this project have been extended with an interlaboratory study and a field test, both yielding valuable insights for future, more complex sensor calibration. A novel, efficient calibration approach has been proposed and evaluated with ten different gas sensor systems. 

  • 7.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Baur, T.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Richter, M.
    Bundesanstalt Mat Forsch and Prufung BAM, Germany.
    Mull, B.
    Bundesanstalt Mat Forsch and Prufung BAM, Germany; Fraunhofer Wilhelm Klauditz Inst, Germany.
    Schuetze, A.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Sauerwald, T.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Comparison of ppb-level gas measurements with a metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensor in two independent laboratories2018In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 273, p. 1037-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we use a gas sensor system consisting of a commercially available gas sensor in temperature cycled operation. It is trained with an extensive gas profile for detection and quantification of hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the ppb range independent of a varying background of other, less harmful VOCs and inorganic interfering gases like humidity or hydrogen. This training was then validated using a different gas mixture generation apparatus at an independent lab providing analytical methods as reference. While the varying background impedes selective detection of benzene and naphthalene at the low concentrations supplied, both formaldehyde and total VOC can well be quantified, after calibration transfer, by models trained with data from one system and evaluated with data from the other system. The lowest achievable root mean squared errors of prediction were 49 ppb for formaldehyde (in a concentration range of 20-200 ppb) and 150 mu g/m(3) (in a concentration range of 25-450 mu g/m(3)) for total VOC. The latter uncertainty improves to 13 mu g/m(3) with a more confined model range of 220-320 mu g/m(3). The data from the second lab indicate an interfering gas which cannot be detected analytically but strongly influences the sensor signal. This demonstrates the need to take into account all sensor relevant gases, like, e.g., hydrogen and carbon monoxide, in analytical reference measurements.

  • 8.
    Cheung, Kitt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lai, Kwok Kei
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication of Protein Microparticles and Microcapsules with Biomolecular Tools2018In: Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie (Munchen. 1991), ISSN 0942-9352, Vol. 232, no 5-6, p. 759-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticles have attracted much attention for medical, analytical and biological applications. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) templating method with the advantages of having narrow size distribution, controlled morphology and good biocompatibility that has been widely used for the synthesis of various protein-based microparticles. Despite CaCO3 template is biocompatible, most of the conventional methods to create stable protein microparticles are mainly driven by chemical crosslink reagents which may induce potential harmful effect and remains undesirable especially for biomedical or clinical applications. In this article, we demonstrate the fabrication of protein microparticles and microcapsules with an innovative method using biomolecular tools such as enzymes and affinity molecules to trigger the assembling of protein molecules within a porous CaCO3 template followed by a template removal step. We demonstrated the enzyme-assisted fabrication of collagen microparticles triggered by transglutaminase, as well as the affinity-assisted fabrication of BSA-biotin avidin microcapsules triggered by biotin-avidin affinity interaction, respectively. Based on the different protein assemble mechanisms, the collagen microparticles appeared as a solid-structured particles, while the BSA-biotin avidin microcapsules appeared as hollow-structured morphology. The fabrication procedures are simple and robust that allows producing protein microparticles or microcapsules under mild conditions at physiological pH and temperature. In addition, the microparticle morphologies, protein compositions and the assemble mechanisms were studied. Our technology provides a facile approach to design and fabricate protein microparticles and microcapsules that are useful in the area of biomaterials, pharmaceuticals and analytical chemistry.

  • 9.
    Erlandsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Åström, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Påhlsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Determination of Fucose Concentration in a Lectin-Based Displacement Microfluidic Assay2019In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 188, no 3, p. 868-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare three different methods to quantify the monosaccharide fucose in solutions using the displacement of a large glycoprotein, lactoferrin. Two microfluidic analysis methods, namely fluorescence detection of (labeled) lactoferrin as it is displaced by unlabeled fucose and the displacement of (unlabeled) lactoferrin in SPR, provide fast responses and continuous data during the experiment, theoretically providing significant information regarding the interaction kinetics between the saccharide groups and binding sites. For comparison, we also performed a static displacement ELISA. The stationary binding site in all cases was immobilized S2-AAL, a monovalent polypeptide based on Aleuria aurantia lectin. Although all three assays showed a similar dynamic range, the microfluidic assays with fluorescent or SPR detection show an advantage in short analysis times. Furthermore, the microfluidic displacement assays provide a possibility to develop a one-step analytical platform.

  • 10.
    Ghani, Mozhdeh
    et al.
    Nanotechnology Institute, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cheung, Kwan Yee
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Montazer, M.
    Nanotechnology Institute, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Rezaei, B.
    Nanotechnology Institute, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cross-linked superfine electrospun tragacanth-based biomaterial as scaffolds for tissue engineering2016In: European Cells and Materials, ISSN 1473-2262, E-ISSN 1473-2262, Vol. 31, no Suppl. 1, p. 204-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural polymer-based nanofibrous structures promote cell adhesion and proliferation due to their high surface area/volume ratio, high porosity, and similarity to native extracellular matrix in terms of both chemical composition and physical structure. Gum tragacanth (Tg) is a natural polysaccharides obtained from plants. It is a biocompatible, biodegradable and anionic polysaccharides that has been used extensively as an emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries. Despite, its good rheological properties and compatibility, the potential biomedical applications of Tg have not been fully investigated. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of combining Tg with gelatin to fabricate a scaffold that serves as a simple collagen-glycosaminoglycans analog for tissue engineering applications, e.g. as a scaffold for human skin epithelial cells.

  • 11.
    Giannazzo, Filippo
    et al.
    Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems (CNR-IMM), Italy.
    Lara Avila, SamuelChalmers University of Technology, Sweden.Eriksson, JensLinköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.Sonde, SushantThe University of Chicago, USA.
    Integration of 2D Materials for Electronics Applications2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Crystals.

  • 12.
    Gomaa, M. M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Natl Res Ctr, Egypt.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodner, Marius
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boshta, M.
    Natl Res Ctr, Egypt.
    Osman, M. B. S.
    Ain Shams Univ, Egypt.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring NiO nanosize structures for ammonia sensing2018In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 29, no 14, p. 11870-11877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient ammonia gas sensor devices were fabricated based on nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures films. Two chemical synthesis approaches were used: chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) and chemical bath deposition (CBD), aiming at obtaining highly developed surface area and high chemical reactivity of NiO. Crystal structure, morphology, and composition of NiO films and nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. CSP method results in the synthesis of NiO films with pure cubic crystalline structure of preferred orientation along (111) direction. The type of the precursors used (nickel acetate, nickel chloride and nickel nitrate) affects the morphology and crystallites average size of the deposited films. CBD method consisted of two stages: (i) deposition of nickel hydroxide phase and (ii) thermal annealing of nickel hydroxide at 450 A degrees C in air for 4 h. Resulted structures were nanoflakes, vertically arranged in a "wall-like" morphology. Fabricated structures were found to be sensitive to ammonia differently, depending on the synthesis approach and material morphology. NiO films deposited by CBD demonstrated a stable response to ammonia with maximum magnitude at the operating temperature of 300 A degrees C. The highest average response for the CBD-NiO sample was 114.3-141.3% for 25 and 150 ppm NH3, respectively, whereas the response range observed for the film processed by spray pyrolysis using nickel chloride was 31.7-142.5% for 25 and 150 ppm NH3, respectively.

  • 13.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2018In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2018In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofouling is a major problem caused by bacteria colonizing abiotic surfaces, such as medical devices. Biofilms are formed as the bacterial metabolism adapts to an attached growth state. We studied whether bacterial metabolism, hence biofilm formation, can be modulated in electrochemically active surfaces using the conducting conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). We fabricated composites of PEDOT doped with either heparin, dodecyl benzene sulfonate or chloride, and identified the fabrication parameters so that the electrochemical redox state is the main distinct factor influencing biofilm growth. PEDOT surfaces fitted into a custom-designed culturing device allowed for redox switching in Salmonella cultures, leading to oxidized or reduced electrodes. Similarly large biofilm growth was found on the oxidized anodes and on conventional polyester. In contrast, biofilm was significantly decreased (52-58%) on the reduced cathodes. Quantification of electrochromism in unswitched conducting polymer surfaces revealed a bacteria-driven electrochemical reduction of PEDOT. As a result, unswitched PEDOT acquired an analogous electrochemical state to the externally reduced cathode, explaining the similarly decreased biofilm growth on reduced cathodes and unswitched surfaces. Collectively, our findings reveal two opposing effects affecting biofilm formation. While the oxidized PEDOT anode constitutes a renewable electron sink that promotes biofilm growth, reduction of PEDOT by a power source or by bacteria largely suppresses biofilm formation. Modulating bacterial metabolism using the redox state of electroactive surfaces constitutes an unexplored method with applications spanning from antifouling coatings and microbial fuel cells to the study of the role of bacterial respiration during infection.

  • 15.
    Guan, Na N.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sharma, Nimish
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallén‐Grufman, Katarina
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of ATP signalling in response to mechanical stimulation studied in T24 cells using new microphysiological tools2018In: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Print), ISSN 1582-1838, E-ISSN 1582-4934, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2319-2328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to store urine and initiate voiding is a valued characteristic of the human urinary bladder. To maintain this feature, it is necessary that the bladder can sense when it is full and when it is time to void. The bladder has a specialized epithelium called urothelium that is believed to be important for its sensory function. It has been suggested that autocrine ATP signalling contributes to this sensory function of the urothelium. There is well‐established evidence that ATP is released via vesicular exocytosis as well as by pannexin hemichannels upon mechanical stimulation. However, there are still many details that need elucidation and therefore there is a need for the development of new tools to further explore this fascinating field. In this work, we use new microphysiological systems to study mechanostimulation at a cellular level: a mechanostimulation microchip and a silicone‐based cell stretcher. Using these tools, we show that ATP is released upon cell stretching and that extracellular ATP contributes to a major part of Ca2+ signalling induced by stretching in T24 cells. These results contribute to the increasing body of evidence for ATP signalling as an important component for the sensory function of urothelial cells. This encourages the development of drugs targeting P2 receptors to relieve suffering from overactive bladder disorder and incontinence.

  • 16.
    Hasegawa, Yuki
    et al.
    Saitama Univ, Japan.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ethylene Gas Sensor for Evaluating Postharvest Ripening of Fruit2017In: 2017 IEEE 6TH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON CONSUMER ELECTRONICS (GCCE), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely known that ethylene treatment is an effective method for postharvest handling of fruit. In this study, we employed a field effect transistor based on silicon carbide (SiC-FET) gas sensor for detecting ethylene produced from fruits. The characteristics of the sensor was evaluated regarding several parameters. The selectivity and sensitivity of SiC-FET sensors can be controlled toward a few target gases by changing the operating temperature, gate material and material structure. We studied an iridium and a platinum gated SiC-FET sensors and characterized the sensing of these for different ethylene concentrations as the target gas at different operating temperatures. The results showed that the iridium gated SiC-FET sensor has high sensitivity to ethylene, and the highest response is achieved at 200 degrees C.

  • 17.
    Ievtushenko, A.
    et al.
    NASU, Ukraine.
    Karpyna, V.
    NASU, Ukraine.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tsiaoussis, I.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. NASU, Ukraine.
    Lashkarev, G.
    NASU, Ukraine.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Ag doping on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ZnO grown by MOCVD at different substrate temperatures2018In: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 117, p. 121-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO films and nanostructures were deposited on Si substrates by MOCVD using single source solid state zinc acetylacetonate (Zn(AA)) precursor. Doping by silver was realized in-situ via adding 1 and 10 wt. % of Ag acetylacetonate (Ag(AA)) to zinc precursor. Influence of Ag on the microstructure, electrical and optical properties of ZnO at temperature range 220-550 degrees C was studied by scanning, transmission electron and Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence and four-point probe electrical measurements. Ag doping affects the ZnO microstructure via changing the nucleation mode into heterogeneous and thus transforming the polycrystalline films into a matrix of highly c-axis textured hexagonally faceted nanorods. Increase of the work function value from 4.45 to 4.75 eV was observed with Ag content increase, which is attributed to Ag behaviour as a donor impurity. It was observed, that near-band edge emission of ZnO NS was enhanced with Ag doping as a result of quenching deep-level emission. Upon high doping of ZnO by Ag it tends to promote the formation of basal plane stacking faults defect, as it was observed by HR TEM and PL study in the case of 10 wt.% of Ag. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that NS deposition at lower temperatures (220-300 degrees C) is more favorable for p-type doping of ZnO. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ladegaard-Skov, Anne
    Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark.
    Otero, Toribio
    Technical University of Cartagena, Spain.
    Jean-Mistral, Claire
    National Institute of Applied Science—INSA de Lyon, France,.
    Progress in electromechanically active polymers: selected papers from EuroEAP 20172018In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 070201Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 19.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Microfabrication2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 293-318Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, first some basic principles of photolithography and general microfabrication are introduced. These methods have been adapted to fit the microfabrication of conducting polymer actuators, resulting in a toolbox of techniques to engineer microsystems comprising CP microactuators, which will be explained in more detail. CP layers can be patterned using both subtractive and additive techniques to form CP microactuators in a variety of configurations including bulk expansion, bilayer, and trilayer actuators. Methods to integrate CP microactuators into complex microsystems and interfaces to connect them to the outside world are also described. Finally, some specifications, performance, and a short introduction to various applications are presented.

  • 20.
    Kaneto, Keiichi
    et al.
    Osaka Institute of Technology, Eamex Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alici, Gursel
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Okuzaki, Hidenori
    Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi, Japan.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Applications2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 385-412Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial muscles are the longtime dream of human being to replace the existing engines, motors, and piezoelectric actuators because of the low-noise, environment-friendly, and energy-saving actuators (or power force generators). This chapter describes applications of conducting polymers (CPs) to EAPs such as bending actuators, microactuators, and linear actuators. The bending actuators were applied to diaphragm pumps, swimming devices, and flexural-jointed grippers with the trilayer configurations. On the other hand, the microactuators have the advantage of short diffusion times and thus fast actuation. Since the CP actuators operate in any salt solutions, such as a saline solution, cell culture media, and biological liquid, the PPy microactuators have potential applications in microfluidics and drug delivery, cell biology, and medical devices. Furthermore, the linear actuators were developed for the applications to the Braille cells, artificial muscles for soft robots.

  • 21.
    Karlsson, Jan Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jynge, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ignarro, Louis J.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Letter in response to: "Randomised open label exploratory, safety and tolerability study with calmangafodipir in patients treated with the 12-h regimen of N acetylcysteine for paracetamol overdosethe PP100-01 for Overdose of Paracetamol (POP) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial"2019In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 20, article id 380Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 22.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patterning highly conducting conjugated polymer electrodes for soft and flexible microelectrochemical devices2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 17, p. 14978-14985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for soft actuators in various biomedical applications in order to manipulate delicate objects such as cells and tissues. Soft actuators are able to adapt to any shape and limit the stress applied to delicate objects. Conjugated polymer actuators, especially in the so-called trilayer configuration, are interesting candidates for driving such micromanipulators. However, challenges involved in patterning the electrodes in a trilayer with individual contact have prevented further development of soft micromanipulators based on conjugated polymer actuators. To allow such patterning, two printing-based patterning techniques have been developed. First an oxidant layer is printed using either syringe-based printing or micro-contact printing, followed by vapor phase polymerization of the conjugated polymer. Sub-millimeter patterns with electronic conductivities of 800 Scm-1 are obtained. Next, laser ablation is used to cleanly cut the final device structures including the printed patterns, resulting in fingers with individually controllable digits and miniaturized hands. The methods presented in this paper will enable integration of patterned electrically active conjugated polymer layers in many types of complex 3-D structures.

  • 23.
    Kilpijarvi, Joni
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Halonen, Niina
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Sobocinski, Maciej
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Hassinen, Antti
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Senevirathna, Bathiya
    Univ Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abshire, Pamela
    Univ Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Smela, Elisabeth
    Univ Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Kellokumpu, Sakari
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Juuti, Jari
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    LTCC Packaged Ring Oscillator Based Sensor for Evaluation of Cell Proliferation2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 10, article id 3346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip biosensor was developed for cell viability monitoring based on an array of capacitance sensors utilizing a ring oscillator. The chip was packaged in a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) module with a flip chip bonding technique. A microcontroller operates the chip, while the whole measurement system was controlled by PC. The developed biosensor was applied for measurement of the proliferation stage of adherent cells where the sensor response depends on the ratio between healthy, viable and multiplying cells, which adhere onto the chip surface, and necrotic or apoptotic cells, which detach from the chip surface. This change in cellular adhesion caused a change in the effective permittivity in the vicinity of the sensor element, which was sensed as a change in oscillation frequency of the ring oscillator. The sensor was tested with human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) during cell addition, proliferation and migration, and finally detachment induced by trypsin protease treatment. The difference in sensor response with and without cells was measured as a frequency shift in the scale of 1.1 MHz from the base frequency of 57.2 MHz. Moreover, the number of cells in the sensor vicinity was directly proportional to the frequency shift.

  • 24.
    Kodu, Margus
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Berholts, Artjom
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Kahro, Tauno
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Avarmaa, Tea
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Renge, Indrek
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Alles, Harry
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Jaaniso, Raivo
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Graphene-Based Ammonia Sensors Functionalised with Sub-Monolayer V2O5: A Comparative Study of Chemical Vapour Deposited and Epitaxial Graphene2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene in its pristine form has demonstrated a gas detection ability in an inert carrier gas. For practical use in ambient atmosphere, its sensor properties should be enhanced with functionalisation by defects and dopants, or by decoration with nanophases of metals or/and metal oxides. Excellent sensor behaviour was found for two types of single layer graphenes: grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and transferred onto oxidized silicon (Si/SiO2/CVDG), and the epitaxial graphene grown on SiC (SiC/EG). Both graphene samples were functionalised using a pulsed laser deposited (PLD) thin V2O5 layer of average thickness approximate to 0.6 nm. According to the Raman spectra, the SiC/EG has a remarkable resistance against structural damage under the laser deposition conditions. By contrast, the PLD process readily induces defects in CVD graphene. Both sensors showed remarkable and selective sensing of NH3 gas in terms of response amplitude and speed, as well as recovery rate. SiC/EG showed a response that was an order of magnitude larger as compared to similarly functionalised CVDG sensor (295% vs. 31% for 100 ppm NH3). The adsorption site properties are assigned to deposited V2O5 nanophase, being similar for both sensors, rather than (defect) graphene itself. The substantially larger response of SiC/EG sensor is probably the result of the smaller initial free charge carrier doping in EG.

  • 25.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Maojun
    Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Processable enzyme-hybrid conductive polymer composites for electrochemical biosensing2018In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 100, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach for the facile fabrication of electrochemical biosensors using a biohybrid conducting polymer was demonstrated using glucose oxidase (GOx) and poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a model. The biohybrid conducting polymer was prepared based on a template-assisted chemical polymerisation leading to the formation of PEDOT microspheres (PEDOT-MSs), followed by in-situ deposition of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) and electrostatic immobilisation of glucose oxidase (GOx) to form water processable GOx-PtNPs-PEDOT-MSs. The morphology, chemical composition and electrochemical performance of the GOx-PtNPs-PEDOT-MS-based glucose biosensor were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, zeta potential and electrochemical measurements, respectively. The biosensor delivered a linear response for glucose over the range 0.1-10 mM (R-2 = 0.9855) with a sensitivity of 116.25 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2), and limit of detection of 1.55 mu M (3 x SD/sensitivity). The sensitivity of the developed PEDOT-MS based biosensor is significantly higher (2.7 times) than the best reported PEDOT-based glucose biosensor in the literature. The apparent Michaelis Menten constant (K-m(app)) of the GOx-PtNPs-PEDOT-MS-based biosensors was calculated as 7.3 mM. Moreover, the biosensor exhibited good storage stability, retaining 97% of its sensitivity after 12 days storage. This new bio-hybrid conducting polymer combines the advantages of micro-structured morphology, compatibility with large-scale manufacturing processes, and intrinsic biocatalytic activity and conductivity, thus demonstrating its potential as a convenient material for printed bioelectronics and sensors.

  • 26.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sichuan Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Maojun
    Sichuan Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wing Cheung, Mak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facile synthesis of highly processable and water dispersible polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres for enhanced supercapacitive performance2018In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 99, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much recent work has focused on improving the processibility and electrocapacitive performance of conducting polymer-based materials for energy related applications. The key mechanism of conducting polymers as supercapacitor materials is driven by the rapid charging and discharging processes that involve mass transport of the counter ions insertion/ejection within the polymer structure, where ion diffusion is usually the limiting step on the efficiency of the conducting polymer capacitor. Here, we report a facile method for the green fabrication of polypyrrole microspheres (PPy-MSs) and poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) microspheres (PEDOT-MSs) with good processability, intact morphology and large active surface for enhanced ion interchange processes, without using surfactant and highly irritant or toxic organic solvents during the synthetic process. The structure and morphology of the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs were characterized by means of SEM, EDX, TEM and FTIR. Both PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed intact microsphere structures with greatly improved water dispersity and processability. More importantly, facilated by the large active surface and inter-microsphere space for ions diffusion, both the PPy-MSs and PEDOT-MSs showed a signiciantly enhanced electrical capacitive performance of 242 F g(-1) and 91.2 F g(-1), repsectively (i.e. 10 and 1.51 times in specific capacitance than the randomly structured PPy and PEDOT). This innovative approach not only addresses fundamental issues in fabrication of high performance processable microstructured conducting polymers, but also makes progress in delivering water processable conducting polymers that could be potentially used for fabrication of printed electronic devices.

  • 27.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biosensor technologies for agriculture and environment - opportunities and challenges2017In: Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Feed Science Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, 13-14 June 2017 / [ed] Udén, P.; Eriksson, T.; Spörndly, R.; Rustas, B. O.; Kasmaei, K. M.; Liljeholm, M., Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition and Management , 2017, p. 38-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the general principles of various biosensor systems, reviews current biosensor technologies for agricultural and environmental monitoring, and discusses their opportunities and challenges. Advances in biosensor technologies could provide a useful analytical tools for agricultural monitoring, particularly due to their rapid response, relatively low operational cost and portability for field/farm application. The promise, demonstrated by various examples of biosensor technologies, is very appealing. However, there are still many hurdles to bring commercial agricultural biosensors into real practice.

  • 28.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Magne, B.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cheung, Kitt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Atanasova, Diana
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Montreal, Canada.
    Thermo-rheological responsive microcapsules for time-dependent controlled release of human mesenchymal stromal cells2017In: Biomaterials Science, ISSN 2047-4830, E-ISSN 2047-4849, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 2241-2250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are adult-source cells that have been extensively evaluated for cell-based therapies. hMSCs delivered by intravascular injection have been reported to accumulate at the sites of injury to promote tissue repair and can also be employed as vectors for the delivery of therapeutic genes. However, the full potential of hMSCs remains limited as the cells are lost after injection due to anoikis and the adverse pathologic environment. Encapsulation of cells has been proposed as a means of increasing cell viability. However, controlling the release of therapeutic cells over time to target tissue still remains a challenge today. Here, we report the design and development of thermo-rheological responsive hydrogels that allow for precise, time dependent controlled-release of hMSCs. The encapsulated hMSCs retained good viability from 76% to 87% dependent upon the hydrogel compositions. We demonstrated the design of different blended hydrogel composites with modulated strength (S parameter) and looseness of hydrogel networks (N parameter) to control the release of hMSCs from thermoresponsive hydrogel capsules. We further showed the feasibility for controlled-release of encapsulated hMSCs within 3D matrix scaffolds. We reported for the first time by a systematic analysis that there is a direct correlation between the thermo-rheological properties associated with the degradation of the hydrogel composite and the cell release kinetics. This work therefore provides new insights into the further development of smart carrier systems for stem cell therapy.

  • 29.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olesen, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sivlér, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lee, Chyan-Jang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Moreno-Jimenez, Ines
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Bone & Joint Research Group, Stem Cells & Regeneration Institute of Developmental Sciences, Southampton General Hospital, UK.
    Edin, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Courtman, D.
    Regenerative Medicine Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.
    Skog, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Correction: W.C. Mak, et al. Controlled Delivery of Human Cells by Temperature Responsive Microcapsules. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 439-4532018In: Journal of Functional Biomaterials, ISSN 2079-4983, E-ISSN 2079-4983, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Politecn Cartagena, Spain.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Univ Politecn Cartagena, Spain.
    Three electrochemical tools (motor-sensor-battery) with energy recovery work simultaneously in a trilayer artificial muscle2019In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 294, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological evolution has developed organs able to perform different functions as sensing and tactile motors (haptic muscles). There, different tools (one motor and several sensors) work simultaneously driven by biochemical reactions. Here we present electrochemical triple-tool (actuator-sensor-battery) trilayer artificial muscles driven by reversible electrochemical reactions including two films of conducting polymers (CPs) where every CP chain acts as a multistep molecular machine. Any imposed constant current drives the reversible oxidation of one of the CP films and the simultaneous reduction of the second CP film. The symmetric change of the reaction-driven film volume variations originates the macroscopic bending movement of the polymeric motor. The bending angle follows a linear function of the consumed charge. The simultaneous reaction-driven divergent composition (polymer/ion) variation of the two films originates a change of the potential gradient between them: the muscle potential. The evolutions of: the muscle potential, the consumed electrical energy or the consumed power are a function of (sense) the mass trailed by the muscle: the muscle senses the working mechanical conditions. The increase of the muscle potential during actuation indicates the charge of a battery. Here the trilayer is studied as a battery that charges during bending, rending back up to 83% of the charge and a fraction of the electrical energy consumed to bend the muscle during de-bending. Considering such energy recovery, the efficiency of the actuators may increase up to one order of magnitude. Three tools (actuatorsensor- battery) work simultaneously in a trilayer driven by oxidation/reduction reactions of the constitutive polypyrrole films. Only two connecting wires contain, simultaneously, actuating, sensing and battery magnitudes. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-17 16:09
  • 31.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Artificial muscles: Reducing the gap with natural muscles2018In: EuroEAP 2018 Eighth international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP) transducers & artificial muscles, Valpré Ecully, Lyon, France, 05/06/2018 - 06/06/2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans, animals and plants are a source of inspiration for developing robots. Materials and devices, including robots, are being developed with properties, appearance, kinds of movements or behavior similar to those of biological systems, so called biomimetic systems. However, the components of most of them are based on dry devices exploiting various physical phenomena such as variations in magnetic fields due to a current flow (electrical motors), variations in pressure (pneumatic and hydraulic motors).

    On the other hand, natural muscles are wet and composed by ordered cells in which chemical reactions promote the movement of the muscles. Those reactions involve the muscle cells themselves, composed up to around 75% of water (depending on the muscle), macromolecules forming the different parts of the cell, chemical reactions as ATP hydrolysis that involve ionic exchanges with the surroundings and conformational changes that constitute the movement of the muscle. Inspired by natural muscles, artificial muscles based on reversible reactions occurring in a dense gelare being developed, mimicking, in a very simple way, the intracellular matrix of the muscular cells.They are based on materials, such as conducting polymers immersed in an electrolyte, able to change their properties (e.g. volume, colour, porosity, and electrical potential)while changing their composition caused by the reaction in a reversible and reproducible way. Such reaction promotes ionic exchanges and conformational movements of the constitutive polymeric chains.

    For the first time, artificial proprioceptive devices(able to sense variables from the environment while moving)are being developed. They are able to move at a specific rate or up to a specific position while sensing mechanical (mass displaced or objects on its way, i.e. tactile artificial muscles), physical (temperature, applied current) and chemical variables (electrolyte concentration). All this valuable information is included in the only two connecting wires needed to close the electrical circuit. In contrary, robots need a motor to produce movement and different sensors to control that same movement. Humans and animals only have muscles. Using reactive artificial muscles, it is possible to get valuable information regarding the environment with no extra sensors nor connections, thus opening the possibility to develop cheaper, more reliable systems.

    Looking again to natural muscles, it is possible to clearly observe that muscle cells are perfectly aligned so all of them move in the same direction helping to the movement. In conducting polymer films, each of the constitutive polymer chains (basic molecular motor) it is placed in a different, random direction, which generates movement and forces in opposite directions, which considerably decreases the actuation. Recently, a way of aligning conducting polymers has been proposed. Using textile structures it has been possible to get cooperative and synergetic effects between the different fibres mimicking the structure of fibrils in natural muscles, getting strains and forces that increase up to more than one order of magnitude, depending on the textile material and construction

  • 32.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting polymer actuators: from basic concepts to proprioceptive systems2017In: XXXVIII Reunión del Grupo de Electroquímica de la Real Sociedad Española de Química & XIX Encontro Ibérico Electroquímica, 05th -7th July 2017, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades about motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers sense working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables during their oxidation/reduction. Also, the evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials (such as intrinsically conducting polymers), and driven by constant currents, senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed [1]. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the motor characteristics (rate and sense of the movement, relative position, and required energy) and the working variables (temperature, electrolyte concentration, mechanical conditions and driving current). By changing working conditions experimental results overlap theoretical predictions. The ensemble computer-generator-muscle theoretical equation constitutes and describes artificial mechanical, thermal and chemical proprioception of the system. Proprioceptive tools and most intelligent zoomorphic or anthropomorphic soft robots can be envisaged. The author acknowledges the funding received from Carl Tryggers Stiftelse för Vetenskaplig Forskning.

  • 33.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klaus, Richter
    ITP GmbH Gesellschaft für Intelligente Produkte (ITP), Weimar, Germany.
    Nils-Krister, Persson
    University of Borås, Smart Textiles, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Use of conducting yarns to develop textile actuators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of textile actuators and their advantages to develop soft actuators with synergetic actuation have been proven. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer that provides the mechanical motion. Until now, a two-step coating process was followed to make the textile actuators: a first coating that provided conductivity to the passive fabrics and, once conducting, a second coating by electropolymerization was used to get a highly electroactive (moving as much as possible) material. To simplify the fabrication process, we here used different commercially available conducting yarns (polyamide+carbon, silicon+carbon, polyamide+silver coated, cellulose+carbon, polyester+2 × INOX 50 μm, polyester+2 × Cu/Sn and polyester+gold coated) to develop such textile actuators.

    Thus, it was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical synthesis, avoiding the first step, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices.

  • 34.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Hogskolan i Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ELECTROACTIVE TEXTILES FOR EXOSKELETON LIKE SUITS2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for soft assistive robotic devices such as prosthetics, exoskeletons and robot assistants. One particular area of interest is robotic exoskeletons to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assisting or enhancing walking and rehabilitation. Although technologically advanced, current exoskeletons are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators making them noisy, heavy, stiff and non-compliant. Ideally, assistive devices would be shaped as an exoskeleton suit worn under clothing and well-hidden. By merging one of humankind oldest technology with one of the latest, that is by combining knitting and weaving with novel electroactive polymers, we have developed soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles"). In this paper we will present the textile actuators in more detail as well as share the latest progress in the development of textile actuators for soft robotics.

  • 35.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Escobar, Freddy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milad, Milad Asadi Miankafshe
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diseases of the nervous system, traumas, or natural causes can reduce human muscle capacity. Robotic exoskeletons are forthcoming to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assist walking or aid rehabilitation. Current available devices are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators, making them noisy, heavy, stiff and noncompliant. We are developing textile based assistive devices that can be worn like clothing being light, soft, compliant and comfortable. We have merged advanced textile technology with electroactive polymers. By knitting and weaving electroactive yarns, we are developing soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles") that can be used in wearable assistive devices. We will present the latest progress increase the performance and to rationalise the fabrication. In addition we will show some demonstrators of the textile exoskeletons.

  • 36.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Laboratory Of Electrochemistry, Intelligent Materials And Devices, Cartagena, Spain.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Laboratory Of Electrochemistry, Intelligent Materials And Devices, Cartagena, Spain.
    An actuator, a sensor and a battery working simultaneously into a multifunctional conducting polymer device to improve energetic efficiency2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers are very promising materials for the development of soft actuators (also called soft motors or ‘artificial muscles’, as they mimic processes and materials of natural muscles) for many different applications. They are multifunctional materials changing different properties such as volume, electrical potential or stored charge at the same time driven by the same reversible electrochemical reaction. Here we explore the simultaneous change on the three properties mentioned above to develop actuators that, while moving, are able to sense mechanical conditions (such as any lifted mass) and store charge. It is possible then to recover up to 83% of the consumed charge during de-bending and increase the energetic efficiency of the actuator by several orders of magnitude.  Three tools (actuator-sensor-battery) work simultaneously in a trilayer driven by oxidation/reduction reactions of the constitutive polypyrrole films. Only two connecting wires contain, simultaneously, actuating, sensing and battery magnitudes.

  • 37.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Technical University of Cartagena. Spain.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Technical University of Cartagena. Spain.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of the Electrolyte Concentration and Substrate on Conducting Polymer Actuators2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 13, p. 3894-3904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the electrolyte concentration (NaCl aqueous electrolyte) on the dimensional variations of films of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonate PPy(DBS) on Pt and Au wires was studied. Any parallel reaction that occurs during the redox polymeric reaction that drives the mechanical actuation, as detected from the coulovoltammetric responses, was avoided by using Pt wires as substrate and controlling the potential limits, thus significantly increasing the actuator lifetime. The NaCl concentration of the electrolyte, when studied by cyclic voltammetry or chronoamperometry, has a strong effect on the performance as well. A maximum expansion was achieved in 0.3 M aqueous solution. The consumed oxidation and reduction charges control the fully reversible dimensional variations: PPy(DBS) films are faradaic polymeric motors. Parallel to the faradaic exchange of the cations, osmotic, electrophoretic, and structural changes play an important role for the water exchange and volume change of PPy(DBS).

  • 38.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter, Klaus
    ITP GmbH Gesellschaft für Intelligente Produkte (ITP), Weimar, Germany.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Smart Textiles, Swedish School of Textiles (THS) , University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators2018In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 074004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile actuators are an emerging technology to develop biomimetic actuators with synergetic actuation. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer providing with mechanical motion. Here we used different conducting yarns (polyamide + carbon, silicon + carbon, polyamide + silver coated, cellulose + carbon, polyester + 2 x INOX 50µm, polyester + 2 x Cu/Sn and polyester + gold coated) to develop such textile actuators. It was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical methods, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices easier and cheaper to get and at the same time with good mechanical performance are envisaged.

  • 39.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Textile actuators for wearable devices2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Guan, Na
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Sharma, Nimish
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Second generation micromechanical stimulation chips to study mechanotransduction in the urinary tract2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asadi, Milad
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart yarns as the building blocks of textile actuators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of smart textile actuators has been progressing rapidly during the last years. Smart textiles are a class of textile products which exploit the determinant feature of responding to a stimulus, input, which can be chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic or electrical. The building block for fabrication of such products is smart yarn. However, most smart textiles are focused on receiving an input stimulus (sensors) and only a few are dedicated to providing an output response (actuators). Yarn actuators show strain or apply force upon application of electrical stimulation in isotonic or isometric conditions, respectively. A small actuation in the yarn scale can be amplified by knitting or weaving the smart yarns into a fabric. In this work, we have investigated the effect of inherent properties of different commercial yarns on the linear actuation of the smart yarns in aqueous media. Since actuation significantly depends on the structure and mechanical properties of the yarns, elastic modules, and tenacity of the yarns were characterized. Investigating the actuation behavior, yarns were coated with PEDOT:PSS to make them conductive. Then polypyrrole which provides the electromechanical actuation was electropolymerized on the yarn surface under controlled conditions. Finally, linear actuation of the prepared smart yarns was investigated under aqueous electrolyte in both isotonic and isometric conditions.

  • 42.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Characterization Methods and Metrics2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 319-352Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter outlines the various methods that have been developed in the past three decades to characterize the electroactive performance of conducting polymers (CP) to provide fundamental metrics such as strain, strain rate, stress, force, modulus of elasticity, and work capacity. In addition to providing metrics, these characterization techniques have served as valuable tools for studying CPs, providing a greater understanding of the actuation process, optimizing synthesis conditions, and geometric parameters for optimal device performance. The issues associated with the determination of metrics and the need for standardization are discussed.

  • 43.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conjugated Polymer Actuators and Devices: Progress and Opportunities2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1808210Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers (CPs), as exemplified by polypyrrole, are intrinsically conducting polymers with potential for development as soft actuators or artificial muscles for numerous applications. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of these materials and the actuation mechanisms, aided by the development of physical and electrochemical models. Current research is focused on developing applications utilizing the advantages that CP actuators have (e.g., low driving potential and easy to miniaturize) over other actuating materials and on developing ways of overcoming their inherent limitations. CP actuators are available as films, filaments/yarns, and textiles, operating in liquids as well as in air, ready for use by engineers. Here, the milestones made in understanding these unique materials and their development as actuators are highlighted. The primary focus is on the recent progress, developments, applications, and future opportunities for improvement and exploitation of these materials, which possess a wealth of multifunctional properties.

  • 44.
    Meng, Lingyin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Positively-charged hierarchical PEDOT interface with enhanced electrode kinetics for NADH-based biosensors2018In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 120, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has attracted considerable attention as an advanced electrode material for electrochemical sensors and biosensors, due to its unique electrical and physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the facile preparation of a positively-charged and hierarchical micro-structured PEDOT electrochemical interface with enhanced electrode kinetics for the electrooxidation of NADH. Processable PEDOT colloidal microparticles (PEDOT CMs) were synthesised by template-assisted polymerisation and were then utilised as building blocks for the fabrication of hierarchically-structured electrodes with a larger accessible electroactive surface (2.8 times larger than that of the benchmark PEDOT:PSS) and inter-particle space, thus improving electrode kinetics. The intrinsic positive charge of the PEDOT CMs further facilitated the detection of negatively-charged molecules by electrostatic accumulation. Due to the synergistic effect, these hierarchically-structured PEDOT CMs electrodes exhibited improved NADH electrooxidation at lower potentials and enhanced electrocatalytic activity compared to the compact structure of conventional PEDOT:PSS electrodes. The PEDOT CMs electrodes detected NADH over the range of 20–240 μM, with a sensitivity of 0.0156 μA/μM and a limit of detection of 5.3 μM. Moreover, the PEDOT CMs electrode exhibited a larger peak separation from the interferent ascorbic acid, and improved stability. This enhanced analytical performance for NADH provides a sound basis for further work coupling to a range of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases for applications in biosensing, bio-fuel cells and biocatalysis.

  • 45.
    Mousavisani, Seyedeh Zeinab
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh
    Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Cheung, Kwan Yee
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hernandez Camargo, Aura Rocio
    Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; Investigación en procesos de transformación de materiales para la industria farmacéutica, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, Colombia; Biofilms - Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ruzgas, Tautgirdas
    Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; Biofilms - Research Center for Biointerfaces, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield Univ, England.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating an ex-vivo skin biointerface with electrochemical DNA biosensor for direct measurement of the protective effect of UV blocking agents2019In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 128, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin cancer is the most frequent kind of cancer in white people in many parts of the world. UV-induced DNA damage and genetic mutation can subsequently lead to skin cancer. Therefore development of new biosensing strategies for detection of UV-induced DNA damage is of great importance. Here we demonstrate a novel combination of an ex-vivo skin biointerface and an electrochemical DNA sensor for the direct detection of UV-induced DNA damage and investigation the protective effect of various UV blockers (Zinc-oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and sunscreens) against DNA damage. A diazonium modified screen-printed carbon electrode immobilized with a DNA sequence related to the p53 tumour suppressor gene, the most commonly affected gene in human UV-induced skin cancer, was applied as an electrochemical DNA sensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed for the detection of DNA damage induced by UV-A radiation by following the changes in charge transfer resistance (R-ct). The protective effects of UV blockers applied onto a pig skin surface (a suitable model representing human skin) were successfully detected by the DNA sensor. We observed that the naked skin has little UV protection showing an 18.2% decreases in Delta R/R values compared to the control, while applying both NPs and NP-formulated sunscreens could significantly reduce DNA damage, resulting in a decrease in Delta R/R values of 67.1% (ZnO NPs), 77.2% (TiO2 NPs), 77.1% (sunscreen 1) and 92.4% (sunscreen 2), respectively. Moreover, doping moisturising cream with NPs could provide a similar DNA protective effect. This new method is a biologically relevant alternative to animal testing and offers advantages such as fast, easy and inexpensive processing, in addition to its miniaturised dimension, and could be used for a range of applications in other sources of DNA damage and the protective effect of different UV blocking agents and other topical formulations.

  • 46.
    Mousavisani, Seyedeh Zeinab
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh
    Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojani, Reza
    Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Label-free DNA sensor based on diazonium immobilisation for detection of DNA damage in breast cancer 1 gene2018In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 264, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical DNA biosensors offer simple and rapid tools for detection of DNA sequences or damaged genes associated with human disease. The performance of electrochemical DNA sensors is critically dependent on the quality of the DNA immobilisation. Many DNA biosensors have been focused on studying DNA hybridisation preformed under relatively mild assay conditions, while the development of stable DNA biosensors to study DNA damage under a much harsher condition typically in the presence of reactive oxygen species is more challenging. In this article, we developed an electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a stable diazonium-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for the detection of damage in DNA sequences related to the BRCA1 gene by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The successful preparation of the DNA sensor was confirmed by FTIR-ATR, contact angle and electrochemical measurements. The DNA sensor exhibited good reproducibility and high stability and could also have potential for investigation of the glutathione antioxidant effect. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Nguyen, Quang Khuyen
    et al.
    Ton Duc Thang Univ, Vietnam.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Politecn Cartagena Aulario II, Spain.
    Kaasik, Friedrich
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Tamm, Tarmo
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Otero, Toribio F.
    Univ Politecn Cartagena Aulario II, Spain.
    Kiefer, Rudolf
    Ton Duc Thang Univ, Vietnam.
    Solvent effects on carbide-derived-carbon trilayer bending actuators2019In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 247, p. 170-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bending actuators were prepared by depositing carbide-derived carbon, a material typical for electric double layer capacitors, on both sides of poly-vinylidenefluoride membranes, forming CDC-trilayers. Their actuation properties were studied using 0.5 M solutions of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) in different solvents: water, ethylene glycol, acetonitrile, and propylene carbonate. The goal of this work was to study the actuation mechanism, charging-discharging properties in these solvents, as well as to establish the optimal solvent for maximum bending displacement. It was found that while the actuation direction was the same for all solvents, pointing to similar mechanism, the exchanged charge and the displacement differed considerably. Moreover, the highest specific capacitance found in ethylene glycol did not bring along the highest displacement, neither was the highest exchanged charge of propylene carbonate the most efficient option, the acetonitrile was the clear winner. The available electrochemical windows for the reversible charging also differed considerably.

  • 48.
    Nordin, Anis Nurashikin
    et al.
    Int Islamic Univ, Malaysia.
    Zainuddin, Ahmad Anwar
    Int Islamic Univ, Malaysia.
    Ab Rahim, Rosminazuin
    Int Islamic Univ, Malaysia.
    Voiculescu, Ioana
    CUNY City Coll, NY 10052 USA.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Screen Printed Electromechanical Micro-Total Analysis System (mu tas) For Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Infectious Diseases2017In: BIOSENSORS 2016, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 27, p. 100-101Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 49.
    Penza, Michele
    et al.
    ENEA, Italy.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Romano-Rodriguez, Albert
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Meyyappan, Meyya
    NASA, CA 94035 USA.
    Functional materials for environmental sensors and energy systems2017In: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, ISSN 2190-4286, Vol. 8, p. 2015-2016Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 50.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhong, Yong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Univ Toulouse, France.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Actuating Textiles: Next Generation of Smart Textiles2018In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 1700397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles have been around for some decades. Even if interactivity is central to most definitions, the emphasis so far has been on the stimuli/input side, comparatively little has been reported on the responsive/output part. This study discusses the actuating, mechanical, output side in what could be called a second generation of smart textiles-this in contrast to a first generation of smart textiles devoted to sensorics. This mini review looks at recent progress within the area of soft actuators and what from there that is of relevance for smart textiles. It is found that typically still forces exerted are small, so are strains for many of the actuators types (such as electroactive polymers) that could be considered for textile integration. On the other side, it is argued that for many classes of soft actuators-and, in the extension, soft robotics-textiles could play an important role. The potential of weaving for stress and knitting for strain amplification is shown. Textile processing enables effective production, as is analyzed. Textile systems are made showing automatic actuation asked for in stand-alone solutions. It is envisioned that soft exoskeletons could be an achievable goal for this second generation of smart textiles.

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