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  • 1.
    Alici, Gursel
    et al.
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Mutlu, Rahim
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Melling, Daniel
    Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaneto, Keiichi
    Kyushu Institute of Technology, Eamex Co. Ltd, Chuoku, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Device Configurations2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 257-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on device configurations based on conjugated polymer transducers. After the actuation and sensing configurations in the literature are presented, some successful device configurations are reviewed, and a detailed account of their operation principles is described. The chapter is concluded with critical research issues. With reference to the significant progress made in the field of EAP transducers in the last two decades, there is an increasing need to change our approach to the establishment of new device configurations, novel device concepts, and cutting-edge applications. To this aim, we should start from the performance specifications and end up with the material synthesis conditions and properties which will meet the performance specifications (top-to-down approach). The question should be “what electroactive material or materials can be used for a specific purpose or application,” rather than looking for an application or a device concept suitable to the unique properties of the EAPs and transducers already made of these materials. The field is mature enough to undertake this paradigm change.

  • 2.
    Amaia Beatriz, Ortega-Santos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enzymatic biofuel cells embedded polymer-based soft actuators2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are presented as an untethered alternative energy source that could power small implantable or wearable medical devices. However, most of these catalytic processes do not provide with enough energy to power common small electronic-mechanical devices. On the other hand, conducting polymer-based actuators are of great interest for their biocompatibility, flexibility, processability, possibility to be miniaturized and low power consumption. So far, these artificial muscles have been driven by external power sources that prevent them for being completely autonomous. There is a need for a novel power source to elaborate actuators that could use physiological processes as a driving force. These soft actuators’ low power consumption matches the electrical power generated by the biocatalysis of some enzymes, such as glucose oxidase and laccase in presence of glucose and oxygen in aqueous media. Here, we present the latest results in the development of polypyrrole-based soft actuators powered by enzymatic biofuel cells. The actuator consists of a tri-layer conductive substrate on which the polypyrrole is electrodeposited in both sides. The polypyrrole layers act as the active part, expanding and contracting upon a redox reaction, resulting in a bending movement. Tetrathiofulvlene-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) and 2,2′-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) (ABTS) electron transfer mediators are cast on the surface of the polypyrrole to help the electron transmission. The glucose oxidase and laccase enzymes are immobilized in the modified-conducting polymer surface, integrating the electrode to the actuator. The bio-catalysis of enzymes in presence of glucose and oxygen in aqueous solution provides the actuator with the electrons needed for the redox reaction, converting the chemical energy into mechanical energy, i.e., movement. The glucose-self-powered soft actuator may contribute to the development of more complex implantable, ingestible, or wearable biomedical devices such as cardio-stimulators, insulin pumps, or muscle implants.

  • 3.
    Amaia Beatriz, Ortega-Santos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The effect of enzyme immobilization methods in polypyrrole-based soft actuators driven by glucose and O22023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Recent progress in silicon carbide field effect gas sensors2020In: Semiconductor gas sensors / [ed] Raivo Jaaniso and Ooi Kiang Tan, Oxford: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2020, 2, p. 309-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of silicon carbide as the semiconductor in gas-sensitive field effect devices has disruptively improved this sensor platform extending the operation temperature to more than 600 °C with an increased number of detectable gases. Here, we review recent progress in research and applications, starting with transducer and detection mechanisms, presenting new material combinations as sensing layers for improved selectivity and detection limits down to subparts per billion. We describe how temperature cycled operation combined with advanced data evaluation enables one sensor to act as a sensor array thereby vastly improving selectivity. Field tests require advanced packaging, which is described, and examples of possible applications like selective detection of ammonia for urea injection control in diesel exhausts and toxic volatile organic compounds for indoor air quality monitoring and control are given.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Möller, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huotari, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Puustinen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Field Effect Based Gas Sensors, from Basic Mechanisms to the Latest Commercial Device Designs2016In: SENSORS AND ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION ADVANCES (SEIA), INT FREQUENCY SENSOR ASSOC-IFSA , 2016, p. 19-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution treats the latest developments in the understanding of basic principles regarding device design, transduction mechanisms, gas-materials-interactions, and materials processing for the tailored design and fabrication of SiC FET gas sensor devices, mainly intended as products for the automotive sector.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Point-of-care beta-hydroxybutyrate determination for the management of diabetic ketoacidosis based on flexible laser-induced graphene electrode system2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that can appear in patients with diabetes. High ketones in the blood lead to acidity of the blood. For DKA diagnosis and management, ketones such as hydroxybutyrate (HB) can be used to quantify the severity of the disease. The fabrication of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of HB is attractive since their capability to deliver fast response, high sensitivity, good selectivity and potential for miniaturisation. In this thesis, an integrated electrode system was prepared for the detection of HB. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) with a 3D porous structure was used as the flexible platform. Poly (toluidine blue O) (PTB) was electro-deposited on LIG (PTB/LIG) under the optimised conduction (pH of 9.7 and from 0.4 to an upper cyclic potential of 0.8 V). The single PTB/LIG working electrode demonstrated excellent performance towards the detection of NADH with a linear range of 6.7 M to 3 mM using chronoamperometry, high sensitivity of detecting NADH and excellent anti-fouling ability (94 % response current retained after 1500 s). Further integration of the 3-electrode system realised the static amperometric detection of NADH over the range of 78 M to 10 mM. Based on the excellent performance of PTB/LIG to NADH sensing, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase was immobilised via encapsulation with chitosan and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) which was used for HB biosensing over the linear range of 0.5 M to 1 mM with NAD+ dissolved in solution. In addition, the co-immobilisation of NAD+ and HBD on PTB/LIG was conducted by optimisation of enzyme and NAD+ amount per electrode, which shows excellent reproducibility and satisfactory HB biosensing performance. Further experiments to improve the long-term stability of the enzyme electrode is expected in the future. The proposed integrated electrode system also possesses the potential to extend to a multichannel sensor array for the detection of multiple biomarkers (e.g. pH and glucose) for diagnosis and management of DKA.

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  • 7.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Al-Temimy, Ameer
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Coletti, Camilla
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nebraska, NE 68508 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resolving mobility anisotropy in quasi-free-standing epitaxial graphene by terahertz optical Hall effect2021In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 172, p. 248-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we demonstrate the application of terahertz-optical Hall effect (THz-OHE) to determine directionally dependent free charge carrier properties of ambient-doped monolayer and quasi-freestanding-bilayer epitaxial graphene on 4H-SiC(0001). Directionally independent free hole mobility parameters are found for the monolayer graphene. In contrast, anisotropic hole mobility parameters with a lower mobility in direction perpendicular to the SiC surface steps and higher along the steps in quasifree-standing-bilayer graphene are determined for the first time. A combination of THz-OHE, nanoscale microscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques are used to investigate the origin of the anisotropy. Different defect densities and different number of graphene layers on the step edges and terraces are ruled out as possible causes. Scattering mechanisms related to doping variations at the step edges and terraces as a result of different interaction with the substrate and environment are discussed and also excluded. It is suggested that the step edges introduce intrinsic scattering in quasi-free-standing-bilayer graphene, that is manifested as a result of the higher ratio between mean free path and average terrace width parameters. The suggested scenario allows to reconcile existing differences in the literature regarding the anisotropic electrical transport in epitaxial graphene. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.

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  • 8.
    Asres, Georgies Alene
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Baldovi, Jose J.
    Max Planck Inst Struct and Dynam Matter, Germany; Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Dombovari, Aron
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvinen, Topias
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Lorite, Gabriela Simone
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Mohl, Melinda
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Perez Paz, Alejandro
    Univ Basque Country, Spain; Yachay Tech Univ, Ecuador.
    Xian, Lede
    Max Planck Inst Struct and Dynam Matter, Germany; Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Abo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Jantunen, Heli
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Rubio, Angel
    Max Planck Inst Struct and Dynam Matter, Germany; Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Kordas, Krisztian
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Ultrasensitive H2S gas sensors based on p-type WS2 hybrid materials2018In: Nano Reseach, ISSN 1998-0124, E-ISSN 1998-0000, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 4215-4224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to their higher intrinsic electrical conductivity and chemical stability with respect to their oxide counterparts, nanostructured metal sulfides are expected to revive materials for resistive chemical sensor applications. Herein, we explore the gas sensing behavior of WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials and demonstrate their excellent sensitivity (0.043 ppm(-1)) as well as high selectivity towards H2S relative to CO, NH3, H-2, and NO (with corresponding sensitivities of 0.002, 0.0074, 0.0002, and 0.0046 ppm(-1), respectively). Gas response measurements, complemented with the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, suggest that the intrinsic electronic properties of pristine WS2 alone are not sufficient to explain the observed high sensitivity towards H2S. A major role in this behavior is also played by O doping in the S sites of the WS2 lattice. The results of the present study open up new avenues for the use of transition metal disulfide nanomaterials as effective alternatives to metal oxides in future applications for industrial process control, security, and health and environmental safety.

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  • 9.
    Asres, Georgies Alene
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvinen, Topias
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Lorite, Gabriela S.
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Mohl, Melinda
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Pitkanen, Olli
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Dombovari, Aron
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Toth, Geza
    VTT Finland, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Vajtai, Robert
    Rice Univ, TX 77005 USA.
    Ajayan, Pulickel M.
    Rice Univ, TX 77005 USA.
    Lei, Sidong
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Talapatra, Saikat
    Southern Illinois Univ, IL 62901 USA.
    Kordas, Krisztian
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    High photoresponse of individual WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials2018In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 112, no 23, article id 233103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    van der Waals solids have been recognized as highly photosensitive materials that compete conventional Si and compound semiconductor based devices. While 2-dimensional nanosheets of single and multiple layers and 1-dimensional nanowires of molybdenum and tungsten chalcogenides have been studied, their nanostructured derivatives with complex morphologies are not explored yet. Here, we report on the electrical and photosensitive properties of WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials we developed lately. We probe individual hybrid nanostructured particles along the structure using focused ion beam deposited Pt contacts. Further, we use conductive atomic force microscopy to analyze electrical behavior across the nanostructure in the transverse direction. The electrical measurements are complemented by in situ laser beam illumination to explore the photoresponse of the nanohybrids in the visible optical spectrum. Photodetectors with responsivity up to similar to 0.4 AW(-1) are demonstrated outperforming graphene as well as most of the other transition metal dichalcogenide based devices. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 10.
    Asri, Mohd Afiq Mohd
    et al.
    Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Norazman, Siti Azizah
    Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Nordin, Anis Nurashikin
    Int Islamic Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Low-cost and rapid prototyping of integrated electrochemical microfluidic platforms using consumer-grade off-the-shelf tools and materials2022In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1779-1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a low-cost, accessible, and rapid fabrication process for electrochemical microfluidic sensors. This work leverages the accessibility of consumer-grade electronic craft cutters as the primary tool for patterning of sensor electrodes and microfluidic circuits, while commodity materials such as gold leaf, silver ink pen, double-sided tape, plastic transparency films, and fabric adhesives are used as its base structural materials. The device consists of three layers, the silver reference electrode layer at the top, the PET fluidic circuits in the middle and the gold sensing electrodes at the bottom. Separation of the silver reference electrode from the gold sensing electrodes reduces the possibility of cross-contamination during surface modification. A novel approach in mesoscale patterning of gold leaf electrodes can produce generic designs with dimensions as small as 250 mu m. Silver electrodes with dimensions as small as 385 mu m were drawn using a plotter and a silver ink pen, and fluid microchannels as small as 300 mu m were fabricated using a sandwich of iron-on adhesives and PET. Device layers are then fused together using an office laminator. The integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform has electrode kinetics/performance of Delta E-p = 91.3 mV, I-pa/I-pc = 0.905, characterized by cyclic voltammetry using a standard ferrocyanide redox probe, and this was compared against a commercial screen-printed gold electrode (Delta E-p = 68.9 mV, I-pa/I-pc = 0.984). To validate the performance of the integrated microfluidic electrochemical platform, a catalytic hydrogen peroxide sensor and enzyme-coupled glucose biosensors were developed as demonstrators. Hydrogen peroxide quantitation achieves a limit of detection of 0.713 mM and sensitivity of 78.37 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2), while glucose has a limit of detection of 0.111 mM and sensitivity of 12.68 mu A mM(-1) cm(-2). This rapid process allows an iterative design-build-test cycle in under 2 hours. The upfront cost to set up the system is less than USD 520, with each device costing less than USD 0.12, making this manufacturing process suitable for low-resource laboratories or classroom settings.

  • 11.
    Avsar, Bihter
    et al.
    Sabanci Univ, Turkey.
    Sadeghi, Sahl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sabanci Univ, Turkey.
    Turkec, Aydin
    Uludag Univ, Turkey.
    Lucas, Stuart J.
    Sabanci Univ, Turkey.
    Identification and quantitation of genetically modified (GM) ingredients in maize, rice, soybean and wheat-containing retail foods and feeds in Turkey2020In: Journal of food science and technology, ISSN 0022-1155, E-ISSN 0975-8402, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 787-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation area and diversity of genetically modified (GM) crop varieties worldwide is increasing rapidly. Taking Turkey as an example of a country with tight restrictions on the import and use of GM crops but limited resources for product monitoring, we developed a cost-effective 3-tier screening protocol, and tested 110 retail food products and 13 animal feeds available in 2016-2017 for GM ingredients. No evidence was found for the presence of GM wheat or rice in the foodstuffs tested; however, 6 feeds and 3 food products containing soybean and/or maize were positive for one or more GM elements. GM events present in positive samples were identified by event-specific PCR and quantified by real-time PCR. We also compared the results with previous surveys in Turkey. Overall, we observed consistent use of GM animal feeds; however, these were not labelled as GM at the point of sale. Occasional food products also tested positive for GM ingredients, usually at low concentrations that could be attributed to accidental contamination.

  • 12.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Foroughi, Javad
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Artificial Muscles from Hybrid Carbon Nanotube-Polypyrrole-Coated Twisted and Coiled Yarns2020In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 305, no 11, article id 2000421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemically or electrothermally driven twisted/coiled carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn actuators are interesting artificial muscles for wearables as they can sustain high stress. However, due to high fabrication costs, these yarns have limited their application in smart textiles. An alternative approach is to use off-the-shelf yarns and coat them with conductive polymers that deliver high actuation properties. Here, novel hybrid textile yarns are demonstrated that combine CNT and an electroactive polypyrrole coating to provide both high strength and good actuation properties. CNT-coated polyester yarns are twisted and coiled and subjected to electrochemical coating of polypyrrole to obtain the hierarchical soft actuators. When twisted without coiling, the polypyrrole-coated yarns produce fully reversible 25 degrees mm(-1)rotation, 8.3x higher than the non-reversible rotation from twisted CNT-coated yarns in a three-electrode electrochemical system operated between +0.4 and -1.0 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The coiled yarns generate fully reversible 10 degrees mm(-1)rotation and 0.22% contraction strain, 2.75x higher than coiled CNT-coated yarns, when operated within the same potential window. The twisted and coiled yarns exhibit high tensile strength with excellent abrasion resistance in wet and dry shearing conditions that can match the requirements for using them as soft actuators in wearables and textile exoskeletons.

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  • 13.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fast and High-Strain Electrochemically Driven Yarn Actuators in Twisted and Coiled Configurations2021In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 31, no 10, article id 2008959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercially available yarns are promising precursor for artificial muscles for smart fabric-based textile wearables. Electrochemically driven conductive polymer (CP) coated yarns have already shown their potential to be used in smart fabrics. Unfortunately, the practical application of these yarns is still hindered due to their slow ion exchange properties and low strain. Here, a method is demonstrated to morph poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly-styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) coated multifilament textile yarns in highly twisted and coiled structures, providing >1% linear actuation in <1 s at a potential of +0.6 V. A potential window of +0.6 V and -1.2 V triggers the fully reversible actuation of a coiled yarn providing >1.62% strain. Compared to the untwisted, regular yarns, the twisted and coiled yarns produce >9x and >20x higher strain, respectively. The strain and speed are significantly higher than the maximum reported results from other electrochemically operated CP yarns. The yarns actuation is explained by reversible oxidation/reduction reactions occurring at CPs. However, the helical opening/closing of the twisted or coiled yarns due to the torsional yarn untwisting/retwisting assists the rapid and large linear actuation. These PEDOT:PSS coated yarn actuators are of great interest to drive smart textile exoskeletons.

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  • 14.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Australian Institute For Innovative Materials University Of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Smart Textiles Technology Lab Swedish School Of Textiles University Of Borås Borås SE-501 90, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    PEDOT:PSS coated twisted and coiled yarn actuators2021In: EuroEAP 2021: International conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP) transducers & artificial muscles, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial yarns can be functionalized with conducting polymers (CPs) todevelop yarn and textile actuators. Here we show a method of functionalizationof commercial polyamide yarns by poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) coating. Aftercoating, while PEDOT:PSS is drying, it is possible to twist and coil the yarns,resulting in a major improvement of their linear strain and speed of movement.By using a potential window between +0.6 V and -1.2 V vs Ag/AgCl it waspossible to obtain a fully reversible actuation of a coiled yarn providing up to1.62% strain. A strain higher than 1% was achieved in less than 1 second.Compared to the untwisted, regular yarns, the twisted and coiled yarns produce>9× and >20× higher strain, respectively. These results are a step forward towardsthe development of soft, silent and compliant smart textile exoskeletons.

  • 15.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Zhang, Xi
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Zhonghua
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Plant-Like Tropisms in Artificial Muscles2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helical plants have the ability of tropisms to respond to natural stimuli, and biomimicry of such helical shapes into artificial muscles has been vastly popular. However, the shape-mimicked actuators only respond to artificially provided stimulus, they are not adaptive to variable natural conditions, thus being unsuitable for real-life applications where on-demand, autonomous operations are required. Novel artificial muscles made of hierarchically patterned helically wound yarns that are self-adaptive to environmental humidity and temperature changes are demonstrated here. Unlike shape-mimicked artificial muscles, a unique microstructural biomimicking approach is adopted, where the muscle yarns can effectively replicate the hydrotropism and thermotropism of helical plants to their microfibril level using plant-like microstructural memories. Large strokes, with rapid movement, are obtained when the individual microfilament of yarn is inlaid with hydrogel and further twisted into a coil-shaped hierarchical structure. The developed artificial muscle provides an average actuation speed of approximate to 5.2% s(-1) at expansion and approximate to 3.1% s(-1) at contraction cycles, being the fastest amongst previously demonstrated actuators of similar type. It is demonstrated that these muscle yarns can autonomously close a window in wet climates. The building block yarns are washable without any material degradation, making them suitable for smart, reusable textile and soft robotic devices.

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  • 16.
    Azzouzi, Sawsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Sousse, Tunisia; Ctr Res Microelect and Nanotechnol Sousse, Tunisia.
    Fredj, Zina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Sousse, Tunisia; Ctr Res Microelect and Nanotechnol Sousse, Tunisia.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ben Ali, Mounir
    Univ Sousse, Tunisia; Ctr Res Microelect and Nanotechnol Sousse, Tunisia.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Generic Neutravidin Biosensor for Simultaneous Multiplex Detection of MicroRNAs via Electrochemically Encoded Responsive Nanolabels2019In: ACS SENSORS, ISSN 2379-3694, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current electrochemical biosensors for multiple miRNAs require tedious immobilization of various nucleic acid probes. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach using a generic neutravidin biosensor combined with electrochemically encoded responsive nanolabels for facile and simultaneous multiplexed detection of miRNA-21 and miRNA-141. The selectivity of the biosensor arises from the intrinsic properties of the electrochemically encoded responsive nanolabels, comprising biotinylated molecular beacons (biotin-MB) and metal nanoparticles (metal-NPs). The procedure is a simple one-pot assay, where the targeted miRNA causes the opening of biotin-MB followed by capturing of the biotin-MB-metal-NPs by the neutravidin biosensor and simultaneous detection of the captured metal-NPs by stripping square-wave voltammetry (SSWV). The multiplexed detection of miRNA-21 and miRNA-141 is achieved by differentiation of the electrochemical signature (i.e., the peak current) for the different metal-NP labels. The biosensor delivers simultaneous detection of miRNAs with a linear range of 0.5-1000 pM for miRNA-21 and a limit of detection of 0.3 pM (3 sigma/sensitivity, n = 3), and a range of 50-1000 pM for miRNA-141, with a limit of detection of 10 pM. Furthermore, we demonstrate multiplexed detection of miRNA-21 and miRNA-141 in a spiked serum sample.

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  • 17.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Guo, Li
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås.
    Towards responding fabrics – textile processing of thin threadlike pneumatic actuators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions (such as 1) textiles have not been considered as means for obtaining actuation. This is surprising as textiles have many advantageous characteristics such as the D=M property, which stands for Doing Devices while Making the Material. This means that functions are introduced simultaneously as the material, such as in a weave, is built up tread by tread. Traditionally a tread could have a certain colour so in total an aesthetical pattern is formed. Now we take a step beyond this working with threads having more advanced functions. Included are fiber formed structures showing actuation behavior. 

    This we employ here. We make fiber formed actuating structures (FAS) following the McKibben principle (2) with braided mesh sleeves surrounding a prolonged inflatable tube. Here we worked with relatively large diameters in the relaxed state but show that there is prospect for obtaining relaxed diameters of less than 1 mm approaching the range of large scale weaving manufacturing.

    We study the behavior of these fibre formed actuating structures individually. Length changes obtained are -20%. We then make textile constructions by integrating several of these FASes with textile processing. By this, we build simple models of fabrics showing actuating behavior.  

     

    This study shows how textile constructions can support or hinder overall movement. It is a first logical step in order to get an understanding of actuating fabrics based also on other actuating mechanisms (3).

  • 18.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Multi-Assembly of Soft Electroactive Polymeric Yarn Actuators by Using Textile Processes2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile assembly methods offer great possibilities to create complex, large-scale, multi-functional 2D materials (fabrics) by a continuous process of structuring yarns together, in an architected manner. By designing a specific pattern and using functionalized yarns the properties of such a fabric can enable a variety of roles for example actuation and mechanical stimuli. Moreover, actuation can be achieved in several directions as the textile assembly enables the construction of a network where yarns can be independently addressed in X and/or Y direction. These are advantages that can be utilized in the field of soft robotics in many ways. The requirements for human-robotic interactions call for soft and compliant materials that are safe for such collaborative interactions and involve several types of functionalities. Textiles are easily conformed to the body, whether that is a robotic or a human one. Here we report on the integration of novel functional actuating yarns in the purpose of creating pliable textile actuators that also exhibit versatile morphing  capabilities. The yarns consist of three layers; two of which are made of thin poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) coatings that cover opposite sides of the third layer, an ionogel. This stretchable gel supplies the system with ions for the actuation mechanism and therefore enables in-air actuation. The yarns are transformed into fabrics by using woven assembly techniques. This is an additive method that structures one set of yarns in a parallel sequence that is perpendicular to another second set of yarns. By structuring a number of yarns together in parallel the performance in terms of force output including blocking force is shown to increase. The textile assembly process allows for two approaches, collective and individual addressing for the actuating yarns. For the former, arranging the yarns into different pre-determined segments enable collective actuation of each segment to change the overall shape of the textile structure. In regards to the latter, by individual addressing we show that a specific and targeted actuation can be achieved. Furthermore, the arrangement in which the yarns are interlaced in the fabric enables switching the modality of the actuation. This means that we can alter a motion specific to the yarns into another by their arrangement in the textile structure. With our developed textile assembly method, we are approaching low-cost, large-scale production of actuating systems for human-robotic applications

  • 19. Backe, Carin
    et al.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guo, Li
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Multi-Assembly of Soft Electroactive Polymeric Yarn Actuators by Using Textile Processes2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20. Backe, Carin
    et al.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guo, Li
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Serially connected EAP based tape yarns for in-air actuation using textile structures2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Bastuck, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improving the Performance of Gas Sensor Systems with Advanced Data Evaluation, Operation, and Calibration Methods2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to facilitate the widespread use of gas sensors, some challenges must still be overcome. Many of those are related to the reliable quantification of ultra-low concentrations of specific compounds in a background of other gases. This thesis focuses on three important items in the measurement chain: sensor material and operating modes, evaluation of the resulting data, and test gas generation for efficient sensor calibration.

    New operating modes and materials for gas-sensitive field-effect transistors have been investigated. Tungsten trioxide as gate oxide can improve the selectivity to hazardous volatile organic compounds like naphthalene even in a strong and variable ethanol background. The influence of gate bias and ultraviolet light has been studied with respect to the transport of oxygen anions on the sensor surface and was used to improve classification and quantification of different gases.

    DAV3E, an internationally recognized MATLAB-based toolbox for the evaluation of cyclic sensor data, has been developed and published as opensource. It provides a user-friendly graphical interface and specially tailored algorithms from multivariate statistics.

    The laboratory tests conducted during this project have been extended with an interlaboratory study and a field test, both yielding valuable insights for future, more complex sensor calibration. A novel, efficient calibration approach has been proposed and evaluated with ten different gas sensor systems. 

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    Improving the Performance of Gas Sensor Systems with Advanced Data Evaluation, Operation, and Calibration Methods
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  • 22.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Baur, T.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Richter, M.
    Bundesanstalt Mat Forsch and Prufung BAM, Germany.
    Mull, B.
    Bundesanstalt Mat Forsch and Prufung BAM, Germany; Fraunhofer Wilhelm Klauditz Inst, Germany.
    Schuetze, A.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Sauerwald, T.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Comparison of ppb-level gas measurements with a metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensor in two independent laboratories2018In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 273, p. 1037-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we use a gas sensor system consisting of a commercially available gas sensor in temperature cycled operation. It is trained with an extensive gas profile for detection and quantification of hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the ppb range independent of a varying background of other, less harmful VOCs and inorganic interfering gases like humidity or hydrogen. This training was then validated using a different gas mixture generation apparatus at an independent lab providing analytical methods as reference. While the varying background impedes selective detection of benzene and naphthalene at the low concentrations supplied, both formaldehyde and total VOC can well be quantified, after calibration transfer, by models trained with data from one system and evaluated with data from the other system. The lowest achievable root mean squared errors of prediction were 49 ppb for formaldehyde (in a concentration range of 20-200 ppb) and 150 mu g/m(3) (in a concentration range of 25-450 mu g/m(3)) for total VOC. The latter uncertainty improves to 13 mu g/m(3) with a more confined model range of 220-320 mu g/m(3). The data from the second lab indicate an interfering gas which cannot be detected analytically but strongly influences the sensor signal. This demonstrates the need to take into account all sensor relevant gases, like, e.g., hydrogen and carbon monoxide, in analytical reference measurements.

  • 23.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Sauerwald, Tilman
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    UV-assisted gate bias cycling in gas-sensitive field-effect transistors2018In: Proceedings, ISSN 2504-3900, Vol. 2, no 13, article id 999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Static and dynamic responses of a silicon carbide field-effect transistor gas sensor have been investigated at two different gate biases in several test gases. Especially the dynamic effects are gas dependent and can be used for gas identification. The addition of ultraviolet light reduces internal electrical relaxation effects, but also introduces new, temperature-dependent effects.

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  • 24.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Möller, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reimringer, Wolfhard
    3S GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Low-cost chemical gas sensors for selective formaldehyde quantification at ppb-level in field tests2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from a silicon carbide based field-effect transistor were recorded over a period of nine days in a ventilated school room. For enhanced sensitivity and selectivity especially to formaldehyde, porous iridium on pulsed laser deposited tungsten trioxide was used as sensitive layer, in combination with temperature cycled operation and subsequent multivariate data processing techniques. The sensor signal was compared to reference measurements for formaldehyde concentration, CO2 concentration, temperature, and relative humidity. The results show a distinct pattern for the reference formaldehyde concentration, arising from the day/night cycle. Taking this into account, the projections of both principal component analysis and partial least squares regression lead to almost the same result concerning correlation to the reference. The sensor shows cross-sensitivity to an unidentified component of human activity, presumably breath, and, possibly, to other compounds appearing together with formaldehyde in indoor air. Nevertheless, the sensor is able to detect and partially quantify formaldehyde below 40 ppb with a correlation to the reference of 0.48 and negligible interference from ambient temperature or relative humidity.

  • 25.
    Baumgartner, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Switchable presentation of cytokines on electroactive polypyrrole surfaces for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry B, ISSN 2050-750X, Vol. 6, no 28, p. 4665-4675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hematopoietic stem cells are used in transplantations for patients with hematologic malignancies. Scarce sources require efficient strategies of expansion, including polymeric biomaterials mimicking architectures of bone marrow tissue. Tissue microenvironment and mode of cytokine presentation strongly influence cell fate. Although several cytokines with different functions as soluble or membrane-bound mediators have already been identified, their precise roles have not yet been clarified. A need exists for in vitro systems that mimic the in vivo situation to enable such studies. One way is to establish surfaces mimicking physiological presentation using protein-immobilization onto polymer films. However these films merely provide a static presentation of the immobilized proteins. It would be advantageous to also dynamically change protein presentation and functionality to better reflect the in vivo conditions. The electroactive polymer polypyrrole shows excellent biocompatibility and electrochemically alters its surface properties, becoming an interesting choice for such setups. Here, we present an in vitro system for switchable presentation of membrane-bound cytokines. We use interleukin IL-3, known to affect hematopoiesis, and show that when immobilized on polypyrrole films, IL-3 is bioavailable for the bone marrow-derived FDC-P1 progenitor cell line. Moreover, IL-3 presentation can be successfully altered by changing the redox state of the film, in turn influencing FDC-P1 cell viability. This novel in vitro system provides a valuable tool for stimuli-responsive switchable protein presentation allowing the dissection of relevant mediators in stem and progenitor cell behavior.

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    Switchable presentation of cytokines on electroactive polypyrrole surfaces for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells
  • 26.
    Boda, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Screen-Printed Corrosion-Resistant and Long-Term Stable Stretchable Electronics Based on AgAu Microflake Conductors2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 12372-12382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput production methods such as screen printing can bring stretchable electronics out of the lab into the market. Most stretchable conductor inks for screen printing are based on silver nanoparticles or flakes due to their favorable performance-to-cost ratio, but silver is prone to tarnishing and corrosion, thereby limiting the stability of such conductors. Here, we report on a cost-efficient and scalable approach to resolve this issue by developing screen printable inks based on silver flakes chemically coated by a thin layer of gold. The printed stretchable AgAu conductors reach a conductivity of 8500 S cm-1, remain conductive up to 250% strain, show excellent corrosion and tarnishing stability, and are used to demonstrate wearable LED and NFC circuits. The reported approach is attractive for smart clothing, as the long-term functionality of such devices is expected in a variety of environments.

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  • 27.
    Bunnfors, Kalle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrikossova, Natalia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kilpijarvi, Joni
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Juuti, Jari
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Halonen, Niina
    Univ Oulu, Finland.
    Brommesson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanoparticle activated neutrophils-on-a-chip: A label-free capacitive sensor to monitor cells at work2020In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, Vol. 313, article id 128020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant white blood cells in mammals and vital components of the immune system. They are involved in the early phase of inflammation and in generation of reactive oxygen species. These rapid cell-signaling communicative processes are performed in the time frame of minutes. In this work, the activity and the response of neutrophil granulocytes are monitored when triggered by cerium-oxide based nanoparticles, using capacitive sensors based on Lab-on-a-chip technology. The chip is designed to monitor activation processes of cells during nanoparticle exposure, which is for the first time recorded on-line as alteration of the capacitance. The complementary metal oxide semiconductor engineering chip design is combined with low temperature co-fired ceramic, LTCC, packaging technology. The method is label free and gently measures cells on top of an insulating surface in a weak electromagnetic field, as compared to commonly used four-point probes and impedance spectroscopy electric measurements where electrodes are in direct contact with the cells. In summary, this label free method is used to measure oxidative stress of neutrophil granulocytes in real time, minute by minute and visualize the difference in moderate and high cellular workload during exposure of external triggers. It clearly shows the capability of this method to detect cell response during exposure of external triggers. In this way, an informationally dense non-invasive method is obtained, to monitor cells at work.

  • 28.
    Buzzin, Alessio
    et al.
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Italy.
    Domènech-Gil, Guillem
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fraschetti, Elena
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Italy.
    Giovine, Ennio
    Inst Photon & Nanotechnol, Italy.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Caputo, Domenico
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Italy.
    Assessing the consequences of prolonged usage of disposable face masks2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 16796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, wearing a disposable face mask has become a worldwide daily routine, not only for medical operators or specialized personnel, but also for common people. Notwithstanding the undeniable positive effect in reducing the risk of virus transmission, it is important to understand if a prolonged usage of the same face mask can have effectiveness on filtering capability and potential health consequences. To this aim, we present three investigations. A survey, carried out in central Italy, offers an overview of the distorted public awareness of face mask usage. A functional study shows how prolonged wearing leads to substantial drops in humid air filtration efficiency. Finally, a morphological analysis reports the proliferation of fungal or bacteria colonies inside an improperly used mask. Our study highlights therefore that wearing a face mask is really beneficial only if it is used correctly.

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  • 29. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Cao, Danfeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting Polymer-based Biohybrid Materials: Towards Microphysiological Chips and Soft Actuators for Bone Tissue Engineering2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The human body is a complex system, consisting of different types of biomolecules and living matters, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, serum, cells, tissues, and organs. These complex biomolecules and living matters integrate and interact dynamically to perform and maintain body functions. However, it is very difficult to study these biomaterials in vivo due to intricated relationship of biomaterials within complex body systems. Thus, researchers usually conduct an initial in-depth analysis of substances in vitro, then apply them in vivo for disease treatments or tissue repair. Recently, Hara et al. had a fantastic finding that chondrocyte-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) can induce bone-like tissue in vitro for only two days, while live cells or other biomaterials require at least 2-4 weeks. This effect of PMNFs is highly desirable, particularly for those elderly with osteoporosis and those with bone injuries who require rapid bone growth and repair. Recent studies have increasingly supported the notion that some non-biological materials provide important microenvironmental cues to support the activity of cells in in vitro conditions or within tissues. Based on these, living matters or biomolecules can be combined with or incorporated within specific non-biological material to create a microenvironment that further enhances cellular functions toward, for instance, combating infections and cancers or promoting tissue repair. In these cases, the materials combining biomolecules and/or living matters with non-biological materials are called biohybrid materials. Conducting polymers, e.g., polypyrrole (PPy), have become a class of promising non-biological material for the development of biohybrid materials due to their good biocompatibility, electronic/ionic conductivity, reversible volume change and switchable surface properties. Thus, in this thesis, we developed biohybrid material-based devices by the combination of PMNFs and PPy for the application in bone regeneration.  

    Firstly, as early attempts for mimicking the in vivo microenvironment to study the functions of biomolecules in vitro, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a simple model of biomolecule instead of complex biomolecules. A preliminary electrophysiological chip was fabricated by immobilising BSA on the surface of PPy synthesised with polycarboxylic acid as dopant. Then the switching presentation of BSA induced by the redox state of PPy surface was further evaluated. The results showed that it is feasible to immobilise biomolecules or living matters on polycarboxylic acid doped PPy, and that the presentation of these biomolecules on PPy surface could be switched by redox potential. On the basis of the preliminary BSA electrophysiological chip, a functional electrophysiological chip with bone regeneration potential was developed by immobilising PMNFs on the PPy surface. Despite the large size of the PMNFs, the results demonstrated that the PMNFs could be successfully immobilised on the PPy surface, and that the presentation of PMNFs could also be modified by changing the redox state of the PPy surface. Moreover, the incubation of the PMNFs-based chips in mineralisation medium resulted in the formation of minerals, and the morphological structures of the minerals were different under the stimulation of redox potential. Furthermore, the different microstructural morphologies of the formed minerals can modulate the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).   

    Secondly, based on the surface mineralisation study on the above electrophysiological chip at a two-dimensional (2D) scale, soft and biohybrid actuators based on PMNF-PPy biohybrid material were further developed for the deeper exploration of the bone regeneration at a three-dimensional (3D) scale. This is facilitated by the actuation of the soft and biohybrid actuator, which can achieve complex motions with on-demand geometry and actuation modalities in 3D. Therefore, a double layer of free-standing soft actuator was fabricated by combining PDMS passive layer and PPy active layer, while PMNFs were either immobilised on the PPy surface or doped into the PPy film. The actuation of PDMS/PPy-PMNF actuators proved that the mineralisation of PMNFs could increase the stiffness of the actuator and decrease the movement of actuator to some extent, although this reduction of movement was not significant. The results indicate that the mineralisation of PMNFs possesses a variable stiffness effect in soft actuators.   

    Next, an alginate gel (Alg)-PPy actuator was developed in order to achieve an actuator that is more sensitive to variable stiffness change and that performs more distinguished movement changes. In this experiment, PMNFs were incorporated into the alginate gel. The alginate gel functionalised with PMNFs facilitated the formation of a thick mineral layer, which almost completely suppressed the actuator movement. Finally, the patterned Alg-PPy actuator was smartly morphing on the bone for mineralisation. Excitingly, the mineralised actuator was integrated into the bone, demonstrating the potential application of PMNF-PPy biohybrid materials for bone regeneration. 

    List of papers
    1. Biohybrid Variable-Stiffness Soft Actuators that Self-Create Bone
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biohybrid Variable-Stiffness Soft Actuators that Self-Create Bone
    2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 8, article id 2107345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the dynamic process of initial bone development, in which a soft tissue turns into a solid load-bearing structure, the fabrication, optimization, and characterization of bioinduced variable-stiffness actuators that can morph in various shapes and change their properties from soft to rigid are hereby presented. Bilayer devices are prepared by combining the electromechanically active properties of polypyrrole with the compliant behavior of alginate gels that are uniquely functionalized with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs), previously shown to mineralize within 2 days, which promotes the mineralization in the gel layer to achieve the soft to stiff change by growing their own bone. The mineralized actuator shows an evident frozen state compared to the movement before mineralization. Next, patterned devices show programmed directional and fixated morphing. These variable-stiffness devices can wrap around and, after the PMNF-induced mineralization in and on the gel layer, adhere and integrate onto bone tissue. The developed biohybrid variable-stiffness actuators can be used in soft (micro-)robotics and as potential tools for bone repair or bone tissue engineering.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2022
    Keywords
    actuators, biohybrids, mineralization, variable stiffness
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182493 (URN)10.1002/adma.202107345 (DOI)000743102000001 ()34877728 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85122837081 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies: Japanese Society of the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Bridge Fellowship program [BR170502]; KAKENHI Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) [JP20H04534]; Swedish Research Council European Commission [VR2014-3079]; Promobilia [F17603]; China Scholarship Council [201808330454]; JSPS Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [JPJSBP 120 209 923]; STINT, The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education [MG2019-8171]

    Available from: 2022-01-26 Created: 2022-01-26 Last updated: 2023-03-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Soft actuators that self-create bone for biohybrid (micro)robotics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soft actuators that self-create bone for biohybrid (micro)robotics
    2022 (English)In: Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, And Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 1-6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a new class of variable stiffness actuators for soft robotics based on biohybrid materials that change their state from soft-to-hard by creating their own bones. The biohybrid variable stiffness soft actuators were fabricated by combining the electromechanically active polymer polypyrrole (PPy) with a soft substrate of polydimethylsiloxane or alginate gel. These actuators were functionalized with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs), which promote rapid mineralization within 2 days. These actuators were used in robotic devices, and PMNF mineralization resulted in the robotic devices to achieve a soft to stiff state change and thereby a decreased or stopped actuation. Moreover, perpendicularly and diagonally patterned actuators were prepared. The patterned actuators showed programmed directional actuation motion and could be fixated in this programmed state. Finally, patterned actuators that combined soft and rigid parts in one actuator showed more complex actuation motion. Together, these variable stiffness actuators could expand the range of applications of morphing robotics with more complex structures and functions. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
    National Category
    Physical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187834 (URN)10.1109/MARSS55884.2022.9870251 (DOI)000864658200005 ()9781665459730 (ISBN)9781665459747 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, and Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS), Toronto, CANADA, jul 25-29, 2022
    Note

    Funding: Japanese Society of the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Bridge Fellowship program [BR170502]; KAKENHI [JP20H04534]; JSPS [JPJSBP 120 209 923]; STINT; Swedish Research Council [VR2014-3079]; China Scholarship Council [201808330454]

    Available from: 2022-08-26 Created: 2022-08-26 Last updated: 2023-10-12Bibliographically approved
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  • 30.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anada, Risa
    Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Kamioka, Hiroshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical control of bone microstructure on electroactive surfaces for modulation of stem cells and bone tissue engineering2023In: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1468-6996, E-ISSN 1878-5514, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 2183710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling stem cell behavior at the material interface is crucial for the development of novel technologies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The composition and presentation of bio-factors on a surface strongly influence the activity of stem cells. Herein, we designed an electroactive surface that mimics the initial process of trabecular bone formation, by immobilizing chondrocyte-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) on its surface for rapid mineralization within 2 days. Moreover, the electroactive surface was based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy), which enabled dynamic control of the presentation of PMNFs on the surface via electrochemical redox switching, further resulting in the formation of bone minerals with different morphologies. Furthermore, bone minerals with contrasting surface morphologies had differential effects on the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the surface. Together, this electroactive surface showed multifunctional characteristics, not only allowing dynamic control of PMNF presentation but also promoting the formation of bone minerals with different morphologies within 2 days. This electroactive substrate could be valuable for more precise control of stem cell growth and differentiation, and further development of more suitable microenvironments containing bone apatite for housing a bone marrow stem cell niche, such as biochips/bone-on-chips.

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  • 31.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Variable Stiffness Actuators with Covalently Attached Nanofragments that Induce Mineralization2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft robotics has attracted great attention owing to their immense potential especially in human-robot interfaces. However, the compliant property of soft robotics alone, without stiff elements, restricts their applications under load-bearing conditions. Here, biohybrid soft actuators, that create their own bone-like rigid layer and thus alter their stiffness from soft to hard, are designed. Fabrication of the actuators is based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with an Au film to make a soft substrate onto which polypyrrole (PPy) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSA) is electropolymerized. The PDMS/Au/PPy(PSA) actuator is then functionalized, chemically and physically, with plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) that induce bone formation within 3 days, without using cells. The resulting stiffness change decreased the actuator displacement; yet a thin stiff layer couldnot completely stop the actuators movement, while a relatively thick segment could, but resulted in partial delamination the actuator. To overcome the delamination, an additional rough Au layer was electroplated to improve the adhesion of the PPy onto the substrate. Finally, an alginate gel functionalized with PMNFs was used to create a thicker mineral layer mimicking the collagen-apatite bone structure, which completely suppressed the actuator movement without causing any structural damage.

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  • 32.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Skalla, Laetitia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Anada, Risa
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Kamioka, Hiroshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Tunable electroactive biomimetic bone-like surfaces for bone marrow-on-chips2023In: 2023 IEEE BIOSENSORS CONFERENCE, BIOSENSORS, IEEE , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electro-stimulation is an effective way to manipulate the presentation of bio-factors at the materials interface. This study aimed to develop electrochemically-modified trabecular bone-like surfaces for manipulation of mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells. The electroactive surface was based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole for dynamic control of the presentation and mineralisation of chondrocyte-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) covalently immobilized on the surface. Electrochemical redox switching resulted in the PMNF-based formation of bone minerals with different morphologies, which further demonstrated to have distinct effects on the survival of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal and hematopoietic cell populations cultured on the surface. This tunable electroactive surface could be a valuable tool for dynamically sensing and/or controlling stem cell functions in more suitable biomimetic microenvironments housing a stem cell niche.

  • 33.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Department of Biomaterials Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences,Okayama University, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Variable-Stiffness Soft Actuators that Self-Create Bone2022In: International conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer(EAP) transducers & artificial muscles, Tuscany, June 7-9, 2022, EuroEAP 2022 , 2022, article id 1.3.7Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We herein describe the fabrication, optimisation and characterisation of a biohybrid variable stiffness actuator that creates its own bone. By combining the electroresponsive properties of polypyrrole (PPy) with the compliant response of alginate gels functionalised with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) it was possible to obtain bio-induced variable stiffness actuators. When the PMNFs were incubated into MEM, i.e. exposure to Ca, this caused the formation of calcium-phosphate minerals (i.e. amorphous calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite) in the alginate gel, resulting in a more rigid layer and thus reducing and finally impeding the movement of the actuator, locking it in a fixed position within only 2 days. These actuators could morph in various, pre-programmed shapes and change their properties from soft to rigid. Adding different patterns to the actuator allowed locking the device in a predetermined shape without energy consumption, facilitating its application as soft-to-hard robotics as a biohybrid variant of so-called 4D manufacturing. The devices could wrap around and integrate into bone by the induced mineralisation in and on the gel layer. This illustrates its use as a potential tool to repair bone or in bone tissue engineering. 

  • 34.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Department of Biomaterials, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Variable-Stiffness Soft Actuators that Self-Create Bone2022In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 8, article id 2107345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the dynamic process of initial bone development, in which a soft tissue turns into a solid load-bearing structure, the fabrication, optimization, and characterization of bioinduced variable-stiffness actuators that can morph in various shapes and change their properties from soft to rigid are hereby presented. Bilayer devices are prepared by combining the electromechanically active properties of polypyrrole with the compliant behavior of alginate gels that are uniquely functionalized with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs), previously shown to mineralize within 2 days, which promotes the mineralization in the gel layer to achieve the soft to stiff change by growing their own bone. The mineralized actuator shows an evident frozen state compared to the movement before mineralization. Next, patterned devices show programmed directional and fixated morphing. These variable-stiffness devices can wrap around and, after the PMNF-induced mineralization in and on the gel layer, adhere and integrate onto bone tissue. The developed biohybrid variable-stiffness actuators can be used in soft (micro-)robotics and as potential tools for bone repair or bone tissue engineering.

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  • 35.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Department of Biomaterials, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Soft actuators that self-create bone for biohybrid (micro)robotics2022In: Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, And Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a new class of variable stiffness actuators for soft robotics based on biohybrid materials that change their state from soft-to-hard by creating their own bones. The biohybrid variable stiffness soft actuators were fabricated by combining the electromechanically active polymer polypyrrole (PPy) with a soft substrate of polydimethylsiloxane or alginate gel. These actuators were functionalized with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs), which promote rapid mineralization within 2 days. These actuators were used in robotic devices, and PMNF mineralization resulted in the robotic devices to achieve a soft to stiff state change and thereby a decreased or stopped actuation. Moreover, perpendicularly and diagonally patterned actuators were prepared. The patterned actuators showed programmed directional actuation motion and could be fixated in this programmed state. Finally, patterned actuators that combined soft and rigid parts in one actuator showed more complex actuation motion. Together, these variable stiffness actuators could expand the range of applications of morphing robotics with more complex structures and functions. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Casalinuovo, Silvia
    et al.
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Buzzin, Alessio
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Caschera, Daniela
    CNR, Italy.
    Quaranta, Simone
    CNR, Italy.
    Federici, Fulvio
    CNR, Italy.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    de Cesare, Giampiero
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Caputo, Domenico
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Italy.
    Enhancing breath analysis with a novel AuNP-coated cotton sensor2023In: 2023 9TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ADVANCES IN SENSORS AND INTERFACES, IWASI, IEEE , 2023, p. 241-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human health has always been a major concern for science. Over the years, health research has included different areas, ranging from specific therapies to patients lifestyle and social information: "patient-oriented" approaches have increasingly emerged as a crucial tool for health care systems, as clearly shown during the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this context, the synergy between different scientific and technological fields, such as biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering, is increasingly considered an essential requirement. This work presents a low cost and easy-to-use sensor of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, with the purpose of serving as a rapid, non-invasive and versatile diagnostic tool in smart medicine applications. A "lockand-key" system relying on gold nanoparticles deposited on cotton fabric enables the detection of target molecules, whose adsorption produces variations in terms of electrical impedance. The system has been exposed to ethanol-based solutions in an experimental campaign to investigate the sensing capabilities at 1 Hz - 1 MHz frequency range. The results achieved demonstrate the feasibility in obtaining health-relevant VOCs detection based on impedance analysis.

  • 37.
    Casalinuovo, Silvia
    et al.
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Buzzin, Alessio
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Caschera, Daniela
    National Research Council, Rome, Italy.
    Quaranta, Simone
    National Research Council, Rome, Italy.
    Federici, Fulvio
    National Research Council, Rome, Italy.
    Zortea, Laura
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Brotzu, Andrea
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Natali, Stefano
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    de Cesare, Giampiero
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Caputo, Domenico
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    AuNP-coated cotton as VOC sensor for disease detection from breath2023In: Proceedings of SIE 2022: 53rd Annual Meeting of the Italian Electronics Society / [ed] Cocorullo, G., Crupi, F., Limiti, E, 2023, Vol. 1005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, declared in March 2020, has led to several behavioral changes in the general population, such as social distancing and mask usage among others. Furthermore, the sanitary emergency has stressed health system weaknesses in terms of disease prevention, diagnosis, and cure. Thus, smart technologies allowing for early and quick detection of diseases are called for. In this framework, the development of point-of-care devices can provide new solutions for sanitary emergencies management. This work focuses on the development of useful tools for early disease diagnosis based on nanomaterials on cotton substrates, to obtain a low-cost and easy-to-use detector of breath volatiles as disease markers. Specifically, we report encouraging experimental results concerning acetone detection through impedance measurements. Such findings can pave the way to the implementation of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) sensors into smart and user friendly diagnostic devices.

  • 38.
    Casalinuovo, Silvia
    et al.
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Buzzin, Alessio
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Mastrandrea, Antonio
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Mazzetta, Ivan
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Barbirotta, Marcello
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Iannascoli, Lorenzo
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Nascetti, Augusto
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    de Cesare, Giampiero
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Caputo, Domenico
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    3D-Printed Face Mask with Integrated Sensors as Protective and Monitoring Tool2023In: Sensors and Microsystems: Proceedings of AISEM 2022 / [ed] Girolamo Di Francia, Corrado Di Natale, 2023, Vol. 999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outbreak of the recent Covid-19 pandemic changed many aspects of our daily life, such as the constant wearing of face masks as protection from virus transmission risks. Furthermore, it exposed the healthcare system’s fragilities, showing the urgent need to design a more inclusive model that takes into account possible future emergencies, together with population’s aging and new severe pathologies. In this framework, face masks can be both a physical barrier against viruses and, at the same time, a telemedical diagnostic tool. In this paper, we propose a low-cost, 3D-printed face mask able to protect the wearer from virus transmission, thanks to internal FFP2 filters, and to monitor the air quality (temperature, humidity, CO2) inside the mask. Acquired data are automatically transmitted to a web terminal, thanks to sensors and electronics embedded in the mask. Our preliminary results encourage more efforts in these regards, towards rapid, inexpensive and smart ways to integrate more sensors into the mask’s breathing zone in order to use the patient’s breath as a fingerprint for various diseases.

  • 39.
    Casalinuovo, Silvia
    et al.
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Caschera, Daniela
    Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials CNR-ISMN, Italy.
    Quaranta, Simone
    Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials CNR-ISMN.
    Genova, Virgilio
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Buzzin, Alessio
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Federici, Fulvio
    Institute for the Study of Nanostructured Materials CNR-ISMN, Italy.
    de Cesare, Giampiero
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Caputo, Domenico
    Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.
    Cotone funzionalizzato con nanoparticelle d'oro come promettente substrato flessibile ed ecologico per il rilevamento impedometrico di COV [Gold Nanoparticles-Functionalized Cotton as Promising Flexible and Green Substrate for Impedometric VOC Detection]2023In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, article id 5826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on the possible application of gold nanoparticles on flexible cotton fabric as acetone- and ethanol-sensitive substrates by means of impedance measurements. Specifically, citrate- and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were synthesized using green and well-established procedures and deposited on cotton fabric. A complete structural and morphological characterization was conducted using UV-VIS and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A detailed dielectric characterization of the blank substrate revealed interfacial polarization effects related to both Au NPs and their specific surface functionalization. For instance, by entirely coating the cotton fabric (i.e., by creating a more insulating matrix), PVP was found to increase the sample resistance, i.e., to decrease the electrical interconnection of Au NPs with respect to citrate functionalized sample. However, it was observed that citrate functionalization provided a uniform distribution of Au NPs, which reduced their spacing and, therefore, facilitated electron transport. Regarding the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that hydrogen bonding and the resulting proton migration impedance are instrumental in distinguishing ethanol and acetone. Such findings can pave the way for the development of VOC sensors integrated into personal protective equipment and wearable telemedicine devices. This approach may be crucial for early disease diagnosis based on nanomaterials to attain low-cost/low-end and easy-to-use detectors of breath volatiles as disease markers.

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  • 40.
    Changsan, Titiwan
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Wannapob, Rodtichoti
    Department of Physics, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Kaewpet, Morakot
    Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Shearman, Kittiya
    National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation, Headquarter, Technopolis Campus, Klong Luang, Thailand.
    Wattanasin, Panwadee
    Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanatharana, Proespichaya
    Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Thavarungkul, Panote
    Department of Physics, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Thammakhet-Buranachai, Chongdee
    Department of Chemistry, Division of Physical Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Trace Analysis and Biosensor, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand; Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Magnetic microsphere sorbent on CaCO3 templates: Simple synthesis and efficient extraction of trace carbamate pesticides in fresh produce2021In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 342, article id 128336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypyrrole magnetic microspheres were synthesized and used to extract carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl before analysis by a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, four times the preconcentration was achieved with the use of only 1.2 mL of sample. Good linearity with ranges of 3.0–7.5 × 103, 6.0–4.5 × 103, and 15–3.0 × 103 ng kg−1 and limits of detection of 1.37 ± 0.10, 4.7 ± 1.2, and 10.1 ± 5.7 ng kg−1 were obtained, respectively. Good reproducibility (RSDs < 5%) was achieved over 24 cycles of extraction and regeneration. Good accuracy (recoveries 81.6 ± 1.5%–108.3 ± 2.2%) and good precision (RSDs 0.11%–4.5%) were obtained. Carbaryl was detected in apple (2.75 ± 0.23 ng kg−1), carbofuran in tomato (11.34 ± 0.61 ng kg−1), and methomyl in watermelon (34.7 ± 1.7 ng kg−1). The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurement method was less than 14% for all three pesticides.

  • 41.
    Che, Canyan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage2019In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 1900039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Lignosulfonate (LS) is a large-scale surplus product of the forest and paper industries, and has primarily been utilized as a low-cost plasticizer in making concrete for the construction industry. LS is an anionic redox-active polyelectrolyte and is a promising candidate to boost the charge capacity of the positive electrode (positrode) in redox-supercapacitors. Here, the physical-chemical investigation of how this biopolymer incorporates into the conducting polymer PEDOT matrix, of the positrode, by means of counter-ion exchange is reported. Upon successful incorporation, an optimal access to redox moieties is achieved, which provides a 63% increase of the resulting stored electrical charge by reversible redox interconversion. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and concentrations, of included components, on the polymer?polymer interactions are optimized to exploit the biopolymer-associated redox currents. Further, the explored LS-conducting polymer incorporation strategy, via aqueous synthesis, is evaluated in an up-scaling effort toward large-scale electrical energy storage technology. By using an up-scaled production protocol, integration of the biopolymer within the conducting polymer matrix by counter-ion exchange is confirmed and the PEDOT-LS synthesized through optimized strategy reaches an improved charge capacity of 44.6 mAh g?1.

  • 42.
    Cheung, Kitt
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lai, Kwok Kei
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrication of Protein Microparticles and Microcapsules with Biomolecular Tools2018In: Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie (Munchen. 1991), ISSN 0942-9352, Vol. 232, no 5-6, p. 759-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticles have attracted much attention for medical, analytical and biological applications. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) templating method with the advantages of having narrow size distribution, controlled morphology and good biocompatibility that has been widely used for the synthesis of various protein-based microparticles. Despite CaCO3 template is biocompatible, most of the conventional methods to create stable protein microparticles are mainly driven by chemical crosslink reagents which may induce potential harmful effect and remains undesirable especially for biomedical or clinical applications. In this article, we demonstrate the fabrication of protein microparticles and microcapsules with an innovative method using biomolecular tools such as enzymes and affinity molecules to trigger the assembling of protein molecules within a porous CaCO3 template followed by a template removal step. We demonstrated the enzyme-assisted fabrication of collagen microparticles triggered by transglutaminase, as well as the affinity-assisted fabrication of BSA-biotin avidin microcapsules triggered by biotin-avidin affinity interaction, respectively. Based on the different protein assemble mechanisms, the collagen microparticles appeared as a solid-structured particles, while the BSA-biotin avidin microcapsules appeared as hollow-structured morphology. The fabrication procedures are simple and robust that allows producing protein microparticles or microcapsules under mild conditions at physiological pH and temperature. In addition, the microparticle morphologies, protein compositions and the assemble mechanisms were studied. Our technology provides a facile approach to design and fabricate protein microparticles and microcapsules that are useful in the area of biomaterials, pharmaceuticals and analytical chemistry.

  • 43. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Comina Bellido, German
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Autonomous Lab-on-a-chip: solutions and fast prototyping tools2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, solutions for the development of autonomous Lab-on-a-chip (LOC), and 3D printing for fast prototyping of LOC devices are investigated. 

    Lab-on-a-chip devices integrate analytical systems and conditioning processes in a compact package. Small sample volume, disposability, ability to perform complex analysis and performance comparable to classical instrumentation are characteristics that make LOCs excellent candidates for biomedical applications, environmental monitoring and food analysis. 

    Classical LOC configurations usually require additional elements such as pumps, valves, fluidics interface connectors, and even pneumatic control to operate. Also, in most cases, a computer-capable device, or standalone control system, is needed in connection with the measurements. Autonomous LOCs avoid the use of additional components, as they are designed to integrate all necessary parts in one design. 

    Cell phones are the most wide spread computer capable devices, and the advantage to exploit them as analytical instruments is obvious. They have been used in connection with microfluidic LOC measurements, typically using accessory dongles. To connect to the LOCs, in some cases, even permanent modifications of the phones were required. In this thesis, direct coupling to cell phone readout, without accessories beyond the LOC, has been investigated. 

    Autonomous LOC development demands extensive time and resources for prototype optimization. Classical LOC fabrication methods, which are based on lithographic microfabrication, require special equipment and facilities. Additionally, the fabrication of 3D structures require multiple fabrication steps with numerous intermediate alignment. 

    In this thesis, commercial-grade, low-cost 3D printers have been investigated as fast LOC prototyping platforms. The printers (Miicraft® DLP-3D printer and Formlabs Inc. Form+1) are based on Stereo Lithography (SLA). 

    In this additive fabrication technique, a 3D computer model of the LOC is designed. Later, the 3D model is sliced in 2D patterns along the height of the design, and each of the 2D patterns is projected through the printer transparent tank bottom, which contains a liquid photocurable resin. 

    Each exposure cures a thin layer of the resin, and the procedure is repeated adding layer after layer until the 3D printout is completed. With this technique it was possible to obtain real 3D LOC structures with unlimited number of 3D features in one step, within the hour, and at low-cost for prototyping, which constitutes a superb tool for fast and affordable sophistication of LOC architecture. The process was extended in this thesis to another area of complex and costly development: the manufacture of optical components. It was shown that optical components with arbitrary geometry could be obtained within the hour and typically for less than 1€/prototype. 

    The first use of the technique was to produce templates for classical LOCs of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on glass. The procedure was the first, to our knowledge, implemented with consumer grade printers, and included a demonstration of template fabrication for the development of a multilayer PDMS-LOC for colorimetric detection of glucose. 

    The technique then evolved to the complete replacement of the PDMS stage, by conceiving the LOC architecture as a single monolithic printout. This concept was coined Unibody LOC (ULOC) and was used in this thesis for the development of all the autonomous Lab on a Chip solutions. 

    Numerous solutions towards autonomous LOCs were developed such as: multidimensional adaptors that connect for example 1.6mm diameter tubing directly to 50μm wide microfluidic channels, several on plane and multilayer mixers, hybrid ULOC with paper channels, finger-pumps, check-valves, optical couplers and 3D printed optics. 

    Time-dependent optical response bio-chemical reactions were identified as key to implement the link between autonomous LOC with cell phones without other accessories, and relying on ambient light as illumination. Such approach improves the analytical resolution of a colorimetric measurement using essentially the same camera. 

    Finally, all those solutions were integrated to develop a chemical sensing interface for universal cell phone readout, and a 3D printed device for quantitative enzymatic detection using cell phones. 

    List of papers
    1. PDMS lab-on-a-chip fabrication using 3D printed templates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PDMS lab-on-a-chip fabrication using 3D printed templates
    2014 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 424-430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The fabrication of conventional PDMS on glass lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, using templates printed with a commercial (2299 US$) micro-stereo lithography 3D printer, is demonstrated. Printed templates replace clean room and photolithographic fabrication resources and deliver resolutions of 50 mu m, and up to 10 mu m in localized hindrances, whereas the templates are smooth enough to allow direct transfer and proper sealing to glass substrates. 3D printed templates accommodate multiple thicknesses, from 50 mu m up to several mm within the same template, with no additional processing cost or effort. This capability is exploited to integrate silicone tubing easily, to improve micromixer performance and to produce multilevel fluidics with simple access to independent functional surfaces, which is illustrated by time-resolved glucose detection. The templates are reusable, can be fabricated in under 20 min, with an average cost of 0.48 US$, which promotes broader access to established LOC configurations with minimal fabrication requirements, relieves LOC fabrication from design skills and provides a versatile LOC development platform.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103283 (URN)10.1039/c3lc50956g (DOI)000328910700019 ()
    Available from: 2014-01-17 Created: 2014-01-16 Last updated: 2021-05-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Low cost lab-on-a-chip prototyping with a consumer grade 3D printer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low cost lab-on-a-chip prototyping with a consumer grade 3D printer
    2014 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 2978-2982Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Versatile prototyping of 3D printed lab-on-a-chip devices, supporting different forms of sample delivery, transport, functionalization and readout, is demonstrated with a consumer grade printer, which centralizes all critical fabrication tasks. Devices cost 0.57US$ and are demonstrated in chemical sensing and micromixing examples, which exploit established principles from reference technologies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109578 (URN)10.1039/c4lc00394b (DOI)000339470400012 ()24931176 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2021-05-07Bibliographically approved
    3. 3D Printed Unibody Lab-on-a-Chip: Features Survey and Check-Valves Integration dagger
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D Printed Unibody Lab-on-a-Chip: Features Survey and Check-Valves Integration dagger
    2015 (English)In: Micromachines, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 437-451Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The unibody lab-on-a-chip (ULOC) concept entails a fast and affordable micro-prototyping system built around a single monolithic 3D printed element (unibody). A consumer-grade stereo lithography (SL) 3D printer can configure ULOCs with different forms of sample delivery, transport, handling and readout, while minimizing material costs and fabrication time. ULOC centralizes all complex fabrication procedures and replaces the need for clean room resources, delivering prototypes for less than 1 US$, which can be printed in 10 min and ready for testing in less than 30 min. Recent examples of ULOC integration of transport, chemical sensing for optical readout and flow mixing capabilities are discussed, as well as the integration of the first check-valves for ULOC devices. ULOC valves are strictly unidirectional up to 100 psi, show an exponential forward flow behavior up to 70 psi and can be entirely fabricated with the ULOC approach.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2015
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118257 (URN)10.3390/mi6040437 (DOI)000353777200003 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet); Carl Tryggers Foundation

    Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2024-01-17
    4. Autonomous Chemical Sensing Interface for Universal Cell Phone Readout
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autonomous Chemical Sensing Interface for Universal Cell Phone Readout
    2015 (English)In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 54, no 30, p. 8708-8712Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the ubiquity of cell phones for quantitative chemical sensing imposes strong demands on interfacing devices. They should be autonomous, disposable, and integrate all necessary calibration and actuation elements. In addition, a single design should couple universally to a variety of cell phones, and operate in their default configuration. Here, we demonstrate such a concept and its implementation as a quantitative glucose meter that integrates finger pumps, unidirectional valves, calibration references, and focusing optics on a disposable device configured for universal video acquisition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2015
    Keywords
    3D printed fluidics; analytical methods; autonomous lab-on-a-chip; cell phone readout; sensors
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120447 (URN)10.1002/anie.201503727 (DOI)000358051600022 ()26095136 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR); Carl Tryggers Foundation

    Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2021-05-07Bibliographically approved
    5. A 3D printed device for quantitative enzymatic detection using cell phones
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 3D printed device for quantitative enzymatic detection using cell phones
    2016 (English)In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 8, no 32, p. 6135-6142Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A disposable device for quantitative enzymatic detection capable of coupling illumination and image readouts from cell phones is demonstrated. The device integrates a calibration range for glutamate detection, utilizes the phone screen as a light source, and provides the necessary actuation for autonomous operation. Custom made optics required to couple to the cell phone camera is accomplished using affordable stereolithography (SLA) 3D printers. The described method does not involve polishing, requires only two steps from design to implementation, and can be locally applied to 3D printed lab-on-a-chip (LOC) prototypes, using the same materials. Optical finishing and dimensional variability within 2% were achieved, supporting entirely arbitrary geometries for elements larger than 400 mm in radius. Representative fabrication times and costs were 20 min and $0.50 USD per prototype.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131587 (URN)10.1039/c6ay01714b (DOI)000381580900002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) [C0453801]; Carl Tryggers Foundation [CTS14140]

    Available from: 2016-09-27 Created: 2016-09-27 Last updated: 2021-05-07Bibliographically approved
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  • 44.
    DAmico, A.
    et al.
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Santonico, M.
    Univ Campus Biomed Roma, Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The getter effect in the Langmuir regime2019In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 126, no 2, article id 025304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration of an analyte in a closed test chamber containing a chemical sensor is affected by the adsorption-desorption processes acting on the sensor surface. This phenomenon is called the " getter" whose effect has been known for many decades to occur in, e. g., vacuum tubes even if its mathematical expression has not been elaborated upon so far for affinity based chemical sensors. In this paper, we describe the " getter" equation and its consequences for affinity based chemical sensors in both the gas phase and the liquid phase with the starting point in the standard kinetic equation leading to Langmuir-like adsorption isotherms. More specifically, we calculate the " getter" isotherm and compare it with the Langmuir isotherm. The getter phenomenon is shown to be important at sufficiently small analyte concentrations (partial pressure in the gas phase or molecular concentration in the liquid phase) and in test chambers or sample cells of small volumes. A simple rule of thumb is given when the " getter" effect may be important. As an example, for a sample cell with a volume of 1ml and a sensor surface area of 1 cm2 without a constant flow of analyte through it, the " getter" phenomenon may occur around parts per million levels for a gas sensor and around submicromolar concentrations for a sensor in a liquid. Experimental examples from the literature where the " getter" effect is observed will be given. We also show a more general electric equivalent circuit which accounts also for the getter effect by using a coverage dependent series resistance in the equivalent circuit previously suggested for Langmuir adsorption under constant partial pressure/ concentration in the test chamber.

  • 45.
    Domènech-Gil, Guillem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), Department of Electronic and Biomedical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Gràcia, Isabel
    Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB), Centre Nacional de Microelectrònica (CNM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Cané, Carles
    Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB), Centre Nacional de Microelectrònica (CNM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Romano-Rodríguez, Albert
    Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), Department of Electronic and Biomedical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Nitrogen Dioxide Selective Sensor for Humid Environments Based on Octahedral Indium Oxide2021In: Frontiers in Sensors, E-ISSN 2673-5067, Vol. 2, article id 672516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the growth of micrometer-sized In2O3 octahedral structures, which are next aligned in chains using dielectrophoresis on top of microhotplates with prepatterned electrodes and integrated heater to work as chemoresistive gas sensors. The devices are relatively fast (180 s), highly sensitive (response up to ∼256%), and selective toward NO2 in humid environments, showing little response to O2 and ethanol, and being completely insensitive to CO and CH4. The here-presented fabrication method can be easily extended as a cost-effective post-process in CMOS-compatible microhotplate fabrication and, thus, represents a promising candidate for indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring devices.

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  • 46.
    Domènech-Gil, Guillem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    Tekn Verken & Linkoping AB, S-58115 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Electronic Nose for Improved Environmental Methane Monitoring2024In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 58, p. 352-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing emissions of the key greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is increasingly highlighted as being important to mitigate climate change. Effective emission reductions require cost-effective ways to measure CH4 to detect sources and verify that mitigation efforts work. We present here a novel approach to measure methane at atmospheric concentrations by means of a low-cost electronic nose strategy where the readings of a few sensors are combined, leading to errors down to 33 ppb and coefficients of determination, R-2, up to 0.91 for in situ measurements. Data from methane, temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure sensors were used in customized machine learning models to account for environmental cross-effects and quantify methane in the ppm-ppb range both in indoor and outdoor conditions. The electronic nose strategy was confirmed to be versatile with improved accuracy when more reference data were supplied to the quantification model. Our results pave the way toward the use of networks of low-cost sensor systems for the monitoring of greenhouse gases.

  • 47.
    Domènech-Gil, Guillem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Virtual Electronic Nose for the Efficient Classification and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 19, p. 7340-7354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many chemical gas sensors report high sensitivity towards volatile organic compounds (VOCs), finding selective gas sensing technologies that can classify different VOCs is an ongoing and highly important challenge. By exploiting the synergy between virtual electronic noses and machine learning techniques, we demonstrate the possibility of efficiently discriminating, classifying, and quantifying short-chain oxygenated VOCs in the parts-per-billion concentration range. Several experimental results show a reproducible correlation between the predicted and measured values. A 10-fold cross-validated quadratic support vector machine classifier reports a validation accuracy of 91% for the different gases and concentrations studied. Additionally, a 10-fold cross-validated partial least square regression quantifier can predict their concentrations with coefficients of determination, R-2, up to 0.99. Our methodology and analysis provide an alternative approach to overcoming the issue of gas sensors selectivity, and have the potential to be applied across various areas of science and engineering where it is important to measure gases with high accuracy.

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  • 48.
    Domènech-Gil, Guillem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Benefits of virtual sensors for air quality monitoring in humid conditions2021In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 344, article id 130294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas sensing mechanisms, response, and behaviour of a real and a virtual solid-state chemical gas sensor operating either in static or in dynamic mode have been compared. The analysis was done by exposing simultaneously both sensors to different concentrations of various volatile organic compounds diluted in dry, as well as humid, synthetic air. The results revealed similar responses and behaviours for both types of measurement modes when the sensors were exposed towards single gas compounds, but a sensitivity enhancement in measurements comprising mixtures of gases when the sensors were operated in dynamic mode. The method used is able to overcome surface saturation problems and is beneficial for applications where mixtures of gases diluted in relative humidity are present.

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  • 49.
    Domènech-Gil, Guillem
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodner, Marius
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Temperature Cycled Operation and Multivariate Statistics for Electronic-Nose Applications Using Field Effect Transistors2020In: Proceedings of 4th International Conference nanoFIS 2020 - Functional Integrated nanoSystems, 2020, Vol. 56, p. 1-3Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 50.
    Dutta, Sujan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Textile Actuators Comprising Reduced Graphene Oxide as the Current Collector2023In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic textiles (E-textiles) are made using various materials including carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide. Among the materials here, e-textiles are fabricated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coating on commercial textiles. rGO-based yarns are prepared for e-textiles by a simple dip coating method with subsequent non-toxic reduction. To enhance the conductivity, the rGO yarns are coated with poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT) followed by electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy) as the electromechanically active layer, resulting in textile actuators. The rGO-based yarn actuators are characterized in terms of both isotonic displacement and isometric developed forces, as well as electron microscopy and resistance measurements. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that both viscose rotor spun (VR) and viscose multifilament (VM) yarns can be used for yarn actuators. The resulting VM-based yarn actuators exhibit high strain (0.58%) in NaDBS electrolytes. These conducting yarns can also be integrated into textiles and fabrics of various forms to create smart e-textiles and wearable devices. A simple graphene oxide, PEDOT:PSS and PPy coated textile-based soft actuator is presented that shows good electrochemical strain and force. This opens a new perspective in the development of textile yarns with enhanced conductivity and/or actuation with possible applications in the field of smart textile materials.image

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