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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol2019In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging field of organic bioelectronics, conducting polymers and ion-selective membranes are combined to form resistors, diodes, transistors, and circuits that transport and process both electronic and ionic signals. Such bioelectronics concepts have been explored in delivery devices that translate electronic addressing signals into the transport and dispensing of small charged biomolecules at high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Manufacturing such "iontronic" devices generally involves classical thin film processing of polyelectrolyte layers and insulators followed by application of electrolytes. This approach makes miniaturization and integration difficult, simply because the ion selective polyelectrolytes swell after completing the manufacturing. To advance such bioelectronics/iontronics and to enable applications where relatively larger molecules can be delivered, it is important to develop a versatile material system in which the charge/size selectivity can be easily tailormade at the same time enabling easy manufacturing of complex and miniaturized structures. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis approach with minimal amount of organic solvent to achieve cationic hyperbranched polyglycerol films for iontronics applications. The hyperbranched structure allows for tunable pre multi-functionalization, which combines available unsaturated groups used in crosslinking along with ionic groups for electrolytic properties, to achieve a one-step process when applied in devices for monolithic membrane gel formation with selective electrophoretic transport of molecules.

  • 2.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mecerreyes, David
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhancing Energy Storage Devices with Biomacromolecules in Hybrid Electrodes2019In: Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1860-6768, E-ISSN 1860-7314, article id 1900062Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of energy storage devices with higher energy and power outputs, and long cycling stability is urgently required in the pursuit of the expanding challenges of electrical energy storage. The utilization of biologically renewable redox compounds holds a great potential in designing sustainable energy storage systems and contributes in reducing the dependence on fossil fuels for energy materials. Quinones are the principal redox centers in natural organic materials and play a key role as charge storage electrode materials because of their abundance, multiple forms and integration into the materials flow through the biosphere. Electrical energy storage devices and systems can be significantly improved by the combination of scalable quinone-based biomaterials with good electronic conductors. This review uses recent examples to show how biopolymers are providing new directions in the development of renewable biohybrid electrodes for energy storage devices.

  • 3.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 5053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication outposts of the emerging Internet of Things are embodied by ordinary items, which desirably include all-printed flexible sensors, actuators, displays and akin organic electronic interface devices in combination with silicon-based digital signal processing and communication technologies. However, hybrid integration of smart electronic labels is partly hampered due to a lack of technology that (de)multiplex signals between silicon chips and printed electronic devices. Here, we report all-printed 4-to-7 decoders and seven-bit shift registers, including over 100 organic electrochemical transistors each, thus minimizing the number of terminals required to drive monolithically integrated all-printed electrochromic displays. These relatively advanced circuits are enabled by a reduction of the transistor footprint, an effort which includes several further developments of materials and screen printing processes. Our findings demonstrate that digital circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) provide a unique bridge between all-printed organic electronics (OEs) and low-cost silicon chip technology for Internet of Things applications.

  • 4.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Eveborn, Annelie
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Lagerlöf, Axel
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE SICS East, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Screen printed digital circuits based on vertical organic electrochemical transistors2017In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 045008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been manufactured solely using screen printing. The OECTs are based on PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrene sulfonic acid)), which defines the active material for both the transistor channel and the gate electrode. The resulting vertical OECT devices and circuits exhibit low-voltage operation, relatively fast switching, small footprint and high manufacturing yield; the last three parameters are explained by the reliance of the transistor configuration on a robust structure in which the electrolyte vertically bridges the bottom channel and the top gate electrode. Two different architectures of the vertical OECT have been manufactured, characterized and evaluated in parallel throughout this report. In addition to the experimental work, SPICE models enabling simulations of standalone OECTs and OECT-based circuits have been developed. Our findings may pave the way for fully integrated, low-voltage operating and printed signal processing systems integrated with e.g. printed batteries, solar cells, sensors and communication interfaces. Such technology can then serve a low-cost base technology for the internet of things, smart packaging and home diagnostics applications.

  • 5.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Miniaturized Ionic Polarization Diodes for Neurotransmitter Release at Synaptic Speeds2019In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, article id 1900750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current neural interfaces rely on electrical stimulation pulses to affect neural tissue. The development of a chemical delivery technology, which can stimulate neural tissue with the bodys own set of signaling molecules, would provide a new level of sophistication in neural interfaces. Such technology should ideally provide highly local chemical delivery points that operate at synaptic speed, something that is yet to be accomplished. Here, the development of a miniaturized ionic polarization diode that exhibits many of the desirable properties for a chemical neural interface technology is reported. The ionic diode shows proper diode rectification and the current switches from off to on in 50 mu s at physiologically relevant electrolyte concentrations. A device model is developed to explain the characteristics of the ionic diode in more detail. In combination with experimental data, the model predicts that the ionic polarization diode has a delivery delay of 5 ms to reach physiologically relevant neurotransmitter concentrations at subcellular spatial resolution. The model further predicts that delays of amp;lt;1 ms can be reached by further miniaturization of the diode geometry. Altogether, the results show that ionic polarization diodes are a promising building block for the next generation of chemical neural interfaces.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-22 14:26
  • 6.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1805813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linkoping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganas and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganas all since 1981.

  • 7.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malliaras, George G.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    How conducting polymer electrodes operate2019In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 364, no 6437, p. 233-234Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 8.
    Bernacka Wojcik, Iwona
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huerta, Miriam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karady, Michal
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljung, Karin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Implantable Organic Electronic Ion Pump Enables ABA Hormone Delivery for Control of Stomata in an Intact Tobacco Plant2019In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 15, no 43, article id 1902189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic control of biological processes with bioelectronic devices holds promise for sophisticated regulation of physiology, for gaining fundamental understanding of biological systems, providing new therapeutic solutions, and digitally mediating adaptations of organisms to external factors. The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) provides a unique means for electronically-controlled, flow-free delivery of ions, and biomolecules at cellular scale. Here, a miniaturized OEIP device based on glass capillary fibers (c-OEIP) is implanted in a biological organism. The capillary form factor at the sub-100 mu m scale of the device enables it to be implanted in soft tissue, while its hyperbranched polyelectrolyte channel and addressing protocol allows efficient delivery of a large aromatic molecule. In the first example of an implantable bioelectronic device in plants, the c-OEIP readily penetrates the leaf of an intact tobacco plant with no significant wound response (evaluated up to 24 h) and effectively delivers the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) into the leaf apoplast. OEIP-mediated delivery of ABA, the phytohormone that regulates plants tolerance to stress, induces closure of stomata, the microscopic pores in leafs epidermis that play a vital role in photosynthesis and transpiration. Efficient and localized ABA delivery reveals previously unreported kinetics of ABA-induced signal propagation.

  • 9.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Univ Ferrara, Italy.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    DAgata, Roberta
    Univ Catania, Italy.
    Pinti, Marcello
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bianchini, Elena
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Casalini, Stefano
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Cossarizza, Andrea
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Spoto, Giuseppe
    Univ Catania, Italy; Univ Catania, Italy.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    EGOFET Peptide Aptasensor for Label-Free Detection of Inflammatory Cytokines in Complex Fluids2018In: ADVANCED BIOSYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7478, Vol. 2, no 2, article id 1700072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic transistors are rapidly emerging as ultrahigh sensitive label-free biosensors suited for point-of-care or in-field deployed applications. Most organic biosensors reported to date are based on immunorecognition between the relevant biomarkers and the immobilized antibodies, whose use is hindered by large dimensions, poor control of sequence, and relative instability. Here, an electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistor (EGOFET) biosensor where the recognition units are surface immobilized peptide aptamers (Affimer proteins) instead of antibodies is reported. Peptide aptasensor for the detection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) with a 1 x 10(-12) M limit of detection is demonstrated. Ultralow sensitivity is met even in complex solutions such as cell culture media containing 10% serum, demonstrating the remarkable ligand specificity of the device. The device performances, together with the simple one-step immobilization strategy of the recognition moieties and the low operational voltages, all prompt EGOFET peptide aptasensors as candidates for early diagnostics and monitoring at the point-of-care.

  • 10.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theuer, Lorenz
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    Univ Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Label free urea biosensor based on organic electrochemical transistors2018In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quantification of urea is of the utmost importance not only in medical diagnosis, where it serves as a potential indicator of kidney and liver disfunction, but also in food safety and environmental control. Here, we describe a urea biosensor based on urease entrapped in a crosslinked gelatin hydrogel, deposited onto a fully printed PEDOT:PSS-based organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). The device response is based on the modulation of the channel conductivity by the ionic species produced upon urea hydrolysis catalyzed by the entrapped urease. The biosensor shows excellent reproducibility, a limit of detection as low as 1 mu M and a response time of a few minutes. The fabrication of the OECTs by screen-printing on flexible substrates ensures a significant reduction in manufacturing time and costs. The low dimensionality and operational voltages (0.5 V or below) of these devices contribute to make these enzymatic OECT-based biosensors as appealing candidates for high-throughput monitoring of urea levels at the point-of-care or in the field.

  • 11.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning2019In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

  • 12.
    Cattelan, Mattia
    et al.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fox, Neil A.
    School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anodization study of epitaxial graphene: insights on the oxygen evolution reaction of graphitic materials2019In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 30, no 28, article id 285701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy were utilized for the study of anodized epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide as a fundamental aspect of the oxygen evolution reaction on graphitic materials. The high-resolution analysis of surface morphology and composition quantified the material transformation during the anodization. We investigated the surface with lateral resolution amp;lt;150 nm, revealing significant transformations on the EG and the role of multilayer edges in increasing the film capacitance.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-04-24 11:07
  • 13.
    Che, Canyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical Reactions of Quinones at Conducting Polymer Electrodes2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton-coupled multielectron transfer reactions are of great abundance in Nature. In particular, two-proton-two-electron transfers in quinone/hydroquinone redox couples are behind oxidative phosphorylation (ADP-to-ATP) and photosystem II. The redox processes of neurotransmitters, as a platform for brain activity read-out, are two-proton two-electron transfers of quinones. Moreover, humic acids, which constitute a major organic fraction of soil, turf, coal, and lignin, which forms as a large-scale surplus product from forest and paper industry, contain a large quantity of polyphenols, which can undergo the exchange of two electrons per aromatic ring accompanied with transfers of two protons. This makes polyphenol-based biopolymers, such as lignin, promising green-chemistry renewable materials for electrical energy storage or generation. The application of intact or depolymerized polyphenols in electrical energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries requires appropriate electrode materials to ensure efficient proton-coupled electron transfer reactions occurring at the solid-liquid interface. Moreover, investigation of the biological quinones reaction calls for porous, soft, biocompatible materials as implantable devices to reduce the rejection reaction and pain.

    At common electrode materials such as platinum and carbons, quinone/hydroquinone redox processes are rather irreversible; in addition, platinum is very costly. Conducting polymers (CPs), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in particular, offer an attractive option as metal-free electrode material for these reactions due to their molecular porosity, high electrical and ionic conductivity, solution processability, resistance to acid media, as well as high atomic abundance of their constituents.

    This thesis explores the possibility of utilizing CPs as electrode materials for driving various quinone redox reactions. Firstly, we studied the electrocatalytic activity and mechanism of PEDOTs for the generic hydroquinone reaction and their application in a fuel cell. Secondly, the mechanism of integrating lignosulfonate (LS) into CP matrices and optimization strategies were explored in order to boost energy storage capacity. Thirdly, we attained mechanistic understanding of the influence of ionic transport and proton management on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrocatalysis on CPs, thereby providing steps towards the design of quinone-based electrical energy storage devices, such as organic redox flow batteries (ORFB).

    List of papers
    1. Conducting Polymer Electrocatalysts for Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions: Toward Organic Fuel Cells with Forest Fuels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Polymer Electrocatalysts for Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions: Toward Organic Fuel Cells with Forest Fuels
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin is one of the most abundant biopolymers, constituting 25% of plants. The pulp and paper industries extract lignin in their process and today seek new applications for this by-product. Here, it is reported that the aromatic alcohols obtained from lignin depolymerization can be used as fuel in high power density electrical power sources. This study shows that the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), fabricated from abundant ele-ments via low temperature synthesis, enables efficient, direct, and reversible chemical-to-electrical energy conversion of aromatic alcohols such as lignin residues in aqueous media. A material operation principle related to the rela-tively high molecular diffusion and ionic conductivity within the conducting polymer matrix, ensuring efficient uptake of protons in the course of proton-coupled electron transfers between organic molecules is proposed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148575 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201800021 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2020-01-07
    2. Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 1900039Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Lignosulfonate (LS) is a large-scale surplus product of the forest and paper industries, and has primarily been utilized as a low-cost plasticizer in making concrete for the construction industry. LS is an anionic redox-active polyelectrolyte and is a promising candidate to boost the charge capacity of the positive electrode (positrode) in redox-supercapacitors. Here, the physical-chemical investigation of how this biopolymer incorporates into the conducting polymer PEDOT matrix, of the positrode, by means of counter-ion exchange is reported. Upon successful incorporation, an optimal access to redox moieties is achieved, which provides a 63% increase of the resulting stored electrical charge by reversible redox interconversion. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and concentrations, of included components, on the polymer?polymer interactions are optimized to exploit the biopolymer-associated redox currents. Further, the explored LS-conducting polymer incorporation strategy, via aqueous synthesis, is evaluated in an up-scaling effort toward large-scale electrical energy storage technology. By using an up-scaled production protocol, integration of the biopolymer within the conducting polymer matrix by counter-ion exchange is confirmed and the PEDOT-LS synthesized through optimized strategy reaches an improved charge capacity of 44.6 mAh g?1.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2019
    Keywords
    charge storage, conducting polymers, ion-exchange, lignin
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161646 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201900039 (DOI)000486210400005 ()2-s2.0-85072220289 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-11-05 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Che, Canyan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Twinning Lignosulfonate with a Conducting Polymer via Counter-Ion Exchange for Large-Scale Electrical Storage2019In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 1900039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Lignosulfonate (LS) is a large-scale surplus product of the forest and paper industries, and has primarily been utilized as a low-cost plasticizer in making concrete for the construction industry. LS is an anionic redox-active polyelectrolyte and is a promising candidate to boost the charge capacity of the positive electrode (positrode) in redox-supercapacitors. Here, the physical-chemical investigation of how this biopolymer incorporates into the conducting polymer PEDOT matrix, of the positrode, by means of counter-ion exchange is reported. Upon successful incorporation, an optimal access to redox moieties is achieved, which provides a 63% increase of the resulting stored electrical charge by reversible redox interconversion. The effects of pH, ionic strength, and concentrations, of included components, on the polymer?polymer interactions are optimized to exploit the biopolymer-associated redox currents. Further, the explored LS-conducting polymer incorporation strategy, via aqueous synthesis, is evaluated in an up-scaling effort toward large-scale electrical energy storage technology. By using an up-scaled production protocol, integration of the biopolymer within the conducting polymer matrix by counter-ion exchange is confirmed and the PEDOT-LS synthesized through optimized strategy reaches an improved charge capacity of 44.6 mAh g?1.

  • 15.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Conductive polymer nanoantennas for dynamicorganic plasmonics2020In: Nature Nanotechnology, ISSN 1748-3387, E-ISSN 1748-3395, Vol. 15, article id s41565-019-0583-yArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to dynamically shape light at the nanoscale is oneof the ultimate goals in nano-optics1. Resonant light–matterinteraction can be achieved using conventional plasmonicsbased on metal nanostructures, but their tunability is highlylimited due to a fixed permittivity2. Materials with switchablestates and methods for dynamic control of light–matterinteraction at the nanoscale are therefore desired. Here weshow that nanodisks of a conductive polymer can supportlocalized surface plasmon resonances in the near-infraredand function as dynamic nano-optical antennas, with their resonancebehaviour tunable by chemical redox reactions. Theseplasmons originate from the mobile polaronic charge carriersof a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:sulfate) (PEDOT:Sulf)polymer network. We demonstrate complete and reversibleswitching of the optical response of the nanoantennasby chemical tuning of their redox state, which modulatesthe material permittivity between plasmonic and dielectricregimes via non-volatile changes in the mobile chargecarrier density. Further research may study different conductivepolymers and nanostructures and explore their usein various applications, such as dynamic meta-optics andreflective displays.

  • 16.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knight, Sean
    Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Germany.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 15, p. 4350-4362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are becoming increasingly important in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical devices, and energy systems. Still, their detailed charge transport properties produce an anomalous optical conductivity dispersion that is not yet fully understood in terms of physical model equations for the broad range optical response. Several modifications to the classical Drude model have been proposed to account for a strong non-Drude behavior from terahertz (THz) to infrared (IR) ranges, typically by implementing negative amplitude oscillator functions to the model dielectric function that effectively reduce the conductivity in those ranges. Here we present an alternative description that modifies the Drude model via addition of positive-amplitude Lorentz oscillator functions. We evaluate this so-called Drude-Lorentz (DL) model based on the first ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry study of ECPs, spanning over four orders of magnitude: from 0.41 meV in the THz range to 5.90 eV in the ultraviolet range, using thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate (PEDOT: Tos) as a model system. The model could accurately fit the experimental data in the whole ultrawide spectral range and provide the complex anisotropic optical conductivity of the material. Examining the resonance frequencies and widths of the Lorentz oscillators reveals that both spectrally narrow vibrational resonances and broader resonances due to localization processes contribute significantly to the deviation from the Drude optical conductivity dispersion. As verified by independent electrical measurements, the DL model accurately determines the electrical properties of the thin film, including DC conductivity, charge density, and (anisotropic) mobility. The ellipsometric method combined with the DL model may thereby become an effective and reliable tool in determining both optical and electrical properties of ECPs, indicating its future potential as a contact-free alternative to traditional electrical characterization.

  • 17.
    Cherian, Dennis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Large-area printed organic electronic ion pumps2019In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 022001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological systems use a large variety of ions and molecules of different sizes for signaling. Precise electronic regulation of biological systems therefore requires an interface which translates the electronic signals into chemically specific biological signals. One technology for this purpose that has been developed during the last decade is the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). To date, OEIPs have been fabricated by micropatterning and labor-intensive manual techniques, hindering the potential application areas of this promising technology. Here we show, for the first time, fully screen-printed OEIPs. We demonstrate a large-area printed design with manufacturing yield amp;gt;90%. Screen-printed cation- and anion-exchange membranes are both demonstrated with promising ion selectivity and performance, with transport verified for both small ions (Na+,K+,Cl-) and biologically-relevant molecules (the cationic neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the anionic anti-inflammatory salicylic acid). These advances open the iontronics toolbox to the world of printed electronics, paving the way for a broader arena for applications.

  • 18.
    Diacci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Jee Woong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dufil, Gwennael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Méhes, Gábor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-Time Monitoring of Glucose Export from Isolated Chloroplasts Using an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2019In: Advanced Materials Technologies, ISSN 2365-709X, article id 1900262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECT) are attractive devices for real-time monitoring of biological processes. The direct coupling between the channel of the OECT and the electrolyte enables intimate interfacing with biological environments at the same time bringing signal amplification and fast sensor response times. So far, these devices are mainly applied to mammalian systems; cells or body fluids for the development of diagnostics and various health status monitoring technology. Yet, no direct detection of biomolecules from cells or organelles is reported. Here, an OECT glucose sensor applied to chloroplasts, which are the plant organelles responsible for the light-to-chemical energy conversion of the photosynthesis, is reported. Real-time monitoring of glucose export from chloroplasts in two distinct metabolic phases is demonstrated and the transfer dynamics with a time resolution of 1 min is quantified, thus reaching monitoring dynamics being an order of magnitude better than conventional methods.

  • 19.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Interfaces in organic electronics2019In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 627-650Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-25 15:13
  • 20.
    Fazzi, Daniele
    et al.
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meerholz, Klaus
    Univ Cologne, Germany.
    Negri, Fabrizia
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Polarons in pi-conjugated ladder-type polymers: a broken symmetry density functional description2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 41, p. 12876-12885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic charged states (i.e., polarons) play a crucial role in governing charge transfer, spin, thermo-electric and redox mechanisms in organic functional materials. An accurate description at the quantum-chemical level is mandatory to understand their response and transport properties. We report a comprehensive computational investigation concerning the polaron properties of a high electron conductivity (n-type) pi-conjugated ladder-type polymer, namely polybenzimidazobenzophenanthroline (BBL). We show how spin polarized unrestricted Density Functional Theory (UDFT) and restricted (RDFT) methods can lead to solutions of the polaron and bipolaron electronic wavefunctions which are not the most stable ones. This aspect can be traced back to the multiconfigurational character of the electronic charged states wavefunction. We demonstrate how broken symmetry DFT (BS-UDFT) can circumvent this issue, well describing the polaron/bipolaron localization in terms of spin densities and structural deformations, thus providing a correct assessment of the electron transport parameters (e.g., reorganization energy), otherwise incorrectly computed at the UDFT/RDFT levels. Our calculations are further validated by comparing the IR spectra of polaronic species with the experimental one, as measured on doped BBL films. Our study calls for an urgent and careful computational assessment of the electronic charged states (e.g., polaron, bipolaron, etc.), in high performance pi-conjugated materials, such as ladder-type polymers and other donor-acceptor derivatives, for a correct understanding of their charge, heat, and spin transport mechanisms.

  • 21.
    Fredj, Donia
    et al.
    Dracula Technol, France; Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Alkarsifi, Riva
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Pourcin, Florent
    Dracula Technol, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boudjada, Nassira Chniba
    CNRS, France.
    Pierron, Pascal
    Dracula Technol, France.
    Nourdine, Ali
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Boujelbene, Mohamed
    Univ Sfax, Tunisia.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Videlot-Ackermann, Christine
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Flandin, Lionel
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Ben Dkhil, Sadok
    Dracula Technol, France.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    Ackermann, Jorg
    Aix Marseille Univ, France.
    New Antimony-Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material as Electron Extraction Layer for Efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 47, p. 44820-44828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid organic-inorganic materials are a new class of materials used as interfacial layers (ILs) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). A hybrid material, composed of antimony as the inorganic part and diaminopyridine as the organic part, is synthesized and described as a new material for application as the electron extraction layer (EEL) in PSCs and compared to the recently demonstrated hybrid materials using bismuth instead of antimony. The hybrid compound is solution-processed onto the photoactive layer based on a classical blend, which is composed of a PTB7-Th low band gap polymer as the donor mixed with PC70BM fullerene as the acceptor material. By using a regular device structure and an aluminum cathode, the solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 8.42%, equivalent to the reference device using ZnO nanocrystals as the IL, and strongly improved compared to the bismuth-based hybrid material. The processing of extraction layers up to a thickness of 80 nm of such hybrid material reveals that the change from bismuth to antimony has strongly improved the charge extraction and transport properties of the hybrid materials. Interestingly, nanocomposites made of the hybrid material mixed with ZnO nanocrystals in a 1:1 ratio further improved the electronic properties of the extraction layers, leading to a power conversion efficiency of 9.74%. This was addressed to a more closely packed morphology of the hybrid layer, leading to further improved electron extraction. It is important to note that these hybrid EELs, both pure and ZnO-doped, also greatly improved the stability of solar cells, both under dark storage in air and under lighting under an inert atmosphere compared to solar cells treated with ZnO intermediate layers.

  • 22.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Roger H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

  • 23.
    Ghosh, Sarbani
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic Structures and Optical Absorption of N-Type Conducting Polymers at Different Doping Levels2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 25, p. 15467-15476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical understanding of the electronic structure and optical transitions in n-doped conducting polymers is still controversial for polaronic and bipolaronic states and is completely missing for the case of a high doping level. In the present paper, the electronic structure and optical properties of the archetypical n-doped conducting polymer, double-stranded benzimidazo-benzophenanthroline ladder (BBL), are studied using the density functional theory (DFT) and the time dependent DFT method. We find that a polaronic state in the BBL chain is a spin-resolved doublet where the spin degeneracy is lifted. The ground state of two electrons corresponds to a triplet polaron pair, which is in stark contrast to a commonly accepted picture where two electrons are postulated to form a spinless bipolaron. The total spin gradually increases until the reduction level reaches c(red) = 100% (i.e., one electron per monomer unit). With further increase of the reduction level, the total spin decreases until it becomes 0 for the reduction level c(red) = 200%. The calculated results reproduce the experimentally observed spin signal without any phenomenological parameters. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the electronic structure of BBL and its absorption spectra with increase in reduction level is presented. The calculated UV-vis-NIR spectra are compared with the available experimental results. The electronic structure and optical absorption for different reduction levels presented here are generic to a wide class of conducting polymers, which is illustrated by the corresponding calculations for another archetypical conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (best known as PEDOT).

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-06-06 11:25
  • 24.
    Gladisch, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghosh, Sarbani
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Giovannitti, Alexander
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Moser, Maximilian
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McCulloch, Iain
    Imperial Coll London, England; KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reversible Electronic Solid-Gel Switching of a Conjugated Polymer2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, article id 1901144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers exhibit electrically driven volume changes when included in electrochemical devices via the exchange of ions and solvent. So far, this volumetric change is limited to 40% and 100% for reversible and irreversible systems, respectively, thus restricting potential applications of this technology. A conjugated polymer that reversibly expands by about 300% upon addressing, relative to its previous contracted state, while the first irreversible actuation can achieve values ranging from 1000-10 000%, depending on the voltage applied is reported. From experimental and theoretical studies, it is found that this large and reversible volumetric switching is due to reorganization of the polymer during swelling as it transforms between a solid-state phase and a gel, while maintaining percolation for conductivity. The polymer is utilized as an electroactive cladding to reduce the void sizes of a porous carbon filter electrode by 85%.

  • 25.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Thermoelectric polymer-cellulose composite aerogels2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric materials are scrutinized as energy materials and sensing materials. Indeed, they convert thermal energy into electrical energy. In addition, those materials are actively sensitive to a temperature modification through the generation of an electric signal. Organic thermoelectric (OTE) materials are complementary to inorganic thermoelectric materials, as they possess unique properties such as solution processing, ionic conductivity, flexibility, and softness. While thin-film OTE materials have been widely studied because they are easily manufactured by various coating techniques, little is done in the creation of three-dimensional morphologies of OTE materials; which is important to develop large temperature gradients.

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet. Recently, the applications of cellulose are not only limited in making papers but also in electronics as the cellulose provide 3-D microstructures and mechanical strength. One promising approach to make 3-D OTE bulks is using cellulose as scaffold because of their properties of relatively high mechanical strength, water processability and environmentally friendly performance.

    The aims of the thesis have been to enlarge the applications of an OTE material poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with an approach of making 3-D aerogels composite with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), in two main areas: (1) multi-parameter sensors and (2) solar vapor generators. In the first application, we demonstrate that the new thermoelectric aerogel responds independently to pressure P, temperature T and humidity RH. Hence, when it is submitted to the three stresses (T, P, RH), the electrical characterization of the material enables to measure the three parameters without cross-talking effects. Thermoelectric aerogels are foreseen as active materials in electronic skins and robotics. In the second application, the conducting polymer aerogels are employed as solar absorbers to convert solar energy into heat and significantly increased the water evaporation rate. The IR absorption is efficient because of the free-electron in the conducting polymer PEDOT nano-aggregates. Because of the low cost of those materials and the water stability of the crosslinked aerogels, they could be of importance for water desalination.

    List of papers
    1. Effect of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)Trimethoxysilane (GOPS) on the Electrical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)Trimethoxysilane (GOPS) on the Electrical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 814-820Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been reported as a successful functional material in a broad variety of applications. One of the most important advantages of PEDOT:PSS is its water-solubility, which enables simple and environmental friendly manufacturing processes. Unfortunately, this also implies that pristine PEDOT:PSS films are unsuitable for applications in aqueous environments. To reach stability in polar solvents, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPS) is typically used to cross-link PEDOT:PSS. Although this strategy is widely used, its mechanism and effect on PEDOT:PSS performance have not been articulated yet. Here, we present a broad study that provides a better understanding of the effect of GOPS on the electrical and electronic properties of PEDOT:PSS. We show that the GOPS reacts with the sulfonic acid group of the excess PSS, causing a change in the PEDOT:PSS film morphology, while the oxidation level of PEDOT remains unaffected. This is at the origin of the observed conductivity changes. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2017
    Keywords
    crosslinking; film morphology; GOPS; oxidation level; PEDOT:PSS
    National Category
    Polymer Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136852 (URN)10.1002/polb.24331 (DOI)000398533300006 ()
    Available from: 2017-04-30 Created: 2017-04-30 Last updated: 2019-10-30
    2. Thermoelectric Polymer Aerogels for Pressure-Temperature Sensing Applications
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoelectric Polymer Aerogels for Pressure-Temperature Sensing Applications
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    2017 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 27, no 44, article id 1703549Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the society is characterized by an increasing flow of information from things to the internet. Sensors have become the cornerstone of the internet-of-everything as they track various parameters in the society and send them to the cloud for analysis, forecast, or learning. With the many parameters to sense, sensors are becoming complex and difficult to manufacture. To reduce the complexity of manufacturing, one can instead create advanced functional materials that react to multiple stimuli. To this end, conducting polymer aerogels are promising materials as they combine elasticity and sensitivity to pressure and temperature. However, the challenge is to read independently pressure and temperature output signals without cross-talk. Here, a strategy to fully decouple temperature and pressure reading in a dual-parameter sensor based on thermoelectric polymer aerogels is demonstrated. It is found that aerogels made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can display properties of semiconductors lying at the transition between insulator and semimetal upon exposure to high boiling point polar solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Importantly, because of the temperature-independent charge transport observed for DMSO-treated PEDOT-based aerogel, a decoupled pressure and temperature sensing can be achieved without cross-talk in the dual-parameter sensor devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2017
    Keywords
    aerogels; nanofibrillated cellulose; PEDOT; sensors; thermoelectrics
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143632 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201703549 (DOI)000416035400010 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [307596]

    Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2019-10-30
    3. A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels
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    2019 (English)In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 1802128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (H) are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures P-T-H without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense P-T-H with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2019
    Keywords
    aerogels; ionic-electronic mixed conductors; multiparameter sensors; poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT); thermoelectric materials
    National Category
    Other Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157210 (URN)10.1002/advs.201802128 (DOI)000464827300003 ()31016118 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061242830 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
  • 26.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvi, Naveed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granlof, Lars
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 1802128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (H) are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures P-T-H without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense P-T-H with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.

  • 27.
    Hwang, Sunbin
    et al.
    KIST, South Korea.
    Jang, Sukjae
    KIST, South Korea.
    Kang, Minji
    KIST, South Korea.
    Bae, Sukang
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Seoung-Ki
    KIST, South Korea.
    Hong, Jae-Min
    KIST, South Korea.
    Lee, Sang Hyun
    Chonnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Wang, Gunuk
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Tae-Wook
    KIST, South Korea.
    Two-in-One Device with Versatile Compatible Electrical Switching or Data Storage Functions Controlled by the Ferroelectricity of P(VDF-TrFE) via Photocrosslinking2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 28, p. 25358-25368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics demand new platforms that can make integrated circuits and undergo mass production while maintaining diverse functions with high performance. The field-effect transistor has great potential to be a multifunctional device capable of sensing, data processing, data storage, and display. Currently, transistor-based devices cannot be considered intrinsic multifunctional devices because all installed functions are mutually coupled. Such incompatibilities are a crucial barrier to developing an all-in-one multifunctional device capable of driving each function individually. In this study, we focus on the decoupling of electric switching and data storage functions in an organic ferroelectric memory transistor. To overcome the incompatibility of each function, the high permittivity needed for electrical switching and the ferroelectricity needed for data storage become compatible by restricting the motion of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) via photocrosslinking with bis-perfluorobenzoazide. The two-in-one device consisting of a photocrosslinked ferroelectric layer exhibits reversible and individual dual-functional operation as a typical transistor with nonvolatile memory. Moreover, a p-MOS depletion load inverter composed of the two transistors with different threshold voltages is also demonstrated by simply changing only one of the threshold voltages by polarization switching. We believe that the two-in-one device will be considered a potential component of integrated organic logic circuits, including memory, in the future.

  • 28.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting-Polymer Bolometers for Low-Cost IR-Detection Systems2019In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 1800975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconducting polymers are promising materials for manufacturing optoelectronic devices, such as large-area solar cells or small light-emitting diodes, through the use of printing technologies. In their oxidized form, pi-conjugated polymers become good electrical conductors and their optical absorption shifts to the infrared region. It is demonstrated that conducting polymers can be integrated in bolometers for IR detection. A bolometer is a thermally isolated thin device that absorbs IR radiation and translates a temperature change into a change in electrical resistance. While commercial bolometers are usually made of complex architectures comprising several materials (that is, an IR absorbing layer, a conducting layer, and a thermally insulating layer), the first polymer bolometer is demonstrated with a freestanding layer of poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) having high IR absorption, low thermal conductivity, and good thermistor action in one single layer. The solution processability of conducting polymers, their compatibility with high-resolution printing technologies, and their unique combination of optoelectronic properties can lead to a breakthrough for low-cost uncooled IR cameras, which are in high demand for security and safety applications.

  • 29.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Division of Material Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Dr. M.A Kazi Institute of Chemistry University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    Division of Material Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Tang, PengYi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Morante, Joan Ramon
    Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbiol, Jordi
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vomiero, Alberto
    Division of Material Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    MoSx@NiO Composite Nanostructures: An Advanced Nonprecious Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media2019In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 29, no 7, article id 1807562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of the earth-abundant, nonprecious, efficient, and stable electrocatalysts for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media is a hot research topic in the field of renewable energies. A heterostructured system composed of MoSx deposited on NiO nanostructures (MoSx@NiO) as a robust catalyst for water splitting is proposed here. NiO nanosponges are applied as cocatalyst for MoS2 in alkaline media. Both NiO and MoS2@NiO composites are prepared by a hydrothermal method. The NiO nanostructures exhibit sponge-like morphology and are completely covered by the sheet-like MoS2. The NiO and MoS2 exhibit cubic and hexagonal phases, respectively. In the MoSx@NiO composite, the HER experiment in 1 m KOH electrolyte results in a low overpotential (406 mV) to produce 10 mA cm(-2) current density. The Tafel slope for that case is 43 mV per decade, which is the lowest ever achieved for MoS2-based electrocatalyst in alkaline media. The catalyst is highly stable for at least 13 h, with no decrease in the current density. This simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly methodology can pave the way for exploitation of MoSx@NiO composite catalysts not only for water splitting, but also for other applications such as lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells.

  • 30.
    Jakesova, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Tony
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brask, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schindl, Rainer
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optoelectronic control of single cells using organic photocapacitors2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 4, article id eaav5265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical control of the electrophysiology of single cells can be a powerful tool for biomedical research and technology. Here, we report organic electrolytic photocapacitors (OEPCs), devices that function as extracellular capacitive electrodes for stimulating cells. OEPCs consist of transparent conductor layers covered with a donor-acceptor bilayer of organic photoconductors. This device produces an open-circuit voltage in a physiological solution of 330 mV upon illumination using light in a tissue transparency window of 630 to 660 nm. We have performed electrophysiological recordings on Xenopus laevis oocytes, finding rapid (time constants, 50 mu s to 5 ms) photoinduced transient changes in the range of 20 to 110 mV. We measure photoinduced opening of potassium channels, conclusively proving that the OEPC effectively depolarizes the cell membrane. Our results demonstrate that the OEPC can be a versatile nongenetic technique for optical manipulation of electrophysiology and currently represents one of the simplest and most stable and efficient optical stimulation solutions.

  • 31.
    Jakešová, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring, Theresia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Đerek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wireless organic electronic ion pumps driven by photovoltaics2019In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 14-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an emerging bioelectronic technology for on-demand and local delivery of pharmacologically active species, especially targeting alkali ions, and neurotransmitters. While electrical control is advantageous for providing precise spatial, temporal, and quantitative delivery, traditionally, it necessitates wiring. This complicates implantation. Herein, we demonstrate integration of an OEIP with a photovoltaic driver on a flexible carrier, which can be addressed by red light within the tissue transparency window. Organic thin-film bilayer photovoltaic pixels are arranged in series and/or vertical tandem to provide the 2.5–4.5 V necessary for operating the high-resistance electrophoretic ion pumps. We demonstrate light-stimulated transport of cations, ranging in size from protons to acetylcholine. The device, laminated on top of the skin, can easily be driven with a red LED emitting through a 1.5-cm-thick finger. The end result of our work is a thin and flexible integrated wireless device platform.

  • 32.
    Janson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Keon Jae
    Korea Adv Inst Sci and Technol, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Ionic Capacitor for Integrated Iontronic Circuits2019In: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 1800494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics, in combination with custom polyelectrolytes, enables solid- and hydrogel-state circuit components using ionic charges in place of the electrons of traditional electronics. This growing field of iontronics leverages anion- and cation-exchange membranes as analogs to n-type and p-type semiconductors, and conjugated polymer electrodes as ion-to-electron converters. To date, the iontronics toolbox includes ionic resistors, ionic diodes, ionic transistors, and analog and digital circuits comprised thereof. Here, an ionic capacitor based on mixed electron-ion conductors is demonstrated. The ionic capacitor resembles the structure of a conventional electrochemical capacitor that is inverted, with an electronically conducting core and two electrolyte ionic conductors. The device is first verified as a capacitor, and then demonstrated as a smoothing element in an iontronic diode bridge circuit driving an organic electronic ion pump (ionic resistor). The ionic capacitor complements the existing iontronics toolbox, enabling more complex and functional ionic circuits, and will thus have implications in a variety of mixed electron-ion conduction technologies.

  • 33.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puzinas, Skomantas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mäkie, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naderi, Ali
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Based Electrolyte and Electrode for Paper-Based Supercapacitors2018In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 2, no 1, article id UNSP 1700121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic technologies could fully deploy and impact the energy conversion systems in our society if mass-produced energy-storage solutions exist. A supercapacitor can regulate the fluctuations on the electrical grid on short time scales. Their mass-implementation requires the use of abundant materials, biological and organic synthetic materials are attractive because of atomic element abundancy and low-temperature synthetic processes. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) coming from the forest industry is exploited as a three-dimensional template to control the transport of ions in an electrolyte-separator, with nanochannels filled of aqueous electrolyte. The nanochannels are defined by voids in the nanocomposite made of NFC and the proton transporting polymer polystyrene sulfonic acid PSSH. The ionic conductivity of NFC-PSSH composites (0.2 S cm(-1) at 100% relative humidity) exceeds sea water in a material that is solid, feel dry to the finger, but filled of nanodomains of water. A paper-based supercapacitor made of NFC-PSSH electrolyte-separator sandwiched between two paper-based electrodes is demonstrated. Although modest specific capacitance (81.3 F g(-1)), power density (2040 W kg(-1)) and energy density (1016 Wh kg(-1)), this is the first conceptual demonstration of a supercapacitor based on cellulose in each part of the device; which motivates the search for using paper manufacturing as mass-production of energy-storage devices.

  • 34.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Varde nanoljus!2019In: Ett kalejdoskop av kunskap: Sveriges unga akademi om vetenskap och samhälle / [ed] David Håkansson, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2019, p. 69-77Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rossi, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces2019In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 126, no 14, article id 140901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmonic metasurfaces based on ensembles of distributed metallic nanostructures can absorb, scatter, and in other ways shape light at the nanoscale. Forming hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces by combination with other materials opens up for new research directions and novel applications. This perspective highlights some of the recent advancements in this vibrant research field. Particular emphasis is put on hybrid plasmonic metasurfaces comprising organic materials and on concepts related to switchable surfaces, light-to-heat conversion, and hybridized light-matter states based on strong coupling.

  • 36.
    Karami Rad, Meysam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rezania, Alireza
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Omid, Mahmoud
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Rajabipour, Ali
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Rosendahl, Lasse
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Study on material properties effect for maximization of thermoelectric power generation2019In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 138, p. 236-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have mostly been used in niche applications due to the low efficiency. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different material transport properties such as Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity, on the system-level performance of the TEGs. A mathematical model was developed in MATLAB and verified by the experimental data to evaluate various thermoelectric (TE) materials with unit figure of merit (ZT=1) and with a diverse combination of properties. The results shows increment in the power factor with a factor of 15, which corresponds an enhancement in the thermal conductivity by factor of 13.33 for fixed Zr, can increase the power output up to 45%. The results moreover shows, higher power factor has more impact on the power generation at lower fill factors (FFs) and smaller thermal resistance of the heat sink and heat source. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Kim, Donghyun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Why Is Pristine PEDOT Oxidized to 33%? A Density Functional Theory Study of Oxidative Polymerization Mechanism2019In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 123, no 24, p. 5160-5167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, a theoretical understanding of thermodynamics and kinetics of the oxidative polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (best known as PEDOT) is missing. In the present study, step-by-step density functional theory calculations of the radical polymerization of PEDOT with tosylate counterions (PEDOT:TOS) using Fe3+(TOS-)(3) as oxidant and dopant are performed. We calculate the Gibbs free energy for the conventional mechanism that consists of the polymerization of neutral PEDOT oligomers first, followed by their oxidation (doping). We also propose an alternative mechanism of polymerization, in which the already oxidized oligomers are used as reactants, leading to doped (oxidized) oligomers as products during polymerization. Our calculations indicate that the alternative mechanism is more efficient for longer PEDOT oligomers (chain length N amp;gt; 6). We find that the oxidation of the EDOT monomer is the rate-limiting step for both mechanisms. Another focus of our study is the understanding of the maximum oxidation level that can be achieved during polymerization. Our calculations provide a theoretical explanation of "the magic number" of 33% for the oxidation level typically reported for the pristine (i.e., as-polymerized) materials and relate it to the change of the character of the bonds in the oligomers (aromatic to quinoid) that occurs at this oxidation level.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-05-24 11:25
  • 38.
    Kim, Nara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electric Transport Properties in PEDOT Thin Films2019In: Conjugated Polymers: Properties, Processing, and Applications / [ed] John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019, p. 45-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors summarize their understanding of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with respect to its chemical and physical fundamentals. They focus upon the structure of several PEDOT systems, from the angstrom level and up, and the impact on both electronic and ionic transport. The authors discuss the structural properties of PEDOT:X and PEDOT:poly(styrenesulfonate) based on experimental data probed at the scale ranging from angstrom to submicrometer. The morphology of PEDOT is influenced by the nature of counter-ions, especially at high oxidation levels. The doping anions intercalate between PEDOT chains to form a “sandwich” structure to screen the positive charges in PEDOT chains. The authors provide the main transport coefficients such as electrical conductivity s, Seebeck coefficient S, and Peltier coefficient σ, starting from a general thermodynamic consideration. The optical conductivity of PEDOT has also been examined based on the effective medium approximation, which is normally used to describe microscopic permittivity properties of composites made from several different constituents.

  • 39.
    Kottravel, Sathish
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SeRC, Sweden.
    Falk, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SeRC, Sweden.
    Masood, Talha Bin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SeRC, Sweden.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SeRC, Sweden.
    Hotz, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SeRC, Sweden.
    Visual Analysis of Charge Flow Networks for Complex Morphologies2019In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 479-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of organic electronics, understanding complex material morphologies and their role in efficient charge transport in solar cells is extremely important. Related processes are studied using the Ising model and Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations resulting in large ensembles of stochastic trajectories. Naive visualization of these trajectories, individually or as a whole, does not lead to new knowledge discovery through exploration. In this paper, we present novel visualization and exploration methods to analyze this complex dynamic data, which provide succinct and meaningful abstractions leading to scientific insights. We propose a morphology abstraction yielding a network composed of material pockets and the interfaces, which serves as backbone for the visualization of the charge diffusion. The trajectory network is created using a novel way of implicitly attracting the trajectories to the skeleton of the morphology relying on a relaxation process. Each individual trajectory is then represented as a connected sequence of nodes in the skeleton. The final network summarizes all of these sequences in a single aggregated network. We apply our method to three different morphologies and demonstrate its suitability for exploring this kind of data.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-10 10:51
  • 40.
    Lach, Stefan
    et al.
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Altenhof, Anna
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Shi, Shengwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wuhan Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziegler, Christiane
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Electronic and magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic cobalt surface by adsorbing ultrathin films of tetracyanoethylene2019In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 28, p. 15833-15844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin films of tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) on Co(100) were investigated by means of spin-integrated and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy ((sp-)UPS), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), near edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We found a coverage-dependent modulation of the interface dipole and a switching between a metallic and a resistive spin filtering at the interface triggered by two distinct adsorption geometries of TCNE. The strongest hybridization and spin structure modifications are found at low coverage with a face-on adsorption geometry indicating changes in the distance between the surface Co atoms beneath. TCNE has the potential to manipulate the magnetic moments in the Co surface itself, including the possibility of magnetic hardening effects. In summary, the system TCNE/Co offers an experimentally rather easy and controllable way to build up a stable molecular platform stabilizing the reactive ferromagnetic Co surface and customizing the electronic and magnetic properties of the resulting spinterface simultaneously. This makes this system very attractive for spintronic applications as an alternative, less reactive but highly spin polarized foundation beside graphene-based systems.

  • 41.
    Lay, Makara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Thajudin, Nuur Laila Najwa
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Hamid, Zuratul Ain Abdul
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Rusli, Arjulizan
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Abdullah, Muhammad Khalil
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Shuib, Raa Khimi
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of PLA, ABS and nylon 6 fabricated using fused deposition modeling and injection molding2019In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 176, article id UNSP 107341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to compare the physical and mechanical performance of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and nylon 6 fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) and conventional injection molding. It is found that different processing methods did not affect the viscosity of the samples, and the percentage difference for the density measurement is less than 4%. Water absorption of FDM samples is approximately 108% higher compared to those fabricated using the injection molding. The results also revealed that the FDM method did not strongly affect the degree of crystallinity of ABS, but it increased the degree of crystallinity of PLA and nylon 6. The tensile strength, Youngs modulus, elongation at break, and impact strength of FDM samples were approximately 48%, 50%, 48%, and 78%, lower compared with the injection molded samples. The results presented can provide a guide to manufacturing the final products using FDM with the desired performance.

  • 42.
    Li, Guowei
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Fu, Chenguang
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Shi, Wujun
    ShanghaiTech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jiao, Lin
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Wu, Jiquan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Qun
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Saha, Rana
    Max Planck Inst Microstruct Phys, Germany.
    Kamminga, Machteld E.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Srivastava, Abhay K.
    Max Planck Inst Microstruct Phys, Germany.
    Liu, Enke
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Yazdani, Aliza N.
    Carleton Coll, MN 55057 USA.
    Kumar, Nitesh
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Zhang, Jian
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Blake, Graeme R.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wirth, Steffen
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Auffermann, Gudrun
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Gooth, Johannes
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Parkin, Stuart
    Max Planck Inst Microstruct Phys, Germany.
    Madhavan, Vidya
    Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Feng, Xinliang
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Sun, Yan
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Felser, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Chem Phys Solids, Germany.
    Dirac Nodal Arc Semimetal PtSn4: An Ideal Platform for Understanding Surface Properties and Catalysis for Hydrogen EvolutionIn: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductivity, carrier mobility, and a suitable Gibbs free energy are important criteria that determine the performance of catalysts for a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, it is a challenge to combine these factors into a single compound. Herein, we discover a superior electrocatalyst for a HER in the recently identified Dirac nodal arc semimetal PtSn4. The determined turnover frequency (TOF) for each active site of PtSn4 is 1.54 H-2 s(-1) at 100 mV. This sets a benchmark for HER catalysis on Pt-based noble metals and earth-abundant metal catalysts. We make use of the robust surface states of PtSn4 as their electrons can be transferred to the adsorbed hydrogen atoms in the catalytic process more efficiently. In addition, PtSn4 displays excellent chemical and electrochemical stabilities after long-term exposure in air and long-time HER stability tests.

  • 43.
    Liu, Xianjie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electronic Structure Characterization of Soft Semiconductors2019In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 6, no 16, article id 1900439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft semiconductors are a class of materials that have seen increased interest in terms of both basic research and development of technology, in particular optoelectronic devices. These materials, organic semiconductors and metal halide perovskites, are defined by being more mechanically malleable than the traditional crystalline inorganic semiconductors and with thin film fabrication done at lower temperatures and often from solution. In this short perspective article, basic properties of the materials are introduced, as well as their typical applications and a number of advanced characterization techniques that offer distinct advantages for studying soft semiconductor thin films.

  • 44.
    Malekian, Bita
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Xiong, Kunli
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kang, Evan S. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, John
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Emilsson, Gustav
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rommel, Marcus
    Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sannomiya, Takumi
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 4259 Nagatsuta Midoriku, Yokohama, Japan.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlin, Andreas
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanopore Arrays Prepared by Electron Beam and Colloidal Lithography2019In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid state nanopores are central structures for many applications. To date, much effort has been spent on controlled fabrication of single nanopores, while relatively little work has focused on large scale fabrication of arrays of nanopores. In this work we show wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic nanopores in 50 nm thick silicon nitride membranes with one or two 30 nm gold films, using electron beam lithography with a negative resist or a new version of colloidal lithography. Both approaches offer good control of pore diameter (even below 100 nm) and with high yield (>90%) of intact membranes. Colloidal lithography has the advantage of parallel patterning without expensive equipment. Despite its serial nature, electron beam lithography provides high throughput and can make arbitrary array patterns. Importantly, both methods prevent metal from ending up on the membrane pore sidewalls. The new fabrication methods make it possible to compare the optical properties of structurally identical plasmonic nanopore arrays with either long-range order (e-beam) or short-range order (colloidal). The resonance features in the extinction spectrum are very similar for both structures when the pitch is the same as the characteristic spacing in the self-assembled colloidal pattern. Long-range ordering slightly enhances the magnitude of the extinction maximum and blueshift the transmission maximum by tens of nm. Upon reducing the diameter in long-range ordered arrays, the resonance is reduced in magnitude and the transmission maximum is further blue shifted, just like for short-range ordered arrays. These effects are well explained by interpreting the spectra as Fano interference between the grating-type excitation of propagating surface plasmons and the broad transmission via individual pores in the metal film. Furthermore, we find that only the short-range ordered arrays scatter light, which we attribute to the highly limited effective period in the short-range ordered system and the corresponding lack of coherent suppression of scattering via interference effects.

  • 45.
    Méhes, Gábor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Che, Canyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solar Heat-Enhanced Energy Conversion in Devices Based on Photosynthetic Membranes and PEDOT:PSS-Nanocellulose Electrodes2020In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, article id 1900100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy harvesting from photosynthetic membranes, proteins, or bacteria through bio-photovoltaic or bio-electrochemical approaches has been proposed as a new route to clean energy. A major shortcoming of these and solar cell technologies is the underutilization of solar irradiation wavelengths in the IR region, especially those in the far IR region. Here, a biohybrid energy-harvesting device is demonstrated that exploits IR radiation, via convection and thermoelectric effects, to improve the resulting energy conversion performance. A composite of nanocellulose and the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is used as the anode in biohybrid cells that includes thylakoid membranes (TMs) and redox mediators (RMs) in solution. By irradiating the conducting polymer electrode by an IR light-emitting diode, a sixfold enhancement in the harvested bio-photovoltaic power is achieved, without compromising stability of operation. Investigation of the output currents reveals that IR irradiation generates convective heat transfer in the electrolyte bulk, which enhances the redox reactions of RMs at the anode by suppressing diffusion limitations. In addition, a fast-transient thermoelectric component, originating from the PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose-electrolyte interphase, further increases the bio-photocurrent. These results pave the way for the development of energy-harvesting biohybrids that make use of heat, via IR absorption, to enhance energy conversion efficiency.

  • 46.
    Oliveras-Gonzalez, Cristina
    et al.
    Univ Angers, France.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC), Sweden.
    Amabilino, David B.
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Avarvari, Narcis
    Univ Angers, France.
    Large Synthetic Molecule that either Folds or Aggregates through Weak Supramolecular Interactions Determined by Solvent2019In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 10108-10120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak noncovalent interactions between large disclike molecules in poorly solvating media generally lead to the formation of fibers where the molecules stack atop one another. Here, we show that a particular chiral spacing group between large aromatic moieties, which usually lead to columnar stacks, in this case gives rise to an intramolecularly folded structure in relatively polar solvents, but in very apolar solvents forms finite aggregates. The molecule that displays this behavior has a C-3 symmetric benzene-1,3,5-tris(3,3-diamido-2,2-bipyridine) (BTAB) core with three metalloporphyrin units appended to it through short chiral spacers. Quite well-defined chromophore arrangements are evident by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of this compound in solution, where clear exciton coupled bands of porphyrins are observed. In more polar solvents where the molecules are dispersed, a relatively weak CD signal is observed as a result of intramolecular folding, a feature confirmed by molecular modeling. The intramolecular folding was confirmed by measuring the CD of a C-2 symmetric analogue. The C-3 symmetric BTAB cores that would normally be expected to stack in a chiral arrangement in apolar solvents show no indication of CD, suggesting that there is no transfer of chirality through it (although the expected planar conformation of the 2,2-bipyridine unit is confirmed by NMR spectroscopy). The incorporation of the porphyrins on the 3,3-diamino-2,2-bipyridine moiety spaced by a chiral unit leaves the latter incapable of assembling through supramolecular pi-pi stacking. Rather, modeling indicates that the three metalloporphyrin units interact, thanks to van der Waals interactions, favoring their close interactions over that of the BTAB units. Atomic force microscopy shows that, in contrast to other examples of molecules with the same core, disclike aggregates (rather than fibrillar one dimensional aggregates) are favored by the C-3 symmetric molecule. The closed structures are formed through nondirectional interlocking of porphyrin rings. The chiral spacer between the rigid core and the porphyrin moieties is undoubtedly important in determining the outcome in polar or less polar solvents, as modeling shows that this joint in the molecule has two favored conformations that render the molecule relatively flat or convex.

  • 47.
    Paulsen, B.D.
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rivnay, J.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States; Simpson Querrey Institute, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors2019In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials that efficiently transport and couple ionic and electronic charge are key to advancing a host of technological developments for next-generation bioelectronic, optoelectronic and energy storage devices. Here we highlight key progress in the design and study of organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors (OMIECs), a diverse family of soft synthetically tunable mixed conductors. Across applications, the same interrelated fundamental physical processes dictate OMIEC properties and determine device performance. Owing to ionic and electronic interactions and coupled transport properties, OMIECs demand special understanding beyond knowledge derived from the study of organic thin films and membranes meant to support either electronic or ionic processes only. We address seemingly conflicting views and terminology regarding charging processes in these materials, and highlight recent approaches that extend fundamental understanding and contribute to the advancement of materials. Further progress is predicated on multimodal and multi-scale approaches to overcome lingering barriers to OMIEC design and implementation.

  • 48.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Nara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Chemical Synthesis, Transport Properties, and Thermoelectric Devices2019In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 5, no 11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since their discovery in the seventies, conducting polymers have been chemically designed to acquire specific optical and electrical properties for various applications. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is among the most successful polymers as indicated by approximate to 12 000 articles mentioning it to date. PEDOT is found as transparent polymer electrodes in solar cells and light-emitting diodes, as printed electrodes in transistors, and as the main component of electrochromic displays, supercapacitors, and electrochemical transistors. For around seven years, PEDOT has been classified as the first thermoelectric polymer that converts heat flow into electricity. This has triggered a renewed interest in the scientific community, with about 400 publications including the keyword "PEDOT" and "thermoelectric." Among the topics covered by those scientific works are: i) the optimization of the thermoelectric properties, ii) understanding of the interplay between electrical properties and morphology, iii) the origin of the Seebeck coefficient, iv) the characterization of its thermal conductivity; and v) the design of thermoelectric devices. This work aims to be a pedagogical introduction to PEDOT but also to review the state-of-the art of its thermoelectric properties and thermoelectric devices. Hopefully, this work will inspire scientists to find chemical design rules to bring organic thermoelectrics beyond PEDOT.

  • 49.
    Poxson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bonisoli, Alberto
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; St Anna Sch Adv Studies, Italy.
    Linderhed, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matthiesen, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Capillary-Fiber Based Electrophoretic Delivery Device2019In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 14200-14207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) are versatile tools for electrophoretic delivery of substances with high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, OEIPs and similar iontronic components have been fabricated using thin-film techniques and often rely on laborious, multistep photolithographic processes. OEIPs have been demonstrated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings for controlling biological systems, but the thin-film form factor and limited repertoire of polyelectrolyte materials and device fabrication techniques unnecessarily constrain the possibilities for miniaturization and extremely localized substance delivery, e.g., the greater range of pharmaceutical compounds, on the scale of a single cell. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new OEIP form factor based on capillary fibers that include hyperbranched polyglycerols (dPGs) as the selective electrophoretic membrane. The dPGs enable electrophoretic channels with a high concentration of fixed charges and well-controlled cross-linking and can be realized using a simple one-pot fluidic manufacturing protocol. Selective electrophoretic transport of cations and anions of various sizes is demonstrated, including large substances that are difficult to transport with other OEIP technologies. We present a method for tailoring and characterizing the electrophoretic channels fixed charge concentration in the operational state. Subsequently, we compare the experimental performance of these capillary OEIPs to a computational model and explain unexpected features in the ionic current for the transport and delivery of larger, lower-mobility ionic compounds. From this model, we are able to elucidate several operational and design principles relevant to miniaturized electrophoretic drug delivery technologies in general. Overall, the compactness of the capillary OEIP enables electrophoretic delivery devices with probelike geometries, suitable for a variety of ionic compounds, paving the way for less-invasive implantation into biological systems and for healthcare applications.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-27 15:15
  • 50.
    Rehmen, Junaiz
    et al.
    Univ South Australia, Australia.
    Zuber, Kamil
    Univ South Australia, Australia.
    Modarresi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ferdowsi Univ Mashhad, Iran.
    Kim, Donghyun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Charrault, Eric
    Univ South Australia, Australia.
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evans, Drew
    Univ South Australia, Australia.
    Karlsson, Christoffer
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Structural Control of Charge Storage Capacity to Achieve 100% Doping in Vapor Phase-Polymerized PEDOT/Tosylate2019In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 26, p. 21818-21826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vapor phase polymerization (VPP) is used to fabricate a series of tosylate-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodes on carbon paper. The series of VPP PEDOT/tosylate coatings has varying levels of crystallinity and electrical conductivity because of the use (or not) of nonionic triblock copolymers in the oxidant solution during synthesis. As a result, the impact of the structure on charge storage capacity is investigated using tetra-n-butylammonium hexafluorophosphate (0.1 M in acetonitrile). The ability to insert anions, and hence store charge, of the VPP PEDOT/tosylate is inversely related to its electrical conductivity. In the case of no nonionic triblock copolymer employed, the VPP PEDOT/tosylate achieves electrochemical doping levels of 1.0 charge per monomer or greater (amp;gt;= 100% doping level). Such high doping levels are demonstrated to be plausible by molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. Experiments show that this high doping level is attainable when the PEDOT structure is weakly crystalline with (relatively) large crystallite domains.

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