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  • 1.
    Al Abri, Seif
    et al.
    Minist Hlth, Oman.
    Kasaeva, Thereza
    Who Global TB Programme, Switzerland.
    Migliori, Giovanni Battista
    Ist Clin Sci Maugeri IRCCS, Italy.
    Goletti, Delia
    Natl Inst Infect Dis Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS, Italy; ESCMID Study Grp Mycobacteria, Switzerland.
    Zenner, Dominik
    IOM, Belgium.
    Denholm, Justin
    Royal Melbourne Hosp, Australia; Victorian TB Programme, Australia.
    Al Maani, Amal
    Royal Hosp, Oman; Minist Hlth, Oman.
    Cirillo, Daniela Maria
    San Rafaele Sci Inst, Italy.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lillebaek, Troels
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Al-Jardani, Amina
    Minist Hlth, Oman.
    Go, Un-Yeong
    Int TB Res Ctr, South Korea.
    Dias, Hannah Monica
    WHO Global TB Programme Unit Policy Strategy and In, Switzerland.
    Tiberi, Simon
    Barts Hlth NHS Trust, England; Queen Mary Univ London, England.
    Al Yaquobi, Fatma
    Minist Hlth, Oman.
    Khamis, Faryal Ali
    Minist Hlth, Oman.
    Kurup, Padmamohan
    Muscat Governorate, Oman.
    Wilson, Michael
    Zero TB Initiat, South Africa.
    Memish, Ziad
    Alfaisal Univ, Saudi Arabia; Emory Univ, GA 30322 USA.
    Al Maqbali, Ali
    North Bathinah Governorate, Oman.
    Akhtar, Muhammad
    WHO MENA Reg TB Programme, Egypt.
    Wejse, Christian
    Univ Aarhus, Denmark; ESCMID Study Grp Travel and Migrat, Switzerland.
    Petersen, Eskild
    Minist Hlth, Oman; Univ Aarhus, Denmark; ESCMID Emerging Infect Task Force, Switzerland.
    Tools to implement the World Health Organization End TB Strategy: Addressing common challenges in high and low endemic countries2020In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1201-9712, E-ISSN 1878-3511, Vol. 92, p. S60-S68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this viewpoint is to summarize the advantages and constraints of the tools and strategies available for reducing the annual incidence of tuberculosis (TB) by implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) End TB Strategy and the linked WHO TB Elimination Framework, with special reference to Oman. Methods: The case-study was built based on the presentations and discussions at an international workshop on TB elimination in low incidence countries organized by the Ministry of Health, Oman, which took place from September 5 to September 7, 2019, and supported by the WHO and European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID). Results: Existing tools were reviewed, including the screening of migrants for latent TB infection (LTBI) with interferon-gamma release assays, clinical examination for active pulmonary TB (APTB) including chest X-rays, organization of laboratory services, and the existing centres for mandatory health examination of pre-arrival or arriving migrants, including examination for APTB. The need for public-private partnerships to handle the burden of screening arriving migrants for active TB was discussed at length and different models for financing were reviewed. Conclusions: In a country with a high proportion of migrants from high endemic countries, screening for LTBI is of high priority. Molecular typing and the development of public-private partnerships are needed. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.

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  • 2.
    Appelgren, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enocsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skogman, Barbro H
    Center for Clinical Research Dalarna-Uppsala University, Region Dalarna and Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Örebro University.
    Nordberg, Marika
    Åland Central Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, AX-22 100 Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Perander, Linda
    Åland Central Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, AX-22 100 Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Nyman, Dag
    Bimelix AB, AX-22 100 Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Nyberg, Clara
    Åland Central Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, AX-22 100 Mariehamn, Åland, Finland.
    Knopf, Jasmin
    Department of Internal Medicine 3-Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), DE-91 054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Muñoz, Luis E
    Department of Internal Medicine 3-Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), DE-91 054 Erlangen, Germany.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) in the Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples from Children and Adults with Central Nervous System Infections.2020In: Cells, ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 9, no 1, article id E43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophils operate as part of the innate defence in the skin and may eliminate the Borrelia spirochaete via phagocytosis, oxidative bursts, and hydrolytic enzymes. However, their importance in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is unclear. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, which is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species, involves the extrusion of the neutrophil DNA to form traps that incapacitate bacteria and immobilise viruses. Meanwhile, NET formation has recently been studied in pneumococcal meningitis, the role of NETs in other central nervous system (CNS) infections has previously not been studied. Here, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from clinically well-characterised children (N = 111) and adults (N = 64) with LNB and other CNS infections were analysed for NETs (DNA/myeloperoxidase complexes) and elastase activity. NETs were detected more frequently in the children than the adults (p = 0.01). NET presence was associated with higher CSF levels of CXCL1 (p < 0.001), CXCL6 (p = 0.007), CXCL8 (p = 0.003), CXCL10 (p < 0.001), MMP-9 (p = 0.002), TNF (p = 0.02), IL-6 (p < 0.001), and IL-17A (p = 0.03). NETs were associated with fever (p = 0.002) and correlated with polynuclear pleocytosis (rs = 0.53, p < 0.0001). We show that neutrophil activation and active NET formation occur in the CSF samples of children and adults with CNS infections, mainly caused by Borrelia and neurotropic viruses. The role of NETs in the early phase of viral/bacterial CNS infections warrants further investigation.

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  • 3.
    Barstad, Bjorn
    et al.
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Norway; Univ Bergen, Norway.
    Jonsson Henningsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Jonkoping Reg Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Tveitnes, Dag
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Ushakova, Anastasia
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Noraas, Solvi
    Hosp Southern Norway Trust, Norway.
    Ask, Ingvild S.
    Hosp Southern Norway Trust, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Bosse, Franziskus J.
    Haukeland Hosp, Norway.
    Oymar, Knut
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines and chemokines in children with Lyme neuroborreliosis; pattern and diagnostic utility2020In: Cytokine, ISSN 1043-4666, E-ISSN 1096-0023, Vol. 130, article id 155023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation with several cytokines/chemokines and B-lymphocytes. Clinically, LNB in children may be difficult to discriminate from non-Lyme aseptic meningitis (NLAM). We aimed to identify CSF cytokine/chemokine patterns in children with LNB, NLAM and controls and elucidate the diagnostic value of these cytokines/chemokines alone or in combination to discriminate between LNB and NLAM. Methods: Children with symptoms suggestive of LNB were included prospectively and categorized as LNB, NLAM or controls (no pleocytosis). Cytokines/chemokines in CSF were measured by multiplex bead assays and levels were compared between the three groups by nonparametric statistical tests. Previous results from the same children on the established biomarker, CXCL13, were included in the statistical analyses. The diagnostic properties of cytokines/chemokines to discriminate between LNB and NLAM were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses with estimates of area under curve (AUC). To explore diagnostic properties of combinations of cytokines/chemokines, prediction models based on logistic regression were used. Results: We included 195 children with LNB (n = 77), NLAM (n = 12) and controls (n = 106). Children with LNB had higher CSF levels of CCL19, CCL22 and CXCL13 compared to NLAM and controls, whereas INF. was higher in NLAM than in LNB and controls. CXCL13 was the superior single cytokine/chemokine to discriminate LNB from NLAM (AUC 0.978). The combination CXCL13/CCL19 (AUC 0.992) may possibly improve the specificity for LNB, especially for children with moderate CXCL13 levels. Conclusions: The intrathecal immune reaction in LNB is characterized by B cell associated chemokines. Whether the combination CXCL13/CCL19 further improves discrimination between LNB and NLAM beyond the diagnostic improvements by CXCL13 alone needs to be tested in new studies.

  • 4.
    Bergström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sverker, Annette
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Larsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Valtersson, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Ostlund, Gunnel
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Significant others influence on participation in everyday life: the perspectives of persons with early diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis2020In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 385-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe the meaning of significant others in relation to participation in everyday life of persons with early diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and methods: Fifty-nine persons participated in this interview study. Inclusion criteria were three years experience of diagnosis and being of working age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using critical incident technique (CIT), and the material was analysed using content analysis. Results: Four categories were revealed: (1) My early RA causes activity adaptations for us all, referring to the person and significant others modifying activities. (2) Making the significant others balance between shortfalls and participation, where the participants distinguished between needing help and feeling involved in activities. (3) Physical interactions with significant others, referring to both the problematic and manageable impact RA could have on body contact. (4) Emotions in relation to activities with others, where participants described feelings of failing others, and anxiety about future activities. Conclusions: For persons with early diagnosed RA, significant others can be both hindering and facilitating for participation in everyday life. As a clinical implication, it is valuable to identify how significant others can be involved in the rehabilitation process, to enhance participation in everyday life early in the disease process.

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  • 5.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Sweden.
    Greko, Christina
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Sweden.
    Myrenas, Mattias
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Sweden.
    Landen, Annica
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Oskar
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Karl
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Sweden.
    A link between the newly described colistin resistance gene mcr-9 and clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying bla(SHV-12) from horses in Sweden2020In: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, ISSN 2213-7165, E-ISSN 2213-7173, Vol. 20, p. 285-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of the newly described transferable colistin resistance gene mcr-9 in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates from horses in Sweden. Methods: A total of 56 whole-genome sequenced ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from horses were subjected to in silico detection of antimicrobial resistance genes and identification of plasmid replicons types. The colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for mcr-positive isolates was determined by broth microdilution. Relatedness between Enterobacteriaceae carrying mcr genes was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core genome MLST. Results: Thirty ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from horses were positive for the colistin resistance gene mcr-9. These isolates included Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Citrobacter freundii and belonged to diverse MLST sequence types within each species. Two of the mcr-9-containing isolates originated from the same horse. All mcr-9-positive isolates had colistin MICs below or equal to the EUCAST epidemiological cut-off value of 2 mg/L and were negative for the two potential regulatory genes qseB-like and qseC-like for mcr-9. Except for one isolate carrying only bla(TEM-1B), all of the isolates carried bla(SHV-12) and bla(TEM-1B), and were all considered multidrug-resistant as they harboured genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fosfomycin, macrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides, trimethoprim and tetracyclines. Plasmid replicon types IncHI2 and IncHI2A were detected in all mcr-9-positive isolates. Conclusion: The occurrence of mcr-9 was common among clinical ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from horses in Sweden and was linked to the ESBL-encoding gene bla(SHV-12) and plasmid replicon types IncHI2 and IncHI2A. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

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  • 6.
    Carlsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Reg Kalmar Cty, Sweden.
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Haddish, Haben Woldu
    Reg Kalmar Cty, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Reg Kalmar Cty, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Kristina Nilsson
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Tjernberg, Ivar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Reg Kalmar Cty, Sweden.
    Complement activation in individuals with previous subclinical Lyme borreliosis and patients with previous Lyme neuroborreliosis2020In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 855-862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and infection may lead to not only a large variety of clinical manifestations but also a subclinical outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a constitutional difference in complement activation between individuals with previous subclinical Lyme borreliosis (SB) and patients previously diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Lepirudin plasma for activation studies was collected from 60 SB individuals and from 22 patients pre-diagnosed with LNB. The plasma was incubated with live Borrelia spirochetes of two strains (complement sensitive B. garinii Lu59 and complement resistant B. afzelii ACA1). Complement factor C3 was measured in non-activated lepirudin plasma with immune-nephelometry and C3a and sC5b-9 generated during complement activation were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that the complement sensitive Lu59 induced higher complement activation than the complement resistant ACA1 when measuring activation products C3a and sC5b-9 in SB and LNB patients, p &lt; 0.0001. No significant difference was found between SB and LNB patients in systemic levels of C3. Furthermore, SB individuals generated a higher activation of C3 cleavage to C3a (C3a/C3 ratio) than LNB patients after activation with ACA1, p &lt; 0.001, but no significant differences were found in response to Lu59. In conclusion, Lu59 induced higher complement activation than ACA1 and individuals with previous SB showed increased generation of C3a compared with patients with previous LNB. In our study population, this mechanism could lead to less elimination of spirochetes in LNB patients and thereby be a factor contributing to the clinical outcome.

  • 7.
    Chandler, Jeffrey C.
    et al.
    USDA, CO 80526 USA.
    Franklin, Alan B.
    USDA, CO 80526 USA.
    Bevins, Sarah N.
    USDA, CO 80526 USA.
    Bentler, Kevin T.
    USDA, CO 80526 USA.
    Bonnedahl, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ahlstrom, Christina A.
    US Geol Survey, AK USA.
    Bisha, Bledar
    Univ Wyoming, WY 82071 USA.
    Shriner, Susan A.
    USDA, CO 80526 USA.
    Validation of a screening method for the detection of colistin-resistant E. coli containing mcr-1 in feral swine feces2020In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN 0167-7012, E-ISSN 1872-8359, Vol. 172, article id 105892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed and validated for the detection of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli containing mcr-1 in the feces of feral swine. Following optimization of an enrichment method using EC broth supplemented with colistin (1 mu g/mL) and vancomycin (8 mu g/mL), aliquots derived from 100 feral swine fecal samples were spiked with of one of five different mcr-1 positive E. coli strains (between 10(0) and 10(4) CFU/g), for a total of 1110 samples tested. Enrichments were then screened using a simple boil-prep and a previously developed real-time PCR assay for mcr-1 detection. The sensitivity of the method was determined in swine feces, with mcr-1 E. coli inocula of 0.1-9.99 CFU/g (n = 340), 10-49.99 CFU/g (n = 170), 50-99 CFU/g (n = 255), 100-149 CFU/g (n = 60), and 200-2200 CFU/g (n = 175), which were detected with 32%, 72%, 88%, 95%, and 98% accuracy, respectively. Uninoculated controls (n = 100) were negative for mcr-1 following enrichment.

  • 8.
    Dadfar, Elham
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Furuhjelm, Catrin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus Linköping/Motala.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine. Univ Hosp Zurich, Dept Immunol, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Garred, Peter
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Fatal pneumococcus meningitis in a child with complement factor ficolin-3 deficiency2020In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, ISSN 2213-2198, E-ISSN 2213-2201, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 778-779Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 9.
    Enocsson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wirestam, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Padyukov, Leonid
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Urowitz, Murray B.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Gladmane, Dafna D.
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Romero-Diaz, Juanita
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med and Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico.
    Bae, Sang-Cheol
    Hanyang Univ, South Korea.
    Fortin, Paul R.
    Univ Laval, Canada.
    Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge
    Toronto Western Hosp, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Clarke, Ann E.
    Univ Calgary, Canada.
    Bernatsky, Sasha
    McGill Univ, Canada.
    Gordon, Caroline
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Hanly, John G.
    Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Queen Elizabeth 2 Hlth Sci Ctr, Canada; Dalhousie Univ, Canada.
    Wallace, Daniel J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Isenberg, David A.
    UCL, England.
    Rahman, Anisur
    UCL, England.
    Merrill, Joan T.
    Oklahoma Med Res Fdn, OK 73104 USA.
    Ginzler, Ellen
    Suny Downstate Med Ctr, NY 11203 USA.
    Alarcon, Graciela S.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Chatham, W. Winn
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, AL 35294 USA.
    Petri, Michelle
    Johns Hopkins Univ, MD USA.
    Khamashta, Munther
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Aranow, Cynthia
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Mackay, Meggan
    Feinstein Inst Med Res, NY USA.
    Dooley, Mary Anne
    Univ N Carolina, NC 27515 USA.
    Manzi, Susan
    Allegheny Hlth Network, PA USA.
    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60611 USA; Feinberg Sch Med, IL USA.
    Nived, Ola
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Steinsson, Kristjan
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Zoma, Asad A.
    Hairmyres Hosp, Scotland.
    Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo
    Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Lim, S. Sam
    Emory Univ, GA USA.
    Kalunian, Kenneth C.
    UCSD Sch Med, CA USA.
    Inanc, Murat
    Istanbul Univ, Turkey.
    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands; Free Univ VU Amsterdam, Netherlands; Amsterdam Rheumatol and Immunol Ctr, Netherlands.
    Ramos-Casals, Manuel
    Hosp Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Kamen, Diane L.
    Med Univ South Carolina, SC 29425 USA.
    Jacobsen, Soren
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Peschken, Christine A.
    Univ Manitoba, Canada.
    Askanase, Anca
    Columbia Univ, NY USA.
    Stoll, Thomas
    Kantousspital, Switzerland.
    Bruce, Ian N.
    Univ Manchester, England; Manchester Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels predict damage accrual in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus2020In: Journal of Autoimmunity, ISSN 0896-8411, E-ISSN 1095-9157, Vol. 106, article id 102340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has potential as a prognosis and severity biomarker in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. In a previous cross-sectional study, suPAR levels were shown to reflect damage accrual in cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we evaluated suPAR as a predictor of future organ damage in recent-onset SLE.

    Methods

    Included were 344 patients from the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Cohort who met the 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria with 5-years of follow-up data available. Baseline sera from patients and age- and sex-matched controls were assayed for suPAR. Organ damage was assessed annually using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI).

    Results

    The levels of suPAR were higher in patients who accrued damage, particularly those with SDI≥2 at 5 years (N = 32, 46.8% increase, p = 0.004), as compared to patients without damage. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant impact of suPAR on SDI outcome (SDI≥2; OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.03–1.26), also after adjustment for confounding factors. In an optimized logistic regression to predict damage, suPAR persisted as a predictor, together with baseline disease activity (SLEDAI-2K), age, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model AUC = 0.77). Dissecting SDI into organ systems revealed higher suPAR levels in patients who developed musculoskeletal damage (SDI≥1; p = 0.007).

    Conclusion

    Prognostic biomarkers identify patients who are at risk of acquiring early damage and therefore need careful observation and targeted treatment strategies. Overall, suPAR constitutes an interesting biomarker for patient stratification and for identifying SLE patients who are at risk of acquiring organ damage during the first 5 years of disease.

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  • 10.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Segelmark, Mårten
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Nephrology.
    Systemisk vaskulit2018In: Internmedicin / [ed] Ulf Dahlström, Stergios Kechagias, Leif Stenke, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 6, Vol. Sidorna 939-949, p. 939-949Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ewerman, Lea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Landberg, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Hellberg, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hovland, Mina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekman, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Wahlberg Topp, Jeanette
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Immunomodulating Effects Depend on Prolactin Levels in Patients with Hyperprolactinemia2020In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolactin is known to have immune modulatory effects acting through the prolactin receptor, which is present on a variety of immune cells. Certain chemokines contribute to form the type of T helper (Th) preponderance in the immune response. The objective of this work was to assess if hyperprolactinemia not related to pregnancy is associated with changes in circulating levels of chemokines and other immunological markers. In this cross sectional study, 35 patients with hyperprolactinemia (5 men), and 102 healthy blood donors (19 men) were included. Serum levels of Th1- Th2- and Th17-associated chemokines, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulins, and the B cell attracting chemokine CXCL13 were assessed. The hyperprolactinemic group had significantly higher levels of Th2 associated CCL22 (p=0.022), Th17 associated CXCL1 (p=0.001), B cell attracting CXCL13 (p=0.003), and C-reactive protein (p&lt;0.001) compared to controls, and these proteins were also positively correlated with prolactin levels. While differences in CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL13, and C-reactive protein were present in patients with low or moderate hyperprolactinemia, no differences were observed at high (&gt;3600 mU/l) prolactin levels. To evaluate a possible dose-associated response to prolactin, an in vitro model was used, showing prolactin-induced increase in T-helper cell activation at moderate levels, while activation decreased at higher levels. Hyperprolactinemia seems to have several immunomodulatory effects and was associated with increased levels of chemokines associated with Th2 and Th17 responses and B cell attraction. However, patients with greatly increased prolactin had normal levels of chemokines, and in vitro, high levels of prolactin decreased T-helper cell activation.

  • 12.
    Forsberg, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Huoman, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Söderholm, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bhai Mehta, Ratnesh
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus Linköping/Motala.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pre- and postnatal Lactobacillus reuteri treatment alters DNA methylation of infant T helper cells2020In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Perinatal childhood exposures, including probiotic supplementation, may affect epigenetic modifications and impact on immune maturation and allergy development. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pre- and postnatal Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation on DNA methylation in relation to immune maturation and allergy development. Methods DNA methylation patterns were investigated for allergy-related T helper subsets using a locus-specific method and at a genome-wide scale using the Illumina 450K array. From a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled allergy prevention trial with pre- and postnatal probiotic supplementation, CD4+ T helper cells were obtained at birth (from cord blood), and 12 and 24 months of age (total (placebo/probiotics); locus-specific method: CB = 32 (17/15), 12 months = 24 (9/15), 24 months = 35 (15/20); Illumina: CB = 19 (10/9), 12 months = 10 (6/4), 24 months = 19(11/8)). Results Comparing probiotics to placebo, the greatest genome-wide differential DNA methylation was observed at birth, where the majority of sites were hypomethylated, indicating transcriptional accessibility in the probiotic group. Bioinformatic analyses, including network analyses, revealed a module containing 91 genes, enriched for immune-related pathways such as chemotaxis, PI3K-Akt, MAPK and TGF-beta signalling. A majority of the module genes were associated with atopic manifestations (OR = 1.43, P = 2.4 x 10(-6)), and a classifier built on this model could predict allergy development (AUC = 0.78, P = 3.0 x 10(e-3)). Pathways such as IFN-gamma signalling and T-cell activation were more hypermethylated at birth compared with later in life in both intervention groups over time, in line with DNA methylation patterns in the IFNG locus obtained by the locus-specific methodology. Conclusion Maternal L. reuteri supplementation during pregnancy alters DNA methylation patterns in CD4+ T cells towards enhanced immune activation at birth, which may affect immune maturation and allergy development.

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  • 13. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Frodlund, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Antinuclear and antiphospholipid antibodies versus disease manifestations and clinical outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has an exceptionally heterogeneous clinical spectrum, ranging from mild disease limited to skin and joints to severe manifestations with renal disorder, central nervous system disease, severe cytopenias and thromboembolic events. Important clinical challenges include the prediction of disease flares and the identification of individuals that are likely to evolve severe disease with accrual of organ damage and worse prognosis. Autoantibodies, i.e. antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), and interferon alpha (IFN-α) that contribute to formation of immune complexes with nuclear antigens, are hallmarks considered to drive the disease in a vicious circle of antigen exposure, autoantibody production, inflammation and organ damage. There are few good biomarkers to predict severe SLE and organ damage. The aim of this PhD project was thus to increase the knowledge regarding ANA as well as aPL, and other potential biomarkers in relation to clinical features and disease outcomes in SLE.

    As expected, we found that the homogeneous ANA staining pattern was most common, and that it was associated with the occurrence of the ‘immunological disorder’ criterion. Speckled ANA was the second most common staining pattern, and it was inversely associated with arthritis, the ‘immunological disorder’ criterion and organ damage (Paper I). We also demonstrated that a considerable proportion of the patients lost ANA-positivity over time, whereas consistent staining patterns were most frequent (Paper V).

    Survival of patients with SLE has improved. Yet, in comparison to the general population, irreversible organ damage and increased mortality remains a critical concern. In Paper II, our cross-sectional analysis showed that more than a quarter of the patients had any aPL isotype (IgG, IgM or IgA class), and 14% were classified with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). A positive lupus anticoagulant (LA) test and/or IgG aPL tests were associated with most APS-related events and organ damage. Lupus nephritis, tobacco smoking, LA-positivity and the use of statins and/or corticosteroids were strongly associated with damage accrual, while hydroxychloroquine seemed to be protective. IgA aPL was not uncommon (16%) in Swedish cases of SLE, and analysis of IgA aPL may add information among clinically suspected APS-patients testing negative for LA and other aPL isotypes.

    Despite modern management and tax-funded health care with universal access, almost two thirds of the patients accrued organ damage over time, and the main causes of death were identified as malignancy, infection, and cardiovascular disease. We could confirm well established risk factors for organ damage such as APS, hypertension, and/or the use of corticosteroids, but we also observed that other factors such as pericarditis, haemolytic anaemia, lymphopenia and myositis seems to be of importance in this view (Paper IV).

    We also demonstrated that levels of the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) was correlated with disease activity in patients with recent-onset SLE. In addition, OPN levels reflected global organ damage and were associated with APS and could have potential as a valuable biomarker in SLE (Paper III).

    Additional studies are warranted to further establish the clinical and mechanistic relevance of ANA seroconversion, OPN, as well as the importance of IgA aPL. Vigilance for malignancies, a restricted use of corticosteroids and prevention of cardiovascular disease and APS events are among modifiable factors to prevent organ damage and premature mortality.

    This thesis emphasizes the importance of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis, and diagnosis, of SLE. The autoantibody profile can be of great importance for tailored therapy in order to minimize the risk of organ damage accrual, morbidity as well as mortality.

    List of papers
    1. Associations between antinuclear antibody staining patterns and clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of a regional Swedish register
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between antinuclear antibody staining patterns and clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of a regional Swedish register
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    2013 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Antinuclear antibody (ANA) analysis by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy remains a diagnostic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical relevance of ANA fine-specificities in SLE has been addressed repeatedly, whereas studies on IF-ANA staining patterns in relation to disease manifestations are very scarce. This study was performed to elucidate whether different staining patterns associate with distinct SLE phenotypes.

    Design Observational cohort study.

    Setting One university hospital rheumatology unit in Sweden.

    Participants The study population consisted of 222 cases (89% women; 93% Caucasians), where of 178 met ≥4/11 of the 1982 American College of Rheumatology (ACR-82) criteria. The remaining 20% had an SLE diagnosis based on positive IF-ANA (HEp-2 cells) and ≥2 typical organ manifestations at the time of diagnosis (Fries’ criteria).

    Outcome measures The IF-ANA staining patterns homogenous (H-ANA), speckled (S-ANA), combined homogenous and speckled (HS-ANA), centromeric (C-ANA), nucleolar (N-ANA)±other patterns and other nuclear patterns (oANA) were related to disease manifestations and laboratory measures. Antigen-specificities were also considered regarding double-stranded DNA (Crithidia luciliae) and the following extractable nuclear antigens: Ro/SSA, La/SSB, Smith antigen (Sm), small nuclear RNP (snRNP), Scl-70 and Jo-1 (immunodiffusion and/or line-blot technique).

    Results 54% of the patients with SLE displayed H-ANA, 22% S-ANA, 11% HS-ANA, 9% N-ANA, 1% C-ANA, 2% oANA and 1% were never IF-ANA positive. Staining patterns among patients meeting Fries’ criteria alone did not differ from those fulfilling ACR-82. H-ANA was significantly associated with the 10th criterion according to ACR-82 (‘immunological disorder’). S-ANA was inversely associated with arthritis, ‘immunological disorder’ and signs of organ damage.

    Conclusions H-ANA is the dominant IF-ANA pattern among Swedish patients with SLE, and was found to associate with ‘immunological disorder’ according to ACR-82. The second most common pattern, S-ANA, associated negatively with arthritis and organ damage.

    National Category
    Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91381 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003608 (DOI)000326882800019 ()
    Conference
    10th International Congress on SLE- Lupus 2013, 18-21 April 2013, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Available from: 2013-04-23 Created: 2013-04-23 Last updated: 2020-04-07
    2. Immunoglobulin A anti-phospholipid antibodies in Swedish cases of systemic lupus erythematosus: associations with disease phenotypes, vascular events and damage accrual
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunoglobulin A anti-phospholipid antibodies in Swedish cases of systemic lupus erythematosus: associations with disease phenotypes, vascular events and damage accrual
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    2018 (English)In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 194, no 1, p. 27-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G- and IgM-class anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and lupus anti-coagulant (LA) are included in the 1997 update of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR-97) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) criteria. Despite limited evidence, IgA-aCL and IgA anti-(2)-glycoprotein-I (anti-(2)GPI) were included in the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria. The present study aimed to evaluate IgG-/IgA-/IgM-aCL and anti-(2)GPI occurrence in relation to disease phenotype, smoking habits, pharmacotherapy, anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and organ damage among 526 Swedish SLE patients meeting ACR-97. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n=100), primary Sjogrens syndrome (n=50) and blood donors (n=507) served as controls. Anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) were analysed by fluoroenzyme-immunoassays detecting aCL/anti-(2)GPI. Seventy-six (14%) SLE cases fulfilled the Sydney APS-criteria, and 1 aCL/anti-(2)GPI isotype (IgG/IgA/IgM) occurred in 138 SLE patients (26%). Forty-five (9%) of the SLE cases had IgA-aCL, 20 of whom (4%) lacked IgG-/IgM-aCL. Seventy-four (14%) tested positive for IgA anti-(2)GPI, 34 (6%) being seronegative regarding IgG/IgM anti-(2)GPI. Six (1%) had APS manifestations but were seropositive regarding IgA-aCL and/or IgA anti-(2)GPI in the absence of IgG/IgM-aPL and LA. Positive LA and IgG-aPL tests were associated with most APS-related events and organ damage. Exclusive IgA anti-(2)GPI occurrence associated inversely with Caucasian ethnicity [odds ratio (OR)=021, 95% confidence interval (CI)=006-072) and photosensitivity (OR=019, 95% CI=005-072). Nephritis, smoking, LA-positivity and statin/corticosteroid-medication associated strongly with organ damage, whereas hydroxychloroquine-medication was protective. In conclusion, IgA-aPL is not rare in SLE (16%) and IgA-aPL analysis may have additional value among SLE cases with suspected APS testing negative for other isotypes of aPL and LA.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2018
    Keywords
    anti-phospholipid antibodies; anti-phospholipid syndrome; autoantibodies; immunoglobulin A; systemic lupus erythematosus
    National Category
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151933 (URN)10.1111/cei.13180 (DOI)000445601500004 ()30208508 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Society for Medical Research; Swedish Rheumatism Association; Swedish Society of Medicine; King Gustaf Vs 80-year foundation; King Gustaf V and Queen Victorias Freemasons foundation; Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation; Swedish Research Council; County Council of Stockholm; County Council of Uppsala; County Council of Ostergotland

    Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2020-04-07
    3. Osteopontin is associated with disease severity and antiphospholipid syndrome in well characterised Swedish cases of SLE
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Osteopontin is associated with disease severity and antiphospholipid syndrome in well characterised Swedish cases of SLE
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    2017 (English)In: Lupus Science and Medicine, ISSN 2053-8790, E-ISSN 1625-9823, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 7article id 000225Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The variety of disease phenotypes among patients with SLE challenges the identification of new biomarkers reflecting disease activity and/or organ damage. Osteopontin (OPN) is an extracellular matrix protein with immunomodulating properties. Although raised levels have been reported, the pathogenic implications and clinical utility of OPN as a biomarker in SLE are far from clear. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise OPN in SLE.

    Methods Sera from 240 well-characterised adult SLE cases classified according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria, and 240 population-based controls were immunoassayed for OPN. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) was used to evaluate disease activity and the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SDI) to detect damage accrual.

    Results Serum OPN levels were in average raised fourfold in SLE cases compared with the controls (p<0.0001). OPN correlated with SLEDAI-2K, especially in patients with a disease duration of <12 months (r=0.666, p=0.028). OPN was highly associated with SDI (p<0.0001), especially in the renal (p<0.0001), cardiovascular (p<0.0001) and malignancy (p=0.012) domains. Finally, OPN associated with coherent antiphospholipid syndrome (APS; p=0.009), and both clinical and laboratory criteria of APS had significant positive impact on OPN levels.

    Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, circulating OPN correlates with disease activity in recent-onset SLE, reflects global organ damage and associates with APS. Longitudinal studies to dissect whether serum OPN also precedes and predicts future organ damage are most warranted.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2017. p. 7
    National Category
    Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Neurology Clinical Laboratory Medicine Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140711 (URN)10.1136/lupus-2017-000225 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-09-08 Created: 2017-09-08 Last updated: 2020-04-07Bibliographically approved
    4. The majority of Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus patients are still affected by irreversible organ impairment: factors related to damage accrual in two regional cohorts
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The majority of Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus patients are still affected by irreversible organ impairment: factors related to damage accrual in two regional cohorts
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    2019 (English)In: Lupus, ISSN 0961-2033, E-ISSN 1477-0962, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1261-1272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has improved, irreversible organ damage remains a critical concern. We aimed to characterize damage accrual and its clinical associations and causes of death in Swedish patients. Methods Accumulation of damage was evaluated in 543 consecutively recruited and well-characterized cases during 1998-2017. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI) was used to estimate damage. Results Organ damage (SDI amp;gt;= 1) was observed in 59%, and extensive damage (SDI amp;gt;= 3) in 25% of cases. SDI amp;gt;= 1 was significantly associated with higher age at onset, SLE duration, the number of fulfilled SLICC criteria, neurologic disorder, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression and secondary Sjogrens syndrome (SS). In addition, SDI amp;gt;= 3 was associated with serositis, renal and haematological disorders and interstitial lung disease. A multiple regression model identified not only well-known risk factors like APS, antihypertensives and corticosteroids, but pericarditis, haemolytic anaemia, lymphopenia and myositis as being linked to SDI. Malignancy, infection and cardiovascular disease were the leading causes of death. Conclusions After a mean SLE duration of 17 years, the majority of todays Swedish SLE patients have accrued damage. We confirm previous observations and report some novel findings regarding disease phenotypes and damage accrual.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2019
    Keywords
    Damage accrual; immunosuppressants; mortality; SLE phenotypes; Sweden; systemic lupus erythematosus
    National Category
    Rheumatology and Autoimmunity
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159259 (URN)10.1177/0961203319860198 (DOI)000477186800001 ()31296137 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Rheumatism Association; County Council of Ostergotland; Swedish Society of Medicine; King Gustaf Vs 80-year Anniversary foundation; King Gustaf V and Queen Victorias Freemasons foundation; Ingegerd Johansson donation; Selander foundation; County Council of Uppsala

    Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2020-04-22
    5. Longitudinal anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) seroconversion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of Swedish cases with recent-onset disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) seroconversion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of Swedish cases with recent-onset disease
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    2020 (English)In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 199, no 3, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy remains a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Whether or not IF-ANA status varies over time is controversial. We therefore designed a prospective study with longitudinal follow-up of patients with recent-onset SLE. The study population consisted of 54 recently diagnosed SLE cases, all meeting the 1982 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria. Clinical follow-up data, including disease activity, organ damage and sera, were collected from clinical onset of SLE and onwards, in most cases yearly (0-96 months). IF-ANA was analysed on human epithelial cells-2 (HEp-2) cells and categorized regarding staining patterns. Using an addressable laser bead assay (FIDIS (TM) Connective profile), we measured IgG-ANA fine specificities against Ro52/SSA, Ro60/SSA, Sjogrens syndrome type B antigen (La/SSB), Smith antigen (Sm), Smith antigen/ribonucleoprotein (Sm/RNP), U1 RNP (U1RNP), dsDNA, ribosomal-P protein and histone. At baseline, all patients were judged ANA-positive at an abnormal titre corresponding to the 95th percentile of healthy blood donors, but seven of 54 patients (13%) lost ANA-positivity over time. Homogeneous (AC-1; 46%) and speckled (AC-4 or 5; 31%) were the most frequently observed patterns at inclusion, whereas 7% switched pattern at least once during follow-up. Established associations between ANA fine specificities and clinical data were confirmed. Levels of anti-Sm/RNP, but not of anti-dsDNA, correlated with clinical disease activity [modified SLE disease activity 2000 (mSLEDAI-2K)]. Our data indicate that a considerable proportion of Swedish patients with SLE lose ANA-positivity over time, whereas consistent staining patterns were frequent. The clinical and mechanistic relevance of ANA seroconversion remains uncertain. Further prospective evaluations in larger SLE populations with more diverse ethnicities are warranted.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2020
    Keywords
    autoantibodies; autoimmunity; complement; human; systemic lupus erythematosus
    National Category
    Gastroenterology and Hepatology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164196 (URN)10.1111/cei.13402 (DOI)000513952100007 ()31778219 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85076720021 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|the Swedish Society of Medicine; Swedish Society of Medicine; the County Council of Ostergotland; Swedish Rheumatism Association; the Swedish Rheumatism Association; the King Gustaf V and Queen Victorias Freemasons foundation; the King Gustaf Vs 80-year Anniversary foundation

    Available from: 2020-03-11 Created: 2020-03-11 Last updated: 2020-04-09Bibliographically approved
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  • 14.
    Frodlund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wetterö, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Ronnelid, J.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Longitudinal anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) seroconversion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of Swedish cases with recent-onset disease2020In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 199, no 3, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy remains a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Whether or not IF-ANA status varies over time is controversial. We therefore designed a prospective study with longitudinal follow-up of patients with recent-onset SLE. The study population consisted of 54 recently diagnosed SLE cases, all meeting the 1982 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria. Clinical follow-up data, including disease activity, organ damage and sera, were collected from clinical onset of SLE and onwards, in most cases yearly (0-96 months). IF-ANA was analysed on human epithelial cells-2 (HEp-2) cells and categorized regarding staining patterns. Using an addressable laser bead assay (FIDIS (TM) Connective profile), we measured IgG-ANA fine specificities against Ro52/SSA, Ro60/SSA, Sjogrens syndrome type B antigen (La/SSB), Smith antigen (Sm), Smith antigen/ribonucleoprotein (Sm/RNP), U1 RNP (U1RNP), dsDNA, ribosomal-P protein and histone. At baseline, all patients were judged ANA-positive at an abnormal titre corresponding to the 95th percentile of healthy blood donors, but seven of 54 patients (13%) lost ANA-positivity over time. Homogeneous (AC-1; 46%) and speckled (AC-4 or 5; 31%) were the most frequently observed patterns at inclusion, whereas 7% switched pattern at least once during follow-up. Established associations between ANA fine specificities and clinical data were confirmed. Levels of anti-Sm/RNP, but not of anti-dsDNA, correlated with clinical disease activity [modified SLE disease activity 2000 (mSLEDAI-2K)]. Our data indicate that a considerable proportion of Swedish patients with SLE lose ANA-positivity over time, whereas consistent staining patterns were frequent. The clinical and mechanistic relevance of ANA seroconversion remains uncertain. Further prospective evaluations in larger SLE populations with more diverse ethnicities are warranted.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-11-28 12:24
  • 15.
    Gutefeldt, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Hedman, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Bachrack Lindström, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Spångeus, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Low health-related quality of life is strongly linked to upper extremity impairments in type 1 diabetes with a long duration2020In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic controls and possible links to upper extremity impairments (UEIs). Prevalence of sick-leave and causes were investigated.

    Materials and methods: This Swedish population-based case-control study included type 1 diabetes patients <67 years old and with a diabetes duration ≥20 years. Participants completed a postal questionnaire including Short Form 36, and questions regarding UEIs, and sick-leave.

    Results: In total, 773 patients, aged 50 ± 10 years (diabetes duration 35 ± 10 years), and 708 non-diabetic controls, aged 54 ± 9 years, completed the study. Patients reported significantly lower HRQOL compared with controls. The difference was greatest for general health, vitality, and bodily pain. Patients with shoulder or hand but not finger impairments scored significantly lower than asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of sick leave was higher in patients vs. controls (23% vs. 9%, p < 0.001), and nearly half cited impairments from back, muscles, or joints as the main reason.

    Conclusions: Health-related quality of life is lower in type 1 diabetes than controls and in patients with shoulder and hand impairments than in asymptomatic. Musculoskeletal impairments (back/muscle/joints) have impact on work ability. Identification of UEIs is important for initiating preventative-, therapeutic-, and rehabilitative interventions.

    • Implications for rehabilitation
    • Upper extremity impairments (UEIs) that are common in type 1 diabetes, and associated with reduced health-related quality of life, should preferably be screened for on a regular basis along with other known diabetes complications.

    • Early identification of UEIs is important to improve health by initiating preventive as well as therapeutic multi-professional rehabilitative interventions.

    • Sick leave is higher in type 1 diabetes than in controls. Musculoskeletal impairments, including the back, muscles, and joints, are a common cause for sick leave warranting further studies.

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  • 16.
    Gutefeldt, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology. Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine.
    Lundstedt, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology.
    Spångeus, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology. Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine.
    Clinical Examination and Self-Reported Upper Extremity Impairments in Patients with Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus2020In: Journal of Diabetes Research, ISSN 2314-6745, E-ISSN 2314-6753, Journal of Diabetes Research, Vol. 2020, article id 4172635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aims of the current study were (1) to determine the prevalence of upper extremity impairments (UEIs) in patients with type 1 diabetes by clinical investigation; (2) to investigate if self-reported impairments were concordant with clinical findings and if key questions could be identified; and (3) to investigate if answers to our self-reported questionnaire regarding UEIs are reliable. Methods. Patients with type 1 diabetes were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study of clinical and self-reported (12 items) UEIs in adjunction to ordinary scheduled clinical visit. Before the visit, a questionnaire on UEIs was filled in twice (test-retest) followed by clinical testing at the planned visit. Results. In total, 69 patients aged and with diabetes duration were included in the study. In the clinical examination, two-thirds (65%) of the patients showed one or more UEI, with failure to perform hand against back as the most common clinical finding (40%) followed by positive Phalen’s test (27%), Tinel’s test (26%), and Prayer’s sign (24%). UEIs observed by clinical examination were often bilateral, and multiple impairments often coexisted. Self-reported shoulder stiffness was associated with impaired shoulder mobility and with Prayer’s sign. Self-reported reduced hand strength was associated to lower grip force, Prayer’s sign, trigger finger, fibrosis string structures, and reduced thenar strength as well as reduced shoulder mobility. In addition, self-reporting previous surgery of carpal tunnel and trigger finger was associated with several clinical UEIs including shoulder, hand, and finger. The test-retest of the questionnaire showed a high agreement of 80-98% for reported shoulder, hand, and finger impairments. Conclusion. UEIs are common in type 1 diabetes. Self-reported shoulder stiffness and reduced hand strength might be used to capture patients with UEIs in need of clinical investigation and enhanced preventive and therapeutic strategies, as well as rehabilitative interventions.

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  • 17.
    Hagbom, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Meira de Faria, Felipe
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tinnerfelt Winberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Westerberg, Sonja
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nordgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sharma, Sumit
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Keita, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Loitto, Vesa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Neurotrophic Factors Protect the Intestinal Barrier from Rotavirus Insult in Mice2020In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e02834-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased intestinal permeability has been proposed as a mechanism of rotavirus-induced diarrhea. Studies with humans and mice have, however, shown that rotavirus leaves intestinal permeability unaffected or even reduced during diarrhea, in contrast to most bacterial infections. Gastrointestinal permeability is regulated by the vagus nerve and the enteric nervous system, which is composed of neurons and enteric glial cells (EGCs). We investigated whether the vagus nerve, serotonin (5-HT), EGCs, and neurotropic factors contribute to maintaining gut barrier homeostasis during rotavirus infection. Using subdiaphragmatic vagotomized and 5-HT3 receptor knockout mice, we found that the unaffected epithelial barrier during rotavirus infection is independent of the vagus nerve but dependent on 5-HT signaling through enteric intrinsic 5-HT3 receptors. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that rotavirus-infected enterocytes were in close contact with EGCs and enteric neurons and that the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was strongly upregulated in enterocytes of infected mice. Moreover, rotavirus and 5-HT activated EGCs (P &lt; 0.001). Using Ussing chambers, we found that GDNF and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) led to denser epithelial barriers in small intestinal resections from noninfected mice (P &lt; 0.01) and humans (P &lt; 0.001) and that permeability was unaffected in rotavirus-infected mice. GSNO made the epithelial barrier denser in Caco-2 cells by increasing the expression of the tight junction protein zona occludens 1 (P &lt; 0.001), resulting in reduced passage of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (P &lt; 0.05) in rotavirus-infected monolayers. This is the first report to show that neurotropic factors contribute to maintaining the gut epithelial barrier during viral insult. IMPORTANCE Human and mouse studies have shown that rotavirus infection is associated with low inflammation and unaffected intestinal barrier at the time of diarrhea, properties different from most bacterial and inflammatory diseases of the gut. We showed by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments that neurotrophic factors and 5-HT have barrier protective properties during rotavirus insult. These observations advance our understanding of how the gut barrier is protected against rotavirus and suggest that rotavirus affects the gut barrier differently from bacteria. This is the first report to show that neurotrophic factors contribute to maintain the gut epithelial barrier during viral insult.

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  • 18.
    Heijke, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Frodlund, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    McDonald, Laura
    Bristol Myers Squibb, England.
    Alemao, Evo
    Bristol Myers Squibb, NJ USA.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Relationship between remission, disease activity and patient-reported outcome measures in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus2020In: Lupus, ISSN 0961-2033, E-ISSN 1477-0962, article id 0961203320912338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Definitions of remission in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; DORIS (1A/1B/2A/2B)), disease activity assessments and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are useful in shared decision making between patients with SLE and physicians. We used longitudinal registry data from well-characterized Swedish patients with recent-onset SLE to explore potential correlations between DORIS status or disease activity, and PROMs. Methods Patients from the Clinical Lupus Register in North-Eastern Gothia, Sweden, who fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology and/or the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria without prior organ damage, were enrolled at diagnosis. Data on treatments, serology, remission status (DORIS), disease activity (SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K)) and PROMs (quality of life: EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D); pain intensity, fatigue and well-being: visual analog scale (VAS) 0-100 mm) were collected during rheumatology clinic visits at months 0 (diagnosis), 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60. Correlations were assessed using Pearson correlation and/or beta regression coefficients. Results A total of 41 patients were enrolled (median age = 39 years, 80% female, 85% white). Achievement of DORIS 1A and 2A (neither of which includes serology) significantly correlated with all PROMs (EQ-5D: p &lt;= 0.02; pain: p = 0.0001; fatigue: p = 0.0051; well-being: p &lt; 0.0001). Disease activity measures were correlated with VAS pain intensity (p &lt; 0.03) and VAS well-being (p &lt; 0.04). Conclusions Our findings illustrate the importance of the interplay between remission, disease activity assessments and PROMs. PROMs may be a useful tool in clinical practice, being administered prior to patient visits to streamline clinical care.

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  • 19.
    Håkansson, Irene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology in Linköping.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology in Linköping.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Ekdahl, Kristina N.
    Centre of Biomaterials Chemistry, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden ; Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Complement activation in cerebrospinal fluid in clinically isolated syndrome and early stages of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis2020In: Journal of Neuroimmunology, ISSN 0165-5728, E-ISSN 1872-8421, Vol. 340, article id 577147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess if markers of complement activation are associated with disease activity, C1q, C3, C3a and sC5b-9 levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were determined in 41 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), in a prospective longitudinal four-year cohort study. C1q in CSF (CSF-C1q) was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Baseline CSF-C1q and CSF-C3a correlated with several neuroinflammatory markers and neurofilament light chain levels. Baseline CSF-C3a correlated with the number of T2 lesions at baseline and new T2 lesions during follow-up. Baseline CSF-C3a was also significantly higher in patients with (n = 21) than in patients without (n = 20) signs of disease activity according to the NEDA-3 concept during one year of follow-up (p ≀ .01) Study results support that complement activation is involved in MS pathophysiology and that CSF-C3a carries prognostic information.

  • 20.
    Linge, Petrus
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Arve, Sabine
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lina M.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Frodlund, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Tyden, Helena
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Jonsen, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Kahn, Robin
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Johansson, Asa
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skanes Univ Sjukhus Lund Labmed Skane, Sweden.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Holmdahl, Rikard
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    NCF1-339 polymorphism is associated with altered formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, high serum interferon activity and antiphospholipid syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus2020In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives A single nucleotide polymorphism in the NCF1 gene (NCF1-339, rs201802880), encoding NADPH oxidase type II subunit NCF1/p47(phox), reducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is strongly associated with the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at characterising NCF1-339 effects on neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, type I interferon activity and antibody profile in patients with SLE. Methods Neutrophil NET-release pathways (n=31), serum interferon (n=141) and finally antibody profiles (n=305) were investigated in SLE subjects from Lund, genotyped for NCF1-339. Then, 1087 SLE subjects from the rheumatology departments of four Swedish SLE centres, genotyped for NCF1-339, were clinically characterised to validate these findings. Results Compared with patients with normal-ROS NCF1-339 genotypes, neutrophils from patients with SLE with low-ROS NCF1-339 genotypes displayed impaired NET formation (pamp;lt;0.01) and increased dependence on mitochondrial ROS (pamp;lt;0.05). Low-ROS patients also had increased frequency of high serum interferon activity (80% vs 21.4%, pamp;lt;0.05) and positivity for anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I (pamp;lt;0.01) and anticardiolipin antibodies (pamp;lt;0.05) but were not associated with other antibodies. We confirmed an over-representation of having any antiphospholipid antibody, OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.95), anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I, OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.24) and the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), OR 1.74 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.55) in all four cohorts (n=1087). Conclusions The NCF1-339 SNP mediated decreased NADPH oxidase function, is associated with high interferon activity and impaired formation of NETs in SLE, allowing dependence on mitochondrial ROS. Unexpectedly, we revealed a striking connection between the ROS deficient NCF1-339 genotypes and the presence of phospholipid antibodies and APS.

  • 21.
    Merker, Matthias
    et al.
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF, Germany; Res Ctr Borstel, Germany.
    Kohl, Thomas A.
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF, Germany; Res Ctr Borstel, Germany.
    Barilar, Ivan
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF, Germany; Res Ctr Borstel, Germany.
    Andres, Soenke
    Natl and WHO Supranat Reference Ctr Mycobacteria, Germany.
    Fowler, Philip W.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Chryssanthou, Erja
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Angeby, Kristian
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Jureen, Pontus
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden.
    Moradigaravand, Danesh
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Parkhill, Julian
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Peacock, Sharon J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Maurer, Florian P.
    Natl and WHO Supranat Reference Ctr Mycobacteria, Germany; Univ Med Ctr Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.
    Walker, Timothy
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Koser, Claudio
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Niemann, Stefan
    German Ctr Infect Res DZIF, Germany; Res Ctr Borstel, Germany.
    Phylogenetically informative mutations in genes implicated in antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex2020In: Genome Medicine, ISSN 1756-994X, E-ISSN 1756-994X, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A comprehensive understanding of the pre-existing genetic variation in genes associated with antibiotic resistance in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is needed to accurately interpret whole-genome sequencing data for genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). Methods We investigated mutations in 92 genes implicated in resistance to 21 anti-tuberculosis drugs using the genomes of 405 phylogenetically diverse MTBC strains. The role of phylogenetically informative mutations was assessed by routine phenotypic DST data for the first-line drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide from a separate collection of over 7000 clinical strains. Selected mutations/strains were further investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing. Results Out of 547 phylogenetically informative mutations identified, 138 were classified as not correlating with resistance to first-line drugs. MIC testing did not reveal a discernible impact of a Rv1979c deletion shared by M. africanum lineage 5 strains on resistance to clofazimine. Finally, we found molecular evidence that some MTBC subgroups may be hyper-susceptible to bedaquiline and clofazimine by different loss-of-function mutations affecting a drug efflux pump subunit (MmpL5). Conclusions Our findings underline that the genetic diversity in MTBC has to be studied more systematically to inform the design of clinical trials and to define sound epidemiologic cut-off values (ECOFFs) for new and repurposed anti-tuberculosis drugs. In that regard, our comprehensive variant catalogue provides a solid basis for the interpretation of mutations in genotypic as well as in phenotypic DST assays.

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  • 22.
    Mofors, Johannes
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Bjoerk, Albin
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Smedby, Karin E.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Kvarnstrom, Marika
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Forsblad-dElia, Helena
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Magnusson-Bucher, Sara
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mandl, Thomas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Baecklund, Eva
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Nordmark, Gunnel
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Increased risk of multiple myeloma in primary Sjogrens syndrome is limited to individuals with Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies2020In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 307-308Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 23.
    Nasr, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Forum Östergötland.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    The Amount of Liver Fat Predicts Mortality and Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.2020In: Liver international (Print), ISSN 1478-3223, E-ISSN 1478-3231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to evaluate whether conventional histological grading of steatosis and accurate quantification of fat content in liver biopsies using stereological point counting (SPC) can predict mortality and future development of T2DM in NAFLD patients.

    METHODS: 129 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD, enrolled between 1988 and 1992, were re-evaluated on two occasions, after 13.7 (±1.5) and 23.2 (±6.8) years. In patients accepting to undergo the procedure, repeat liver biopsies were performed on each follow-up and were evaluated with conventional histopathological methodology and SPC.

    RESULTS: Of the 106 patients without T2DM at baseline, 66 (62%) developed T2DM during a mean follow-up of 23.2 (± 6.8) years. Steatosis grade and liver fat measured with SPC independently (adjusted for age, BMI, fibrosis stage) predicted development of T2DM with an aHR of 1.60 per grade and 1.03 for each SPC percentage increase, respectively. Overall mortality and development of T2DM was more common in patients with grade 3 steatosis compared to lower grades of steatosis. Liver fat measured with SPC was significant for overall mortality (aHR 1.04). In patients that underwent repeat biopsy, reduction of liver fat measured with SPC was associated with decreased risk of developing T2DM (aHR 0.91 for each SPC percentage decrease).

    CONCLUSION: Steatosis grade and liver fat measured with SPC predict mortality and the risk of developing T2DM in NAFLD. Reduction of liver fat decreases the risk of developing T2DM.

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  • 24.
    Nilsson, Isabell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Palmer, Jeremy
    Univ Newcastle Tyne, England.
    Apostolou, Eirini
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Sweden.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dahle, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Metabolic Dysfunction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Not Due to Anti-mitochondrial Antibodies2020In: FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE, Vol. 7, article id 108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic profiling studies have recently indicated dysfunctional mitochondria in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). This includes an impaired function of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), possibly driven by serum factor(s), which leads to inadequate adenosine triphosphate generation and excessive lactate accumulation. A reminiscent energy blockade is likely to occur in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), caused by anti-PDC autoantibodies, as recently proposed. PBC is associated with fatigue and post-exertional malaise, also signifying ME/CFS. We herein have investigated whether ME/CFS patients have autoreactive antibodies that could interfere with mitochondrial function. We found that only 1 of 161 examined ME/CFS patients was positive for anti-PDC, while all PBC patients (15/15) presented significant IgM, IgG, and IgA anti-PDC reactivity, as previously shown. None of fibromyalgia patients (0/14), multiple sclerosis patients (0/29), and healthy blood donors (0/44) controls showed reactivities. Anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (inner and outer membrane) were negative in ME/CFS cohort. Anti-cardiolipin antibody levels in patients did not differ significantly from healthy blood donors. In conclusion, the impaired mitochondrial/metabolic dysfunction, observed in ME/CFS, cannot be explained by presence of circulating autoantibodies against the tested mitochondrial epitopes.

  • 25.
    Rao Muvva, Jagadeeswara
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Venkata Ramanarao, Parasa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Mattias
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Brighenti, Susanna
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Polarization of Human Monocyte-Derived Cells With Vitamin D Promotes Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection2020In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 3157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding macrophage behavior is key to decipher Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis. We studied the phenotype and ability of human monocyte-derived cells polarized with active vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D-3] to control intracellular Mtb infection compared with polarization of conventional subsets, classical M1 or alternative M2. Methods: Human blood-derived monocytes were treated with active vitamin D or different cytokines to obtain 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized as well as M1- and M2-like cells or fully polarized M1 and M2 subsets. We used an in vitro macrophage Mtb infection model to assess both phenotype and functional markers i.e., inhibitory and scavenger receptors, costimulatory molecules, cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules using flow cytometry and quantitative mRNA analysis. Intracellular uptake of bacilli and Mtb growth was monitored using flow cytometry and colony forming units. Results: Uninfected M1 subsets typically expressed higher levels of CCR7, TLR2, and CD86, while M2 subsets expressed higher CD163, CD200R, and CD206. Most of the investigated markers were up-regulated in all subsets after Mtb infection, generating a mixed M1/M2 phenotype, while the expression of CD206, HLADR, and CD80 was specifically up-regulated (P amp;lt; 0.05) on 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized macrophages. Consistent with the pro-inflammatory features of M1 cells, Mtb uptake and intracellular Mtb growth was significantly (P amp;lt; 0.01-0.001 and P amp;lt; 0.05-0.01) lower in the M1 (19.3%) compared with the M2 (82.7%) subsets 4 h post-infection. However, infectivity rapidly and gradually increased in M1 cells at 24-72 h. 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized monocyte-derived cells was the most potent subset to inhibit Mtb growth at both 4 and 72 h (P amp;lt; 0.05-0.01) post-Mtb infection. This ability was associated with high mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 but also anti-inflammatory IL-10, while expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) remained low in Mtb-infected 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized cells compared with the other subsets. Conclusions: Mtb infection promoted a mixed M1/M2 macrophage activation, and 1,25(OH)(2)D-3-polarized monocyte-derived cells expressing LL-37 but not IDO, were most effective to control intracellular Mtb growth. Macrophage polarization in the presence of vitamin D may provide the capacity to mount an antimicrobial response against Mtb and simultaneously prevent expression of inhibitory molecules that could accelerate local immunosuppression in the microenvironment of infected tissue.

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  • 26.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Reumatiska systemsjukdomar2018In: Internmedicin / [ed] Ulf Dahlström, Stergios Kechagias, Leif Stenke, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 6, Vol. Sidorna 920-939, p. 920-939Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Skogman, Barbro H.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Lager, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Clin Microbiol, Sweden.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept Clin Physiol, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tjernberg, Ivar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept Clin Chem and Transfus Med, Sweden.
    Jonsson Henningsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Clin Microbiol, Sweden.
    Cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being evaluated for Lyme neuroborreliosis2020In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 101390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Lyme neuroborrelios (LNB), the immune response has been in focus, but the association between different cytokines/chemokines and clinical manifestations in LNB patients has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate a large number of cytokines and chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to diagnosis, clinical presentation and recovery in children being evaluated for LNB. Materials and methods: Pediatric patients (n = 105) were recruited at seven Swedish pediatric departments during 2010-14. Serum and CSF samples were drawn on admission, before start of antibiotic treatment. Patients diagnosed as Definite LNB or Possible LNB were categorized as LNBtot patients, all LNBtot patients presented with pleocytosis in CSF. Patients diagnosed as Non-LNB or Other diagnosis were categorized as Controls(tot), all controls(tot) presented without pleocytosis in CSF. Multiplex bead array (Luminex) kits were used for analyses of 41 different cytokines/chemokines in CSF (Millipore). Results: Twenty-eight cytokines/chemokines were detectable in CSF and the levels of 26 of these mediators were significantly higher in LNBtot patients than in Controls(tot). In a discriminant analysis, a combination of four cytokines/chemokines (CXCL1, GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-10) were shown to independently separate relevant patient groups. Furthermore, an IL-10/CXCL1 ratio was created and shown to have an improved diagnostic performance in distinguishing LNBtot vs Non-LNB patients, as compared to CXCL13 in CSF. No immune mediator differed significantly, when comparing LNBtot patients with different clinical presentation on admission or when comparing patients with or without recovery within 2 months of admission. Conclusion: A discriminant analysis was shown to be useful to distinguish the independently most important cytokines/chemokines (CXCL1, GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-10) in CSF, in order to discriminate LNBtot patients from Non-LNB patients. An IL-10/CXCL1 ratio was shown to have a promising diagnostic profile with a better performance than the chemokine CXCL13 in CSF. However, further evaluation is required to address future possible usefulness of these cytokines and chemokines in laboratory diagnostics in LNB, including control groups with neuro-inflammation. No significant associations were found between CSF immune mediator levels and clinical presentation or recovery in pediatric LNB patients.

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  • 28.
    Sune, Dan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rydberg, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Serrander, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Bergman Jungestrom, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Optimization of 16S rRNA gene analysis for use in the diagnostic clinical microbiology service2020In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, ISSN 0167-7012, E-ISSN 1872-8359, Vol. 170, article id 105854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broad-range amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, directly from clinical samples, is a method that potentially allows detection of any cultivable or non-cultivable bacteria. However, the method is prone to false positive results due to PCR contamination. Another concern is the human DNA abundance compared to bacterial DNA in samples from sterile sites. Those factors may decrease the sensitivity and specificity of the assay and can complicate the analysis and interpretation of the results. The objective of this prospective study was to try to avoid the most common pitfalls, mentioned above, and develop a molecular 16S assay with a high clinical sensitivity and specificity. Fifty-six consecutive tissue samples from patients with suspected deep infections were extracted by 3 different DNA-extraction methods; two based on a principle of bacterial DNA enrichment, and one conventional DNA extraction method. We compared three primer pairs, including both conventional and DPO principle, targeting different variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Results from routine tissue culture were used as reference. Clinical data was recorded from patient charts and analyzed in parallel. Of a total of 56 samples, collected from 39 patients, 70% (39 samples) were assessed as true infections by analysis of clinical data. Bacterial enrichment extraction increased sensitivity from 54% to 72%. The 2 sets of primer pairs defining region V1-V3 and V3-V4, showed similar sensitivity, but DPO-primers resulted in better specificity, i.e. less contaminations. The primer pairs covering V1-V8 show significantly lower sensitivity (p amp;lt; .001) than V1-V3 and V3-V4. Optimizing extraction protocols and choice of primers can increase the sensitivity and specificity of a molecular 16S-analysis, rendering a valuable complement to tissue culture.

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  • 29.
    Svärd, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Roos, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Brink, M.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Dahlqvist, S. Rantapaa
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Secretory antibodies to citrullinated peptides in plasma and saliva from rheumatoid arthritis patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives2020In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 199, no 2, p. 143-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate secretory antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) in plasma and immunoglobulin (Ig)A ACPA in saliva from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs). Patients with RA (n = 194) and first-degree relatives unaffected by RA (n = 191) were recruited for analysis of secretory antibodies to second-generation cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) in plasma. From a subpopulation (25 RA patients, 21 first-degree relatives and 11 controls), saliva samples were obtained for IgA anti-CCP analysis. The presence of secretory ACPA was compared between subject categories, and related to genetic and environmental risk factors. Secretory ACPA occurred in 37 (19%) plasma samples from patients with RA, but only in two (1%) of FDRs. IgA ACPA in saliva was found in three of 25 (12%) patients with RA, but not in any of the 21 FDRs (amp;lt; 5%). No significant associations were seen between the presence of secretory ACPA and SE or smoking, either among RA patients or among FDRs. Despite occurring in 19% of RA plasma, secretory ACPA was rare in both saliva and plasma among FDRs, even among those positive for conventional ACPA of non-mucosal origin. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine whether circulating secretory ACPA occurs before or in parallel with the development of clinical arthritis.

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