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  • 1.
    Aarts, B.
    et al.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Kokshoorn, B.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Mc Kenna, L.G.
    Forensic Science Ireland, DNA department, Dublin, Ireland.
    Drotz, W.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    van Oorschot, R.A.
    Office of the Chief Forensic Scientist, Victoria Police Forensic Services Department, Macleod- Victoria, Australia.
    Kloosterman, A.D.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    DNActivity: International cooperation in activity level interpretation of forensic DNA evidence.2015Ingår i: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015., 2015, s. 555-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions posed to expert witnesses by the legal community and the courts are expanding to include not just those relating to source level (i.e. ‘who is the donor of the trace?’) but also those relating to activitity level (i.e. ‘how did the DNA get there?’). The answers to these questions are usually formulated as the probability of the evidence under alternative scenarios. As activity level questions are part of investigative and legal considerations it is of paramount importance that expert witnesses are provided with knowledge and tools to address these questions.

    To answer such questions within a probabilistic framework, empirical data is needed to estimate probabilities of transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA as well as background levels of DNA on everyday objects. There is a paucity of empirical data on these topics, but the number of studies is increasing both through in-house experiments and experimental data published in international scientific journals.

    Laboratories that conduct such studies all use different experimental setups, trace recovery strategies and techniques and DNA analysis systems and equipment. It is essential for the forensic genetics community in general to establish whether the data generated by different labs are in concordance, and can therefore be readily used by the forensic community.

    Moreover, if existing data and data generated from future experiments are made available to the (forensic) community, knowledge is needed on the key factors that underlie potential interlaboratory variation.

    The aims and objectives of this ENFSI Monopoly 2013 project are to conduct a study of methodologies and data from different laboratories and to assess the comparability of the scientific data on transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA. This comparison will allow us to identify key factors that underlie potential variation. This information will be used to setup guidelines to enable sharing and database-storage of relevant scientific

    data. This will improve the ability of forensic scientists and other professionals of the Criminal Justice System to give evidence-based answers to questions that relate to the activity level of the crime under investigation.

  • 2.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G.
    Norwegian Univ Sci and Technol, Norway.
    Mouchet, Alexia
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Moiron, Maria
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Stuber, Erica F.
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE USA.
    Kempenaers, Bart
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Dingemanse, Niels J.
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Germany.
    Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird2018Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 1001-1010Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. In addition, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). In two consecutive years, perceived predation risk was manipulated for great tits Parus major breeding in 12 nest-box plots by broadcasting sounds of their main predator (European sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus; six plots). As a control treatment, sounds of a sympatric, avian non-predator species were broadcast (Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula; six plots). Levels of extra-pair paternity did not differ between plots with different predation risk treatments. Males that moved more in a novel environment (more active or faster exploring) tended to have offspring with fewer partners, but this effect did not vary with predation risk treatment. From an adaptive viewpoint, predation costs associated with extra-pair reproduction may be small and may not outweigh the benefits of extra-pair behaviour. Research on a broader range of taxa with different mating strategies is now needed to confirm the generality of our findings.

  • 3.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Dingemanse, Niels J.
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Germany.
    Adaptive individual variation in phenological responses to perceived predation levels2019Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive evolution of timing of breeding (a component of phenology) in response to environmental change requires individual variation in phenotypic plasticity for selection to act upon. A major question is what processes generate this variation. Here we apply multi-year manipulations of perceived predation levels (PPL) in an avian predator-prey system, identifying phenotypic plasticity in phenology as a key component of alternative behavioral strategies with equal fitness payoffs. We show that under low-PPL, faster (versus slower) exploring birds breed late (versus early); the pattern is reversed under high-PPL, with breeding synchrony decreasing in conjunction. Timing of breeding affects reproductive success, yet behavioral types have equal fitness. The existence of alternative behavioral strategies thus explains variation in phenology and plasticity in reproductive behavior, which has implications for evolution in response to anthropogenic change.

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  • 4.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Division L5, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace & Civil Engineering, Dalton Nuclear Institute, FSE Research Institutes,The University of Manchester, UK.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. School of Biological Sciences, Centre for Ecology,Evolution and Behaviour, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham UK.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 222, nr 20, artikel-id jeb211888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been correlated with physiological functions as well as fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we experimentally investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three-spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been implicated in correlations with physiological functions as well as affecting fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three- spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

    Ladda ner fulltext (xlsx)
    Raw Data
  • 6.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily J.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Favati, Anna
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlblom, Josefin
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks2018Dataset
    Abstract [en]
    1. The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences.
    2. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression.
    3. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and increased serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior.
    4. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.
    Ladda ner fulltext (xlsx)
    dataset
  • 7.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Favati, A.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlbom, J.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, S.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, nr 4, s. 201-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks <i>(Gasterosteus aculeatus)</i> under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Southern Oregon Univ, OR 97520 USA.
    Garnham, Laura
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundgren, Kristoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Child, Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Manchester, England.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Experimental manipulation of monoamine levels alters personality in crickets2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 16211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personality has been described in a range of species with ecological and evolutionary consequences. Factors shaping and maintaining variation in personality are not fully understood, but monoaminergic systems are consistently linked to personality variation. We experimentally explored how personality was influenced by alterations in two key monoamine systems: dopamine and serotonin. This was done using ropinirole and fluoxetine, two common human pharmaceuticals. Using the Mediterranean field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), we focused on the personality traits activity, exploration, and aggression, with confirmed repeatability in our study. Dopamine manipulations explained little variation in the personality traits investigated, while serotonin manipulation reduced both activity and aggression. Due to limited previous research, we created a dose-response curve for ropinirole, ranging from concentrations measured in surface waters to human therapeutic doses. No ropinirole dose level strongly influenced cricket personality, suggesting our results did not come from a dose mismatch. Our results indicate that the serotonergic system explains more variation in personality than manipulations of the dopaminergic system. Additionally, they suggest that monoamine systems differ across taxa, and confirm the importance of the mode of action of pharmaceuticals in determining their effects on behaviour.

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  • 9.
    Abdelfattah, Ahmed
    et al.
    Univ Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wisniewski, Michael
    USDA ARS, WV 25430 USA.
    Cacciola, Santa O.
    Univ Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Univ Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Metabarcoding: A powerful tool to investigate microbial communities and shape future plant protection strategies2018Ingår i: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are the main drivers shaping the functioning and equilibrium of all ecosystems, contributing to nutrient cycling, primary production, litter decomposition, and multi-trophic interactions. Knowledge about the microbial assemblies in specific ecological niches is integral to understanding the assemblages interact and function the function, and becomes essential when the microbiota intersects with human activities, such as protecting crops against pests and diseases. Metabarcoding has proven to be a valuable tool and has been widely used for characterizing the microbial diversity of different environments and has been utilized in many research endeavors. Here we summarize the current status of metabarcoding technologies, the advantages and challenges in utilizing this technique, and how this pioneer approach is being applied to studying plant diseases and pests, with a focus on plant protection and biological control. Current and future developments in this technology will foster a more comprehensive understanding of microbial ecology, and the development of new, innovative pest control strategies.

  • 10. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Early domestication?: Phenotypic alterations of Red Junglefowl selected for divergent fear of humans2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här avhandlingen är ett resultat av ett projekt där vi avlat djur på tamhet för att undersöka egenskapens roll i den tidiga domesticeringen. De domesticerade djur som vi har i vår närhet har alla genomgått en process där de har anpassats för vår miljö. Det skulle kunna liknas vid en snabb evolution, där ett djurs utseende och beteende förändras under en relativt sett kort tid genom avel av människan. Domesticerade djur skiljer sig från sina vilda släktingar på många olika sätt, de kan vara både mindre och större är ursprunget, finnas i olika färgvariationer, ha ändrade kroppsproportioner och de skiljer sig även åt i tröskelvärden för beteende från de vilda djuren. Skillnaderna mellan domesticerade djur och ursprunget är förvånansvärt lika mellan djurarter och man brukar kalla detta för den domesticerade fenotypen.

    I det här projektet ville vi se om den domesticerade fenotypen egentligen är en biprodukt som uppkommer om man avlar djur på tamhet, på så sätt skulle rädslan för människor vara en nyckelegenskap för domesticeringen. För att undersöka detta använde vi det röda djungelhönset (RJF) som alla domesticerade höns härstammar ifrån. I sex generationer avlades RJF som antingen hade hög eller låg rädsla för människor. Eftersom vi bara har ett avelskriterium kan vi dra slutsatsen att om dessa djur kommer att skilja sig åt på fler sätt så beror det på korrelerade selektionseffekter. Det vill säga, man avlar på en egenskap och andra egenskaper följer med.

    I varje generation har vi utfört beteendetester på djuren som främst varit kopplade till rädsla, utforskande och sociala beteenden. Utöver beteendetesterna har vi undersökt djurens kroppsvikt, äggvikt, metabolism, födointag, fjäderdräkt och tagit blodprov för att mäta kortikosteron och serotonin. När djuren har avlivats har vi vägt hjärnan, hjärtat, levern, mjälten och testiklarna.

    Efter sex generationer av selekterad avel hade hönsen i projektet förändrats på olika sätt. Först och främst konstaterade vi att rädslan för människa är möjlig att avla på då den har en signifikant genetisk arvbarhet. De djuren som har en låg rädsla för människor har blivit större, socialt dominanta, lägger större ägg och får större avkomma. Metabolismen har påverkats så att de höns som har låg rädsla för människor har högre metabolism och omsätter även maten mer till tillväxt än de djuren med hög rädsla. Aveln har även påverkat djurens morfologi, de djuren som har hög rädsla för människor och alltså kan anses vara mer som ursprunget har större hjärna, hjärta, lever och mjälte. Många av dessa förändringar som uppkommit redan efter sex generationer korrelerar med de skillnader man ser mellan vilda och domesticerade djur vilket påvisar vikten av egenskapen för domesticeringsprocessen.

    Delarbeten
    1. Heritability and Genetic Correlations of Fear-Related Behaviour in Red Jungelfowl -Possible Implications for Early Domestication
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Heritability and Genetic Correlations of Fear-Related Behaviour in Red Jungelfowl -Possible Implications for Early Domestication
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. e35162-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated species differ from their wild ancestors in a number of traits, generally referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Reduced fear of humans is assumed to have been an early prerequisite for the successful domestication of virtually all species. We hypothesized that fear of humans is linked to other domestication related traits. For three generations, we selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of domestic chickens) solely on the reaction in a standardized Fear of Human-test. In this, the birds were exposed for a gradually approaching human, and their behaviour was continuously scored. This generated three groups of animals, high (H), low (L) and intermediate (I) fearful birds. The birds in each generation were additionally tested in a battery of behaviour tests, measuring aspects of fearfulness, exploration, and sociality. The results demonstrate that the variation in fear response of Red Junglefowl towards humans has a significant genetic component and is genetically correlated to behavioural responses in other contexts, of which some are associated with fearfulness and others with exploration. Hence, selection of Red Junglefowl on low fear for humans can be expected to lead to a correlated change of other behavioural traits over generations. It is therefore likely that domestication may have caused an initial suite of behavioural modifications, even without selection on anything besides tameness.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76833 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0035162 (DOI)000305336200026 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-04-20 Skapad: 2012-04-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28
    2. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: animal, ISSN 1751-7311, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. 1498-1505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Cambridge University Press, 2014
    Nyckelord
    Red Junglefowl, domestication, fearfulness, selection, social behaviour
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109499 (URN)10.1017/S1751731114001426 (DOI)000342219000013 ()24910136 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-08-20 Skapad: 2014-08-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28
    3. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 20150509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ROYAL SOC, 2015
    Nyckelord
    genetics; domestication; stress
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Zoologi Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123162 (URN)10.1098/rsbl.2015.0509 (DOI)000364772300009 ()26382075 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|research council Formas; ERC [322206]

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-07 Skapad: 2015-12-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 11, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    PLOS, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Utvecklingsbiologi Genetik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132742 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0166075 (DOI)000387909300035 ()27851792 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    European Research Council [322206]; FORMAS [221-2007-838]; Vetenskapsradet [621-2008-5437]

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-22 Skapad: 2016-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-28Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Early domestication?: Phenotypic alterations of Red Junglefowl selected for divergent fear of humans
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  • 11.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ali, A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olby, S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring2014Ingår i: animal, ISSN 1751-7311, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. 1498-1505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brain size is reduced by selectionfor tameness in Red Junglefowl–correlated effects in vital organs2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 3306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During domestication animals have undergone changes in size of brain and other vital organs. We hypothesize that this could be a correlated effect to increased tameness. Red Junglefowl (ancestors of domestic chickens) were selected for divergent levels of fear of humans for five generations. The parental (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5) were culled when 48–54 weeks old and the brains were weighed before being divided into telencephalon, cerebellum, mid brain and optic lobes. Each single brain part as well as the liver, spleen, heart and testicles were also weighed. Brains of S5 birds with high fear scores (S5 high) were heavier both in absolute terms and when corrected for body weight. The relative weight of telencephalon (% of brain weight) was significantly higher in S5 high and relative weight of cerebellum was lower. Heart, liver, testes and spleen were all relatively heavier (% of body weight) in S5 high. Hence, selection for tameness has changed the size of the brain and other vital organs in this population and may have driven the domesticated phenotype as a correlated response.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens2018Ingår i: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 205, s. 227-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals offers unique possibilities to study evolutionary changes caused by similar selection pressures across a range of species. Animals from separate genera tend to develop a suite of phenotypic alterations referred to as "the domesticated phenotype". This involves changes in appearance, including loss of pigmentation, and alterations in body size and proportions. Furthermore, effects on reproduction and behaviour are typical. It is hypothesized that this recurring phenotype may be secondary effects of the increased tameness that is an inevitable first step in the domestication of any species. We first provide a general overview of observations and experiments from different species and then review in more detail a project attempting to recreate the initial domestication of chickens. Starting from an outbred population of Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all modem chickens, divergent lines were selected based on scores in a standardized fear-of-human test applied to all birds at 12 weeks of age. Up to the eighth selected generation, observations have been made on correlated effects of this selection on various phenotypes. The fear score had a significant heritability and was genetically correlated to several other behavioural traits. Furthermore, low-fear birds were larger at hatch, grew faster, laid larger eggs, had a modified metabolism and increased feed efficiency, had modified social behaviour and reduced brain size. Selection affected gene expression and DNA-methylation in the brains, but the genetic and epigenetic effects were not specifically associated with stress pathways. Further research should be focused on unraveling the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the correlated side-effects of reduced fear of humans.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl2016Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 11, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jöngren, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Strandberg, Erling
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Heritability and Genetic Correlations of Fear-Related Behaviour in Red Jungelfowl -Possible Implications for Early Domestication2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. e35162-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated species differ from their wild ancestors in a number of traits, generally referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Reduced fear of humans is assumed to have been an early prerequisite for the successful domestication of virtually all species. We hypothesized that fear of humans is linked to other domestication related traits. For three generations, we selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of domestic chickens) solely on the reaction in a standardized Fear of Human-test. In this, the birds were exposed for a gradually approaching human, and their behaviour was continuously scored. This generated three groups of animals, high (H), low (L) and intermediate (I) fearful birds. The birds in each generation were additionally tested in a battery of behaviour tests, measuring aspects of fearfulness, exploration, and sociality. The results demonstrate that the variation in fear response of Red Junglefowl towards humans has a significant genetic component and is genetically correlated to behavioural responses in other contexts, of which some are associated with fearfulness and others with exploration. Hence, selection of Red Junglefowl on low fear for humans can be expected to lead to a correlated change of other behavioural traits over generations. It is therefore likely that domestication may have caused an initial suite of behavioural modifications, even without selection on anything besides tameness.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)2015Ingår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 20150509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

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    fulltext
    Ladda ner fulltext (zip)
    Dataset
  • 17.
    Ahlrot, Ulrica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Welfare in zoo kept felids: A study of resource usage2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large number of felid species being endangered they are subjects of conservation projects both in situ and ex situ. Keeping felids in zoos are problematic with stereotypic behaviours such as pacing and reproduction difficulties often occurring. The aim of this study was to review research and zoo husbandry knowledge about which resources are most important for the welfare of zoo kept felids, and in addition perform behavioural observations in seven felid species in four Swedish zoos to try to find an order of priority of resources. Observations were performed during opening hours in 36 sessions per species and zoo. The results showed that studies of felid resource usage are missing. Zoo husbandry practice is probably based mainly on traditions and anecdotal knowledge. The observations showed that except for minor differences felids behave similarly regardless of species but the use of resources varies. Small felid species seems to be hiding rather than pacing as a way of coping. Elevated resources and areas as well as numerous hiding places are important to felids but many factors might affect the choice of resting places. Therefore it is important to provide the felids with multiple choices. It is also important to evaluate both species and individuals when designing enclosures and providing resources. More multi-institutional studies with large number of individuals of all zoo kept felid species are needed to gather knowledge about felids needs and preferences of resources.

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    fulltext
  • 18.
    Ahlsén, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    The Effects of Abiotic Stress on Alternative Splicing in Non-specific Lipid Transfer Proteins in Marchantia polymorpha2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to global warming, our planet will experience more extreme weather conditions. Plants can protect themselves against these abiotic stress conditions with their stress response, which includes alternative splicing of certain genes. Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional process where a single gene gives rise to different mRNAs, which in turn produces different proteins. In plants, this is usually done by intron retention. One type of protein that may be involved in this stress response are the non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs). Indeed, evidence of intron retention has been found in the LTP genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, called MpLTPd. To investigate whether this alternative splicing is caused by abiotic stress or not, I subjected the moss to two different types of stress trials, drought and cold, and compared the general expression of the intron in MpLTPd2 and MpLTPd3 from the stressed samples to samples from a moss grown under normal conditions. I found that the expression of the intron did change in the stressed moss, but none of the differences were significant. This suggests that alterative splicing in MpLTPd2 and MpLTPd3 is not caused by cold and drought and that the intron-containing protein plays no role in the protection of M. polymorpha against abiotic stress.

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    fulltext
  • 19.
    Aineslahti, Emmi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Training of spider monkeys in a food-rewarded two-choice olfactory discrimination paradigm and assessment of olfactory learning and memory performance2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    There is little knowledge about olfactory learning in primates, even though primates are known to use olfaction in several behaviors including food selection and territorial defense. Therefore I assessed the olfactory learning and memory performance in five adult spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) using a food-rewarded two-choice olfactory discrimination paradigm. The spider monkeys acquired the initial odor discrimination in 530-1102 trials and in a series of intramodal transfer tasks they needed 30-510 trials to reach the learning criterion. There was a significant negative correlation between the number of trials needed to reach the learning criterion and the number of transfer tasks completed. Thus, as a group, the animals displayed olfactory learning set formation. The number of trials that the spider monkeys needed in initial olfactory learning was comparable to that of other primate species tested previously but higher compared to that of other mammals such as dogs and rats. The learning speed of the spider monkeys in intramodal transfer tasks was similar to that of other mammals tested, suggesting that primates are less prepared to use olfactory cues in the initial solving of a problem but that once they learn the concept, their learning speed with novel odor discrimination problems is not generally slower than that of non-primate mammals. All spider monkeys tested reached the learning criterion in the memory tasks straight on the first testing day, that is: within 30 trials, suggesting similar long-term odor memory capabilities in spider monkeys and other mammals such as dogs, mice and rats.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Master's thesis Emmi Aineslahti
  • 20.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Author Correction: Enhancing nutrient recycling from excreta to meet crop nutrient needs in Sweden - a spatial analysis2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 361Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enhancing nutrient recycling from excreta to meet crop nutrient needs in Sweden - a spatial analysis2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 10264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recycling of nutrient-rich organic waste to meet crop nutrient needs is an essential component of a more sustainable food system. However, agricultural specialization continues to pose a significant challenge to balancing crop nutrient needs and the nutrient supply from animal manure and human excreta locally. For Sweden, this study found that recycling all excreta (in 2007) could meet up to 75% of crop nitrogen and 81% of phosphorus needs, but that this would exceed crop potassium needs by 51%. Recycling excreta within municipalities could meet 63% of crop P nutrient needs, but large regional differences and imbalances need to be corrected to avoid over or under fertilizing. Over 50% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in excreta is contained in just 40% of municipalities, and those have a surplus of excreta nutrients compared to crop needs. Reallocation of surpluses (nationally optimized for phosphorus) towards deficit municipalities, would cost 192 million USD (for 24 079 km of truck travel). This is 3.7 times more than the total NPK fertilizer value being transported. These results indicate that Sweden could reduce its dependence on synthetic fertilizers through investments in excreta recycling, but this would likely require valuing also other recycling benefits.

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    fulltext
    Ladda ner (pdf)
    author correction
  • 22.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Geneviéve S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optimizing Nutrient Recycling From Excreta in Sweden and Pakistan: Higher Spatial Resolution Makes Transportation More Attractive2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling essential plant nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) from organic waste such as human and animal excreta will be an essential part of sustainable food systems and a circular economy. However, transportation is often cited as a major barrier to increased recycling as organic waste is heavy and bulky, and distances between areas of abundant waste may be far from areas with a need for fertilizers. We investigated the effect of increased input data spatial resolution to an optimization model on the weight, distance, and spatial patterns of transport. The model was run in Sweden and in Pakistan to examine cost-effectiveness of transporting excess excreta to areas of crop need after local recycling. Increasing the resolution of input data from political boundaries (municipalities and districts) to 0.083 decimal grids increased the amount of N requiring transport by 12% in Pakistan and increased P requiring transport by 14% in Sweden. The average distance decreased by 67% (to 44 km) in Pakistan but increased by 1 km in Sweden. Further increasing the resolution to 5 km grids in Sweden decreased the average transportation distance by 9 km (down to 123 km). In both countries, increasing resolution also decreased the number of long-distance heavy transports, and as such costs did not increase as much as total distance and weight transported. Ultimately, transportation in Pakistan seemed financially beneficial: the cost of transport only represented 13% of the NPK fertilizer value transported, and total recycling could even cover 78% of additional fertilizer purchases required. In Sweden, the cost of transporting excreta did not seem cost effective without valuing other potential benefits of increased recycling: costs were three times higher than the fertilizer value transported in excreta at the 5 km resolution. In summary, increasing input data resolution created a more realistic picture of recycling needs. This also highlighted more favorable cost to fertilizer value ratios which could make it easier to move forward with industry and government partners to facilitate productive recycling. Our analysis shows that in both countries increased recycling can result in better spatial nutrient balances.

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  • 23.
    Albinsson, L.
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, J.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mixed DNA profiles from single-donors2015Ingår i: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015, 2015, s. 538-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosaicism and chimerism in individuals can complicate the interpretation and even lead to misinterpretation of DNA profiles in forensic casework. If a person has different DNA profiles in different tissue types, i.e. a true chimaera, wrongful exclusions can be made. Additionally, mixed chimaeras can have DNA profiles that may be mistaken for mixtures. We have set-up automatic DNA databasing processes to handle atypical single-donor DNA profiles, i.e. profiles having one or several “extra” alleles.

    Studying all reference samples analysed at NFC from 2006 until spring 2014, 2‰ of the samples showed atypical DNA profiles. To be able to set routines for handling these DNA profiles, each one was manually searched in CODIS with adjusted settings, to evaluate the frequency of false-positive hits. To tag these profiles in LIMS a new result status was implemented. Additionally, all such DNA profiles must be confirmed by analysing at least two discrete samples. In LIMS, the results are manually recorded to compose of all alleles from the samples from a suspect, i.e. containing most possible genetic information. LIMS automatically categorises the atypical DNA profiles with a special CODIS index, called “Multi-allelic offender”. The first time an atypical profile is searched, the matches are manually investigated. If a match is false, its disposition will be set to “no match” to prevent this from occurring in future searches. Automatic searches will then be performed in every day routine with moderate stringency, allowing the atypical DNA profile to match either a genotype or a mixture. If the match is true, a match-report will be created and sent to the police from the LIMS.

     

  • 24.
    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma
    et al.
    Departamento de Biología Aplicada, Universidad Miguel Hernández.
    Rivera, Fransisco J.
    Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neurogeneration, Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Facultu of Medicine and Center for INterdiciplinary Studies on the Nervous System (CISNe), Universitad Austral de Chile; Institute for Molecular Regenerative MEdicine and Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg (SCI-TReCS), Paracelsus University, Salzburg, Austira.
    Guerrero Bosagna, Carlos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bisphenol-A and metabolic diseases: epigenetic developmental and transgenerational basis2016Ingår i: Environmental Epigenetics, ISSN 2058-5888, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to environmental toxicants is now accepted as a factor contributing to the increasing incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases around the world. Such environmental compounds are known as ‘obesogens’. Among them, bisphenol-A (BPA) is the most widespread and ubiquitous compound affecting humans and animals. Laboratory animal work has provided conclusive evidence that early-life exposure to BPA is particularly effective in predisposing individuals to weight gain. Embryonic exposure to BPA is reported to generate metabolic disturbances later in life, such as obesity and diabetes. When BPA administration is combined with a high-fat diet, there is an exacerbation in the development of metabolic disorders. Remarkably, upon BPA exposure of gestating females, metabolic disturbances have been found both in the offspring and later in life in the mothers themselves. When considering the metabolic effects generated by an early developmental exposure to BPA, one of the questions that arises is the role of precursor cells in the etiology of metabolic disorders. Current evidence shows that BPA and other endocrine disruptors have the ability to alter fat tissue development and growth by affecting the capacity to generate functional adipocytes, as well as their rate of differentiation to specific cell types. Epigenetic mechanisms seem to be involved in the BPA-induced effects related to obesity, as they have been described in both in vitro and in vivo models. Moreover, recent reports also show that developmental exposure to BPA generates abnormalities that can be transmitted to future generations, in a process called as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

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  • 25.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Anderson, W. Gary
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Ecophysiology methods: Refining the old, validating the new and developing for the future2016Ingår i: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 202Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 26.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Isa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Giraldo-Deck, Lina Maria
    University of Mayor San Andres, Bolivia.
    Matthei, Alberto
    Tinamou Chile SL, Chile.
    Garitano-Zavala, Alvaro
    University of Mayor San Andres, Bolivia.
    Aerobic performance in tinamous is limited by their small heart. A novel hypothesis in the evolution of avian flight2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 15964Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some biomechanical studies from fossil specimens suggest that sustained flapping flight of birds could have appeared in their Mesozoic ancestors. We challenge this idea because a suitable musculoskeletal anatomy is not the only requirement for sustained flapping flight. We propose the "heart to fly" hypothesis that states that sustained flapping flight in modern birds required an enlargement of the heart for the aerobic performance of the flight muscles and test it experimentally by studying tinamous, the living birds with the smallest hearts. The small ventricular size of tinamous reduces cardiac output without limiting perfusion pressures, but when challenged to fly, the heart is unable to support aerobic metabolism (quick exhaustion, larger lactates and post-exercise oxygen consumption and compromised thermoregulation). At the same time, cardiac growth shows a crocodilian-like pattern and is correlated with differential gene expression in MAPK kinases. We integrate this physiological evidence in a new evolutionary scenario in which the ground-up, short and not sustained flapping flight displayed by tinamous represents an intermediate step in the evolution of the aerobic sustained flapping flight of modern birds.

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  • 27.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Surgery and Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh.
    Venhoranta, Heli
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Helsinki, Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Saari, Finland.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Expression of Immune Regulatory Genes in the Porcine Internal Genital Tract Is Differentially Triggered by Spermatozoa and Seminal Plasma2019Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikel-id 513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mating or cervical deposition of spermatozoa or seminal plasma (SP) modifies the expression of genes affecting local immune defense processes at the oviductal sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, frequently by down-regulation. Such responses may occur alongside sperm transport to or even beyond the reservoir. Here, immune-related gene expression was explored with cDNA microarrays on porcine cervix-to-infundibulum tissues, pre-/peri-ovulation. Samples were collected 24 h post-mating or cervical deposition of sperm-peak spermatozoa or SP (from the sperm-peak fraction or the whole ejaculate). All treatments of this interventional study affected gene expression. The concerted action of spermatozoa and SP down-regulated chemokine and cytokine (P00031), interferon-gamma signaling (P00035), and JAK/STAT (P00038) pathways in segments up to the sperm reservoir (utero-tubal junction (UTJ)/isthmus). Spermatozoa in the vanguard sperm-peak fraction (P1-AI), uniquely displayed an up-regulatory effect on these pathways in the ampulla and infundibulum. Sperm-free SP, on the other hand, did not lead to major effects on gene expression, despite the clinical notion that SP mitigates reactivity by the female immune system after mating or artificial insemination.

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  • 28.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Martinez, Cristina A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Does the Act of Copulation per se, without Considering Seminal Deposition, Change the Expression of Genes in the Porcine Female Genital Tract?2020Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, nr 15, artikel-id 5477Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Semen-through its specific sperm and seminal plasma (SP) constituents-induces changes of gene expression in the internal genital tract of pigs, particularly in the functional sperm reservoir at the utero-tubal junction (UTJ). Although seminal effects are similarly elicited by artificial insemination (AI), major changes in gene expression are registered after natural mating, a fact suggesting the act of copulation induces per se changes in genes that AI does not affect. The present study explored which pathways were solely influenced by copulation, affecting the differential expression of genes (DEGs) of the pre/peri-ovulatory genital tract (cervix, distal uterus, proximal uterus and UTJ) of estrus sows, 24 h after various procedures were performed to compare natural mating with AI of semen (control 1), sperm-free SP harvested from the sperm-peak fraction (control 2), sperm-free SP harvested from the whole ejaculate (control 3) or saline-extender BTS (control 4), using a microarray chip (GeneChip(R)porcine gene 1.0 st array). Genes related to neuroendocrine responses (ADRA1,ADRA2,GABRB2,CACNB2), smooth muscle contractility (WNT7A), angiogenesis and vascular remodeling (poFUT1,NTN4) were, among others, overrepresented with distal and proximal uterine segments exhibiting the highest number of DEGs. The findings provide novel evidence that relevant transcriptomic changes in the porcine female reproductive tract occur in direct response to the specific act of copulation, being semen-independent.

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  • 29.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Martinez-Serrano, Cristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Barranco, Isabel
    Univ Girona, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The Transcriptome of Pig Spermatozoa, and Its Role in Fertility2020Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol. 21, nr 5, artikel-id 1572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study presented here we identified transcriptomic markers for fertility in the cargo of pig ejaculated spermatozoa using porcine-specific micro-arrays (GeneChip((R)) miRNA 4.0 and GeneChip((R)) Porcine Gene 1.0 ST). We report (i) the relative abundance of the ssc-miR-1285, miR-16, miR-4332, miR-92a, miR-671-5p, miR-4334-5p, miR-425-5p, miR-191, miR-92b-5p and miR-15b miRNAs, and (ii) the presence of 347 up-regulated and 174 down-regulated RNA transcripts in high-fertility breeding boars, based on differences of farrowing rate (FS) and litter size (LS), relative to low-fertility boars in the (Artificial Insemination) AI program. An overrepresentation analysis of the protein class (PANTHER) identified significant fold-increases for C-C chemokine binding (GO:0019957): CCR7, which activates B- and T-lymphocytes, 8-fold increase), XCR1 and CXCR4 (with ubiquitin as a natural ligand, 1.24-fold increase), cytokine receptor activity (GO:0005126): IL23R receptor of the IL23 protein, associated to JAK2 and STAT3, 3.4-fold increase), the TGF-receptor (PC00035) genes ACVR1C and ACVR2B (12-fold increase). Moreover, two micro-RNAs (miR-221 and mir-621) were down- and up-regulated, respectively, in high-fertility males. In conclusion, boars with different fertility performance possess a wide variety of differentially expressed RNA present in spermatozoa that would be attractive targets as non-invasive molecular markers for predicting fertility.

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  • 30.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ntzouni, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Core Facility.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Khan, Kabirul Islam
    Chattogram Vet and Anim Sci Univ, Bangladesh.
    Lopez-Bejar, Manel
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Martinez-Serrano, Cristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Chicken seminal fluid lacks CD9-and CD44-bearing extracellular vesicles2020Ingår i: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 293-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The avian seminal fluid (SF) is a protein-rich fluid, derived from the testis, the rudimentary epididymis and, finally, from the cloacal gland. The SF interacts with spermatozoa and the inner cell lining of the female genital tract, to modulate sperm functions and female immune responsiveness. Its complex proteome might either be free or linked to extracellular vesicles (EVs) as it is the case in mammals, where EVs depict the tetraspanin CD9; and where those EVs derived from the epididymis (epididymosomes) also present the receptor CD44. In the present study, sperm-free SF from Red Jungle Fowl, White Leghorn and an advanced intercross (AIL, 12th generation) were studied using flow cytometry of the membrane marker tetraspanin CD9, Western blotting of the membrane receptor CD44 and electron microscopy in non-enriched (whole SF) or enriched fractions obtained by precipitation using a commercial kit (Total Exosome Precipitation Solution). Neither CD9- nor CD44 could be detected, and the ultrastructure confirmed the relative absence of EVs, raising the possibility that avian SF interacts differently with the female genitalia as compared to the seminal plasma of mammals.

  • 31.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

    • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
    • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
    • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

    BRC:s vision är:

    Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

    BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

    For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

    I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

    Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

    I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

    Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

    Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

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    Table Swe
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    Table Eng
  • 32.
    Andersson, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. IFM.
    Dogs´understanding of human pointing gestures2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the ability for animals to understand human communication signals and the communication between animals and humans, scientists often investigate the understanding of human gestural cues. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) which have a long history of co-evolution with humans have been shown to make good use of human gestural cues. In the present study I investigated whether dogs in general understand a human pointing gesture and if there are differences between sex, age or breeds. In total 46 dogs of different breeds participated in the study. The study was carried out in a dog center in Linköping, Hundens och djurens beteendecenter. To test if dogs understand human pointing gestures, a two-way object choice test were used, where an experimenter pointed at a baited bowl at a distance of three meter from the dog. The results showed that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures. However, no significant differences were found for sex, age or breeds. As a conclusion, I found that dogs in general can understand human pointing gestures, but sex, age or breed did not affect the ability.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Dogsunderstandingofhumangestures_ElinAndersson
  • 33.
    Andersson, Erika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Is there genetic variation in VicJ, which can be associated with protein content in pea (Pisum sativum L.)?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the livestock sector accounts for 18 % of greenhouse gas emissions. To prevent negative environmental effects, dietary changes are required. Locally cultivated legumes with high protein content can be used in order to produce plant-based protein, which can replace animal-based protein. In Sweden, pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been cultivated for centuries and been a valuable protein source for both human consumption and animal feed. VicJ, a gene in pea, has previously been associated with variation in protein content. In the present study, a primarily Swedish material of 31 accessions from different improvement stages were analysed for differences in protein content. It was also tested if genetic variation of VicJ was associated with variation in protein content. The result showed no differences in protein content between various improvement stages, which indicated that selection on the trait has not occurred. No genetic variation associated with variation in protein content in VicJ was detected either. However a stop codon in VicJ, known to be associated with reduced protein content was missing in the material, suggesting that the accessions studied may be suitable for breeding to increase protein content in pea.

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  • 34.
    Andersson, Klas
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Burman, Joseph
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Winde, Inis
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    High-accuracy sampling of saproxylic diversity indicators at regionalscales with pheromones: The case of Elater ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Elateridae)2014Ingår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 171, s. 156-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rare beetle Elater ferrugineus was sampled at 47 sites in the county of Östergötland, Sweden by meansof pheromone-baited traps to assess its value as an indicator species for hollow oak stands rich in raresaproxylic beetle species. In addition, Osmoderma eremita was also sampled with pheromone baits. Thesedata were then compared against species survey data collected at the same sites by pitfall and windowtraps. Both species co-occur with many Red Listed saproxylic beetles, with E. ferrugineus being a somewhatbetter indicator for the rarest species. The conservation value of a site (measured as Red List pointsor number of Red Listed species) increased with the number of specimens of E. ferrugineus and O. eremitacaught. Accuracy of sampling by means of pheromone trapping turned out to be radically different for thetwo model species. E. ferrugineus traps put out during July obtained full accuracy after only 6 days,whereas O. eremita traps needed to be out from early July to mid-August in order to obtain full accuracywith one trap per site. By using E. ferrugineus, or preferably both species, as indicator species, accuracywould increase and costs decrease for saproxylic biodiversity sampling, monitoring and identificationof hotspots.

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    High-accuracy sampling of saproxylic diversity indicators at regionalscales with pheromones: The case of Elater ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Elateridae)
  • 35.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    An Evaluation of Two Presumptive Blood Tests and Three Methods to Visualise Blood2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to validate the two presumptive blood tests LMG, LCV and the three visualising blood methods Bluestar Forensics, Lumiscene and the Ruhoff method. The methods’ sensitivity, durability, matrices effects, false positive results and the methods effect on subsequent DNA analysis were studied. DNA analyses were also performed to assess the detection limit of the forensic DNA analysis. Drops of diluted blood were applied on different absorptive matrices and the sensitivity was investigated. The solutions were also placed under different conditions to investigate the durability of the solutions. The solutions were applied upon panels using different chemicals and materials and the false positive results were studied. The DNA analyses were performed by diluting the blood with Bluestar Forensics, the hydrogen peroxide method, the Ruhoff method and deionised water. The study showed that the LMG with a 3 % H2O2 concentration performs the best and it is suited for practical casework. The positive results of LMG was easier to interpret than those of LCV, this is probably due to the fixative agent of the used LCV solution. Bluestar Forensics and Lumiscene did perform similar on the different matrices tested, but the Lumiscene solution had a slightly higher durability. The results strongly indicate that the Ruhoff method can be used without luminol, hence only as a hydrogen peroxide solution (the hydrogen peroxide method). All three visualising blood methods decreases chances of retrieving a positive DNA profile, however the visualising blood methods could be used if the blood cannot be found in any other way. A DNA profile was obtained from the one blood sample analysed at dilution of 1:256 in deionized water.

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  • 36.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Fedoriak, Mariia
    Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Cruz, Fatima
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Munoz-Rojas, Jose
    Univ Evora, Portugal.
    Yamelynets, Taras
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Manton, Michael
    Vytautas Magnus Univ, Lithuania.
    Washbourne, Carla-Leanne
    UCL, England.
    Dobrynin, Denis
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Izakovicova, Zita
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jaroszewicz, Bogdan
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Kanka, Robert
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Kavtarishvili, Marika
    LLM European & Int Law Sch, Georgia.
    Kopperoinen, Leena
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Finland.
    Lazdinis, Marius
    European Commiss, Belgium.
    Metzger, Marc J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    Ozut, Deniz
    Nat Conservat Ctr, Turkey.
    Gjorgjieska, Dori Pavloska
    Head Off Secretariat Reg Rural Dev Standing Worki, North Macedonia.
    Sijtsma, Frans J.
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Stryamets, Nataliya
    Nat Reserve Rortochya, Ukraine; Ca Foscari Univ Venice, Italy.
    Tolunay, Ahmet
    Isparta Univ Appl Sci, Turkey.
    Turkoglu, Turkay
    Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ, Turkey.
    van der Moolen, Bert
    Independent consultant.
    Zagidullina, Asiya
    St Petersburg State Univ, Russia.
    Zhuk, Alina
    Chernivtsi Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Meeting places and social capital supporting rural landscape stewardship: A Pan-European horizon scanning2021Ingår i: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 26, nr 1, artikel-id 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving sustainable development as an inclusive societal process in rural landscapes, and sustainability in terms of functional green infrastructures for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, are wicked challenges. Competing claims from various sectors call for evidence-based adaptive collaborative governance. Leveraging such approaches requires maintenance of several forms of social interactions and capitals. Focusing on Pan-European regions with different environmental histories and cultures, we estimate the state and trends of two groups of factors underpinning rural landscape stewardship, namely, (1) traditional rural landscape and novel face-to-face as well as virtual fora for social interaction, and (2) bonding, bridging, and linking forms of social capital. We applied horizon scanning to 16 local landscapes located in 18 countries, representing Pan-European social-ecological and cultural gradients. The resulting narratives, and rapid appraisal knowledge, were used to estimate portfolios of different fora for social interactions and forms of social capital supporting landscape stewardship. The portfolios of fora for social interactions were linked to societal cultures across the European continent: "self-expression and secular-rational values" in the northwest, "Catholic" in the south, and "survival and traditional authority values" in the East. This was explained by the role of traditional secular and religious local meeting places. Virtual internet-based fora were most widespread. Bonding social capitals were the strongest across the case study landscapes, and linking social capitals were the weakest. This applied to all three groups of fora. Pan-European social-ecological contexts can be divided into distinct clusters with respect to the portfolios of different fora supporting landscape stewardship, which draw mostly on bonding and bridging forms of social capital. This emphasizes the need for regionally and culturally adapted approaches to landscape stewardship, which are underpinned by evidence-based knowledge about how to sustain green infrastructures based on both forest naturalness and cultural landscape values. Sharing knowledge from comparative studies can strengthen linking social capital.

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  • 37.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Manton, Michael
    Vytautas Magnus Univ, Lithuania.
    Yamelynets, Taras
    Ivan Franko Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Fedoriak, Mariia
    Chernivtsi Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Albulescu, Andra-Cosmina
    Alexandru Ioan Cuza Univ, Romania.
    Bravo, Felipe
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Cruz, Fatima
    Univ Valladolid, Spain.
    Jaroszewicz, Bogdan
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Kavtarishvili, Marika
    LLM European & Int Law Sch, Georgia.
    Munoz-Rojas, Jose
    Univ Evora, Portugal.
    Sijtsma, Frans
    Univ Groningen, Netherlands.
    Washbourne, Carla-Leanne
    UCL, England.
    Agnoletti, Mauro
    Univ Firenze, Italy.
    Dobrynin, Denis
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Izakovicova, Zita
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kanka, Robert
    Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Kopperoinen, Leena
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Finland.
    Lazdinis, Marius
    European Commiss, Belgium.
    Metzger, Marc
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland.
    van der Moolen, Bert
    Bosgrp Noord Oost Nederland, Netherlands.
    Ozut, Deniz
    Nat Conservat Ctr, Turkey.
    Gjorgieska, Dori Pavloska
    Secretariat Reg Rural Dev Standing Working Grp SW, North Macedonia.
    Stryamets, Natalie
    Nat Reserve Rortochya, Ukraine.
    Tolunay, Ahmet
    Isparta Univ Appl Sci, Turkey.
    Turkoglu, Turkay
    Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ, Turkey.
    Zagidullina, Asiya
    St Petersburg State Univ, Russia.
    Maintaining natural and traditional cultural green infrastructures across Europe: learning from historic and current landscape transformations2021Ingår i: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 637-663Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Maintaining functional green infrastructures (GIs) require evidence-based knowledge about historic and current states and trends of representative land cover types. Objectives We address: (1) the long-term loss and transformation of potential natural forest vegetation; (2) the effects of site productivity on permanent forest loss and emergence of traditional cultural landscapes; (3) the current management intensity; and (4) the social-ecological contexts conducive to GI maintenance . Methods We selected 16 case study regions, each with a local hotspot landscape, ranging from intact forest landscapes, via contiguous and fragmented forest covers, to severe forest loss. Quantitative open access data were used to estimate (i) the historic change and (ii) transformation of land covers, and (iii) compare the forest canopy loss from 2000 to 2018. Qualitative narratives about each hotspot landscape were analysed for similarities (iv). Results While the potential natural forest vegetation cover in the 16 case study regions had a mean of 86%, historically it has been reduced to 34%. Higher site productivity coincided with transformation to non-forest land covers. The mean annual forest canopy loss for 2000-2018 ranged from 0.01 to 1.08%. The 16 case studies represented five distinct social-ecological contexts (1) radical transformation of landscapes, (2) abuse of protected area concepts, (3) ancient cultural landscapes (4) multi-functional forests, and (5) intensive even-aged forest management, of which 1 and 4 was most common. Conclusions GIs encompass both forest naturalness and traditional cultural landscapes. Our review of Pan-European regions and landscapes revealed similarities in seemingly different contexts, which can support knowledge production and learning about how to sustain GIs.

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  • 38.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Axelsson, Robert
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Degerman, Erik
    Institute of Freshwater Research, Örebro, Sweden .
    Eggers, Sönke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Essen, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Sweden .
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Johansson, Therese
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Müller, Jörg
    National Park Bavarian Forest, Grafenau, Germany.
    Paltto, Heidi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Snäll, Tord
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Solovity, Ihor
    Ukrainian National Forestry University, Lviv, Ukraine .
    Törnblom, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability: The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case Study2013Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 229-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards’ ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC’s ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.

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  • 39.
    Anh Nguyen, Viet
    et al.
    HUCE, Vietnam.
    Phuong Nguyen, Minh
    VNU Univ Sci, Vietnam.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Do Thi, Hai
    HUMG, Vietnam.
    Thi Kim Bui, Anh
    Vietnam Acad Sci and Technol, Vietnam.
    Design and performance of a coarse media, high hydraulic load polishing wetland for steel industry wastewater2019Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 80, nr 1, s. 59-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design of a constructed wetland (CW) system in an area with limited land availability, resulting in high hydraulic loads. The CW was constructed to act as a buffering/polishing step after stabilization ponds for steel industry wastewater post-treatment. A pilot test with two different filter media (50-100 mm vs 40-60 mm diameter) indicated that a flow rate increase from 49.5 m(3)/h to 122.4 m(3)/h would lead to a head loss increase from 2.9 cm to 8.7 cm, and more than double that for the finer gravel. This was substantially higher than the calculated theoretical values, though the relation with flow rate was similar. Four full scale wetland cells (CW1, CW2, CW3 and CW4) were constructed using the coarser gravel. A design value of total head loss of 1.01 m over the total system length, with a design flow of 36,000 m(3)/day, was expected based on pilot test results. During the first operation year (September 2017 to July 2018), the pond-CW system has received wastewater already meeting required discharge standards. The effluent from the CWs had consistently lower concentrations of all measured variables, and met the predicted values for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen (TN) and NH4+-N. Highest removal efficiencies were achieved for NH4+-N (amp;gt; 90%), Mn (amp;gt; 60%) and Fe (45%) with removal efficiencies for TN (14%), BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (around 30%). Concentrations of phenol, CN- and Cr6+ were below 10, 4 and 3 mu g/l, respectively, in in- and outflows. An appreciated benefit of the wetland was the green element in the industrial landscape.

  • 40.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Nationellt forensiskt center, Linköping, Sverige.
    Dna-möte på NFC2015Ingår i: KriminalteknikArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Statens kriminaltekniska laboratorium, SKL, Linköping.
    Forensiska uppslag - Spaningsinformation från SKL2012Ingår i: Kriminalteknik, ISSN 1653-6169, nr 4, s. 12-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 42.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. SKL, The Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, Linköping, Sweden .
    Internal quality control in forensic DNA analysis2013Ingår i: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 279-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The trail from initial evidence examination to a DNA profile reported to match a suspect is long and complex. The different nature and great variability in the biological and DNA evidence to be recovered and analyzed, add to this complexity. Internal quality controls play an important role in maintaining a high-quality performance in daily forensic biology and DNA profiling practice. In many cases are empirical rather than analytical approaches adopted. Obviously, despite the fact of being necessary, the internal quality controls performed still need to be kept rational at a limited, yet acceptable level. Quality control from a forensic biology and DNA profiling horizon has a wider context and does not only concern obvious fit-for-purpose verifications of analytical processes, chemicals, or reagents in daily routine practice. It also includes control on computerized laboratory management and expert systems, laboratory environmental DNA monitoring, and the use of elimination DNA databases. In addition, a structured recording and handling of non-conformances and “near failures” is essential. Proper management of the non-conformances supports continuous quality improvements by learning from the errors occurring in daily practice. High transparency of non-conformances is important not only for internal improvements, but also for the criminal justice system as well as to maintain public confidence and trust. Together the quality controls used aim at maintaining evidence and DNA sample integrity and to accomplish correct results and interpretations by verifying that methods used data transfers and interpretations made are correct and performed according to validated and accredited conditions.

  • 43.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Statens Kriminaltekniska Laboratorium (SKL), Linköping.
    Kvalitetsmöte med Forensic Science Regulator2014Ingår i: Kriminalteknik, ISSN 1653-6169, nr 1, s. 22-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Statens kriminaltekniska laboratorium - SKL, Linköping.
    Nytt på dna-området2013Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 45.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pilotstudie om forensiska uppslag2014Ingår i: KriminalteknikArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 46.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Utveckling av arbetsmetoderna vid utredning av våldtäkter2014Ingår i: Kriminalteknik, Vol. 4, s. 10-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Statens Kriminaltekniska Laboratorium (SKL), Linköping.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Statens Kriminaltekniska Laboratorium (SKL), Linköping.
    Centrum för genetisk identifiering2014Ingår i: Kriminalteknik, ISSN 1653-6169, nr 1, s. 21-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Statens Kriminaltekniska Laboratorium (SKL), Linköping.
    Hedman, Johannes
    Statens Kriminaltekniska Laboratorium (SKL), Linköping.
    Snabbanalysinstrumentet RapidHIT på SKL2014Ingår i: Kriminalteknik, ISSN 1653-6169, nr 1, s. 18-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

     

  • 49.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Polismyndigheten - Nationellt Forensiskt Centrum.
    Nordgaard, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Statistik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Polismyndigheten - Nationellt Forensiskt Centrum.
    Hedell, Ronny
    Polismyndigheten - Nationellt Forensiskt Centrum.
    Interpretation of DNA Evidence: Implications of Thresholds Used in the Forensic Laboratory2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of forensic evidence is a process lined with decisions and balancing, not infrequently with a substantial deal of subjectivity. Already at the crime scene a lot of decisions have to be made about search strategies, the amount of evidence and traces recovered, later prioritised and sent further to the forensic laboratory etc. Within the laboratory there must be several criteria (often in terms of numbers) on how much and what parts of the material should be analysed. In addition there is often a restricted timeframe for delivery of a statement to the commissioner, which in reality might influence on the work done. The path of DNA evidence from the recovery of a trace at the crime scene to the interpretation and evaluation made in court involves several decisions based on cut-offs of different kinds. These include quality assurance thresholds like limits of detection and quantitation, but also less strictly defined thresholds like upper limits on prevalence of alleles not observed in DNA databases. In a verbal scale of conclusions there are lower limits on likelihood ratios for DNA evidence above which the evidence can be said to strongly support, very strongly support, etc. a proposition about the source of the evidence. Such thresholds may be arbitrarily chosen or based on logical reasoning with probabilities. However, likelihood ratios for DNA evidence depend strongly on the population of potential donors, and this may not be understood among the end-users of such a verbal scale. Even apparently strong DNA evidence against a suspect may be reported on each side of a threshold in the scale depending on whether a close relative is part of the donor population or not. In this presentation we review the use of thresholds and cut-offs in DNA analysis and interpretation and investigate the sensitivity of the final evaluation to how such rules are defined. In particular we show what are the effects of cut-offs when multiple propositions about alternative sources of a trace cannot be avoided, e.g. when there are close relatives to the suspect with high propensities to have left the trace. Moreover, we discuss the possibility of including costs (in terms of time or money) for a decision-theoretic approach in which expected values of information could be analysed.

  • 50.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Statens kriminaltekniska laboratorium, SKL, Linköping.
    Stegeryd, Yvonne
    Statens kriminaltekniska laboratorium, SKL, Linköping.
    Hallingström, Marie-Louise
    Rättsmedicinalverket, RMV, Linköping.
    Spårsäkringssats efter sexuella övergrepp anpassas till PUST2013Ingår i: Kriminalteknik, ISSN 1653-6169, s. 20-21Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
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