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  • 1.
    Lundström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsberg, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heimdahl, Jens
    The Archaeologists, National Historical Museums, Hägersten, Sweden.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leino, Matti W.
    Nordiska museet, Swedish Museum of Cultural History, Stockholm, Sweden; The Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic analyses of Scandinavian desiccated, charred and waterlogged remains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)2018In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, Vol. 22, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., has been cultivated in Fennoscandia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) since the start of the Neolithic around 4000 years BCE. Genetic studies of extant and 19th century barley landraces from the area have previously shown that distinct genetic groups exist with geographic structure according to latitude, suggesting strong local adaptation of cultivated crops. It is, however, not known what time depth these patterns reflect. Here we evaluate different archaeobotanical specimens of barley, extending several centuries in time, for their potential to answer this question by analysis of aDNA. Forty-six charred grains, nineteen waterlogged specimens and nine desiccated grains were evaluated by PCR and KASP genotyping. The charred samples did not contain any detectable endogenous DNA. Some waterlogged samples permitted amplification of endogenous DNA, however not sufficient for subsequent analysis. Desiccated plant materials provided the highest genotyping success rates of the materials analysed here in agreement with previous studies. Five desiccated grains from a grave from 1679 in southern Sweden were genotyped with 100 SNP markers and data compared to genotypes of 19th century landraces from Fennoscandia. The results showed that the genetic composition of barley grown in southern Sweden changed very little from late 17th to late 19th century and farmers stayed true to locally adapted crops in spite of societal and agricultural development.

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