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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Richard
    IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Lund University, Sweden.
    Scaffolding Executive Function Capabilities via Play-&-Learn Software for Preschoolers2016In: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 108, no 7, 969-981 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational software in the form of games or so called "computer assisted intervention" for young children has become increasingly common receiving a growing interest and support. Currently there are, for instance, more than 1,000 iPad apps tagged for preschool. Thus, it has become increasingly important to empirically investigate whether these kinds of software actually provide educational benefits for such young children. The study presented in the present article investigated whether preschoolers have the cognitive capabilities necessary to benefit from a teachable-agent-based game of which pedagogical benefits have been shown for older children. The role of executive functions in childrens attention was explored by letting 36 preschoolers (3;9-6;3 years) play a teachable-agent-based educational game and measure their capabilities to maintain focus on pedagogically relevant screen events in the presence of competing visual stimuli. Even though the participants did not succeed very well in an inhibition pretest, results showed that they nonetheless managed to inhibit distractions during game-play. It is suggested that the game context acts as a motivator that scaffolds more mature cognitive capabilities in young children than they exhibit during a noncontextual standardized test. The results further indicate gender differences in the development of these capabilities.

  • 2.
    Balkenius, Christian
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, AgnetaCognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.Haake, MagnusCognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.Johansson, BirgerCognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Intelligent, socially oriented technology: Projects by teams of master level students in cognitive science and engineering : Anthology of master level course papers2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Genot, Emmanuel
    et al.
    Philosophy, Lund University–LUX, Lund, Sweden .
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The Interrogative Model of Inquiry and Inquiry Learning2016In: Perspectives on Interrogative Models of Inquiry: Developments in Inquiry and Questions / [ed] Can Başkent, Springer, 2016, 15-33 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hakkarainen and Sintonen (2002) praise the descriptive adequacy of Hintikka's Interrogative Model of Inquiry (imi) to describe children's practices in an inquiry-based learning context. They further propose to use the imi as a starting point for developing new pedagogical methods and designing new didactic tools. We assess this proposal in the light of the formal results that in the imi characterize interrogative learning strategies. We nd that these results actually reveal a deep methodological issue for inquiry-based learning, namely that educators cannot guarantee that learners will successfully acquire a content, without limiting learner's autonomy, and that a trade-off between success and autonomy is unavoidable. As a by-product of our argument, we obtain a logical characterization of serendipity.

  • 4.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Designtänk bakom populära tvärkurser2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Närmare sextio studenter från Humanistiska fakulteten ochLTH har jobbat intensivt i blandade grupper under höstterminen. I universitetets äldsta byggnad Kungshuset visade de strax före jul upp sina resultat, samtliga nära kopplade till spjutspetsforskning inom teknik och lärande.

    Studenterna har gjort filmer som t.ex. visar på nya sätt att lära sig matte och historia, eller hur man med hjälp av virtuella 3D-figurer kan utforska kroppsspråkets betydelse för mänskligt tänkande. Kursdeltagarna är i kognitionsvetenskap eller går sista åren på ingenjörsutbildningen. Men det är inte bara det tvärvetenskapliga upplägget som gör kurserna speciella. Det handlar också om att man arbetar med verkliga problem, sådana som forskare själva försöker lösa. Studenterna jobbar i absoluta forskningsfronten – det finns inget facit.

  • 5.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Lärandet i den svarta boxen2013In: Forum Axess, ISSN 1651-0941, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolan kombinerar idéer om 2000-talets kunskaper med 1900-talets former av tester och utvärderingar. Sammanblandningen är dömd att misslyckas.

  • 6.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Researching Virtual Environments and Virtual Characters2008In: A Smorgasbord of Cognitive Science / [ed] Peter Gärdenfors and Annika Wallin, Bokförlaget Nya Doxa, 2008, 13-31 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Rollmodeller & förebilder - om potentialen i digitala miljöer2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom akademi, industri och offentlig sektor – i stort sett överallt i samhället – finns en övervikt av män i ledande positioner. Det sker visserligen en förändring – men en långsam sådan . Kan man knuffa på denna långsamma förändring? Svaret är förstås ja. Det finns många olika slags knuffar som antingen har iscensatts eller kan komma att iscensättas. Ledarutvecklingsprogrammet AKKA, som 60 kvinnor vid Lunds universitet vid det här laget haft förmånen att delta i, är just en sådan knuff. Förutom direkta effekter som ett ökat antal kvinnor i olika ledningspositioner inom Lunds universitet har satsningen haft andra påtagliga, om än inte enkelt kvantifierbara, effekter såsom: nätverksbyggande, självförtroendevinster, synliggörande av kvinnliga forskare och lärare vid LU, och inte minst igångsättandet av djupare diskussion och reflektion kring ledarskap hos ett stort antal kvinnor – vilket har potential att inte bara ge fler men också (ännu) bättre kvinnliga ledare.

    Men föreliggande text handlar om en annan möjlig knuff, nämligen möjligheten att utnyttja digitala miljöer för att ur ett genusperspektiv, och med sikte på studenter, arbeta med rollmodeller, förebilder och kulturella föreställningar. Temat kan beskrivas som framåtsyftande i två avseenden: Det tar fasta på (i) de framtida ledarna – de yngsta akademikerna, och (ii) ’edge’-teknologi i form av digitala/virtuella miljöer och karaktärer – och frågar vad man kan åstadkomma med sådan teknologi när det gäller rollmodeller, kulturella bilder/föreställningar och förebilder.

  • 8.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Benefits of Digital Pedagogical Characters – A Learning Style Perspective2009In: The Open Education Journal, ISSN 1874-9208, E-ISSN 1874-9208, Vol. 7, no 2, 34-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores the relation between i) the attitudes of students towards digital pedagogical characters and ii) their learning style as separate versus connected thinkers, a learning style dimension which regards individual’s approach towards the social dimensions of knowledge. Ninety 12-15 year old students participated in the study in which they were presented with a scenario-based multimedia program. In this program the student is to take the role of a journalist at a magazine who is sent on various missions to European countries in order to conduct article research. The journalist is accompanied by a digital pedagogical character in the form of a virtual instructor or a virtual learning companion.

    After having progressed through the introductory parts of the program, including a module for choosing a visual character to represent their virtual instructor or learning companion, the students were (among other things) asked about their views on the idea of using virtual pedagogical characters as an enhancement of learning environment. Furthermore, they were presented with an option between two digital characters with different communicative styles – one strictly task oriented and one task and relation oriented and were asked to give motives for their choice. The students were also asked to fill out a learning style inventory addressing separate versus connected thinking.

    The results of the study confirm what has been shown in some other studies, namely that there are considerable individual differences both in attitudes towards digital characters in digital learning environments and in attitudes towards the social orientation of such characters, and that these differences in attitudes may be related to various user characteristics. More specifically, the results of the current study indicate that differences in learning style of the kind assessed in the study belong among those user characteristics. The results are finally discussed in terms of practical implications for the use and design of digital learning environments.

     

     

  • 9.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Challenging Gender Stereotypes using Virtual Pedagogical Characters2010In: Gender Issues in Learning and Working with Information Technology: Social Constructs and Cultural Contexts, / [ed] Sara Goodman, Shirlsy Booth & Gill Kirkup, IGI Global , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores motivational and cognitive effects of more neutral or androgynous-looking versus more feminine-looking and masculine-looking virtual characters. A user study is presented, in which 158 students, aged 17-19, encountered four virtual characters that were visually manipulated to represent gender stereotypicality versus androgyny. On the one hand we explored students’ attitudes towards the different characters as seen in how they ranked them as preferred presenters and articulated their arguments for doing so. On the other hand we looked for patterns as to which character(s) influenced female and male students most positively with respect to their attitude towards a university level computer engineering programme. Results from the study are presented and discussed. We conclude by pointing towards future research and potential within the area.

     

  • 10.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Forskning och utveckling om digitala läromedel för att gynna lärande och lärare2014In: Vetenskapliga perspektiv på lärande, undervisning och utbildning i olika institutionella sammanhang: utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning vid Lunds universitet / [ed] Anders Persson & Roger Johansson, Helsingborg: Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap, Lunds universitet , 2014, 45-64 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns två huvudsakliga svar på frågan varför forskning och utveckling, F&U, i området digitala läromedel är viktig. Det första är relativt uppenbart: Det produceras idag allt fler digitala läromedel som används i ökad utsträckning i skolan. För att kunna ta fram digitala läromedel av hög kvalitet krävs forskning och utveckling. Det andra och mindre uppenbara svaret är att digitala läromedel också kan fungera som forskningsinstrument och ge nya kunskaper och insikter om lärande och lärprocesser. I detta kapitel utvecklar vi, med hjälp av konkreta illustrationer från andras och egna F&U-projekt, dessa två svar.

  • 11.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds univeristet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds univeristet.
    Inför digitala nationella prov2014In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, 2 januariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitala system för pedagogisk bedömning öppnar nya möjligheter som inte finns med papper och penna. Dessutom frigörs tid för lärarna. Vi ber därför Skolverket att tillsätta en bred arbetsgrupp för att utveckla ett digitalt system för nationella prov.

  • 12.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Haake, Magnus
    Kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet, Lund.
    Virtuella rollmodeller och androgynitetens potential2009In: Individ, teknik och lärande / [ed] Jonas Linderoth, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2009, Vol. L�rande och IT ; 5, 139-164 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Virtuella karaktärer, det vill säga mer eller mindre människoliknande och interaktiva datorgenererade figurer, har sedan länge förekommit i datorspel. På senare år har de även blivit allt vanligare i digitala lärmiljöer. De uppträder där i form av virtuella instruktörer, coacher, rollspelskaraktärer, lärkompanjoner och avatarer (alter egos) i pedagogiskt material från förskola till högskola likväl som i specialistutbildningar. I bredare pedagogiska sammanhang träffar man på dem i egenskap av till exempel virtuella rådgivare och informatörer. Skälen till att använda virtuella pedagogiska karaktärer kan variera och i Gulz (2004) ges en översikt samt kritisk diskussion av olika möjliga pedagogiska vinster.

    Veletsianos Scharber & Doering (2008) fördjupar den kritiska diskussionen i en artikel med titeln ”När sex, droger och våld kommer in i klassrummet: Konversation mellan ungdomar och en kvinnlig pedagogisk agent”. Den analys de presenterar av loggade konversationer visar en kraftig diskrepans mellan pedagogisk intention, å ena sidan, och vardaglig praktik där elever interagerar med virtuella pedagogiska karaktärer, å andra sidan. Former av interaktion, kommunikation och språkbruk, som normalt är otillåtna och förekom sparsamt i de aktuella klassrummen, gjorde här ett inträde på bred front.

    I denna text kommer vi emellertid att titta närmare på pedagogiska möjligheter. Specifikt fokuserar vi på följande fråga: ”Kan virtuella pedagogiska karaktärer vara ett redskap för att erbjuda alternativa kulturella bilder inom områden med starka genusassociationer som till exempel ingenjörsutbildning och datorteknik?”

    Innan vi går in på huvudtemat inleder vi med att presentera en begreppslig och temamässig bakgrund till den kommande analysen och diskussionen kring kulturella bilder, rollmodeller och genusproblematik.

  • 13.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Virtuella rollmodeller och androgynitetens potential2009In: Individen, tekniken och lärande / [ed] Jonas Linderoth. Roger Säljö, & Ulf P.Lundgren, Carlssons förlag , 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Virtuella karaktärer, det vill säga mer eller mindre människoliknande och interaktiva datorgenererade figurer, har sedan länge förekommit i datorspel. På senare år har de även blivit allt vanligare i digitala lärmiljöer. De uppträder där i form av virtuella instruktörer, coacher, rollspelskaraktärer, lärkompanjoner och avatarer (alter egos) i pedagogiskt material från förskola till högskola likväl som i specialistutbildningar. I bredare pedagogiska sammanhang träffar man på dem i egenskap av till exempel virtuella rådgivare och informatörer.

    Skälen till att använda virtuella pedagogiska karaktärer kan variera och i Gulz (2004) ges en översikt samt kritisk diskussion av olika möjliga pedagogiska vinster. Veletsianos

    Scharber och Doering (2008) fördjupar den kritiska diskussionen i en artikel med titeln ”När sex, droger och våld kommer in i klassrummet: Konversation mellan ungdomar och en kvinnlig pedagogisk agent”. Den analys de presenterar av loggade konversationer visar en kraftig diskrepans mellan pedagogisk intention, å ena sidan, och vardaglig praktik där elever interagerar med virtuella pedagogiska karaktärer, å andra sidan. Former av interaktion, kommunikation och språkbruk, som normalt är otillåtna och förekom sparsamt i de aktuella klassrummen, gjorde här ett inträde på bred front.

    I denna text kommer vi emellertid att titta närmare på pedagogiska möjligheter. Specifikt fokuserar vi på följande fråga: ”Kan virtuella pedagogiska karaktärer vara ett redskap för att erbjuda alternativa kulturella bilder inom områden med starka genusassociationer som till exempel ingenjörsutbildning och datorteknik?”.

    Innan vi går in på huvudtemat inleder vi med att presentera en begreppslig och temamässig bakgrund till den kommande analysen och diskussionen kring kulturella bilder, rollmodeller och genusproblematik.

     

  • 14.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds universitet.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Avdelningen för logopedi, foniatri och audiologi, Lunds universitet.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Avdelningen för logopedi, foniatri och audiologi, Lunds universitet.
    Willstedt-Svensson, Ursula
    Lunds skolors resurscentrum, Lunds kommun.
    Digitaliserad Trog-2 med manipulerad talhastighet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en digitaliserad version av TROG-2, som vi kallar LU-Trog, har vi skapat möjlighet att bland annat manipulera talhastigheten med vilken meningarna i testet läses. Utifrån en inspelning av meningarna i ”nor malhastighet” har vi på digital väg skapat ytterligare två uppsättningar av TROG - meningarna, ”förlångsammade” med 160% av originalljudfilernas duration och ”försnabbade” med 60% av originalljudfilernas duration. Under våren 2010 har vi genom fört en första explorativ studie för att pröva om LU-Trog kan använda s som forsknings verktyg och i förlängningen som ett dia gnos stöd. Deltagare var tolv unga vuxna , i åldrarna 17 - 20 med lindrig psykisk funktionsnedsättning. De genom förde LU-Trog på dator med pekskärm vid två olika tillfällen med 6-7 veckor s mellanrum . Vid första tillfället var hälften av meningarna långs amma och hälften snabba , i slum pvi s fördelning . Vid nästa tillfälle fick varje deltagare en inverterad spegelbild av det först a testet, så att de meningar som varit långs amma vid tillfälle ett nu var snabba och vice versa. Variablerna vi mäter och jämför i de båda villkor en är antal korrekta block , totalt antal korrekta svar, antal ångrade val och antal begäran om repetition ( max en gång) . I presentationen vill vi dels diskutera resultaten från dessa jämförelser . De pekar bl.a. på signifikant större tendens att svara fel för snabbt än för långs amt tal, där tendensen är särskilt tydlig för de m so m gör många fel. Dels , och framförallt , vill vi diskutera hur vi kom mer att gå vidare och vilka möjligheter till vidareutveckling och anpassningar till kliniskt behov och bruk som kan finnas.

  • 15.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Johansson, Birger
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Balkenius, Christian
    Cognitive Science, Lund Universisty, Sweden.
    Samarbete ger lyckat resultat2012In: Sydsvenska dagbladet, ISSN 1652-814X, 18 decemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ta några ingenjörsstudenter, släng in ett par kognitionsvetarstudenter och ge dem ett problem att lösa. Ut kommer interaktiva dataspel för skolan och robotar som kan imitera människors rörelser.

    – Vi kombinerar doing och thinking, säger Agneta Gulz, professor i kognitionsvetenskap.

  • 16.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Department of Design SciencesLund UniversitySweden.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Extending a Teachable Agent with a Social Conversation Module – Effects on Student Experiences and Learning2011In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic, Springer, 2011, 106-114 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the addition of off-task socially oriented conver-sational abilities to an existing “teachable agent” (TA) in an educational game in mathematics. The purpose of this extension is to affect constructs known to promote learning, such as self-efficacy and engagement as well as enhance students’ experiences of interacting with the game. A comparison of students that played the game with the off-task interaction to those who played without it, shows trends that indicate that students who played the game with off-task interaction had a more positive experience of the game, and that they also learnt more, as reflected in the learning outcomes of their TAs.

  • 17.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Lund University.
    Haake, Magnus
    Designvetenskap, Lund Univeristy.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Lund Uniiversity.
    Veletsianos, George
    Instructional design, University of Austin, USA.
    Building a Social Conversational Pedagogical Agent: Design Challenges and Methodological approaches2011In: Conversational Agents and Natural Language Interaction: Techniques and Effective Practices / [ed] Diana Perez-Marin and Ismael Pascual-Nieto, IGI Global, 2011, 128-155 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses design challenges encountered when developing a conversational pedagogical agent. By tracing the historical roots of pedagogical agents in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), we discern central developments in creating an agent that is both knowledgeable and fosters a social relationship with the learner. Main challenges faced when attempting to develop a pedagogical agent of this kind relate to: i) learners’ expectations on the agent’s knowledge and social profile, ii) dealing with learners’ engagement in off-task conversation and iii) managing potential abuse of the agent. We discuss these challenges and possible ways to address them, with reference to an ongoing Research & Development project, and with a focus on the design of a pedagogical agent’s visual embodiment and its conversational capabilities.

  • 18.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Kunsghuset, Lundagård, Lund .
    Haake, Magnus
    Deptartment of Design Sciences, LTH, Lund University, Lund .
    Tärning, Betty
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Kunsghuset, Lundagård, Lund .
    Visual Gender and Its Motivational and Cognitive Effects: a User Study2007In: LUCS: Lund University Cognitive Studies, ISSN 1101-8453, Vol. 137, 1-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive and motivational effects of more neutral or androgynous-looking virtual characters versus more pronouncedly feminine-looking or masculine-looking virtual characters are explored. In a user study, 158 students aged 17-19 encountered four virtual characters that were visually manipulated to represent gender stereotypicality versus androgyny. One aim was to explore students' attitudes towards the different characters as seen in how they ranked them as preferred presenters and how they articulated their arguments for doing so. Another aim was to look for patterns as to which character(s) influenced female and male students most positively with respect to their attitudes towards a university level computer engineering programme. The combination of these two aims allowed us to compare more conscious and articulated with less conscious and unarticulated, user responses. Results from the study are presented and discussed. We conclude by pointing towards future research and applications.

  • 19.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Jonas
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Anna
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Datorspelets mening och potential2009In: Lärande och IT / [ed] Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Carlsson Bokförlag, 2009, 139-150 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad kan man lära sig av att spela datorspel? Den som spelar finner nog frågan tämligen ointressant. För spelaren är vitsen med spelandet inte att lära sig något. Meningsfulla frågor är istället: Vad kan jag göra med det här spelet? Vilka regler har jag att förhålla mig till och hur kan jag hantera dem? Hur kan jag komma vidare i spelet? Hur gör jag för att vinna?

    Många barn och ungdomar, och även vuxna för den delen, tillbringar idag delar av sin tillvaro med att spela datorspel. För många är datorspelandet också ett stort intresse som upptar många timmar. Uppenbarligen finns det starka drivkrafter som gör att man ägnar sig åt att spela datorspel. Det ligger då nära till hands att fundera både över om spelandet kan ha någon positiv eller negativ effekt på individens utveckling och lärande. För pedagoger blir det också intressant att fundera över om datorspel kan ha någon potential som redskap i undervisningen. Men för att kunna förstå datorspelandets eventuella negativa eller positiva effekter behöver vi först förstå datorspelets speciella struktur och den mening som spelandet har för spelarna själva. För en sådan förståelse kan forskningen ge ett viktigt bidrag.

  • 20.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund Unversity, Lund, Sweden.
    Magnusson, CharlotteCertec - Rehabilitation Engineering and Design, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.Malmborg, LoneIT - University of Copenhagen, Denmark.Eftring, HåkanCertec - Rehabilitation Engineering and Design, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.Jönsson, BodilLund University, Sweden.Tollmar, KonradLund University, Sweden .
    Proceedings of the 5th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Using Bridges2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    NordiCHI is the main forum for human-computer interaction research in the Nordic countries. It is a biannual event. The first four were held in Stockholm (2000), Aarhus (2002), Tampere (2004) and Oslo (2006). This year's conference in Lund is hosted by Lund University in affiliation with Malmö University and IT University of Copenhagen.

    The theme is Using Bridges: A key challenge that our everyday culture raises is to find better ways to combine theory and practice. Bridging needs to take place on many levels: individual-to- individual, many-to-many, culture-to-culture, region-to-region, human-to-artefact, mankind-to- technology, and artefact-to-artefact. The vision is that the conference will enable the meeting of cultures within HCI --- geographically distinct ones as well as those of academia, industry and public life.

    The broad call for participation elicited an excellent response, and we are happy to offer a high-quality technical programme that combines the best of the NordiCHI tradition with emerging trends in interaction design. The technical programme combines five different categories of submissions: full papers, short papers, design cases, industrial experience reports and interactive events (demonstrations). The industrial experience report category follows the initiative from NordiCHI 2006, whereas the design case category is new this year. The intention of design cases is twofold: to open a venue for the growing community of design researchers in HCI, interaction design and related fields, and to experiment with a format for knowledge production in which the significance of critics and criticism is acknowledged.

    We received 139 full papers, 112 short papers, 3 design cases and 9 industrial experience reports. An international committee comprising 161 reviewers helped in the selection process. In the end we accepted 42 full papers, 39 short papers (12 for plenum presentation and 27 as poster presentations), 2 design cases each with two critiques, and 8 industrial experience reports. The acceptance rate for full papers was 30.2% and 34.8% for short papers. The submitted full papers represent 20 countries, with the accepted ones representing 9, whereof 5 are outside the Nordic region.

  • 21.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mellström, Ulf
    Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Gränsöverskridande IT-roller2009In: IT och lärande / [ed] Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Carlsson Bokförlag, 2009, 153-168 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilken bild ser du framför dig om du tänker på en typisk datoringenjör? Svaret på den frågan blir sannolikt olika beroende på i vilket land och i vilken del av världen som frågan ställs. I till exempel Holland är den kulturella bilden av en dataingenjör så starkt förknippad med en asocial och asexuell datornörd att det utgör ett starkt hinder för ungdomar, särskilt unga kvinnor, att välja en sådan yrkesbana. Även om bilden inte är lika stark i Sverige är datoringenjör inte heller något drömyrke för svenska ungdomar att utbilda sig till. Andelen kvinnor som går system- och datatekniska utbildningar på de tekniska högskolorna ligger också väsentligt lägre än andelen män.

    Men i flera länder i Sydostasien är bilden en helt annan. Här betraktas datoringenjör som ett statusfyllt framtidsyrke, och en stor andel av dem som utbildar sig och arbetar inom IT-relaterade yrken är kvinnor. Hur kommer det sig att det är så stora skillnader mellan olika länder och världsdelar inom IT- området? Hur har dessa bilder och mönster uppstått? Det är några av de frågor som ett av forskningsprojekten inom LearnIT har intresserat sig för. Ett annat projekt har i sin tur riktat fokus mot hur IT i sig kan användas som redskap för att förändra de genusmönster inom IT-området som framträder i västvärlden

  • 22.
    Gulz, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silvervarg Flycht-Eriksson, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjödén, Björn
    LUCS, Lunds universitet.
    Design for off-task interaction – rethinking pedagogy in technology enhanced learning2010In: ICALT 2010 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2010, 204-206 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue for the design of off-task interaction in technology enchanced learning. This implies a rethinking of pedagogy which can substantially contribute to achieving specific learning goals. We describe a work-in-progress and provide concrete examples of how we deal with relevant issues raised by allowing for off-task interactions in an educational math game as an integrated learning system.

  • 23.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory.
    A Look at the Roles of Look & Roles in Embodied Pedagogical Agents – a User Preference Perspective2009In: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, ISSN 1560-4292, Vol. 19(1)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical framework addressing three aspects of embodied pedagogical agents: visual static appearance, pedagogical role, and communicative style. The framework is then applied to a user study where 90 school children (age 12‑15) in a dummy multimedia program were presented with either an instructor or a learning companion condition. They were then to choose between eight visually different embodied pedagogical agents: four more naturalistic (detailed & 3D-rendered) and four more stylized (simplified & cartoonish). Finally the participants were to choose between a strictly task-oriented versus a task- and relation-oriented pedagogical agent.

    The goal of the study was to explore possible relations between the three aspects mentioned above with respect to user preferences. Results were: (i) When the agent was introduced as a learning companion, female students displayed a significant tendency to choose a more stylized visual character, (ii) When the agent was introduced as a learning companion, female students displayed a significant tendency to choose a task- and relation-oriented agent, (iii) In the case when students had chosen a more stylized character, there was a significant tendency to choose a task- and relational-oriented agent.

    The paper also discusses limitations and strengths of the study, and advocates careful descriptions in studies of this kind – especially regarding the notion of visual realism.

     

  • 24.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Design Sciences, LTH, Lund University, Lund, Swede.
    Gulz, Agneta
    LUCS (Div. of Cognitive Science), Lund University, Kungshuset, Lundagård, Lund, Sweden.
    Visual Stereotypes and Virtual Pedagogical Agents2008In: Journal of Educational Technology & Society, ISSN 1176-3647, E-ISSN 1436-4522, Vol. 11, no 4, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual pedagogical agents and its potential impact in digital learning environments. An analysis of the concept of visual stereotypes is followed by a discussion of affordances and drawbacks as to their use in the context of traditional media. Next, the paper explores whether virtual pedagogical characters introduce anything novel with regard to the use of visual stereotypes - as compared both to real life interaction between humans and to the use of visual stereotypes in traditional non-interactive media such as magazines, film, television and video. It is proposed that novel affordances, as well as novel drawbacks, indeed are being introduced with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual characters. The conclusion of the paper is that knowledge on these matters can be useful both for developers of educational systems and for educators in enabling them to strengthen some pedagogical settings and activities.

  • 25.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University.
    Visual Stereotypes and Virtual Pedagogical Agents2008In: Journal of Educational Technology & Society, ISSN 1176-3647, E-ISSN 1436-4522, Vol. 11, no 4, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual pedagogical agents and its potential impact in digital learning environments. An analysis of the concept of visual stereotypes is followed by a discussion of affordances and drawbacks as to their use in the context of traditional media. Next, the paper explores whether virtual pedagogical characters introduce anything novel with regard to the use of visual stereotypes – as compared both to real life interaction between humans and to the use of visual stereotypes in traditional non-interactive media such as magazines, film, television and video. It is proposed that novel affordances, as well as novel drawbacks, indeed are being introduced with the use of visual stereotypes in virtual characters. The conclusion of the paper is that knowledge on these matters can be useful both for developers of educational systems and for educators in enabling them to strengthen some pedagogical settings and activities.

  • 26.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Kristina
    Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics & Audiology, Clinical Sciences Lund.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Schötz, Susanne
    Department of Linguistics, Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics & Audiology, Clinical Sciences Lund.
    The slower the better: Does the speaker' speech rate influence children' performance on a language comprehension test?2013In: International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, ISSN 1754-9507, E-ISSN 1754-9515, Vol. 16, no 2, 181-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of speech rate on children' performance on a widely used language comprehension test, the Test for Reception of Grammar, version 2 (TROG 2), and to explore how test performance interacts with task difficulty and with the child' working memory capacity. Participants were 102 typically developing Swedish-speaking children randomly assigned to one of the three conditions; the TROG 2 sentences spoken by a speech-language pathologist with slow, normal or fast speech rate. Results showed that the fast speech rate had a negative effect on the TROG 2 scores and that slow rate was more beneficial in general. However, for more difficult tasks the beneficial effect of slow speech was only pronounced for children with better scores on a working memory task. Our interpretation is that slow speech is particularly helpful when children do not yet fully master a task but are just about to grasp it. Our results emphasise the necessity of careful considerations of the role dynamic aspects of examiner' speech might play in test administration and favour digitalised procedures in standardised language comprehension assessment.

  • 27.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Husain, Layla
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Erik
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    No Child Behind nor Singled Out?: Adaptive Instruction Combined with Inclusive Pedagogy in Early Math Software2015In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 17th International Conference, AIED 2015, Madrid, Spain, June 22-26, 2015. Proceedings / [ed] Cristina Conati, Neil Heffernan, Antonija Mitrovic and M. Felisa Verdejo, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9112, 612-615 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a unique play-&-learn game for early math, designed to provide adaptive instruction with respect to support and challenge as well as to cater for an inclusive pedagogy where no child, whether far behind or far ahead, is exposed as being "different".

  • 28.
    Haake, Magnus
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tärning, Betty
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Teaching Her, Him…or Hir? Challenges for a Cross-Cultural Study2011In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 10th International Conference, IVA 2011, Reykjavik, Iceland, September 15-17, 2011. Proceedings / [ed] Stephan Kopp, Stacy Marsella, K Thorisson, Hannes Vilhjalmsson, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 447-448 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses some cultural considerations that we stand before in developing and exploiting an agent based educational software for use by Swedish and American students, age 11-14. The reported cultural challenges arise in software develop­ment, study designs, and decisions on actual pedagogical use in the two cultural settings.

  • 29.
    Husain, Layla
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Supporting Early Math: Rationales and Requirements for High Quality Software2015In: The Journal of computers in mathematics and science teaching, ISSN 0731-9258, E-ISSN 1943-5908, Vol. 34, no 4, 409-429 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial evidence that preschooler' performance in early math is highly correlated to math performance throughout school as well as academic skills in general. One way to help children attain early math skills is by using targeted educational software and the paper discusses potential gains of using such software to support early math development. Furthermore it is argued that the content of early math software should be centered around notions such as number sense and spontaneous focus on numerosity. Beyond that, the paper argues for seven design criteria to consider if the goal is to provide strong support for early math via educational software: (1) use a pedagogical approach clearly based on research on early learning of mathematics, (2) provide a set of relevant representations in an appropriate order, (3) provide informative and meaningful feedback, (4) pay attention to motivational aspects for the age group, (5) provide individually adapted support as well as challenge, (6) include a reporting function for educators, and (7) enable the use of an inclusive pedagogy. These seven design criteria are described and illustrated by concrete examples drawn from a newly developed play-&-learn game in early math: Magical Garden.

  • 30.
    Kim, Yanghee
    et al.
    Utah State University, USA.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The effect of the visual gender of an embodied agent: A cross-cultural comparison2013In: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA 2013), Washington: AERA, American Educational Research Association , 2013, 1-9 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored if the visual gender representations (androgynous, male, or female) of an embodied agent would influence students’ perceptions of their agent and their attitudes toward the agent as their conversational partner. The study also explored if students’ gender and cultural background would interact with the agent’s visual gender to influence their perceptions and attitudes. Participants were 208 early-teen students sampled from US and South Korea. The results revealed that student gender was a significant factor for influencing students' perceptions and attitudes and that the students showed positive attitudes toward an androgynous agent more than toward a gendered agent (either male or female).

  • 31.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Introducing a challenging teachable agent2014In: Learning and Collaboration Technologies: Designing and Developing Novel Learning Experiences / [ed] Zaphiris, P; Ioannou, A, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, 53-62 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potentials of a new type of pedagogical agent – a Challenger Teachable Agent. The aim of such a pedagogical agent is to increase engagement and motivation, and challenge students into deeper learning and metacognitive reasoning. It is based on the successful implementation of the Learning by Teaching approach in Teachable Agents, and in addition it draws on previous work that has shown the potential of resistance or challenge as means to improve learning. In this paper we discuss how these two bases can be combined and realized through new types of behaviours in a Teachable Agent

  • 32.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tärning, Betty
    Lunds univesitet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ascribed gender and charactersitics of a visually androgynous Teachable Agent2014In: Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, IVA 2014, Boston, USA, August, 27-29, 2014., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, 232-235 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how users ascribe gender to a visually androgynous teachable agent, and if and how the ascribed gender can influence the perceived personality characteristics of the agent. Previous studies have shown positive effects of using agents with more neutral or androgynous appearances, for instance, a more gender neutral agent evoked more positive attitudes on females than did a more stereotypical female agent [1] and androgynous agents were less abused than female agents [2]. Another study showed that even though an agent was visually androgynous, the user typically ascribed a gender to it [3].

  • 33.
    Lindström, Paulina
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund university, Lund, Sweden.
    Catching Eureka on the Fly2008In: Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior, Papers from the 2008 AAAI Spring Symposium / [ed] Ian Horswill, Eva Hudlicka, Christine Lisetti and Juan D. Velasquez, AAAI Press, 2008, 65-71 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An interesting class of intelligent tutoring systems are systems that are able to detect and recognize affective responses and states in students, and use such data to adapt its feedback, guidance and instruction. The article presents affective responses and states considered relevant for learning, and methods that have been proposed or used to detect such responses and states. We focus on the affective state of 'eureka', a relatively short-term state with corresponding difficulties of being detected. There are good reasons to attempt to catch this affective state, since it can mark when understanding is achieved and signal to an intelligent tutoring system that the student is ready to proceed in the learning process. A study is presented where a combination of the behavioural measure of eye tracking and two psycho-physiological measures - skin conductance and pupil size - are used in an attempt to identify this affective experience. The results showed significant differences on all measures between subjects who understood certain stimuli, and purportedly experienced eureka, and subjects who did not understand the stimuli. The psycho-physiological measure patterns were however not as dramatic as predicted. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits for students using ITS, that can detect eureka experiences.

  • 34.
    Lindström, Paulina
    et al.
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University.
    Haake, M.
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Matching and mismatching between the pedagogical design principles of a maths game and the actual practices of play2011In: Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, ISSN 0266-4909, E-ISSN 1365-2729, Vol. 27, no 1, 90-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reports and discusses a long-term qualitative study of forty 8-10 year old students who regularly played a math game during math lessons for 9 weeks. The goal was to explore the relations between (i) some of the pedagogical principles that underlie the game and (ii) the playing practice in terms of what actually takes place when students play the math game during regular math lessons. The article discusses indications of matches and mismatches between pedagogical principles and playing practice as they appear in analyses of observations and video recordings.

    The result highlights the difficulty of predicting areas in which possible mismatches appear between the intentions of the pedagogues and designers of educational technology, and the actual use of the technology by the students. This also applies to educational materials that have already been pilot tested and used on a smaller scale. We emphasize the need to observe actual use for extensive periods of time, i.e. to go beyond short-time user testing.

     

  • 35.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Relationship Between Working Memory Capacity and Students’ Behaviour in a Teachable Agent-Based Software2015In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 17th International Conference, AIED 2015, Madrid, Spain, June 22-26, 2015. Proceedings / [ed] C. Conati, N. Heffernan, A. Mitrovic, and M. F. Verdejo, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9112, 670-673 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigated if and how students’ behaviour when using a teachable agent-based educational software were related to their working memory capacity. Thirty Swedish students aged 11–12, participated in the study. Results showed that differences in behaviour such as time spent on an off-task activity, time spent on interactive dialogues, and the number of tests that students let their TA take, were associated with differences in working memory capacity. 

  • 36.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    Media & Design, University West, Sweden.
    Arvemo, Tobias
    Mathematical Statistics, University West, Sweden.
    Dahl, Ylva
    School Development, Uddevalla Schools, Sweden .
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University Design Sciences, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Sweden .
    A Teachable-Agent Arithmetic Game’s Effects on Mathematics Understanding, Attitude and Self-efficacy2011In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay, Antonija Mitrovic, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 247-255 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A teachable-agent arithmetic game is presented and evaluated in terms of student performance, attitude and self-efficacy. An experimental pre-post study design was used, enrolling 153 3rd and 5th grade students in Sweden. The playing group showed significantly larger gains in math performance and self-efficacy beliefs, but not in general attitude towards math, than the control groups. The contributions in relation to previous work include a new educational game being evaluated, and an emphasis on self-efficacy in the study as a strong predictor of math achievements.

  • 37.
    Pareto, Lena
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University.
    Lindström, Paulina
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    A Teachable Agent Based Game Affording Collaboration and Competition  – Evaluating Math Comprehension and Motivation2012In: Educational technology research and development, ISSN 1042-1629, E-ISSN 1556-6501, Vol. 60, no 5, 723-751 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an educational game in mathematics based on an apprenticeship model using a teachable agent, as well as an evaluative study of how the game affects (i) conceptual understanding and (ii) attitudes towards mathematics. In addition we discuss how collaborative and competitive affordances of the game may affect understanding and motivation. 19 students played the game in pairs once a week during a math lesson for seven weeks (the game-playing group) while another 19 students followed the regular curriculum (the control group). Math comprehension scores increased significantly for the game-playing group but not the control group (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference in attitude change between the two groups.

    Post hoc analyses indicated that game-playing primarily affected students’ confidence in explaining math to a peer, but not their enjoyment of doing so. Collaborative and competitive activities seem to carry a strong motivational influence for students to play the game.

  • 38.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Educational Potentials in Visually Androgynous Pedagogical Agents2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference, AIED 2013, Memphis, TN, USA, July 9-13, 2013 / [ed] H.C. Lane, K., J. Yacef, Mostow and P. Pavlik, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, 599-602 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a study on student’s attitudes to a visually androgynous in comparison to a male and a female Teachable Agent (TA). Results were that overall the androgynous agent was preferred over the female and male agents. A visually androgynous agent does not embody categorical gender attributes. At the same time it does not have to be genderless but instead represent both maleness and femaleness so that students can chose for themselves. Androgyny, in this sense, is potentially a way to have femaleness and maleness represented, with corresponding educational benefits such as role modelling and identification, without risking negative reinforcement of gender stereotypes

  • 39.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Pareto, Lena
    Institutionen för Media, Högskolan Väst.
    Strandberg, Thomas
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, LU.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AIED interactive event: ”The Brick Game” demonstration2011In: Proceedings of The 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education.  AIED 2011, LNAI 6738 / [ed] G. Biswas et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pareto, Lena
    University West, Sweden.
    Tärning, Betty
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedagogical Agents: Pedagogical Interventions via Integration of Task-oriented and Socially Oriented Conversation2011In: The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association New Orleans,  2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the motivation for and outcome of the addition of socially oriented so called “off-task” conversational abilities to an existing “teachable agent” (TA) in an educational mathematics game. The purpose of the extension is to affect constructs known to promote learning, such as self-efficacy and engagement, as well as enhancing students’ experiences of the game. A comparison of students that played the educational game with the off-task interaction included to those who played without it, indicate that the former had a more positive experience of the game, and that they also learnt more in the sense of teaching their TA better. The potential for pedagogical interventions in this and similar systems is discussed as well as differences found between high- and low-achievers.

  • 41.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Kirkegaard, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Nirme, Jens
    Lunds universitet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Steps Towards a Challenging Teachable Agent2014In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 14th International Conference, IVA 2014, Boston, MA, USA, August 27-29, 2014, Proceedings, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, 410-419 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents the first steps towards a new type of pedagogical agent – a Challenger Teachable Agent, CTA. The overall aim of introducing a CTA is to increase engagement and motivation and challenge students into deeper learning and metacognitive reasoning. The paper discusses desired design features of such an agent on the basis of related work and results from a study where 11-year old students interacted with a first version of a CTA in the framework of an educational software for history. The focus is on how students respond when the CTA disagrees and questions their suggestions, and how groups of students, differing in response behavior and in self-efficacy, experience the CTA.

  • 42.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raukola, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Effect of Visual Gender on Abuse in Conversation with ECAs2012In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 12th International Conference, IVA 2012, Santa Cruz, CA, USA, September, 12-14, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Yukiko Nakano, Michael Neff, Ana Paiva, Marilyn Walker, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, 153-160 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that female ECAs are more likely to be abused than male agents, which may cement gender stereotypes. In the study reported in this paper a visually androgynous ECA in the form of a teachable agent in an educational math game was compared with a female and male agent. The results confirm that female agents are more prone to be verbally abused than male agents, but also show that the visually androgynous agent was less abused than the female although more than the male agent. A surprising finding was that very few students asked the visually androgynous agent whether it was a boy or a girl. These results suggest that androgyny may be a way to keep both genders represented, which is especially important in pedagogical settings, simultaneously lowering the abusive behavior and perhaps most important, loosen the connection between gender and abuse.

  • 43.
    Sjödén, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund, Sweden .
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund, Sweden .
    From Learning Companions to Testing Companions Experience with a Teachable Agent Motivates Students' Performance on Summative Tests2015In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference, AIED 2015, Madrid, Spain, June 22-26, 2015 / [ed] Cristina Conati, Neil Heffernan, Antonija Mitrovic and M. Felisa Verdejo, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9112, 459-469 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In three quasi-experimental studies, we investigated the effects of placing a Teachable Agent (TA) from a math game in a digital summative test. We hypothesized that the TA would affect test performance, even without actual "teachability", by social influence on the test situation. In Study 1 (N=47), students did a pretest, played the math game for seven weeks, and did a posttest either with or without the TA. In Study 2 (N=62), students did not play the game but were introduced to a TA directly in the posttest. In Study 3 (N=165), the game included a social chat with the TA, and the posttest offered a choice of more difficult questions. Results showed significant effects of the TA on choice and performance on conceptual math problems, though not on overall test scores. We conclude that experience with a TA can influence performance beyond interaction and informative feedback.

  • 44.
    Sjödén, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haake, Magnus
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Extending an educational math game with a pedagogical conversational agent – facing design challenges2010In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research on Technology, Education and Communication (ITEC 2010) / [ed] S. DeWannemacker, G. Clarebout, P. DeCausmaecker, Springer, 2010, 116-130 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe our work-in-progress of developing an educational game in mathematics for 12-14 year olds, by adding social and conversational abilities to an existing “teachable agent” (TA) in the game. The purpose of this extension is to affect cognitive, emotional and social constructs known to promote learning, such as self-efficacy and engagement, as well as enhancing students’ experiences of interacting with the agent over an extended period of time. Drawing from the EnALI framework, which states practical design guidelines, we discuss specific design challenges and exemplify research considerations as to developing the agent’s visual representation and conversational module. We present some initial findings from using prototype agents with students from the target group. Promising developments seem to reside in pronouncing the agent’s personality traits and expanding its knowledge database, particularly its range of conversational topics. Finally we propose some future studies and research directions.

  • 45.
    Sjödén, Björn
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Tärning, Betty
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Pareto, Lena
    Media Production and Informatics Departments, University West, Sweden.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Transferring Teaching to Testing – an Unexplored Aspect of Teachable Agents2011In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 15th International Conference, AIED 2011, Auckland, New Zealand, June 28 – July 2011 / [ed] Gautam Biswas, Susan Bull, Judy Kay and Antonija Mitrovic, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 337-344 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined whether socio-motivational effects from working with a Teachable Agent (TA) might transfer from the formative learning phase to a summative test situation. Forty-nine students (9-10 years old) performed a digital pretest of math skills, then played a TA-based educational math game in school over a period of eight weeks. Thereafter, the students were divided into two groups, matched according to their pretest scores, and randomly assigned one of two posttest conditions: either with the TA present, or without the TA. Results showed that low-performers on the pretest improved significantly more on the posttest than did high-performers, but only when tested with the TA. We reason that low-performers might be more susceptible to a supportive social context – as provided by their TA – for performing well in a test situation.

  • 46.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Physical vs. Virtual Agent Embodiment and Effects on Social Interaction2016In: Intelligent Virtual Agents: 16th International Conference, IVA 2016, Los Angeles, CA, USA, September 20–23, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] David Traum, William Swartout, Peter Khooshabeh, Stefan Kopp, Stefan Scherer, Anton Leuski, Cham: Springer, 2016, Vol. 10011, 412-415 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work indicates that physical robots elicit more favorable social responses than virtual agents. These effects have been attributed to the physical embodiment. However, a recent meta-analysis by Li [1] suggests that the benefits of robots are due to physical presence rather than physical embodiment. To further explore the importance of presence we conducted a pilot study investigating the relationship between physical and social presence. The results suggest that social presence of an artificial agent is important for interaction with people, and that the extent to which it is perceived as socially present might be unaffected by whether it is physically or virtually present.

  • 47.
    Tärning, Betty
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Haake, Magnus
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Off-task Engagement in a Teachable Agent based Math Game2011In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education ICCE 2011 / [ed] Tsukasa Hirashima, Gautum Biswas, Thepchai Supnithi and Fu-Yun Yu, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers i n Education , 2011, 60-64 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A previous study compared two student groups that played a mathematics game based on a teachable agent. One group played with, and the other without, the inclusion of a social conversation module: a chat between the student and the teachable agent. Results were that students who used the game with the chat included had a more positive experience of the game and learned more in the sense of teaching their agent better. However, patterns dif­fered between sub-groups of students. Low-achievers did not prefer the game with the chat included, whereas high- and mid-achievers did, but simultaneously low-achievers tended to chat more. Low-achievers tended not to use the options of not starting the chat or quitting a chat beforehand as much as high- and mid-achievers did. In this paper we pursue a more de­tailed analysis of the students’ conversational behavior in the chat. The analytic focus is on the notion of engagement. Results point towards differences between the student groups in their engagement in the off-task conversation, that in turn can help explain the previous somewhat paradoxical result.

  • 48.
    Wallergård, Mattias
    et al.
    Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Avdelningen för kognitionsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.
    Haake, Magnus
    Institutionen för designvetenskaper, Lunds universitet.
    Kognition möter teknik – att bygga en fungerande kurskedja för undervisning i människa-teknikinteraktion2009In: 2:a Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, LTH 2-3 december, Lund, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En kurskedja för undervisning i människa/teknik-interaktion håller på att byggas upp på Lunds universitet.  Stora insatser har gjorts för att anpassa de ingående kurserna till varandra t ex genom att se till att de verkligen bygger vidare på varandra och genom att minimera överlappande kursmoment. Mycket arbete kvarstår fortfarande men allt tyder på att den färdiga kurskedjan kommer att producera studenter med solida kunskaper och insikter om hur man utvecklar avancerade former av interaktiv teknik genom att utgå från kognitionsvetenskaplig kunskap och slutanvändarnas färdigheter, behov och önskningar.

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