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  • 1.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhna, Iryna
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhnyi, Dmytrii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Geletukha, Georgiy
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Lutsenko, Serhii
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Yanchenko, Ilona
    Sumy State Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection Technologies, Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Carraro, Giacomo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technologies for Environmental Safety Application of Digestate as Biofertilizer2022In: Ecological Engineering & Environmental Technology, ISSN 2719-7050, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 106-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the environmentally safe and economically feasible technology of biofertilizer production from the digestate including dewatering process. Methodological basis is based on the systematic approach to the determination of factors effected on the distribution of nutrients and pollutants between liquidand solid fractions after digestate separation. We studied modern technologies aimed at dewatering the digestateand reduction of its volume, showed their effectiveness. These technologies allow expanding the opportunities forcommercialization of the digestate, increasing the cost of its transportation and application to the soil instead ofcomplex fertilizers, using some valuable products. The results of the study showed that the ecological quality ofthe digestate is the highest as well as co-digested thermally pre-treated feedstock is used for solid-liquid separationin centrifuge with polymer addition as post-treatment approach to the flocculation. In order to increase efficiencyof biofertilizer application the technological scheme of production process of granular fertilizers from digestatewas proposed. Special feature of this scheme is in the use of phosphogypsum binder for the production of organomineral fertilizer that contributes phosphogypsum recycling in the waste management system.

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  • 2.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Geletukha, Georgii
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Marii Kapnist Street, 03057, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Kucheruk, Petro
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Marii Kapnist Street, 03057, Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carraro, Giacomo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Berezhna, Iryna
    Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Berezhnyi, Dmytrii
    Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Digestate Potential to Substitute Mineral Fertilizers: Engineering Approaches2022In: Journal of Engineering Sciences, ISSN 2312-2498, Vol. 9, no 1, p. H1-H10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to define the potential and technological aspects of the digestate treatment for its application as a biofertilizer. Life cycle assessment methodology was used in terms of digestate quality management. The potential of nutrients, organic carbon, and useful microelements in the digestate allows for its consideration as a mineral fertilizer substitute and soil improver. The valorization of digestate as fertilizer requires quality management and quality control. Based on the research focus, the successful soil application of digestate post-treatment technologies was analyzed. Among the different commercial options for digestate treatment and nutrient recovery, the most relevant are drying, struvite precipitation, stripping, evaporation, and membranes technology. Comparing the physical and chemical properties of the whole digestate, separated liquid, and solid liquor fractions showed that in the case of soil application of granular fertilizer, nutrients from the digestate are released more slowly than digestate application without granulation. However, realizing this potential in an economically feasible way requires improving the quality of digestate products through appropriate technologies and quality control of digestate products. To support the manufacture of quality digestate across Europe, the European Compost Network developed a concept for a pan-European quality assurance scheme.

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  • 3.
    Ablieieva, Iryna
    et al.
    Sumy State Univ, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Plyatsuk, Leonid
    Sumy State Univ, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Burla, Oksana
    Sumy State Univ, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Chekh, Oleh
    Sumy State Univ, Sumy, Ukraine.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Theoretical Substantiation of Mathematical Models of Oil Filtration Through a Porous Medium2022In: Advanced Manufacturing Processes III , Interpartner-2021 / [ed] Tonkonogyi, V., Ivanov, V., Trojanowska, J., Oborskyi, G., Pavlenko, I, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2022, p. 571-581Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on determining the influence of soil, oil, and environmental factors on the process of oil filtration in a porous medium such as soil. Mathematical modeling of the oil geofiltration process based on classical and modified regularities makes it possible to solve a significant environmental problem associated with predicting the pollution zone due to accidental oil spills. The research methodology is based on the substantiation of theoretical models of oil filtration through porous media, methods for the numerical solution of equations, and computer visualization (ANSYS CFX software). Experimental data supported the verification of the adequacy of the models. Based on obtained results, it was found that all oil flowed into well-permeable sand at a speed of approximately 4-10 -4 m/h. The developed model of the stochastic process of petroleum hydrocarbons geofiltration involved obtaining the output as dependent variables, contamination level, contamination depth, and oil spot borders. Numerical solution and visualization using computer simulation showed the distribution of oil hydrocarbons in the soil in vertical and horizontal directions. The mathematical model allowed to predict the formation of the pollution front and assess the contaminated zone's size.

  • 4.
    Abreu, Fernanda
    et al.
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Leão, Pedro
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Vargas, Gabriele
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Cypriano, Jefferson
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Figueiredo, Viviane
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Bazylinski, Dennis A.
    University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA.
    Lins, Ulysses
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Culture-independent characterization of a novel magnetotactic member affiliated to the Beta class of the Proteobacteria phylum from an acidic lagoon2018In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 2615-2624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) comprise a group of motile microorganisms common in most mesothermal aquatic habitats with pH values around neutrality. However, during the last two decades, a number of MTB from extreme environments have been characterized including: cultured alkaliphilic strains belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria class of the Proteobacteria phylum; uncultured moderately thermophilic strains belonging to the Nitrospirae phylum; cultured and uncultured moderately halophilic or strongly halotolerant bacteria affiliated with the Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria classes and an uncultured psychrophilic species belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria class. Here, we used culture-independent techniques to characterize MTB from an acidic freshwater lagoon in Brazil (pH ? 4.4). MTB morphotypes found in this acidic lagoon included cocci, rods, spirilla and vibrioid cells. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was the only mineral identified in magnetosomes of these MTB while magnetite magnetosome crystal morphologies within the different MTB cells included cuboctahedral (present in spirilla), elongated prismatic (present in cocci and vibrios) and bullet-shaped (present in rod-shaped cells). Intracellular pH measurements using fluorescent dyes showed that the cytoplasmic pH was close to neutral in most MTB cells and acidic in some intracellular granules. Based on 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses, some of the retrieved gene sequences belonged to the genus Herbaspirillum within the Betaproteobacteria class of the Proteobacteria phylum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using a Herbaspirillum-specific probe hybridized with vibrioid MTB in magnetically-enriched samples. Transmission electron microscopy of the Herbaspirillum-like MTB revealed the presence of many intracellular granules and a single chain of elongated prismatic magnetite magnetosomes. Diverse populations of MTB have not seemed to have been described in detail in an acid environment. In addition, this is the first report of an MTB phylogenetically affiliated with Betaproteobacteria class.

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  • 5.
    Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo
    et al.
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Sanders, Christian J.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Monteiro Sanders, Luciana Silva
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Abuchacra, Rodrigo Coutinho
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; State Univ Rio de Janeiro UERJ FFP, Brazil.
    Moreira-Turcq, Patricia F.
    Inst Rech Dev IRD, France.
    Cordeiro, Renato Campello
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Gauci, Vincent
    Univ Birmingham, England; Univ Birmingham, England.
    Moreira, Luciane Silva
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Libonati, Renata
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Fonseca, Thairiny
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Francisco, Cristiane Nunes
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Tropical forests as drivers of lake carbon burial2022In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 4051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant proportion of carbon (C) captured by terrestrial primary production is buried in lacustrine ecosystems, which have been substantially affected by anthropogenic activities globally. However, there is a scarcity of sedimentary organic carbon (OC) accumulation information for lakes surrounded by highly productive rainforests at warm tropical latitudes, or in response to land cover and climate change. Here, we combine new data from intensive campaigns spanning 13 lakes across remote Amazonian regions with a broad literature compilation, to produce the first spatially-weighted global analysis of recent OC burial in lakes (over ~50-100-years) that integrates both biome type and forest cover. We find that humid tropical forest lake sediments are a disproportionately important global OC sink of 7.4 Tg C yr−1 with implications for climate change. Further, we demonstrate that temperature and forest conservation are key factors in maintaining massive organic carbon pools in tropical lacustrine sediments.

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  • 6.
    Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo
    et al.
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Sanders, Christian J.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Inst Sea, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sanders, Luciana Silva Monteiro
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Abuchacra, Rodrigo Coutinho
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; State Univ Rio de Janeiro UERJ FFP, Brazil.
    Moreira-Turcq, Patricia F.
    IRD, France.
    Cordeiro, Renato Campello
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Gauci, Vincent
    Univ Birmingham, England.
    Moreira, Luciane Silva
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Libonati, Renata
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Fonseca, Thairiny
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Francisco, Cristiane Nunes
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Correction: Tropical forests as drivers of lake carbon burial (vol 13, 4051, 2022)2023In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 3282Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo
    et al.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Smoak, Joseph M.
    Univ S Florida, FL USA.
    Abuchacra, Rodrigo C.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; State Univ Rio de Janeiro UERJ FFP, Brazil.
    Carvalho, Carla
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Ribeiro, Fernando C. A.
    Inst Radiat Protect & Dosimetry IRD, Brazil.
    Martins, Kevin C.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Fonseca-Oliveira, Ana L.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Carvalho, Manuela
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil.
    Machado, Luiza P.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil.
    Souza, Allana F. F.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    da Silva, Andre L. C.
    State Univ Rio de Janeiro UERJ FFP, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oliveira, Vinicius P.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sanders, Christian J.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Sanders, Luciana M.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ UFF, Brazil; Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; State Univ Rio de Janeiro UERJ FFP, Brazil.
    Linking centennial scale anthropogenic changes and sedimentary records as lessons for urban coastal management2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 902, article id 165620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal eutrophication and urban flooding are increasingly important components of global change. Although increased seawater renewal by barrier openings and channelizing are common mitigation measures in coastal lagoons worldwide, their effects on these ecosystems are not fully understood. Here, we evaluated the re-lationships between human interventions in the watershed, artificial connections to the sea, and the sediment burial rates in an urban coastal lagoon (Maric & PRIME;a lagoon, Southeastern Brazil). Sediment accretion along with nutrient and carbon burial rates were determined in two sediment cores representing the past-120 years (210Pb dating) and associated with anthropogenic changes as indicated by historical records and geoinformation ana-lyses. Lagoon infilling and eutrophication, expressed by the average sediment accretion, TP, TN, and OC burial rates, respectively, increased-9-18, 13-15, 11-14 and 11-12-fold from the earliest (<1950) to the most recent (2000-2017) period. These multi-proxy records confirm mechanistic links between deforestation, urbanization, and untreated sewage discharges. In addition, our findings reveal artificial connections to the sea may contribute to lagoonal eutrophication and infilling, particularly when not integrated with sewage treatment and forest conservation or reforestation in the watershed. Therefore, increased seawater renewal by physical interventions commonly considered as mitigation measures may in contrast cause severe degradation in coastal lagoons, causing harmful consequences that should be not neglected when implementing management practices.

  • 8.
    Anacleto, Thuane Mendes
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina
    Fed Univ State Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ State Rio De Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ State Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Masuda, Laura Shizue Moriga
    Ch Mendes Inst Biodivers Conservat ICMBio, Brazil.
    de Oliveira, Vinicius Peruzzi
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Methane yield response to pretreatment is dependent on substrate chemical composition: a meta-analysis on anaerobic digestion systems2024In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper pretreatment of organic residues prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) can maximize global biogas production from varying sources without increasing the amount of digestate, contributing to global decarbonization goals. However, the efficiency of pretreatments applied on varying organic streams is poorly assessed. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis on AD studies to evaluate the efficiencies of pretreatments with respect to biogas production measured as methane yield. Based on 1374 observations our analysis shows that pretreatment efficiency is dependent on substrate chemical dominance. Grouping substrates by chemical composition e.g., lignocellulosic-, protein- and lipid-rich dominance helps to highlight the appropriate choice of pretreatment that supports maximum substrate degradation and more efficient conversion to biogas. Methane yield can undergo an impactful increase compared to untreated controls if proper pretreatment of substrates of a given chemical dominance is applied. Non-significant or even adverse effects on AD are, however, observed when the substrate chemical dominance is disregarded.

  • 9.
    Anacleto, Thuane Mendes
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina
    Univ Fed Estado Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Wilson, Alan E.
    Auburn Univ, AL 36849 USA.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Pathways to Increase Biogas Production in the Textile Industry2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 15, article id 5574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry is one of the largest environmental polluters in the world. Although waste management via anaerobic digestion (AD) is a sustainable strategy to transform waste into clean energy and water recovery, the efficiency of the AD process is reduced by the presence of recalcitrant materials, chemicals, and toxic contents. This study aims to investigate the performance of several chemical, physical, and biological pretreatments applied to improve the biodegradability of textile waste. We performed a meta-analysis with 117 data extracted from 13 published articles that evaluated the efficiency of pretreatments applied to textile waste prior to AD to increase biogas production measured as methane (CH4) yield. Even though the majority of the studies have focused on the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments, our results showed that the application of biological pretreatments are more efficient and eco-friendlier. Biological pretreatments can increase CH4 yield by up to 360% with lower environmental risk and lower operating costs, while producing clean energy and a cleaner waste stream. Biological pretreatments also avoid the addition of chemicals and favor the reuse of textile wastewater, decreasing the current demand for clean water and increasing resource circularity in the textile industry.

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  • 10.
    Anacleto, Thuane Mendes
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Helena Rodrigues
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Diniz, Vinicius Lacerda
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    de Oliveira, Vinicius Peruzzi
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Abreu, Fernanda
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Boosting manure biogas production with the application of pretreatments: A meta-analysis2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 362, article id 132292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a versatile manure management approach that can combine waste treatment, energy generation and nutrient recovery, thus playing a central role in circular economy. The AD process is highly influenced by manure composition which, depending on the source, may contain high loads recalcitrant materials (e.g., lignocellulosic and fibers) or lead to the formation of toxic compounds (e.g., NH3), decreasing the energetic potential of the waste and requiring specific pretreatments to increase its degradability and biogas production. Although there are distinctions in the chemical composition of manure according to animal diets, different manure sources are usually grouped together, leading to a suboptimal performance of both the pretreatment and the AD process. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of 54 studies to evaluate the effects of different pretreatments on different manure types and their effect on methane (CH4) yield and we estimated the energy potential if the appropriate pretreatment is applied to largest manure producing countries. The results showed that chemical and/or biological pretreatments were more effective for omnivore manure (e.g., swine, chicken), while physical and a combination of chemical and physical pretreatments negatively affected CH4 production. Physical and/or chemical pretreatments had a positive effect on CH4 yield from herbivore manure (e. g., cattle, horses), while biological pretreatments had a negative effect. The application of the adequate pretreatment can more than double the energy recovered from manure, allowing for an important substitution of fossil fuels, while decreasing operational costs and environmental risks and ultimately improving profitability. The development of pretreatment technologies and their application are strongly related to public policies for sustainable manure management and biogas use and production.

  • 11.
    Basso, Marcos Fernando
    et al.
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil.
    Lourenco-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil.
    Moreira-Pinto, Clidia Eduarda
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil; Fed Univ Brasilia, Brazil.
    Mendes, Reneida Aparecida Godinho
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Fed Univ Brasilia, Brazil.
    Paes-de-Melo, Bruno
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil.
    das Neves, Maysa Rosa
    W5 Norte, Brazil.
    Macedo, Amanda Ferreira
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Figueiredo, Viviane
    Fed Univ Rio Janeiro, Brazil.
    Grandis, Adriana
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil.
    Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil.
    Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo
    W5 Norte, Brazil.
    Togawa, Roberto Coiti
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Fed Univ Rio Janeiro, Brazil.
    Marcelino-Guimaraes, Francismar Correa
    Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil; Embrapa Soybean, Brazil.
    Gomes, Ana Cristina Meneses Mendes
    W5 Norte, Brazil.
    Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil.
    Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Engler, Janice de Almeida
    Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil; Univ Cote dAzur, France.
    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima
    W5 Norte, Brazil; Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Brazil; Univ Catolica Brasilia, Brazil.
    Overexpression of a soybean Globin (GmGlb1-1) gene reduces plant susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita2022In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 256, no 4, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-symbiotic globin class #1 (Glb1) genes are expressed in different plant organs, have a high affinity for oxygen, and are related to nitric oxide (NO) turnover. Previous studies showed that soybean Glb1 genes are upregulated in soybean plants under flooding conditions. Herein, the GmGlb1-1 gene was identified in soybean as being upregulated in the nematode-resistant genotype PI595099 compared to the nematode-susceptible cultivar BRS133 during plant parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita. The Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum transgenic lines overexpressing the GmGlb1-1 gene showed reduced susceptibility to M. incognita. Consistently, gall morphology data indicated that pJ2 nematodes that infected the transgenic lines showed developmental alterations and delayed parasitism progress. Although no significant changes in biomass and seed yield were detected, the transgenic lines showed an elongated, etiolation-like growth under well-irrigation, and also developed more axillary roots under flooding conditions. In addition, transgenic lines showed upregulation of some important genes involved in plant defense response to oxidative stress. In agreement, higher hydrogen peroxide accumulation and reduced activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification enzymes were also observed in these transgenic lines. Thus, based on our data and previous studies, it was hypothesized that constitutive overexpression of the GmGlb1-1 gene can interfere in the dynamics of ROS production and NO scavenging, enhancing the acquired systemic acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improving the cellular homeostasis. Therefore, these collective data suggest that ectopic or nematode-induced overexpression, or enhanced expression of the GmGlb1-1 gene using CRISPR/dCas9 offers great potential for application in commercial soybean cultivars aiming to reduce plant susceptibility to M. incognita.

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  • 12.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Treat, Claire C.
    Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Germany.
    Pangala, Sunitha Rao
    Univ Lancaster, England.
    Gauci, Vincent
    Univ Birmingham, England; Univ Birmingham, England.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brandini Romano, Mariana
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The importance of plants for methane emission at the ecosystem scale2023In: Aquatic Botany, ISSN 0304-3770, E-ISSN 1879-1522, Vol. 184, article id 103596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4), one of the key long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases, is primarily produced from organic matter. Accordingly, net primary production of organic matter sets the boundaries for CH4 emissions. Plants, being dominant primary producers, are thereby indirectly sustaining most global CH4 emissions, albeit with delays in time and with spatial offsets between plant primary production and subsequent CH4 emission. In addition, plant communities can enhance or hamper ecosystem production, oxidation, and transport of CH4 in multiple ways, e.g., by shaping carbon, nutrient, and redox gradients, and by representing a physical link be-tween zones with extensive CH4 production in anoxic sediments or soils and the atmosphere. This review focuses on how plants and other primary producers influence CH4 emissions with the consequences at ecosystem scales. We outline mechanisms of interactions and discuss flux regulation, quantification, and knowledge gaps across multiple ecosystem examples. Some recently proposed plant-related ecosystem CH4 fluxes are difficult to reconcile with the global atmospheric CH4 budget and the enigmas related to these fluxes are highlighted. Overall, ecosystem CH4 emissions are strongly linked to primary producer communities, directly or indirectly, and properly quantifying magnitudes and regulation of these links are key to predicting future CH4 emissions in a rapidly changing world.

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  • 13.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schmid Neset, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Critical method needs in measuring greenhouse gas fluxes2022In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 104009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reaching climate goals depends on appropriate and accurate methods to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and to verify that efforts to mitigate GHG emissions are effective. We here highlight critical advantages, limitations, and needs regarding GHG flux measurement methods, identified from an analysis of >13 500 scientific publications regarding three long-lived GHGs, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). While existing methods are well-suited for assessing atmospheric changes and local fluxes, they are expensive and have limited accessibility. Further, we are typically forced to choose between methods for very local GHG sources and sinks and their regulation (m(2)-scaled measurements), or methods for aggregated net fluxes at >ha or km(2) scales measurements. The results highlight the key need of accessible and affordable GHG flux measurement methods for the many flux types not quantifiable from fossil fuel use, to better verify inventories and mitigation efforts for transparency and accountability under the Paris agreement. The situation also calls for novel methods, capable of quantifying large scale GHG flux patterns while simultaneously distinguishing local source and sink dynamics and reveal flux regulation, representing key knowledge for quantitative GHG flux modeling. Possible strategies to address the identified GHG flux measurement method needs are discussed. The analysis also generated indications of how GHG flux measurements have been distributed geographically and across flux types, which are reported.

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  • 14.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Nguyen, Thanh Duc
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Schmid Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Opach, Tomasz
    Dept. of Geography, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Measuring greenhouse gas fluxes: what methods do we have versus what methods do we need?2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Appropriate methods to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are critical for our ability to detect fluxes, understand regulation, make adequate priorities for climate change mitigation efforts, and verify that these efforts are effective. Ideally, we need reliable, accessible, and affordable measurements at relevant scales. We surveyed present GHG flux measurement methods, identified from an analysis of >11000 scientific publications and a questionnaire to sector professionals and analysed method pros and cons versus needs for novel methodology. While existing methods are well-suited for addressing certain questions, this presentation presents fundamental limitations relative to GHG flux measurement needs for verifiable and transparent action to mitigate many types of emissions. Cost and non-academic accessibility are key aspects, along with fundamental measurement performance. These method limitations contribute to the difficulties in verifying GHG mitigation efforts for transparency and accountability under the Paris agreement. Resolving this mismatch between method capacity and societal needs is urgently needed for effective climate mitigation. This type of methodological mismatch is common but seems to get high priority in other knowledge domains. The obvious need to prioritize development of accurate diagnosis methods for effective treatments in healthcare is one example. This presentation provides guidance regarding the need to prioritize the development of novel GHG flux measurement methods.

  • 15.
    Bento, Luiz
    et al.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Shizue Moriga Masuda, Laura
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bittencourt Peixoto, Roberta
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Regulation in the Metabolism and Community Structure of a Tropical Salt Flat after Rainfall2017In: Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, E-ISSN 1551-5036, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 304-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical salt flats typically lack a water column for most of the year, which means that rainfall is probably one of the major factors that regulate benthic microalgae and metabolism in areas subjected to periodic drought. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of rainfall on the ecological function and community structure of a tropical mangrove salt flat area. This study showed that the highest primary production and respiration fluxes were recorded on the last day of sampling when it rained (-7.6 and 4.7 mmol C-CO2 m(-2) h(-1), respectively). Net primary production increased significantly compared with the dry period that preceded the rain event. The results also suggested that community structure was regulated by rainfall. After the rain event, abundance increased by one order of magnitude, but the diversity and evenness indices decreased. These results demonstrate that rain does have strong regulatory effects on the ecological function and structure of tropical salt flats.

  • 16.
    Brown, Dylan R.
    et al.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Peixoto, Roberta B.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Barroso, Glenda C.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Soares, Mario L. G.
    Univ Estado Rio de Janeiro UERJ, Brazil; Univ Estado Rio de Janeiro UERJ, Brazil.
    Machado, Wilson
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Perez, Alexander
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru.
    Smoak, Joseph M.
    Univ S Florida, FL 33701 USA.
    Sanders, Luciana M.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Conrad, Stephen
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Sippo, James Z.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Santos, Isaac R.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maher, Damien T.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia; Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Sanders, Christian J.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia; East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hypersaline tidal flats as important "blue carbon" systems: a case study from three ecosystems2021In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 2527-2538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypersaline tidal flats (HTFs) are coastal ecosystems with freshwater deficits often occurring in arid or semiarid regions near mangrove supratidal zones with no major fluvial contributions. Here, we estimate that organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were buried at rates averaging 21 (+/- 6), 1.7 (+/- 0.3) and 1.4 (+/- 0.3) gm(-2) yr(-1), respectively, during the previous century in three contrasting HTF systems, one in Brazil (eutrophic) and two in Australia (oligotrophic). Although these rates are lower than those from nearby mangrove, saltmarsh and seagrass systems, the importance of HTFs as sinks for OC, TN and TP may be significant given their extensive coverage. Despite the measured short-term variability between net air-saltpan CO2 influx and emission estimates found during the dry and wet season in the Brazilian HTF, the only site with seasonal CO2 flux measurements, the OC sedimentary profiles over several decades suggest efficient OC burial at all sites. Indeed, the stable isotopes of OC and TN (delta C-13 and delta N-1(5)) along with C : N ratios show that microphytobenthos are the major source of the buried OC in these HTFs. Our findings highlight a previously unquantified carbon as well as a nutrient sink and suggest that coastal HTF ecosystems could be included in the emerging blue carbon framework.

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  • 17.
    Calegari, Rubens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Šafarič, Luka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Adiya, P.
    Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Huang, B.
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Almeida, G.M.L.L.
    Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Arthur, V.
    Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Baptista, A.S.
    Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Anaerobic mono-digestion and anaerobic co-digestion of sugarcane industry residues with iron supplementation2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Calegari, Rubens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Šafarič, Luka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Adiya, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Huang, B.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Faria, T.M.
    Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Arthur, V.
    Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Babtista, A.S.
    Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Supplementation of trace elements to sulfate-rich substrate and their impact in H2S formation and methane production2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Call, Mitchell
    et al.
    National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia; Southern Cross Geoscience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.
    Sanders, Christian J.
    National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia;.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Botany, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Ecosystems and Global Change Laboratory (LEMGUFF)/ International Laboratory of Global Change (LINCGlobal), Biomass and Water Management Research Center (NABUFF), Graduate Program in Geosciences (Environmental Geochemistry), Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sanders, Luciana
    Southern Cross Geoscience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; .
    Santos, Isaac R.
    National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia;.
    Maher, Damien T.
    National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia; Southern Cross Geoscience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.
    Radon-traced pore-water as a potential source of CO2 and CH4 to receding black and clear water environments in the Amazon Basin2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 375-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Groundwater is a primary source of dissolved CO2 and CH4 in Amazonian headwaters, yet in higher order rivers, a groundwater/pore-water source is difficult to constrain due to the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pore-water exchange. Here, we report coupled, high resolution measurements of pCO2, CH4, and 222Rn (a natural pore-water and groundwater tracer) during receding waters in the three major water types of the Central Amazon Basin: black (Negro River); clear (Tapajós River); white (Madeira River). Considerable spatial heterogeneity was observed in pCO2, CH4, and 222Rn concentrations ranging from 460 ?atm to 8030 ?atm, 7 nM to 281 nM, and 713 dpm m?3 to 8516 dpm m?3, respectively. The significant correlations between pCO2 and CH4 to 222Rn in the black and clear waters suggests that pore-water further enhanced CO2 supersaturation by 18?47% and is a driver of CH4 dynamics in these waters.

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  • 20.
    Conrad, Ralf
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Klose, Melanie
    Max Planck Inst Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Acetate turnover and methanogenic pathways in Amazonian lake sediments2020In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1063-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake sediments in Amazonia are a significant source of CH4, a potential greenhouse gas. Previous studies of sediments using C-13 analysis found that the contribution of hydrogenotrophic versus acetoclastic methanogenesis to CH4 production was relatively high. Here, we determined the methanogenic pathway in the same sediments (n = 6) by applying (14)Cbicarbonate or 2-(14)Cacetate and confirmed the high relative contribution (50 %-80 %) of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The respiratory index (RI) of 2-(14)Cacetate, which is (CO2)-C-14 relative to (CH4)-C-14 +(CO2)-C-14, divided the sediments into two categories, i.e., those with an RI amp;lt; 0.2 consistent with the operation of acetoclastic methanogenesis and those with an RI amp;gt; 0.4 showing that a large percentage of the acetate-methyl was oxidized to CO2 rather than reduced to CH4. Hence, part of the acetate was probably converted to CO2 plus H-2 via syntrophic oxidation, thus enhancing hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. This happened despite the presence of potentially acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae in all the sediments. Alternatively, acetate may have been oxidized with a constituent of the sediment organic matter (humic acid) serving as oxidant. Indeed, apparent acetate turnover rates were larger than CH4 production rates except in those sediments with a Ramp;lt;0.2. Our study demonstrates that CH4 production in Amazonian lake sediments was not simply caused by a combination of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis but probably involved additional acetate turnover.

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  • 21.
    de Jesus, Hugo Emiliano
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Carreira, Renato S.
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Paiva, Simone S. M.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Massone, Carlos
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Peixoto, Raquel S.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Rodrigues, Jorge L. Mazza
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Lee, Charles K.
    Univ Waikato, New Zealand.
    Cary, Craig
    Univ Waikato, New Zealand.
    Rosado, Alexandre S.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA; King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Saudi Arabia.
    Microbial Succession under Freeze-Thaw Events and Its Potential for Hydrocarbon Degradation in Nutrient-Amended Antarctic Soil2021In: Microorganisms, E-ISSN 2076-2607, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polar regions have relatively low richness and diversity of plants and animals, and the basis of the entire ecological chain is supported by microbial diversity. In these regions, understanding the microbial response against environmental factors and anthropogenic disturbances is essential to understand patterns better, prevent isolated events, and apply biotechnology strategies. The Antarctic continent has been increasingly affected by anthropogenic contamination, and its constant temperature fluctuations limit the application of clean recovery strategies, such as bioremediation. We evaluated the bacterial response in oil-contaminated soil through a nutrient-amended microcosm experiment using two temperature regimes: (i) 4 degrees C and (ii) a freeze-thaw cycle (FTC) alternating between -20 and 4 degrees C. Bacterial taxa, such as Myxococcales, Chitinophagaceae, and Acidimicrobiales, were strongly related to the FTC. Rhodococcus was positively related to contaminated soils and further stimulated under FTC conditions. Additionally, the nutrient-amended treatment under the FTC regime enhanced bacterial groups with known biodegradation potential and was efficient in removing hydrocarbons of diesel oil. The experimental design, rates of bacterial succession, and level of hydrocarbon transformation can be considered as a baseline for further studies aimed at improving bioremediation strategies in environments affected by FTC regimes.

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  • 22.
    de Oliveira, Vinícius Peruzzi
    et al.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bento, Luiz Fernando Jardim
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Nielsen, Lars Peter
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    CO2 influence on oxygen dynamics and net primary production of the microphytobenthos: an experimental approach2020In: Journal of Research in Ecology, ISSN 2319-1546, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 2702-2712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of organic matter by phototrophs requires inorganic carbon,which in aquatic systems is taken up from the water column, sediment oratmosphere. Observations on a microphytobenthic mat overlaid with 2 mm of waterand atmospheric air showed a tight balance between consumption and production ofoxygen and, therefore, a bimodal pattern in the Net Primary Production (NPP).Enrichment of the air with CO2 led to an enhancement of the NPP of a community,while the removal of all CO2 from the air resulted in no NPP and a linear O2 gradientfrom the overlying water to the lower part of the mat. The distribution and rates ofgross photosynthetic oxygen production, measured as the oxygen decline within oneto twos after light-dark shifts, showed little response to CO2 depletion, suggesting thatthe photosynthetic electron flow was primarily redirected from CO2 fixation tophotorespiration. In nature, the observed control of NPP by atmospheric CO2concentration should be most pronounced in shallow-water and intertidal systems,and the productivity in these ecosystems may therefore be steadily increasing alongwith the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. 

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  • 23.
    Duran, J.
    et al.
    CSIC, Spain; Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Meira-Neto, J.
    Univ Fed Vicosa, Brazil.
    Delgado-Baquerizo, M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Hamonts, K.
    Univ Western Sydney, Australia.
    Figueiredo, V.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Rodriguez, A.
    CSIC, Spain; Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Different Cerrado Ecotypes Show Contrasting Soil Microbial Properties, Functioning Rates, and Sensitivity to Changing Water Regimes2023In: Ecosystems, ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil moisture is among the most important factors regulating soil biodiversity and functioning. Models forecast changes in the precipitation regime in many areas of the planet, but how these changes will influence soil functioning, and how biotic drivers modulate such effects, is far from being understood. We evaluated the responses of C and N fluxes, and soil microbial properties to different soil water regimes in soils from the main three ecotypes of the worlds largest and most diverse tropical savanna. Further, we explored the direct and indirect effects of changes in the ecotype and soil water regimes on these key soil processes. Soils from the woodland savanna showed a better nutritional status than the other ecotypes, as well as higher potential N cycling rates, N2O emissions, and soil bacterial abundance but lower bacterial richness, whereas potential CO2 emissions and CH4 uptake peaked in the intermediate savanna. The ecotype also modulated the effects of changes in the soil water regime on nutrient cycling, greenhouse gas fluxes, and soil bacterial properties, with more intense responses in the intermediate savanna. Further, we highlight the existence of multiple contrasting direct and indirect (via soil microbes and abiotic properties) effects of an intensification of the precipitation regime on soil C- and N-related processes. Our results confirm that ecotype is a fundamental driver of soil properties and functioning in the Cerrado and that it can determine the responses of key soil processes to changes in the soil water regime.

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  • 24.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Laboratório de Biogeoquímica, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Figueiredo, V.
    Laboratório de Biogeoquímica, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Departamento de Geoquímica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    De, Esteves F.A.
    Laboratório de Limnologia, Departamento de Ecologia, Instituto de Biologia Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ecologia E Desenvolvimento Sócio-ambiental de Macaé, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Nielsen, L.P.
    Department of Biology, University of of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Controls of sediment nitrogen dynamics in tropical coastal lagoons2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment denitrification rates seem to be lower in tropical environments than in temperate environments. Using the isotope pairing technique, we measured actual denitrification rates in the sediment of tropical coastal lagoons. To explain the low denitrification rates observed at all study sites (amp;lt;5 μmol N2 m-2 h-1 ), we also evaluated potential oxygen (O2 ) consumption, potential nitrification, potential denitrification, potential anammox, and estimated dissimilatory nitrate NO3 ) reduction to ammonium (NH4 + ; DNRA) in the sediment.15NO3 and 15NH4 + conversion was measured in oxic and anoxic slurries from the sediment surface. Sediment potential O2 consumption was used as a proxy for overall mineralization activity. Actual denitrification rates and different potential nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes were significantly correlated with potential O2 consumption. The contribution of potential nitrification to total O2 consumption decreased from contributing 9% at sites with the lowest sediment mineralization rates to less than 0.1% at sites with the highest rates. -3 reduction switched completely from potential denitrification to estimated DNRA. Ammonium oxidation and nitrite NO2 ) reduction by potential anammox contributed up to 3% in sediments with the lowest sediment mineralization rates. The majority of these patterns could be explained by variations in the microbial environments from stable and largely oxic conditions at low sediment mineralization sites to more variable conditions and the prevalences of anaerobic microorganisms at high sediment mineralization sites. Furthermore, the presence of algal and microbial mats on the sediment had a significant effect on all studied processes. We propose a theoretical model based on low and high sediment mineralization rates to explain the growth, activity, and distribution of microorganisms carrying out denitrification and DNRA in sediments that can explain the dominance or coexistence of DNRA and denitrification processes. The results presented here show that the potential activity of anaerobic nitrate-reducing organisms is not dependent on the availability of environmental NO3. © 2016 Enrich-Prast et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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  • 25.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Departamento de Botânica,Instituto de Biologia, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
    Gaxiola, Aurora
    Departamento de Ecología, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Chile.
    Santoro, Ana Lucia
    Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
    Duran, Jorge
    Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Rodrigues, Alexandra
    Center for Functional Ecology (CFE), Science for People & the Planet, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Laboratório de Ecosistemas e Mudanças Globais (LEMG/UFF), Instituto de Geociências, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Brasil.
    Cambios Globales e ciclos biogeoquimicos2018In: Cambio Global: una mirada desde iberoamerica / [ed] Pablo Marquet, Fernando Valladares, Sandra Magro, Aurora Gaxiola, Alex Enrich-Prast, Madrid: Departamento de Publicaciones, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2018, p. 111-125Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Cambios Globales e ciclos biogeoquimicos
  • 26.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Lucia Santoro, Ana
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Coutinho, Rodrigo S.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Peter Nielsen, Lars
    University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Esteves, Francisco A.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Sediment Denitrification in Two Contrasting Tropical Shallow Lagoons2016In: Estuaries and Coasts, ISSN 1559-2723, E-ISSN 1559-2731, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 657-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment denitrification was monthly evaluated in two tropical coastal lagoons with different trophic states using the N-15 isotope pairing technique. Denitrification rates were very low in both environments, always < 5.0 mu mol N-2 m(-2) h(-1) and were not significantly different between them. Oxygen consumption varied from 426 to 4248 mu mol O-2 m(-2) h(-1) and was generally three times higher in the meso-eutrophic than the oligotrophic lagoon. The low denitrification activity was ascribed to both low water NO3- concentrations (< 2.0 mu M) and little nitrate supply from nitrification. There was no correlation of denitrification with nitrate or ammonium fluxes. Sediments in temperate environments with similar oxygen consumption rates usually presented a higher proportion of nitrification-denitrification rates. Sediment oxygen consumption was a good predictor of sediment denitrification in both studied lagoons.

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  • 27.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yufang, Guo
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yonghui
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Liu, Yuxian
    Linköping University. Guangzhou University Research Center on Urban Sustainable Development, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Masuda, Laura Shizue Moriga
    Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rohracher, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zhang, Fagen
    School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Biogas Potential for Improved Sustainability in Guangzhou, China: A Study Focusing on Food Waste on Xiaoguwei Island2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of rapid development in China and the growth of megacities, large amounts of organic wastes are generated within relatively small areas. Part of these wastes can be used to produce biogas, not only to reduce waste-related problems, but also to provide renewable energy, recycle nutrients, and lower greenhouse gases and air polluting emissions. This article is focused on the conditions for biogas solutions in Guangzhou. It is based on a transdisciplinary project that integrates several approaches, for example, literature studies and lab analysis of food waste to estimate the food waste potential, interviews to learn about the socio-technical context and conditions, and life-cycle assessment to investigate the performance of different waste management scenarios involving biogas production. Xiaoguwei Island, with a population of about 250,000 people, was chosen as the area of study. The results show that there are significant food waste potentials on the island, and that all studied scenarios could contribute to a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Several socio-technical barriers were identified, but it is expected that the forthcoming regulatory changes help to overcome some of them.

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  • 28.
    Figueira, Tiphane Andrade
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Martins, Nuno Tavares
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Ayres-Ostrock, Ligia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Plastino, Estela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    de Oliveira, Vinicius Peruzzi
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Correction: The effects of phosphate on physiological responses and carbohydrate production in Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) from upwelling and non-upwelling site (vol 64. pg 1, 2021)2021In: Botanica Marina, ISSN 0006-8055, E-ISSN 1437-4323, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 161-161Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 29.
    Figueira, Tiphane Andrade
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Martins, Nuno Tavares
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Ayres-Ostrock, Ligia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Plastino, Estela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    de Oliveira, Vinicius Peruzzi
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    The effects of phosphate on physiological responses and carbohydrate production in Ulva fasciata (Chlorophyta) from upwelling and nonupwelling sites2021In: Botanica Marina, ISSN 0006-8055, E-ISSN 1437-4323, Vol. 64, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus is a key macronutrient inmacroalgal physiology, including carbohydrate anabolism. To determine the effects of phosphorus on different physiological parameters, we cultivated Ulva fasciata specimens from distinct localities (upwelling and non-upwelling sites) in the presence of different phosphate concentrations (0, 2, and 4 mu MPO43-). After 15 days, growth rates were similar (approx. 12% day(-1)) and carbohydrate contents had increased in individuals fromboth sites. In individuals from the upwelling site, carbohydrate contents were high in all treatments (71% dry mass), whereas non-upwelling site individuals cultivated under the highest phosphate concentration showed the lowest carbohydrate content (46% DM). Nevertheless, we observed higher rates of phosphorus uptake in individuals from the non-upwelling site cultivated under the highest phosphate concentration, indicating a stress response to elevated nutrient concentrations. Individuals from both sites cultivated with phosphate maintained healthy photosystems over the experimental period (F-v/ F-m = 0.788), whereas those cultivated in the absence of phosphate showed evidence of photosystem impairment, as indicated by a progressive decline in maximum quantum yield. Altogether, our results indicate that site origin and phosphate concentration influence the carbohydrate content in U. fasciata and that individuals from sites with broad environmental variation, such as upwelling events, can show higher productivity.

  • 30.
    Figueiredo, V.
    et al.
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil; University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Ruetting, T.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Soil organic matter content controls gross nitrogen dynamics and N2O production in riparian and upland boreal soil2016In: European Journal of Soil Science, ISSN 1351-0754, E-ISSN 1365-2389, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 782-791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the pathways of gross soil nitrogen (N) transformations and nitrous oxide (N2O) production with N-15 enrichment techniques in a boreal forest landscape by comparing organic (riparian) and mineral (upland) soil within two catchments in northern Sweden. The values of all soil properties evaluated for the riparin and upland zones were statistically different (Pamp;lt;0.05). The rates of gross N transformation were larger in the riparian than in the upland soil (Pamp;lt;0.05), which can be explained by the larger soil organic matter (SOM) content that provides energy and mineral N as a substrate for other processes. The riparian soil at one site shows a decoupling of nitrification from mineralization; the largest gross mineralization occurred in the soil at this site, but gross nitrification was relatively small. This was probably because of the low pH (2.70.1), which inhibits the activity of autotrophic nitrifiers. Oxidation of organic N was the main source of N2O in the soil at all sites, probably because of low soil pH and large organic carbon content, which favours heterotrophic nitrification. The results of our study confirm that organic matter is the main regulating factor for gross N mineralization and nitrification; the latter are markedly different in the organic-rich riparian soil and the upland soil in the boreal forest landscape.

  • 31.
    Figueiredo, Viviane
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rutting, Tobias
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evolution of nitrogen cycling in regrowing Amazonian rainforest2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 8538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive regions of tropical forests are subjected to high rates of deforestation and forest regrowth and both are strongly affect soil nutrient cycling. Nitrogen (N) dynamics changes during forest regrowth and the recovery of forests and functioning similar to pristine conditions depends on sufficient N availability. We show that, in a chronosequence of Amazonian forests, gross nitrification and, as a result, nitrate-to-ammonium (NO3- : NH4+) ratio were lower in all stages of regrowing forests (10 to 40 years) compared to pristine forest. This indicates the evolution of a more conservative and closed N cycle with reduced risk for N leaking out of the ecosystem in regrowing forests. Furthermore, our results indicate that mineralization and nitrification are decoupled in young regrowing forests (10 years), such as that high gross mineralization is accompanied by low gross nitrification, demonstrating a closed N cycle that at the same time maintains N supply for forest regrowth. We conclude that the status of gross nitrification in disturbed soil is a key process to understand the mechanisms of and time needed for tropical forest recovery.

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  • 32.
    Gomez-Gener, Lluis
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Rocher-Ros, Gerard
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Battin, Tom
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Cohen, Matthew J.
    Univ Florida, FL 32611 USA.
    Dalmagro, Higo J.
    Univ Cuiaba, Brazil.
    Dinsmore, Kerry J.
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Scotland.
    Drake, Travis W.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Duvert, Clement
    Charles Darwin Univ, Australia.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Horgby, Asa
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Johnson, Mark S.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada; Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Kirk, Lily
    Univ Florida, FL USA.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil.
    Marzolf, Nicholas S.
    North Carolina State Univ, NC 27695 USA.
    McDowell, Mollie J.
    Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    McDowell, William H.
    Univ British Columbia, Canada; Univ British Columbia, Canada; Univ New Hampshire, NH 03824 USA.
    Miettinen, Heli
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Ojala, Anne K.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Peter, Hannes
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Ran, Lishan
    Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Riveros-Iregui, Diego A.
    Univ N Carolina, NC 27515 USA.
    Santos, Isaac R.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Six, Johan
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Stanley, Emily H.
    Univ Wisconsin, WI 53706 USA.
    Wallin, Marcus B.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    White, Shane A.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Global carbon dioxide efflux from rivers enhanced by high nocturnal emissions2021In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 289-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere from running waters are estimated to be four times greater than the total carbon (C) flux to the oceans. However, these fluxes remain poorly constrained because of substantial spatial and temporal variability in dissolved CO2 concentrations. Using a global compilation of high-frequency CO2 measurements, we demonstrate that nocturnal CO2 emissions are on average 27% (0.9 gC m(-2) d(-1)) greater than those estimated from diurnal concentrations alone. Constraints on light availability due to canopy shading or water colour are the principal controls on observed diel (24 hour) variation, suggesting this nocturnal increase arises from daytime fixation of CO2 by photosynthesis. Because current global estimates of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere from running waters (0.65-1.8 PgC yr(-1)) rely primarily on discrete measurements of dissolved CO2 obtained during the day, they substantially underestimate the magnitude of this flux. Accounting for night-time CO2 emissions may elevate global estimates from running waters to the atmosphere by 0.20-0.55 PgC yr(-1). Failing to account for emission differences between day and night will lead to an underestimate of global CO2 emissions from rivers by up to 0.55 PgC yr(-1), according to analyses of high-frequency CO2 measurements.

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  • 33.
    Gonsior, Michael
    et al.
    University of Maryland, MD 20688 USA.
    Valle, Juliana
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany; Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Luek, Jenna
    University of Maryland, MD 20688 USA.
    Harir, Mourad
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Germany.
    Bastos, Wanderley
    University of Federal Rondonia, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin2016In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 13, no 14, p. 4279-4290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajos River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur-and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajos main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

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  • 34.
    Hernandez, Marcela
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Klose, Melanie
    Max Planck Inst Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Claus, Peter
    Max Planck Inst Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Figueiredo, Viviane
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Conrad, Ralf
    Max Planck Inst Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Structure, function and resilience to desiccation of methanogenic microbial communities in temporarily inundated soils of the Amazon rainforest (Cunia Reserve, Rondonia)2019In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1702-1717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The floodplain of the Amazon River is a large source for the greenhouse gas methane, but the soil microbial communities and processes involved are little known. We studied the structure and function of the methanogenic microbial communities in soils across different inundation regimes in the Cunia Reserve, encompassing nonflooded forest soil (dry forest), occasionally flooded Igapo soils (dry Igapo), long time flooded Igapo soils (wet Igapo) and sediments from Igarape streams (Igarape). We also investigated a Transect (four sites) from the water shoreline into the dry forest. The potential and resilience of the CH4 production process were studied in the original soil samples upon anaerobic incubation and again after artificial desiccation and rewetting. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and methanogenic mcrA were always present in the soils, except in dry forest soils where mcrA increased only upon anaerobic incubation. NMDS analysis showed a clear effect of desiccation and rewetting treatments on both bacterial and archaeal communities. However, the effects of the different sites were less pronounced, with the exception of Igarape. After anaerobic incubation, methanogenic taxa became more abundant among the Archaea, while there was only little change among the Bacteria. Contribution of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was usually around 40%. After desiccation and rewetting, we found that Firmicutes, Methanocellales and Methanosarcinaceae became the dominant taxa, but rates and pathways of CH4 production stayed similar. Such change was also observed in soils from the Transects. The results indicate that microbial community structures of Amazonian soils will in general be strongly affected by flooding and drainage events, while differences between specific field sites will be comparatively minor.

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  • 35.
    Ji, Yang
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute Terr Microbiol, Germany; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Angel, Roey
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Klose, Melanie
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Claus, Peter
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Marotta, Humberto
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Pinho, Luana
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Conrad, Ralf
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Structure and function of methanogenic microbial communities in sediments of Amazonian lakes with different water types2016In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 5082-5100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tropical lake sediments are a significant source for the greenhouse gas methane. We studied function (pathway, rate) and structure (abundance, taxonomic composition) of the microbial communities (Bacteria, Archaea) leading to methane formation together with the main physicochemical characteristics in the sediments of four clear water, six white water and three black water lakes of the Amazon River system. Concentrations of sulfate and ferric iron, pH and delta C-13 of organic carbon were usually higher, while concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and rates of CH4 production were generally lower in white water versus clear water or black water sediments. Copy numbers of bacterial and especially archaeal ribosomal RNA genes also tended to be relatively lower in white water sediments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis contributed 58+/-16% to total CH4 production in all systems. Network analysis identified six communities, of which four were comprised mostly of bacteria found in all sediment types, while two were mostly in clear water sediment. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and pyrosequencing showed that the compositions of the communities differed between the different sediment systems, statistically related to the particular physicochemical conditions and to CH4 production rates. Among the archaea, clear water, white water, and black water sediments contained relatively more Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae and Methanocellales, respectively, while Methanosaetaceae were common in all systems. Proteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria (Myxococcales, Syntrophobacterales, sulfate reducers) in particular, Acidobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant bacterial phyla in all sediment systems. Among the other important bacterial phyla, clear water sediments contained relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes, whereas white water sediments contained relatively more Betaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi than the respective other sediment systems. The data showed communities of bacteria common to all sediment types, but also revealed microbial groups that were significantly different between the sediment types, which also differed in physicochemical conditions. Our study showed that function of the microbial communities may be understood on the basis of their structures, which in turn are determined by environmental heterogeneity.

  • 36.
    Lauerwald, R.
    et al.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Regnier, P.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Figueiredo, V
    University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University Federal of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lehner, B.
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Maavara, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA.
    Raymond, P.
    Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, USA.
    Natural lakes are a minor global source of N2O to the atmosphere2019In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 1564-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural lakes and reservoirs are important, yet not well constrained sources of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. In particular for N2O emissions, a huge variability is observed in the few, observation‐driven flux estimates that have been published so far. Recently, a process‐based, spatially explicit model has been used to estimate global N2O emissions from more than 6,000 reservoirs based on nitrogen (N) and phosphorous inflows and water residence time. Here, we extend the model to a dataset of 1.4 million standing water bodies comprising natural lakes and reservoirs. For validation, we normalized the simulated N2O emissions by the surface area of each water body and compared them against regional averages of N2O emission rates taken from the literature or estimated based on observed N2O concentrations. We estimate that natural lakes and reservoirs together emit 4.5±2.9 Gmol N2O‐N yr‐1 globally. Our global scale estimate falls in the far lower end of existing, observation‐driven estimates. Natural lakes contribute only about half of this flux, although they contribute 91% of the total surface area of standing water bodies. Hence, the mean N2O emission rates per surface area are substantially lower for natural lakes than for reservoirs with 0.8±0.5 mmol N m‐2yr‐1 vs. 9.6±6.0 mmol N m‐2yr‐1, respectively. This finding can be explained by on average lower external N inputs to natural lakes. We conclude that upscaling based estimates, which do not distinguish natural lakes from reservoirs, are prone to important biases.

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  • 37.
    Li, Siyu
    et al.
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany.
    Harir, Mourad
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany; Tech Univ Muenchen, Germany.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany; Tech Univ Muenchen, Germany.
    Gonsior, Michael
    Univ Maryland, MD 20688 USA.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fed Univ Sao Paolo, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valle, Juliana
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany.
    Comprehensive assessment of dissolved organic matter processing in the Amazon River and its major tributaries revealed by positive and negative electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 857, article id 159620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers are natural biogeochemical systems shaping the fates of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from leaving soils to reaching the oceans. This study focuses on Amazon basin DOM processing employing negative and positive electro-spray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI[+/-] FT-ICR MS) and nuclear mag-netic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to reveal effects of major processes on the compositional space and structural characteristics of black, white and clear water systems. These include non-conservative mixing at the confluences of (1) Solimoes and the Negro River, (2) the Amazon River and the Madeira River, and (3) in-stream processing of Amazon River DOM between the Madeira River and the Tapajos River. The Negro River (black water) supplies more highly oxygenated and high molecular weight compounds, whereas the Solimoes and Madeira Rivers (white water) contribute more CHNO and CHOS molecules to the Amazon River main stem. Aliphatic CHO and abundant CHNO compounds prevail in Tapajos River DOM (clear water), likely originating from primary production. Sorption onto particles and heterotrophic microbial degradation are probably the principal mechanisms for the observed changes in DOM composition in the Amazon River and its tributaries.

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  • 38.
    Li, Siyu
    et al.
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany.
    Harir, Mourad
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany; Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany; Tech Univ Munich, Germany.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Gonsior, Michael
    Univ Maryland, MD 20688 USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Valle, Juliana
    Helmholtz Munich, Germany.
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Helmholtz Munich, Germany.
    Distinct Non-conservative Behavior of Dissolved Organic Matter after Mixing Solimoes/Negro and Amazon/Tapajo s River Waters2023In: ACS - ES & T Water, E-ISSN 2690-0637, Vol. 3, no 8, p. 2083-2095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive and negative electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and H-1 NMR revealed major compositional and structural changes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) after mixing two sets of river waters in Amazon confluences: the Solimoes and Negro Rivers (S + N) and the Amazon and Tapajo s Rivers (A + T). We also studied the effects of water mixing ratios and incubation time on the composition and structure of DOM molecules. NMR spectra demonstrated large-scale structural transformations in the case of S + N mixing, with gain of pure and functionalized aliphatic units and loss of all other structures after 1d incubation. A + T mixing resulted in comparatively minor structural alterations, with a major gain of small aliphatic biomolecular binding motifs. Remarkably, structural alterations from mixing to 1d incubation were in essence reversed from 1d to 5d incubation for both S + N and A + T mixing experiments. Heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) in endmembers S, N, and S + N mixtures remained near 0.03 mu gC L-1 h(-1), whereas HBP in A, T, and A + T were about five times higher. High rates of dark carbon fixation took place at S + N mixing in particular. In-depth biogeochemical characterization revealed major distinctions between DOM biogeochemical changes and temporal evolution at these key confluence sites within the Amazon basin.

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  • 39.
    Libonati, R.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Pereira, J. M. C.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Da Camara, C. C.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Peres, L. F.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Inst Portugues Mar & Atmosfera, Portugal.
    Oom, D.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Rodrigues, J. A.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Santos, F. L. M.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Trigo, R. M.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Gouveia, C. M. P.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal; Inst Portugues Mar & Atmosfera, Portugal.
    Machado-Silva, F.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Silva, J. M. N.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Twenty-first century droughts have not increasingly exacerbated fire season severity in the Brazilian Amazon2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 4400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon is modulated by climate factors, such as droughts, and by human factors, such as deforestation, and land management activities. The increase in forest fires during drought years has led to the hypothesis that fire activity decoupled from deforestation during the twenty-first century. However, assessment of the hypothesis relied on an incorrect active fire dataset, which led to an underestimation of the decreasing trend in fire activity and to an inflated rank for year 2015 in terms of active fire counts. The recent correction of that database warrants a reassessment of the relationships between deforestation and fire. Contrasting with earlier findings, we show that the exacerbating effect of drought on fire season severity did not increase from 2003 to 2015 and that the record-breaking dry conditions of 2015 had the least impact on fire season of all twenty-first century severe droughts. Overall, our results for the same period used in the study that originated the fire-deforestation decoupling hypothesis (2003-2015) show that decoupling was clearly weaker than initially proposed. Extension of the study period up to 2019, and novel analysis of trends in fire types and fire intensity strengthened this conclusion. Therefore, the role of deforestation as a driver of fire activity in the region should not be underestimated and must be taken into account when implementing measures to protect the Amazon forest.

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  • 40.
    Liu, Tong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Li, Xiaoxiao
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Shanghai Univ Tradit Chinese Med, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Mu, Bo-Zhong
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Masuda, Laura Shizue Moriga
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Brazil.
    Schnürer, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro UFRJ, Brazil.
    Absence of oxygen effect on microbial structure and methane production during drying and rewetting events2022In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 16570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural environments with frequent drainage experience drying and rewetting events that impose fluctuations in water availability and oxygen exposure. These relatively dramatic cycles profoundly impact microbial activity in the environment and subsequent emissions of methane and carbon dioxide. In this study, we mimicked drying and rewetting events by submitting methanogenic communities from strictly anaerobic environments (anaerobic digestors) with different phylogenetic structures to consecutive desiccation events under aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions followed by rewetting. We showed that methane production quickly recovered after each rewetting, and surprisingly, no significant difference was observed between the effects of the aerobic or anaerobic desiccation events. There was a slight change in the microbial community structure and a decrease in methane production rates after consecutive drying and rewetting, which can be attributed to a depletion of the pool of available organic matter or the inhibition of the methanogenic communities. These observations indicate that in comparison to the drying and rewetting events or oxygen exposure, the initial phylogenetic structure and the organic matter quantity and quality exhibited a stronger influence on the methanogenic communities and overall microbial community responses. These results change the current paradigm of the sensitivity of strict anaerobic microorganisms to oxygen exposure.

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  • 41.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Miranda, Marcio
    Univ Fed Rondonia, Brazil; Inst Fed Educ Ciencia & Tecnol Rondonia, Brazil.
    Peixoto, Roberta Bittencourt
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Toledo, OH 43606 USA.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Fluminense Fed Univ, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Dark carbon fixation in stream carbon cycling2023In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Headwater streams are often characterized by turbulence, organic matter inputs from terrestrial systems, net heterotrophy, and the microbial loop supplying carbon and energy for consumers. However, ecological models overlook dark carbon fixation (DCF), the light-independent inorganic carbon uptake, mainly based on chemosynthesis, using energy yields from redox reactions. The quantification of microbial biomass production, including DCF, heterotrophic production (HP), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (ER) in lotic aquatic systems, has long yet to be addressed. Here, we investigate HP and DCF in water, sediment, and litter in addition to GPP and ER from streams in pristine rainforests in three distinct sub-basins of the Amazon River, assessing the variety of turbid, black, and clear waters. We observed mean (min-max) values of microbial biomass production of about 0.1 (0.02-1.2), 3.2 (0.8-14.1), and 0.1 (0.02-0.5) mg C m-2 h-1 in water, sediment, and litter samples, in which DCF : HP showed mean (min-max) values of 0.5 (0.2-2), 0.02 (0.001-0.07), and 0.2 (0.001-0.5). Hence, measurements yielded DCF of similar magnitude as HP in water and litter but significantly lower in sediment, indicating that DCF supplied more carbon to planktonic and litter microbes than in top sediments of streams. Literature comparisons show similar DCF and GPP, both being lower than ER in streams. Finally, we found stream DCF higher than in lentic systems, suggesting that flow and turbulence may accelerate chemosynthesis.

  • 42.
    Machado-Silva, Fausto
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Peres, Leonardo F.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Inst Portugues Mar & Atmosfera, Portugal.
    Gouveia, Celia M.
    Inst Portugues Mar & Atmosfera, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Peixoto, Roberta B.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Pereira, Jose M. C.
    Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil; Biomass & Water Management Res Ctr NAB UFF, Brazil.
    Fernandes, Pedro J. F.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Libonati, Renata
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Lisbon, Portugal.
    Drought Resilience Debt Drives NPP Decline in the Amazon Forest2021In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 35, no 9, article id e2021GB007004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has substantially increased the frequency of extreme droughts in the Amazon basin, generating concern about impacts on the worlds largest tropical forest, which contributes about one-seventh of the global vegetation carbon sink. Most research to understand drought impacts has focused on the immediate influences of such events, neglecting post-drought effects on ecosystems recovery. Since ecological processes are influenced by antecedent conditions, we analyzed whether extreme droughts affect vegetation growth (i.e., net primary productivity, NPP) recovery. Here, we evaluated the NPP in the Amazon basin from 2003 to 2020, a period in which drought frequency was almost double the decadal incidence of the last century. We show that NPP does respond to the coupled impacts of individual droughts and the post-drought impacts during ecosystem recovery. In particular, our results reveal that the ecosystems undergoing recovery show NPP about 13% lower than reference values based on the pre-drought state or in areas undisturbed by drought. NPP deficits have consistently increased with the extreme droughts of 2005, 2010, and 2015 due to the combined effects of disturbances magnitude and the length of recovery. If the expected increase in drought frequency and intensity does occur, reduced recovery may lead the Amazon Forest to an alternative ecosystem state with lower carbon uptake, contributing to a warming global climate.

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  • 43.
    Marotta, H.
    et al.
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil; University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil; University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Catastrophic shifts in the aquatic primary production revealed by a small low-flow section of tropical downstream after dredging2015In: Brazilian Journal of Biology, ISSN 1519-6984, E-ISSN 1678-4375, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 804-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dredging is a catastrophic disturbance that directly affects key biological processes in aquatic ecosystems, especially in those small and shallow. In the tropics, metabolic responses could still be enhanced by the high temperatures and solar incidence. Here, we assessed changes in the aquatic primary production along a small section of low-flow tropical downstream (Imboassica Stream, Brazil) after dredging. Our results suggested that these ecosystems may show catastrophic shifts between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in waters based on three short-term stages following the dredging: (I) a strongly heterotrophic net primary production -NPP- coupled to an intense respiration -R- likely supported by high resuspended organic sediments and nutrients from the bottom; (II) a strongly autotrophic NPP coupled to an intense gross primary production -GPP- favored by the high nutrient levels and low solar light attenuation from suspended solids or aquatic macrophytes; and (III) a NPP near to the equilibrium coupled to low GPP and R rates following, respectively, the shading by aquatic macrophytes and high particulate sedimentation. In conclusion, changes in aquatic primary production could be an important threshold for controlling drastic shifts in the organic matter cycling and the subsequent silting up of small tropical streams after dredging events.

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  • 44.
    Marotta, H.
    et al.
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Pinho, L.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil .
    Gudasz, C.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Princeton University, NJ USA.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tranvik, L.J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Greenhouse gas production in low-latitude lake sediments responds strongly to warming2014In: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 467-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inland water sediments receive large quantities of terrestrial organic matter(1-5) and are globally important sites for organic carbon preservation(5,6). Sediment organic matter mineralization is positively related to temperature across a wide range of high-latitude ecosystems(6-10), but the situation in the tropics remains unclear. Here we assessed temperature effects on the biological production of CO2 and CH4 in anaerobic sediments of tropical lakes in the Amazon and boreal lakes in Sweden. On the basis of conservative regional warming projections until 2100 (ref. 11), we estimate that sediment CO2 and CH4 production will increase 9-61% above present rates. Combining the CO2 and CH4 as CO2 equivalents (CO(2)eq; ref. 11), the predicted increase is 2.4-4.5 times higher in tropical than boreal sediments. Although the estimated lake area in low latitudes is 3.2 times smaller than that of the boreal zone, we estimate that the increase in gas production from tropical lake sediments would be on average 2.4 times higher for CO2 and 2.8 times higher for CH4. The exponential temperature response of organic matter mineralization, coupled with higher increases in the proportion of CH4 relative to CO2 on warming, suggests that the production of greenhouse gases in tropical sediments will increase substantially. This represents a potential large-scale positive feedback to climate change.

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  • 45.
    Marotta, Humberto
    et al.
    Laboratório de Ecosistemas e Mudanças Globais (LEMG/UFF), Instituto de Geociências, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Brasil.
    Rodrigues, Alexandra
    Center for Functional Ecology (CFE),Science for People & the Planet, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Durán, Jorge
    Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biologia, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
    Pinho, Luana
    Departamento de Ocenografía Química, Universidad del Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Maracanã–RJ, Brasil.
    Biogeoquímica aplicada: estudios de casosobre la interacción entre los elementosesenciales para la vida y el cambio global2018In: Cambio Global: una mirada desde Iberoamerica / [ed] Pablo Marquet, Fernando Valladares, Sandra Magro, Aurora Gaxiola, Alex Enrich-Prast, Madrid: Departamento de Publicaciones, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2018, p. 153-161Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Biogeoquímica aplicada: estudios de casosobre la interacción entre los elementosesenciales para la vida y el cambio global
  • 46.
    Marquet, Pablo A.
    et al.
    Departamento de Ecología, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile / Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversida (IEB),Chile / The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA.
    Valladares, FernandoMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), CSIC, Madrid, España.Magro Ruiz, SandraMuseo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid, España.Gaxiola, AuroraDepartamento de Ecología, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Chile.Enrich Prast, AlexLinköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biologia, Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
    Cambio global, una mirada desde Iberoamérica2018Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [es]

    Han transcurrido ya 10 años desde la fundación del proyecto “Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Globlal” (LINCGlobal), una iniciativa pionera de integración y colaboración científica de largo plazo en ciencias de cambio global entre investigadores de la Península Ibérica y Latinoamérica.

    El LINCGlobal, inicialmente impulsado y financiado por el Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), España y por la Universidad Católica de Chile, con una incorporación más reciente de la Universidad Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, actualmente reúne a más de una treintena de investigadores de muy alto nivel científico en temas de cambio global.

    Los fundadores tuvimos en mente la visión de establecer grupos iberoamericanos multidisciplinares y líneas conjuntas de investigación conducentes a la realización y publicación de investigaciones en temas de cambios globales relevantes en diversos ámbitos de los ecosistemas marinos y terrestres; usando para ello aproximaciones tanto experimentales, correlacionales como de modelización y de macroecología.

    No menor fue la visión relacionada con impulsar y fortalecer el intercambio iberoamericano en la formación conjunta de investigadores jóvenes a nivel de doctorado y postdoctorado, la generación de nuevas fórmulas de gobernanza y sobretodo la necesaria y urgente diseminación a la sociedad de la información generada, con un nivel de comprensión adecuado. En esta década los objetivos generales de la visón y los más específicos de los distinto grupos se han cumplido más que a cabalidad y así lo demuestran los cientos de publicaciones realizadas por los investigadores del Laboratorio y las Memorias del proyecto.

    Hoy, al finalizar la primera década de nuestra aventura iberoamericana en cambio global, como uno de los Directores fundadores del LINCGlobal, me es muy grato realizar el Prólogo del libro “Cambio Global una mirada desde Iberoamérica”. El condensa muchos de los avances en investigación realizados en la década no solo por los investigadores de plantilla del proyecto, sino que además por numerosos alumnos de doctorado, postdoctorado y colaboradores. El libro, editado por los Profesores Pablo Marquet, Fernando Valladares, Sandra Magro, Aurora Gaxiola y Alex Enrich-Prast contiene 14 capítulos en que están involucrados 50 autores iberoamericanos ligados al LINCGlobal. Los diferentes capítulos presentan una amplia cobertura de las líneas de investigación abordadas por los miembros del Laboratorio Internacional, desde contextualización de cambios globales en el pasado, la población humana, uso de los recursos y redes comerciales, hasta el papel regulador de los océanos en el sistema terrestre, la radiación ultravioleta y las pesquerías marinas. Los cambios globales en relación con los ciclos biogeoquímicos, la disponibilidad de agua, la biodiversidad y los impactos sobre las redes de interacción ecológica y la distribución de las especies son abordados y discutidos en profundidad. Finalmente se muestra un caso de estudio para los cambios globales en un lago de Chile central durante el último milenio. El esfuerzo de síntesis de los autores es loable, del mismo modo que la inclusión de infografías que permiten aprehender con facilidad los tipos de cambios globales y sus consecuencias en los ecosistemas terrestres y oceánicos.

    Solo al considerar los contenidos de este libro visualizo para los integrantes del LINCGlobal al menos dos desafíos. Primero ser consecuente con la visión iberoamericana del Laboratorio y traducir el libro al portugués, para así hacer más accesible la información a estudiantes y público en general de habla portuguesa. Segundo, y mucho más desafiante, bajar y socializar la información científica contenida en él a niveles de público general y en especial para estudiantes de educación primaria y secundaria en Latinoamérica. Ello requiere, ciertamente, un esfuerzo extra significativo. Sin embargo, por ejemplo, el trabajo ya realizado en el libro con las infografías y el uso de excelentes fotografías facilitará ese camino. En ello el uso de las redes sociales no debería descartarse.

    A mis amigos del Laboratorio Internacional y a los lectores y usuarios del libro: bienvenidos a la era de la ciencia post-normal, donde tanto la construcción del conocimiento y su publicación, como su diseminación y democratización hacia la sociedad, en forma simple y didáctica, representa un desafío mayor.

    Santiago de Chile, septiembre 2018

    Juan Carlos Castilla

    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

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    Cambio global, una mirada desde Iberoamérica
  • 47.
    Masuda, L. S. M.
    et al.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Benthic microalgae community response to flooding in a tropical salt flat2016In: Brazilian Journal of Biology, ISSN 1519-6984, E-ISSN 1678-4375, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 577-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research evaluated the effect of flooding on the microphytobenthos community structure in a microbial mat from a tropical salt flat. Field samples were collected during four consecutive days: on the first three days the salt flat was dry, on the fourth day it was flooded by rain. In order to evaluate the community maintained in flood conditions, samples from this area were collected and kept in the laboratory for 10 days with sea water. The results of total abundance of microphytobenthos varied from 4.2 x 10(8) to 2.9 x 10(9) organisms L-1, total density increased one order of magnitude under the effect of water for both situations of precipitation in the salt flat and in experimental conditions, an increase due to the high abundance of Microcoleus spp. Shannon index (H) was higher during the desiccation period. Our data suggest that changes in the abundance of organisms were due to the effect of water. The dominance of the most abundant taxa remained the same under conditions of desiccation and influence of water, and there is probably a consortium of microorganisms in the microbial mat that helps to maintain these dominances.

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  • 48.
    Oliveira, Helena Rodrigues
    et al.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina
    Univ Fed Estado Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center.
    Caetano, Cristiane Fonseca
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Pinheiro, Erika Flavia Machado
    Univ Fed Rural Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Marotta, Humberto
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Bassin, Joao Paulo
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Luciano
    Environm Dept, Brazil.
    Reis, Marcelo de Miranda
    Inst Mil Engn IME, Brazil.
    Schultz, Mario Sergio
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Mangiavacchi, Norberto
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Ferreira-Leitao, Viridiana Santana
    Minist Sci Technol & Innovat MCTI, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Fasheun, Daniel Oluwagbotemi
    Minist Sci Technol & Innovat MCTI, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Silva, Fernanda Geraldo
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Taveira, Igor
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Alves, Ingrid Roberta de Franca Soares
    Inst Mil Engn IME, Brazil.
    Castro, Julia
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Durao, Juliana Velloso
    Environm Dept, Brazil.
    Guimaraes, Juliana
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rocha, Mariana Erthal
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Tomasini, Marina
    Minist Sci Technol & Innovat MCTI, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Martins, Pedro Vitor de Oliveira
    Minist Sci Technol & Innovat MCTI, Brazil.
    Presciliano, Rogerio
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Santos, Stella Buback dos
    Minist Sci Technol & Innovat MCTI, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Faria, Tamires Marques
    Univ Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Correa, Tarcisio
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Linde, Thiago de Nuno Mendes Pery de
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Brazil.
    Abreu, Fernanda
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Solutions Research Center. Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Fed Univ Sao Paulo IMar UNIFESP, Brazil.
    Biogas potential of biowaste: A case study in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil2024In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 221, article id 119751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste treatment, renewable energy generation , biofertilizer production. The biogas potential in Brazil is sizable, but the state of Rio de Janeiro is largely dependent on fossil fuels , there is a lack of biogas potential assessments in the state. Thus, this study evaluated biomethane, electricity and biofertilizer potentials in the region. Three different scenarios of biomass supply were considered for four major biowaste streams: sewage sludge; cattle manure; sugarcane processing waste; and food waste. Biomethane generation from the assessed sources could reach 0.6-1.3 billion Nm(3) year(-1), corresponding to 1,768-3,961 GWh year(-1) of electricity , 1.6-3.3 million Mg year- 1 of biofertilizer. Cattle manure was responsible for 73-84% of the projected biomethane production, presenting an opportunity to reduce the sig-nificant emissions from livestock farming. The estimated biofertilizer production could meet the demands of the state , the produced electricity could offset up to 10% of the demand. The gas grid could facilitate the dis-tribution of upgraded biomethane, and 10-22% of the natural gas demand could be met. The findings of this work highlight the high potential for biogas generation in Rio de Janeiro, which is up to seven times larger than the current production.

  • 49.
    Pangala, Sunitha R.
    et al.
    Open University, England; University of Lancaster, England.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Basso, Luana S.
    IPEN, Brazil.
    Bittencourt Peixoto, Roberta
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hornibrook, Edward R. C.
    University of Bristol, England; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Gatti, Luciana V.
    IPEN, Brazil; National Institute Space Research INPE, Brazil.
    Marotta, Humberto
    University of Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
    Silva Braucks Calazans, Luana
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Monica Sakuragui, Cassia
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rodrigues Bastos, Wanderley
    Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil.
    Malm, Olaf
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Gloor, Emanuel
    University of Leeds, England.
    Bharat Miller, John
    NOAA, CO 80305 USA.
    Gauci, Vincent
    Open University, England.
    Large emissions from floodplain trees close the Amazon methane budget2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 552, no 7684, p. 230-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are the largest global source of atmospheric methane (CH4)(1), a potent greenhouse gas. However, methane emission inventories from the Amazon floodplain(2,3), the largest natural geographic source of CH4 in the tropics, consistently underestimate the atmospheric burden of CH4 determined via remote sensing and inversion modelling(4,5), pointing to a major gap in our understanding of the contribution of these ecosystems to CH4 emissions. Here we report CH4 fluxes from the stems of 2,357 individual Amazonian floodplain trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon basin. We find that escape of soil gas through wetland trees is the dominant source of regional CH4 emissions. Methane fluxes from Amazon tree stems were up to 200 times larger than emissions reported for temperate wet forests(6) and tropical peat swamp forests(7), representing the largest non-ebullitive wetland fluxes observed. Emissions from trees had an average stable carbon isotope value (delta C-13) of -66.2 +/- 6.4 per mil, consistent with a soil biogenic origin. We estimate that floodplain trees emit 15.1 +/- 1.8 to 21.2 +/- 2.5 teragrams of CH4 a year, in addition to the 20.5 +/- 5.3 teragrams a year emitted regionally from other sources. Furthermore, we provide a topdown regional estimate of CH4 emissions of 42.7 +/- 5.6 teragrams of CH4 a year for the Amazon basin, based on regular vertical lower-troposphere CH4 profiles covering the period 2010-2013. We find close agreement between our top-down and combined bottom-up estimates, indicating that large CH4 emissions from trees adapted to permanent or seasonal inundation can account for the emission source that is required to close the Amazon CH4 budget. Our findings demonstrate the importance of tree stem surfaces in mediating approximately half of all wetland CH4 emissions in the Amazon floodplain, a region that represents up to one-third of the global wetland CH4 source when trees are combined with other emission sources.

  • 50.
    Pedroni Barreto, Davi
    et al.
    University of Federal Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Conrad, Ralf
    Max Planck Institute Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Klose, Melanie
    Max Planck Institute Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Claus, Peter
    Max Planck Institute Terr Microbiol, Germany.
    Enrich Prast, Alex
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Distance-Decay and Taxa-Area Relationships for Bacteria, Archaea and Methanogenic Archaea in a Tropical Lake Sediment2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e110128-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of of the distribution of microorganisms through space (and time) allows evaluation of biogeographic patterns, like the species-area index (z). Due to their high dispersal ability, high reproduction rates and low rates of extinction microorganisms tend to be widely distributed, and they are thought to be virtually cosmopolitan and selected primarily by environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that, despite these characteristics, microorganisms may behave like larger organisms and exhibit geographical distribution. In this study, we searched patterns of spatial diversity distribution of bacteria and archaea in a contiguous environment. We collected 26 samples of a lake sediment, distributed in a nested grid, with distances between samples ranging from 0.01 m to 1000 m. The samples were analyzed using T-RFLP (Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) targeting mcrA (coding for a subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase) and the genes of Archaeal and Bacterial 16S rRNA. From the qualitative and quantitative results (relative abundance of operational taxonomic units) we calculated the similarity index for each pair to evaluate the taxa-area and distance decay relationship slopes by linear regression. All results were significant, with mcrA genes showing the highest slope, followed by Archaeal and Bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We showed that the microorganisms of a methanogenic community, that is active in a contiguous environment, display spatial distribution and a taxa-area relationship.

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