This paper introduces 4QL(Bel), a four-valued rule language designed for reasoning with paraconsistent and paracomplete belief bases as well as belief structures. Belief bases consist of finite sets of ground literals providing (partial and possibly inconsistent) complementary or alternative views of the world. As introduced earlier, belief structures consist of constituents, epistemic profiles and consequents. Constituents and consequents are belief bases playing different roles. Agents perceive the world forming their constituents, which are further transformed into consequents via the agents or groups epistemic profile. In order to construct 4QL(Bel), we extend 4QL, a four-valued rule language permitting for many forms of reasoning, including doxastic reasoning. Despite the expressiveness of 4QL(Bel), we show that its tractability is retained.
The paper introduces ActLog, a rule-based language capable of specifying actions paraconsistently. ActLog is an extension of 4QL Bel " role="presentation"> Bel , a rule-based language for reasoning with paraconsistent and paracomplete belief bases and belief structures. Actions considered in the paper act on belief bases rather than states represented as sets of ground literals. Each belief base stores multiple world representations which can be though of as a representation of possible states. In this context ActLog’s action may be then seen as a method of transforming one belief base into another. In contrast to other approaches, ActLog permits to execute actions even if the underlying belief base state is partial or inconsistent. Finally, the framework introduced in this paper is tractable.
Dealing with heterogeneous information sources and reasoning techniques allowing for incomplete and inconsistent information is one of current challenges in the area of knowledge representation and reasoning. We advocate for 4QL, a rule-based query language, as a proper tool allowing one to address these challenges. To justify this point of view we discuss a rescue robotics scenario for which a simulator has been developed and tested. In particular, we present a planner using 4QL and, therefore, capable to deal with lack of knowledge and inconsistencies. Through the case study we show that our approach allows one to use lightweight knowledge representation tools: due to the use of 4QL tractability of modeling and reasoning is guaranteed and high usability is achieved.
Prezentowana książka stanowi drugi tom dwutomowej monografii poświeconej wnioskowaniu w logikach nieklasycznych. Opracowanie to obejmuje takie formalizmy jak logiki modalne, logiki wielowartościowe i mechanizmy wnioskowania niemonotonicznego. W pierwszym tomie przedstawione zostały podstawy teoretyczne wnioskowania w wybranych logikach nieklasycznych. Tom drugi poświęcony jest zagadnieniom automatyzacji procesu wnioskowania.
Time and logic are central driving concepts in science and technology. In this book, some of the major current developments in our understanding and application of temporal logic are presented in computational terms. "Time and Logic: A Computational Approach" should be a useful sourcebook for those within the specific field of temporal logic, as well as providing valuable introductory material for those seeking an entry into this increasingly important area of theoretical computing.; The emphasis of the book is on presenting a broad range of approaches to computational applications. The techniques used will also be applicable in many cases to formalize beyond temporal logic alone, and it is hoped that adaptation to many different logics of programmes will be facilitated. Throughout, the authors have kept implementation-oriented solutions in mind.; The book begins with an introduction to the basic ideas of temporal logic. Successive chapters then examine particular aspects of the temporal theoretical computing domain, relating their applications to familiar areas of research, such as stochastic process theory, automata theory, established proof systems, model checking, relational logic and classical predicate logic. This should be a useful addition to the library of all theoretical computer scientists, providing a synthesis of well established results in temporal logic with the most up-to-date findings of some of the world's leading theoreticians.
It is known that the OWL 2 RL Web Ontology Language Profile has PTime data complexity and can be translated into Datalog. However, a knowledge base in OWL 2 RL may be unsatisfiable. The reason is that, when translated into Datalog, the result may consist of a Datalog program and a set of constraints in the form of negative clauses. In this paper we first identify a maximal fragment of OWL 2 RL called OWL 2 RL^{ + }with the property that every knowledge base expressed in this fragment can be translated into a Datalog program and hence is satisfiable. We then propose some extensions of OWL 2 RL and OWL 2 RL^{ + } that still have PTime data complexity.
We develop a new Web ontology rule language, called WORL, which combines a variant of OWL 2 RL with eDatalog ¬ . We allow additional features like negation, the minimal number restriction and unary external checkable predicates to occur at the left-hand side of concept inclusion axioms. Some restrictions are adopted to guarantee a translation into eDatalog ¬ . We also develop the well-founded semantics and the stable model semantics for WORL as well as the standard semantics for stratified WORL (SWORL) via translation into eDatalog ¬ . Both WORL with respect to the well-founded semantics and SWORL with respect to the standard semantics have PTime data complexity. In contrast to the existing combined formalisms, in WORL and SWORL negation in concept inclusion axioms is interpreted using nonmonotonic semantics.
We develop a Web ontology rule language, called WORL, which combines a variant of OWL 2 RL with eDatalog-with-negation. We disallow the features of OWL 2 RL that play the role of constraints (i.e., the ones that are translated to negative clauses), but allow additional features like negation, the minimal number restriction and unary external checkable predicates to occur in the left hand side of concept inclusion axioms. Some restrictions are adopted to guarantee a translation into eDatalog-with-negation. We also develop the well-founded semantics for WORL and the standard semantics for stratified WORL (SWORL) via translation into eDatalog-with-negation. Both WORL and SWORL have PTime data complexity. In contrast to the existing combined formalisms, in WORL and SWORL negation in concept inclusion axioms is interpreted using nonmonotonic semantics.
It is known that the OWL 2RL Web Ontology Language Profile has PTime data complexity and can be translated into Datalog. However, the result of translation may consist of a Datalog program and a set of constraints in the form of negative clauses. Therefore, a knowledge base in OWL 2RL may be unsatisfiable. In the current paper we first identify a maximal fragment of OWL 2RL, called OWL 2RL+, with the property that every knowledge base expressed in OWL2RL+ can be translated to a Datalog program and hence is satisfiable. We then propose some extensions of OWL 2RL and OWL 2RL + that still have PTime data complexity. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Modern artificial systems, such as cooperative traffic systems or swarm robotics, are made of multiple autonomous agents, each handling uncertain, partial and potentially inconsistent information, used in their reasoning and decision making. Graded reasoning, being a suitable tool for addressing phenomena related to such circumstances, is investigated in the literature in many contexts – from graded modal logics to various forms of approximate reasoning. In this paper we first introduce a family of many-valued paraconsistent logics parametrised by a number of truth/falsity/inconsistency grades allowing one to handle multiple truth-values at the desired level of accuracy. Second, we define a corresponding family of rule-based languages with graded truth-values as first-class citizens, enjoying tractable query evaluation. In addition, we introduce introspection operators allowing one to resolve inconsistencies and/or lack of information in a non-monotonic manner. We illustrate and discuss the use of the framework in an autonomous robot scenario.
This paper is devoted to paraconsistent approximate reasoning with graded truth-values. In the previous research we introduced a family of many-valued logics parameterized by a variable number of truth/falsity grades together with a corresponding family of rule languages with tractable query evaluation. Such grades are shown here to be a natural qualitative counterpart of quantitative measures used in various forms of approximate reasoning. The developed methodology allows one to obtain a framework unifying heterogeneous reasoning techniques, providing also the logical machinery to resolve partial and incoherent information that may arise after unification. Finally, we show the introduced framework in action, emphasizing its expressiveness in handling heterogeneous approximate reasoning in realistic scenarios.
The multi-agent system paradigm has proven to be a useful means of abstraction when considering distributed systems with interacting components. It is often the case that each component may be viewed as an intelligent agent with specific and often limited perceptual capabilities. It is also the case that these agent components may be used as information sources and such sources may be aggregated to provide global information about particular states, situations or activities in the embedding environment. This paper investigates a framework for information fusion based on the use of generalizations of rough set theory and the use of dynamic logic as a basis for aggregating similarity relations among objects where the similarity relations represent individual agents perceptual capabilities or limitations. As an added benefit, it is shown how this idea may also be integrated into description logics.
A number of popular logical formalisms for representing and reasoning about the abilities of teams or coalitions of agents have been proposed beginning with the Coalition Logic (CL) of Pauly. Ågotnes et al introduced a means of succinctly expressing quantification over coalitions without compromising the computational complexity of model checking in CL by introducing Quantified Coalition Logic (QCL). QCL introduces a separate logical language for characterizing coalitions in the modal operators used in QCL. Boella et al, increased the representational expressibility of such formalisms by introducing Higher-Order Coalition Logic (HCL), a monadic second-order logic with special set grouping operators. Tractable fragments of HCL suitable for efficient model checking have yet to be identified. In this paper, we relax the monadic restriction used in HCL and restrict ourselves to the diamond operator. We show how formulas using the diamond operator are logically equivalent to second-order formulas. This permits us to isolate and define well-behaved expressive fragments of second-order logic amenable to model-checking in PTime. To do this, we appeal to techniques used in deductive databases and quantifier elimination. In addition, we take advantage of the monotonicity of the effectivity function resulting in exponentially more succinct representation of models. The net result is identification of highly expressible fragments of a generalized HCL where model checking can be done efficiently in PTime.
Currently, there is a great deal of interest in developing tools for the generation and use of ontologies on the WWW. These knowledge structures are considered essential to the success of the semantic web, the next phase in the evolution of the WWW. Much recent work with ontologies assumes that the concepts used as building blocks are crisp as opposed to approximate. It is a premise of this paper that approximate concepts and ontologies will become increasingly more important as the semantic web becomes a reality. We propose a framework for specifying, generating and using approximate ontologies. More specifically, (1) a formal framework for defining approximate concepts, ontologies and operations on approximate concepts and ontologies is presented. The framework is based on intuitions from rough set theory, (2) algorithms for automatically generating approximate ontologies from traditional crisp ontologies or from large data sets together with additional knowledge are presented. The knowledge will generally be related to similarity measurements between individual objects in the data sets, or constraints of a logical nature which rule out particular constellations of concepts and dependencies in generated ontologies. The techniques for generating approximate ontologies are parameterizable. The paper provides specific instantiations and examples.
We introduce the notion of a meta-query on relational databases and a technique which can be used to represent and solve a number of interesting problems from the area of knowledge representation using logic. The technique is based on the use of quantifier elimination and may also be used to query relational databases using a declarative query language called SHQL (Semi-Horn Query Language), introduced in [6]. SHQL is a fragment of classical first-order predicate logic and allows us to define a query without supplying its explicit definition. All SHQL queries to the database can be processed in polynomial time (both on the size of the input query and the size of the database). We demonstrate the use of the technique in problem solving by structuring logical puzzles from the Knights and Knaves domain as SHQL meta-queries on relational databases. We also provide additional examples demonstrating the flexibility of the technique. We conclude with a description of a newly developed software tool, The Logic Engineer, which aids in the description of algorithms using transformation and reduction techniques such as those applied in the meta-querying approach.
Soft computing comprises various paradigms dedicated to approximately solving real-world problems, e.g., in decision making, classification or learning; among these paradigms are fuzzy sets, rough sets, neural networks, and genetic algorithms.
It is well understood now in the soft computing community that hybrid approaches combining various paradigms provide very promising attempts to solving complex problems. Exploiting the potential and strength of both neural networks and rough sets, this book is devoted to rough-neurocomputing which is also related to the novel aspect of computing based on information granulation, in particular to computing with words. It provides foundational and methodological issues as well as applications in various fields.
Biochemical pathways or networks are generic representations used to model many different types of complex functional and physical interactions in biological systems. Models based on experimental results are often incomplete, e.g., reactions may be missing and only some products are observed. In such cases, one would like to reason about incomplete network representations and propose candidate hypotheses, which when represented as additional reactions, substrates, products, would complete the network and provide causal explanations for the existing observations. In this paper, we provide a logical model of biochemical pathways and show how abductive hypothesis generation may be used to provide additional information about incomplete pathways. Hypothesis generation is achieved using weakest and strongest necessary conditions which represent these incomplete biochemical pathways and explain observations about the functional and physical interactions being modeled. The techniques are demonstrated using metabolism and molecular synthesis examples.
We provide a logical model of biochemical reactions and show how hypothesis generation using weakest sufficient and strongest necessary conditions may be used to provide additional information in the context of an incomplete model of metabolic pathways.
In this extended abstract, we discuss the use of iteratively-supported formulas (ISFs) as a basis for computing strongly-supported models for Kleene Answer Set Programs (ASPK). ASPK programs have a syntax identical to classical ASP programs. The semantics of ASPK programs is based on the use of Kleene three-valued logic and strongly-supported models. For normal ASPK programs, their strongly supported models are identical to classical answer sets using stable model semantics. For disjunctive ASPK programs, the semantics weakens the minimality assumption resulting in a classical interpretation for disjunction. We use ISFs to characterize strongly-supported models and show that they are polynomially bounded.
Complex mission or task specification languages play a fundamentally important role in human/robotic interaction. In realistic scenarios such as emergency response, specifying temporal, resource and other constraints on a mission is an essential component due to the dynamic and contingent nature of the operational environments. It is also desirable that in addition to having a formal semantics, the language should be sufficiently expressive, pragmatic and abstract. The main goal of this paper is to propose a mission specification language that meets these requirements. It is based on extending both the syntax and semantics of a well-established formalism for reasoning about action and change, Temporal Action Logic (TAL), in order to represent temporal composite actions with constraints. Fixpoints are required to specify loops and recursion in the extended language. The results include a sound and complete proof theory for this extension. To ensure that the composite language constructs are adequately grounded in the pragmatic operation of robotic systems, Task Specification Trees (TSTs) and their mapping to these constructs are proposed. The expressive and pragmatic adequacy of this approach is demonstrated using an emergency response scenario.
The basis for the material in this book centers around a long term research project with autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle systems. One of the main research topics in the project is knowledge representation and reasoning. The focus of the research has been on the development of tractable combinations of approximate and nonmonotonic reasoning systems. The techniques developed are based on intuitions from rough set theory. Efforts have been made to take theory into practice by instantiating research results in the context of traditional relational database or deductive database systems. This book contains a cohesive, self-contained collection of many of the theoretical and applied research results that have been achieved in this project and for the most part pertain to nonmonotonic and approximate reasoning systems developed for an experimental unmanned aerial vehicle system used in the project. This book should be of interest to the theoretician and applied researcher alike and to autonomous system developers and software agent and intelligent system developers.
Circumscription has been perceived as an elegant mathematical technique for modeling nonmonotonic and commonsense reasoning, but difficult to apply in practice due to the use of second-order formulas. One proposal for dealing with the computational problems is to identify classes of first-order formulas whose circumscription can be shown to be equivalent to a first-order formula. In previous work, we presented an algorithm which reduces certain classes of second-order circumscription axioms to logically equivalent first-order formulas. The basis for the algorithm is an elimination lemma due to Ackermann. In this paper, we capitalize on the use of a generalization of Ackermann's Lemma in order to deal with a subclass of universal formulas called semi-Horn formulas. Our results subsume previous results by Kolaitis and Papadimitriou regarding a characterization of circumscribed definite logic programs which are first-order expressible. The method for distinguishing which formulas are reducible is based on a boundedness criterion. The approach we use is to first reduce a circumscribed semi-Horn formula to a fixpoint formula which is reducible if the formula is bounded, otherwise not. In addition to a number of other extensions, we also present a fixpoint calculus which is shown to be sound and complete for bounded fixpoint formulas.
In this paper, we propose a framework that provides software and robotic agents with the ability to ask approximate questions to each other in the context of heterogeneous and contextually limited perceptual capabilities. The framework focuses on situations where agents have varying ability to perceive their environments. These limitations on perceptual capability are formalized using the idea of tolerance spaces. It is assumed that each agent has one or more approximate databases where approximate relations are represented using intuitions from rough set theory. It is shown how sensory and other limitations can be taken into account when constructing approximate databases for each respective agent. Complex relations inherit the approximativeness inherent in the sensors and primitive relations used in their definitions. Agents then query these databases and receive answers through the filters of their perceptual limitations as represented by tolerance spaces and approximate queries. The techniques used are all tractable.
In this paper, we propose a framework that provides software and robotic agents with the ability to ask approximate questions to each other in the context of heterogeneous ontologies and heterogeneous perceptive capabilities.The framework combines the use of logic-based techniques with ideas from approximate reasoning. Initial queries by an agent are transformed into approximate queries using weakest sufficient and strongest necessary conditions on the query and are interpreted as lower and upper approximations on the query. Once the base communication ability is provided, the framework is extended to situations where there is not only a mismatch between agent ontologies, but the agents have varying ability to perceive their environments. This will affect each agent’s ability to ask and interpret results of queries. Limitations on perceptive capability are formalized using the idea of tolerance spaces.
Introduction: Logic engineering often involves the development of modeling tools and inference mechanisms (both standard and non-standard) which are targeted for use in practical applications where expressiveness in representation must be traded off for efficiency in use. Some representative examples of such applications would be the structuring and querying of knowledge on the semantic web, or the representation and querying of epistemic states used with softbots, robots or smart devices. In these application areas, declarative representations of knowledge enhance the functionality of such systems and also provide a basis for insuring the pragmatic properties of modularity and incremental composition. In addition, the mechanisms developed should be tractable, but at the same time, expressive enough to represent such aspects as default reasoning, or approximate or incomplete representations of the environments in which the entities in question are embedded or used, be they virtual or actual. [...]
In real world applications robots and software agents often have to be equipped with higher level cognitive functions that enable them to reason, act and perceive in changing, incompletely known and unpredictable environments. One of the major tasks in such circumstances is to fuse information from various data sources. There are many levels of information fusion, ranging from the fusing of low level sensor signals to the fusing of high level, complex knowledge structures. In a dynamically changing environment even a single agent may have varying abilities to perceive its environment which are dependent on particular conditions. The situation becomes even more complex when different agents have different perceptual capabilities and need to communicate with each other. In this paper, we propose a framework that provides agents with the ability to fuse both low and high level approximate knowledge in the context of dynamically changing environments while taking account of heterogeneous and contextually limited perceptual capabilities. To model limitations on an agent's perceptual capabilities we introduce the idea of partial tolerance spaces. We assume that each agent has one or more approximate databases where approximate relations are represented using lower and upper approximations on sets. Approximate relations are generalizations of rough sets. It is shown how sensory and other limitations can be taken into account when constructing and querying approximate databases for each respective agent. Complex relations inherit the approximativeness of primitive relations used in their definitions. Agents then query these databases and receive answers through the filters of their perceptual limitations as represented by (partial) tolerance spaces and approximate queries. The techniques used are all tractable. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In recent years, a great deal of attention has been devoted to logics of "commonsense" reasoning. Among the candidates proposed, circumscription has been perceived as an elegant mathematical technique for modeling nonmonotonic reasoning, but difficult to apply in practice. The major reason for this is the nd-order nature of circumscription axioms and the difficulty in finding proper substitutions of predicate expressions for predicate variables. One solution to this problem is to compile, where possible, nd-order formulas into equivalent 1st-order formulas. Although some progress has been made using this approach, the results are not as strong as one might desire and they are isolated in nature. In this article, we provide a general method which can be used in an algorithmic manner to reduce circumscription axioms to 1st-order formulas. The algorithm takes as input an arbitrary 2nd-order formula and either returns as output an equivalent 1st-order formula, or terminates with failure. The class of 2nd-order formulas, and analogously the class of circumscriptive theories which can be reduced, provably subsumes those covered by existing results. We demonstrate the generality of the algorithm using circumscriptive theories with mixed quantifiers (some involving Skolemization), variable constants, non-separated formulas, and formulas with n-ary predicate variables. In addition, we analyze the strength of the algorithm and compare it with existing approaches providing formal subsumption results.
In recent years, a great deal of attention has been devoted to logics of common-sense reasoning. Among the candidates proposed, circumscription has been perceived as an elegant mathematical technique for modeling nonmonotonic reasoning, but difficult to apply in practice. The major reason for this is the second-order nature of circumscription axioms and the difficulty in finding proper substitutions of predicate expressions for predicate variables. One solution to this problem is to compile, where possible, second-order formulas into equivalent first-order formulas. Although some progress has been made using this approach, the results are not as strong as one might desire and they are isolated in nature. In this article, we provide a general method that can be used in an algorithmic manner to reduce certain circumscription axioms to first-order formulas. The algorithm takes as input an arbitrary second-order formula and either returns as output an equivalent first-order formula, or terminates with failure. The class of second-order formulas, and analogously the class of circumscriptive theories that can be reduced, provably subsumes those covered by existing results. We demonstrate the generality of the algorithm using circumscriptive theories with mixed quantifiers (some involving Skolemization), variable constants, nonseparated formulas, and formulas with n-ary predicate variables. In addition, we analyze the strength of the algorithm, compare it with existing approaches, and provide formal subsumption results.
A technique is proposed for computing the weakest sufficient (wsc) and strongest necessary (snc) conditions for formulas in an expressive fragment of first-order logic using quantifier elimination techniques. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated by using the techniques to compute snc's and wsc's for use in agent communication applications, theory approximation and generation of abductive hypotheses. Additionally, we generalize recent results involving the generation of successor state axioms in the propositional situation calculus via snc's to the first-order case. Subsumption results for existing approaches to this problem and a re-interpretation of the concept of forgetting as a process of quantifier elimination are also provided.
In this paper, we consider the problem of expressing and computing queries on relational deductive databases in a purely declarative query language, called SHQL (Semi-Horn Query Language). Assuming the relational databases in question are ordered, we show that all SHQL queries are computable in PTIME (polynomial time) and the whole class of PTIME queries is expressible in SHQL. Although similar results have been proven for fixpoint languages and extensions to datalog, the claim is that SHQL has the advantage of being purely declarative, where the negation operator is interpreted as classical negation, mixed quantifiers may be used and a query is simply a restricted first-order theory not limited by the rule-based syntactic restrictions associated with logic programs in general. We describe the PTIME algorithm used to compute queries in SHQL which is based in part on quantifier elimination techniques and also consider extending the method to incomplete relational databases using intuitions related to circumscription techniques.
We present a sound and complete, tractable inference method for reasoning with localized closed world assumptions (LCWA’s) which can be used in applications where a reasoning or planning agent can not assume complete information about planning or reasoning states. This Open World Assumption is generally necessary in most realistic robotics applications. The inference procedure subsumes that described in Etzioni et al [9], and others. In addition, it provides a great deal more expressivity, permitting limited use of negation and disjunction in the representation of LCWA’s, while still retaining tractability. The ap- proach is based on the use of circumscription and quantifier elimination techniques and inference is viewed as querying a deductive database. Both the preprocessing of the database using circumscription and quan- tifier elimination, and the inference method itself, have polynomial time and space complexity.
Recently, Haas, Schubert, and Reiter, have developed an alternative approach to the frame problem which is based on the idea of using explanation closure axioms. The claim is that there is a monotonic solution for characterizing nonchange in serial worlds with fully specified actions, where one can have both a succinct representation of frame axioms and an effective proof theory for the characterization. In the paper, we propose a circumscriptive version of explanation closure, PMON, that has an effective proof theory and works for both context dependent and nondeterministic actions. The approach retains representational succinctness and a large degree of elaboration tolerance, since the process of generating closure axioms is fully automated and is of no concern to the knowledge engineer. In addition, we argue that the monotonic/nonmonotonic dichotomy proposed by others is not as sharp as previously claimed and is not fully justified.
We first define general domain circumscription (GDC) and provide it with a semantics. GDC subsumes existing domain circumscription proposals in that it allows varying of arbitrary predicates, functions, or constants, to maximize the minimization of the domain of a theory. We then show that for the class of semi-universal theories without function symbols, that the domain circumscription of such theories can be constructively reduced to logically equivalent first-order theories by using an extension of the DLS algorithm, previously proposed by the authors for reducing second-order formulas. We also show that for a certain class of domain circumscribed theories, that any arbitrary second-order circumscription policy applied to these theories is guaranteed to be reducible to a logically equivalent first-order theory. In the case of semi-universal theories with functions and arbitrary theories which are not separated, we provide additional results, which although not guaranteed to provide reductions in all cases, do provide reductions in some cases. These results are based on the use of fixpoint reductions.
We first define general domain circumscription (GDC) and provide it with a semantics. GDC subsumes existing domain circumscription proposals in that it allows varying of arbitrary predicates, functions, or constants, to maximize the minimization of the domain of a theory We then show that for the class of semi-universal theories without function symbols, that the domain circumscription of such theories can be constructively reduced to logically equivalent first-order theories by using an extension of the DLS algorithm, previously proposed by the authors for reducing second-order formulas. We also isolate a class of domain circumscribed theories, such that any arbitrary second-order circumscription policy applied to these theories is guaranteed to be reducible to a logically equivalent first-order theory. In the case of semi-universal theories with functions and arbitrary theories which are not separated, we provide additional results, which although not guaranteed to provide reductions in all cases, do provide reductions in some cases. These results are based on the use of fixpoint reductions.
The premise of this paper is that the acquisition, aggregation, merging and use of information requires some new ideas, tools and techniques which can simplify the construction, analysis and use of what we call ephemeral knowledge structures. Ephemeral knowledge structures are used and constructed by granular agents. Each agent contains its own granular information structure and granular information structures of agents can be combined together. The main concept considered in this paper is an information granule. An information granule is a concise conceptual unit that can be integrated into a larger information infrastructure consisting of other information granules and dependencies between them. The novelty of this paper is that it provides a concise and formal definition of a particular view of information granule and its associated operators, as required in advanced knowledge representation applications.
In traditional approaches to knowledge representation, notions such as tolerance measures on data, distance between objects or individuals, and similarity measures between primitive and complex data structures are rarely considered. There is often a need to use tolerance and similarity measures in processes of data and knowledge abstraction because many complex systems which have knowledge representation components such as robots or software agents receive and process data which is incomplete, noisy, approximative and uncertain. This paper presents a framework for recursively constructing arbitrarily complex knowledge structures which may be compared for similarity, distance and approximativeness. It integrates nicely with more traditional knowledge representation techniques and attempts to bridge a gap between approximate and crisp knowledge representation. It can be viewed in part as a generalization of approximate reasoning techniques used in rough set theory. The strategy that will be used is to define tolerance and distance measures on the value sets associated with attributes or primitive data domains associated with particular applications. These tolerance and distance measures will be induced through the different levels of data and knowledge abstraction in complex representational structures. Once the tolerance and similarity measures are in place, an important structuring generalization can be made where the idea of a tolerance space is introduced. Use of these ideas is exemplified using two application domains related to sensor modeling and communication between agents.
This paper describes an experimental platform for approximate knowledge databases called the Approximate Knowledge Database (AKDB), based on a semantics inspired by rough sets. The implementation is based upon the use of a standard SQL database to store logical facts, augmented with several query interface layers implemented in JAVA through which extensional, intensional and local closed world nonmonotonic queries in the form of crisp or approximate logical formulas can be evaluated tractably. A graphical database design user interface is also provided which simplifies the design of databases, the entering of data and the construction of queries. The theory and semantics for AKDBs is presented in addition to application examples and details concerning the database implementation.
The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumesdeterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that arestochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.
This paper focuses on approximate reasoning based on the use of similarity spaces. Similarity spaces and the approximated relations induced by them are a generalization of the rough set-based approximations of Pawlak [17, 18]. Similarity spaces are used to define neighborhoods around individuals and these in turn are used to define approximate sets and relations. In any of the approaches, one would like to embed such relations in an appropriate logic which can be used as a reasoning engine for specific applications with specific constraints. We propose a framework which permits a formal study of the relationship between approximate relations, similarity spaces and three-valued logics. Using ideas from correspondence theory for modal logics and constraints on an accessibility relation, we develop an analogous framework for three-valued logics and constraints on similarity relations. In this manner, we can provide a tool which helps in determining the proper three-valued logical reasoning engine to use for different classes of approximate relations generated via specific types of similarity spaces. Additionally, by choosing a three-valued logic first, the framework determines what constraints would be required on a similarity relation and the approximate relations induced by it. Such information would guide the generation of approximate relations for specific applications.
Classical Answer Set Programming is a widely known knowledge representation framework based on the logic programming paradigm that has been extensively studied in the past decades. Semantic theories for classical answer sets are implicitly three-valued in nature, yet with few exceptions, computing classical answer sets is based on translations into classical logic and the use of SAT solving techniques. In this paper, we introduce a variation of Kleene three-valued logic with strong connectives, R3" role="presentation">R3, and then provide a sound and complete proof procedure for R3" role="presentation">R3 based on the use of signed tableaux. We then define a restriction on the syntax of R3" role="presentation">R3 to characterize Kleene ASPs. Strongly-supported models, which are a subset of R3" role="presentation">R3 models are then defined to characterize the semantics of Kleene ASPs. A filtering technique on tableaux for R3" role="presentation">R3 is then introduced which provides a sound and complete tableau-based proof technique for Kleene ASPs. We then show a translation and semantic correspondence between Classical ASPs and Kleene ASPs, where answer sets for normal classical ASPs are equivalent to strongly-supported models. This implies that the proof technique introduced can be used for classical normal ASPs as well as Kleene ASPs. The relation between non-normal classical and Kleene ASPs is also considered.