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  • 1.
    Boo, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thorsten, Anja
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att anpassa undervisning: till individ och grupp i klassrummet2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tycker du att din svåraste arbetsuppgift som lärare är att anpassa undervisningen efter varje elevs förutsättningar och behov? Då är du inte ensam!

    Att anpassa undervisning är en grundbok som erbjuder en teoretisk och praktisk vägledning mot en undervisning anpassad till individ och grupp. Författarna sätter dagens rådande teorier om anpassningar i perspektiv och sammanhang genom en historisk återblick. De varvar sedan didaktiska aspekter av undervisningen – som metoder, strategier och dilemman – med färska exempel och erfarenheter från den svenska skolan. Här synliggörs de medvetna val som du som lärare måste göra, både gällande ämnesinnehållets strukturer och arbetsformer.

    Fokus ligger på vikten av ett systematiskt arbete – dels i syfte att låta effektiva anpassningar genomsyra den dagliga verksamheten, dels för att skapa en hållbar arbetssituation.

    Boken vänder sig till lärarstudenter och verksamma lärare i grundskolan.

  • 2.
    Thorsten, Anja
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Berättelseskrivande i skolan: Att studera, beskriva och utveckla ett kunnande2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to add knowledge about how the knowing of storywriting can be made teachable. This question will be addressed from two points of view: a subject-knowledge perspective and a methodological perspective. The data consists of student interviews, student stories, video-recorded lessons, field notes, meeting minutes and reflective notes collected during a Learning Study about story-writing with 9- and 10-year-old students. In a Learning Study a research group, made up of teacher researchers, investigated iteratively how the teaching can help students to develop a particular knowing. Students’ knowing, students’ learning and the instruction was analyzed using narratology, phenomenography and Variation Theory. The results show that in order to make the knowing of storywriting teachable, students need to be able to discern two main aspects: (a) seeing the story from the reader’s perspective and (b) discerning that a story is built up by problems and solutions. These two aspects consist of some other aspects, such as duration and connections between different parts of the story. The methodological issue is addressed by analyzing how teachers’ practice-based knowledge interacts with Variation Theory in a Learning Study. Polanyi’s concept of ”tacit knowledge” and other theoretical concepts of practice-based knowledge were used in the analysis. The results show that combining teachers’ experiences and Variation Theory in an iterative research model creates good conditions for a knowledge-generating process. Teachers’ practice-based knowledge affects the choice of research questions, and puts the focus on relevant parts of the data. Variation Theory brings theoretical tools to the analysis, and ensures there is a focus on the object of learning throughout the process.

    List of papers
    1. Perspektiv och problemlösning i berättelseskrivande: Vad elever behöver lära sig och hur det kan synliggöras i undervisningen
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspektiv och problemlösning i berättelseskrivande: Vad elever behöver lära sig och hur det kan synliggöras i undervisningen
    2014 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Alternative title[en]
    Perspectives and Problem Solving in Story Writing. : What pupils need to learn and how teaching can make it visible.
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study at hand is to generate knowledge about what pupils aged nine to ten years old need to discern in order to develop the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot, and how teaching can make it possible for the pupils to develop this ability. The theoretical framework has been Variation Theory. It is a theory of learning that focuses on how discernment of aspects affects the way we perceive our world and how variation can be used to promote learning. A basic assumption is that we learn by seeing differences, not by seeing sameness. Learning Study was used to answer the research questions. It is an interventionist approach, where the focus is on an object of learning, in this case the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot. In the research process the aim was to find out which aspects were critical for the pupils to discern in order to develop the ability, and how these could be made visible in the teaching. Together with a group of teachers, lessons were planned, implemented, evaluated and refined in an iterative process. Interview data, pupils’ texts written before and after the lessons and video recordings from the lessons were the basis of the analysis. It was found that in order for these learners to handle the object of learning, they needed to discern eight critical aspects that can be related to two different areas: (a) discerning the perspective of a reader and (b) seeing that a plot consists of several problems and solutions. The aspects were made discernible by using contrast as a pedagogical tool. The result of the study contributes to previous research by identifying and specifying what the pupils need to discern, what it means in a classroom setting and how it can be taught in a powerful way. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Jönköping: Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, 2014. p. 174
    Series
    Research Reports. School of Education and Communication ; 2
    Keywords
    Story writing, writing instruction, creative writing, Variation Theory, Learning Study, primary school, berättelseskrivande, skrivundervisning, kreativt skrivande, variationsteorin, learning study, grundskolan
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149808 (URN)9789163760297 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
    2. How teachers’ practice knowledge is used and challenged in a Learning Study using Variation Theory as a tool
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How teachers’ practice knowledge is used and challenged in a Learning Study using Variation Theory as a tool
    2015 (English)In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 274-287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to discuss how teachers’ practice knowledge is used as a tool in a Learning Study and how teachers’ practice knowledge is challenged by using Variation Theory as a tool in the process?Design/methodology/approach– The analysis is based on data from the research process in a Learning Study. The data consists of meeting notes of ten research meetings, field notes of the research meetings and from the enactment of the lessons, video recordings of the lessons and reflective notes after and between the meetings. The analysis is qualitative and the findings are described in themes.Findings– Teachers’ practice knowledge was used and challenged in different ways in the process. This is described in five themes. Teachers’ practice knowledge was visible in the process since it enabled relevant questions to be addressed and subtle signals from students to be taken into account. It also ensured that the activities used were suitable for the students. The theory provided a focus on the object of learning and a language to talk about teaching and learning. It also challenged teachers’ assumptions about teaching and learning and allowed them to be discussed.Originality/value– The paper addresses both teachers’ practice knowledge and Variation Theory in relation to a Learning Study. It focusses on how practice knowledge of teachers can be used and challenged in the same process. The perspective is from the inside, from a teacher researcher’s point of view.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015
    Keywords
    Teaching, Tacit knowledge, Variation Theory, Learning study, Practice knowledge
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139951 (URN)10.1108/IJLLS-08-2014-0030 (DOI)2-s2.0-84958948456 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Generating knowledge in a Learning Study: from the perspective of a teacher researcher
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generating knowledge in a Learning Study: from the perspective of a teacher researcher
    2017 (English)In: Educational action research, ISSN 0965-0792, E-ISSN 1747-5074, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 140-154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to discuss and describe how a clinical research method can be used to generate knowledge about teaching and learning. This will be addressed from a teacher researcher’s perspective, taking a conducted Learning Study as the departure. Learning Study is an interventionist, iterative and collaborative research approach, focusing on the teaching of an object of learning. The actual study was conducted by a teacher researcher leading a teacher research team in a study about story-writing in primary school. The research process and the results are discussed using four areas that are described as dichotomies by Labaree (Labaree, D.F. 2003. “The Peculiar Problems of Preparing Educational Researchers.” Educational Researcher 32 (4): 13–22). Labaree states that teacher researchers need to go from being normative, experimental, personal and particular to being analytical, theoretical, intellectual and universal. By using examples from the Learning Study, I argue that these areas do not have to be seen as dichotomies; instead they can be combined and intertwined. Thus, in a Learning Study, elements from both the teaching practice and the academic practice matter, thus enhancing the possibility that results are useful for practitioners.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2017
    Keywords
    Learning Study, teacher research, clinical research, Variation Theory, writing instruction
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139952 (URN)10.1080/09650792.2016.1141108 (DOI)2-s2.0-85011932347 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Thorsten, Anja
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Generating knowledge in a Learning Study: from the perspective of a teacher researcher2017In: Educational action research, ISSN 0965-0792, E-ISSN 1747-5074, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 140-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to discuss and describe how a clinical research method can be used to generate knowledge about teaching and learning. This will be addressed from a teacher researcher’s perspective, taking a conducted Learning Study as the departure. Learning Study is an interventionist, iterative and collaborative research approach, focusing on the teaching of an object of learning. The actual study was conducted by a teacher researcher leading a teacher research team in a study about story-writing in primary school. The research process and the results are discussed using four areas that are described as dichotomies by Labaree (Labaree, D.F. 2003. “The Peculiar Problems of Preparing Educational Researchers.” Educational Researcher 32 (4): 13–22). Labaree states that teacher researchers need to go from being normative, experimental, personal and particular to being analytical, theoretical, intellectual and universal. By using examples from the Learning Study, I argue that these areas do not have to be seen as dichotomies; instead they can be combined and intertwined. Thus, in a Learning Study, elements from both the teaching practice and the academic practice matter, thus enhancing the possibility that results are useful for practitioners.

  • 4.
    Thorsten, Anja
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    How teachers’ practice knowledge is used and challenged in a Learning Study using Variation Theory as a tool2015In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 274-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to discuss how teachers’ practice knowledge is used as a tool in a Learning Study and how teachers’ practice knowledge is challenged by using Variation Theory as a tool in the process?Design/methodology/approach– The analysis is based on data from the research process in a Learning Study. The data consists of meeting notes of ten research meetings, field notes of the research meetings and from the enactment of the lessons, video recordings of the lessons and reflective notes after and between the meetings. The analysis is qualitative and the findings are described in themes.Findings– Teachers’ practice knowledge was used and challenged in different ways in the process. This is described in five themes. Teachers’ practice knowledge was visible in the process since it enabled relevant questions to be addressed and subtle signals from students to be taken into account. It also ensured that the activities used were suitable for the students. The theory provided a focus on the object of learning and a language to talk about teaching and learning. It also challenged teachers’ assumptions about teaching and learning and allowed them to be discussed.Originality/value– The paper addresses both teachers’ practice knowledge and Variation Theory in relation to a Learning Study. It focusses on how practice knowledge of teachers can be used and challenged in the same process. The perspective is from the inside, from a teacher researcher’s point of view.

  • 5.
    Thorsten, Anja
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    How to compose a narrative: Students approaches and pedagogical implications2019In: Writing & Pedagogy, ISSN 1756-5839, E-ISSN 1756-5847, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute knowledge on childrens narrative writing from a pedagogical perspective. Through analyses of nine-to ten-year-old students narrative writing, aspects that are critical to discern in order to write narratives with a well-developed plot are formulated. The theoretical framework is narratology theories and Variation Theory. Narratology provides a conceptual framework for describing narrative writing, while Variation Theory offers a pedagogical perspective. A total of 80 narratives written by students have been analyzed, and five qualitatively different approaches to writing were seen. Narrative writing can be approached as describing events, solving a problem, creating action, making jokes and composing a narrative. A comparison between these approaches revealed five aspects that are critical for children to discern in order to develop the ability to write narratives: the discernment of a reader, the function of a narrative, the narrative structure, coherence, and duration. These aspects can be discerned in a more or less powerful way. The study contributes to the field by offering teachers guidance in what aspects are critical to address when teaching narrative writing in school.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-06-20 07:55
  • 6.
    Thorsten, Anja
    Läs & skriv, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Perspektiv och problemlösning i berättelseskrivande: Vad elever behöver lära sig och hur det kan synliggöras i undervisningen2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study at hand is to generate knowledge about what pupils aged nine to ten years old need to discern in order to develop the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot, and how teaching can make it possible for the pupils to develop this ability. The theoretical framework has been Variation Theory. It is a theory of learning that focuses on how discernment of aspects affects the way we perceive our world and how variation can be used to promote learning. A basic assumption is that we learn by seeing differences, not by seeing sameness. Learning Study was used to answer the research questions. It is an interventionist approach, where the focus is on an object of learning, in this case the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot. In the research process the aim was to find out which aspects were critical for the pupils to discern in order to develop the ability, and how these could be made visible in the teaching. Together with a group of teachers, lessons were planned, implemented, evaluated and refined in an iterative process. Interview data, pupils’ texts written before and after the lessons and video recordings from the lessons were the basis of the analysis. It was found that in order for these learners to handle the object of learning, they needed to discern eight critical aspects that can be related to two different areas: (a) discerning the perspective of a reader and (b) seeing that a plot consists of several problems and solutions. The aspects were made discernible by using contrast as a pedagogical tool. The result of the study contributes to previous research by identifying and specifying what the pupils need to discern, what it means in a classroom setting and how it can be taught in a powerful way. 

  • 7.
    Thorsten, Anja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för de humanistiska och samhällsvetenskapliga ämnenas didaktik, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Att vara lärare och forskare i Learning study2017In: Undervisningsutvecklande forskning: exemplet Learning study / [ed] Ingrid Carlgren, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, p. 31-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     Komptensutveckling för lärare är viktigt och Learning study används ibland för detta syfte, men det är också viktigt att lärare blir delaktiga i undervisningsforskningen. I det här kapitlet diskuteras vad det innebär att vara forskande lärare i Learning study.

  • 8.
    Thorsten, Anja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experiences from the teacher-researcher’s perspectiveon learning study: Challenges and opportunities2017In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 45-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss experiences, in terms of challenges and opportunities, of teacher-researchers who engage in research on the learning study approach. The following two questions will be addressed: how can the teaching experience influence, and become an asset, in the research process and what challenges do teachers face when they enter the research practice?

    Design/methodology/approach

    Each question will be explored through some empirically grounded themes. The analysis is based on experiences from participation in a PhD program, where learning study was used as a method and variation theory was the main theoretical framework. One learning study was focusing on creative writing in primary school and the other was focusing on historical primary source analysis in upper secondary school.

    Findings

    The first question is addressed through the following themes: choosing and identifying research problems; planning and conducting research lessons; analyzing research lessons and students’ learning; and process of self-reflection, and the second question through: teaching as an object of research; to use and develop theories; and communication and review in research. The findings indicate that learning study is a practice-based research approach where teaching experience and academic skills are intertwined in many ways. Both approaches bring opportunities as well as challenges.

    Originality/value

    The paper is expected to contribute insights and knowledge about the advantages, as well as hindrances to overcome, for teacher-researchers who use learning study as a research method. The results can also be related to the performing of action research in teachers’ classroom practice.

  • 9.
    Thorsten, Anja
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tväråna, Malin
    Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Framgångsrik undervisning: fokus på elevers tankesätt, snarare än på matriser2015In: Venue, Linköpings universitet, ISSN 2001-788XArticle in journal (Other academic)
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