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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Capodanno, Alessandra
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Downregulation of tumor suppressive microRNAs in vivo in dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women2017In: Oncotarget, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, no 54, p. 92134-92142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women with dense breast tissue on mammography are at higher risk of developing breast cancer but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. De-regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with the onset of breast cancer. miRNAs in the extracellular space participate in the regulation of the local tissue microenvironment. Here, we recruited 39 healthy postmenopausal women attending their mammography-screen that were assessed having extreme dense or entirely fatty breasts (nondense). Microdialysis was performed in breast tissue and a reference catheter was inserted in abdominal subcutaneous fat for local sampling of extracellular compounds. Three miRNAs, associated with tumor suppression, miR-193b, miR-365a, and miR-452 were significantly down-regulated in dense breast tissue compared with nondense breast tissue. In addition, miR-452 exhibited significant negative correlations with several pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo, which was confirmed in vitro by overexpression of miR-452 in breast cancer cells. No differences were found of miR-21, -29a, -30c, 146a, -148a, -203, or -451 in breast tissue and no miRs were different in plasma. Extracellular miRNAs may be among factors that should be included in studies of novel prevention strategies for breast cancer.

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  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Tissue specific expression of extracellular microRNA in human breast cancers and normal human breast tissue in vivo2015In: Oncotarget, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 6, no 26, p. 22959-22969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to be biomarkers for disease monitoring but data are inconsistent, one reason being that blood miRNA is of heterogeneous origin. Here, we sampled extracellular microRNAs locally in situ using microdialysis. Three different cohorts of women were included; postmenopausal women with ongoing breast cancer investigated within the cancer and in normal adjacent breast tissue, postmenopausal women investigated in their normal healthy breast and subcutaneous fat before and after six weeks of tamoxifen therapy, premenopausal women during the menstrual cycle. Samples were initially screened using TaqMan array cards with subsequently absolute quantification. 124 miRNA were expressed in microdialysates. After absolute quantifications extracellular miRNA-21 was found to be significantly increased in breast cancer. In addition, the levels were significantly higher in pre-menopausal breast tissue compared with postmenopausal. In breast tissue of pre-menopausal women miRNA-21 exhibited a cyclic variation during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women six weeks of tamoxifen treatment decreased miRNA-21 suggesting that this miRNA may be important for breast carcinogenesis. None of these changes were found in plasma or microdialysates from subcutaneous fat. Our data revealed tissue specific changes of extracellular circulating miRNAs that would be otherwise unraveled using blood samples.

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  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Morad, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saarinen, Niina M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Estradiol, Tamoxifen, and Flaxseed Alter IL-1 beta and IL-1Ra Levels in Normal Human Breast Tissue in Vivo2012In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 97, no 11, p. E2044-E2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sex steroid exposure increases the risk of breast cancer by unclear mechanisms. Diet modifications may be one breast cancer prevention strategy. The proinflammatory cytokine family of IL-1 is implicated in cancer progression. IL-1Ra is an endogenous inhibitor of the proinflammatory IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: The objective of this study was to elucidate whether estrogen, tamoxifen, and/or diet modification altered IL-1 levels in normal human breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign and Methods: Microdialysis was performed in healthy women under various hormone exposures, tamoxifen therapy, and diet modifications and in breast cancers of women before surgery. Breast tissue biopsies from reduction mammoplasties were cultured. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: We show a significant positive correlation between estradiol and in vivo levels of IL-1 beta in breast tissue and abdominal sc fat, whereas IL-1Ra exhibited a significant negative correlation with estradiol in breast tissue. Tamoxifen or a dietary addition of 25 g flaxseed per day resulted in significantly increased levels of IL-1Ra in the breast. These results were confirmed in ex vivo culture of breast biopsies. Immunohistochemistry of the biopsies did not reveal any changes in cellular content of the IL-1s, suggesting that mainly the secreted levels were affected. In breast cancer patients, intratumoral levels of IL-1 beta were significantly higher compared with normal adjacent breast tissue. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: IL-1 may be under the control of estrogen in vivo and may be attenuated by antiestrogen therapy and diet modifications. The increased IL-1 beta in breast cancers of women strongly suggests IL-1 as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Equal Pro-inflammatory Profiles of CCLs, CXCLs, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Extracellular Microenvironment In Vivo in Human Dense Breast Tissue and Breast Cancer2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 1994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inflammatory microenvironment affects breast cancer progression. Proteins that govern the inflammatory response are secreted into the extracellular space, but this compartment still needs to be characterized in human breast tissues in vivo. Dense breast tissue is a major risk factor for breast cancer by yet unknown mechanisms and no non-toxic prevention for these patients exists. Here, we used the minimal invasive technique of microdialysis for sampling of extracellular proteins in live tissues in situ in breast cancers of women before surgery and in healthy women having dense or non-dense breast tissue on mammography. Proteins were profiled using a proximity extension assay. Out of the 32 proteins assessed, 26 exhibited similar profiles in breast cancers and dense breast tissues; CCL-4, -7, -8, -11, -15, -16, -22, -23, and -25, CXCL-5, -8, -9, -16 as well as sIL-6R, IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-a, fibroblast growth factor 19, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were all increased, whereas CCL-3, CX3CL1, hepatocyte growth factor, and MMP-9 were unaltered in the two tissues. CCL-19 and -24, CXCL-1 and -10, and IL-6 were increased in dense breast tissue only, whereas IL-18BP was increased in breast cancer only. Our results provide novel insights in the inflammatory microenvironment in human breast cancer in situ and define potential novel therapeutic targets. Additionally, we show previously unrecognized similarities of the pro-inflammatory microenvironment in dense breast tissue and breast cancer in vivo suggesting that anti-inflammatory breast cancer prevention trials for women with dense breast tissue may be feasible.

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  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Increased nutrient availability in dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women in vivo2017In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 42733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Nutrient availability in the tissue microenvironment determines cellular events and may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. High mammographic density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Whether nutrient availability differs in normal breast tissues with various densities is unknown. Therefore we investigated whether breast tissues with various densities exhibited differences in nutrient availability. Healthy postmenopausal women from the regular mammographic screening program who had either predominantly fatty breast tissue (nondense), n = 18, or extremely dense breast tissue (dense), n = 20, were included. Microdialysis was performed for the in vivo sampling of amino acids (AAs), analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy, glucose, lactate and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in breast tissues and, as a control, in abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) fat. We found that dense breast tissue exhibited significantly increased levels of 20 proteinogenic AAs and that 18 of these AAs correlated significantly with VEGF. No differences were found in the s.c. fat, except for one AA, suggesting tissue-specific alterations in the breast. Glucose and lactate were unaltered. Our findings provide novel insights into the biology of dense breast tissue that may be explored for breast cancer prevention strategies.

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  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Romu, Thobias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Borga, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Lundberg, Peter
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kihlberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Dense breast tissue in postmenopausal women is associated with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment in vivo2016In: Oncoimmunology, ISSN 2162-4011, E-ISSN 2162-402X, Vol. 5, no 10, article id e1229723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis. High mammographic density has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer but the mechanisms behind are poorly understood. We evaluated whether breasts with different mammographic densities exhibited differences in the inflammatory microenvironment.Postmenopausal women attending the mammography-screening program were assessed having extreme dense, n = 20, or entirely fatty breasts (nondense), n = 19, on their regular mammograms. Thereafter, the women were invited for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microdialysis for the collection of extracellular molecules in situ and a core tissue biopsy for research purposes. On the MRI, lean tissue fraction (LTF) was calculated for a continuous measurement of breast density. LTF confirmed the selection from the mammograms and gave a continuous measurement of breast density. Microdialysis revealed significantly increased extracellular in vivo levels of IL-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CCL5 in dense breast tissue as compared with nondense breasts. Moreover, the ratio IL-1Ra/IL-1 was decreased in dense breasts. No differences were found in levels of IL-1, IL-1Ra, CCL2, leptin, adiponectin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio between the two breast tissue types. Significant positive correlations between LTF and the pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as between the cytokines were detected. Stainings of the core biopsies exhibited increased levels of immune cells in dense breast tissue.Our data show that dense breast tissue in postmenopausal women is associated with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and, if confirmed in a larger cohort, suggests novel targets for prevention therapies for women with dense breast tissue.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Fulvestrant-Mediated Attenuation of the Innate Immune Response Decreases ER+ Breast Cancer Growth In Vivo More Effectively than Tamoxifen2020In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 80, no 20, p. 4487-4499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although blocking estrogen-dependent signaling is a cornerstone of adjuvant treatment for breast cancer, 25% of patients experience recurrent disease. Stroma events including innate immune responses are key in cancer progression. How different estrogen receptor (ER)-targeting therapies, including the partial agonist tamoxifen and the pure antagonist fulvestrant, affect the tumor stroma has not yet been elucidated. Fulvestrant is used in only postmenopausal patients, and its effects in the presence of estradiol remain undetermined. Here we observe that fulvestrant decreases ER+ breast cancer growth compared with tamoxifen in the presence of physiologic levels of estradiol in human breast cancer in nude mice and in murine breast cancer in immune-competent mice. Fulvestrant significantly inhibited macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in both models. These effects were corroborated in a zebrafish model where fulvestrant inhibited neutrophil- and macrophage-dependent cancer cell dissemination more effectively than tamoxifen. A comprehensive analysis of 234 human proteins released into the cancer microenvironment by the cancer cells sampled via microdialysis in vivo revealed that 38 proteins were altered following both treatments; 25 of these proteins were associated with immune response and were altered by fulvestrant only. Compared with tamoxifen, fulvestrant significantly affected inflammatory proteins released by murine stroma cells. Importantly, in vivo microdialysis of human ER+ breast cancer revealed that the majority of affected proteins in murine models were upregulated in patients. Together, these results suggest that fulvestrant targets ER+ breast cancer more effectively than tamoxifen even in the presence of estradiol, mainly by attenuation of the innate immune response. Significance: These findings demonstrate novel effects of the pure antiestrogen fulvestrant in ERthorn breast cancer and evaluate its effects under physiologic levels of estradiol, representative of premenopausal patients.

  • 8.
    Ekstrand, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Breast density and estradiol are associated with distinct different expression patterns of metabolic proteins in normal human breast tissue in vivo2023In: Frontiers in Oncology, E-ISSN 2234-943X, Vol. 13, article id 1128318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundBreast density and exposure to sex steroids are major risk factors for breast cancer. The local microenvironment plays an essential role in progression of breast cancer. Metabolic adaption is a major hallmark of cancer. Whether proteins from the extracellular space regulating metabolism are affected in breast cancer, dense breasts or by estrogen exposure are not yet fully elucidated. MethodsWomen with breast cancer, postmenopausal women with normal breast tissue with varying breast density or premenopausal women with breasts exposed to high levels of estradiol were included in the study. Microdialysis was used to collect proteins from the extracellular space in vivo in 73 women; 12 with breast cancer, 42 healthy postmenopausal women with different breast densities, and 19 healthy premenopausal women. Breast density was determined as lean tissue fraction (LTF) using magnetic resonance imaging. Data were evaluated in a murine breast cancer model. We quantified a panel of 92 key proteins regulating metabolism using proximity extension assay. ResultsWe report that 29 proteins were upregulated in human breast cancer. In dense breasts 37 proteins were upregulated and 17 of these were similarly regulated as in breast cancer. 32 proteins correlated with LTF. In premenopausal breasts 19 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. Of these, 27 correlated to estradiol, a result that was confirmed for most proteins in experimental breast cancer. Only two proteins, pro-cathepsin H and galanin peptide, were similarly regulated in breast cancer, dense- and estrogen exposed breasts. ConclusionsMetabolic proteins may be targetable for breast cancer prevention. Depending on risk factor, this may, however, require different approaches as breast density and estradiol induce distinct different expression patterns in the breast. Additionally, metabolic proteins from the extracellular space may indeed be further explored as therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatment.

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  • 9.
    Ekstrand, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Zemmler, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Forsgren, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Breast Density and Estradiol Are Major Determinants for Soluble TNF-TNF-R Proteins in vivo in Human Breast Tissue2022In: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 13, article id 850240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High mammographic density and exposure to sex steroids are independent risk factors for breast cancer by yet unknown mechanisms. Inflammation is one hallmark of cancer and the tumor necrosis factor family of proteins (TNFSFs) and receptors (TNFRSFs) are key determinants of tissue inflammation. The relationship between TNFSFs/TNFRSFs and breast tissue density or local breast estradiol levels is unknown. We investigated whether TNFSFs and soluble TNFRSFs (sTNFRSFs) are dysregulated in vivo in human breast cancer and dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women. We explored TNFSF/TNFRSF correlations with breast density and estradiol, both locally in the breast and in abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) fat as a measure of systemic effects. Microdialysis was used for local sampling of in vivo proteins and estradiol in a total of 73 women; 12 with breast cancer, 42 healthy postmenopausal women with different breast densities, and 19 healthy premenopausal women. Breast density was determined as lean tissue fraction (LTF) using magnetic resonance imaging. Microdialysis was also performed in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer in mice treated with the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant and tumor tissue was subjected to immunohistochemistry. 23 members of the TNFSF/sTNFRSF families were quantified using proximity extension assay.Our data revealed upregulation of TNFSF10, 13 and 13B, TNFRSF6, 6B, 9, 11A, 11B, 13B, 14, and 19, and TNFR-1 and -2 in ER+ breast cancer in women. In dense breast tissue TNFSF10, 13, and 14, TNFRSF3, 6, 9, 10B, 13B, 14, 19, and TNFR-1 and -2 were upregulated. Certain TNFSFs/TNFRSFs were increased in premenopausal breasts relative to postmenopausal breasts. Furthermore, estradiol correlated with most of the TNFSF/sTNFRSF members, though LTF only correlated with some of the proteins. Several of these associations were breast tissue-specific, as very few correlated with estradiol in abdominal s.c. fat. Estrogen dependent regulations of TNFSF2 (TNF-alpha) and TNF-R2 were corroborated in ER+ breast cancer in mice. Taken together, our data indicate TNFSFs/sTNFRSFs may represent potential targetable pathways for treatment of breast cancer patients and in prevention of breast cancer development in women with dense breasts.

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  • 10.
    Lindahl, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Dietary flaxseed and tamoxifen affect the inflammatory microenvironment in vivo in normal human breast tissue of postmenopausal women2019In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 73, no 9, p. 1250-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Anti-oestrogens such as tamoxifen, decrease the risk of breast cancer but are unsuitable for prevention because of their side-effects. Diet modifications may be a breast cancer prevention strategy. Here, we investigated if a diet addition of flaxseed, which can be converted to the phytoestrogen enterolactone by the gut microbiota, exhibited similar effects as tamoxifen on normal human breast tissue in vivo, with special emphasis on inflammatory mediators implicated in cancer progression. Subjects A total of 28 postmenopausal women were included. Thirteen women added 25 g of ground flaxseed per day and 15 were treated with tamoxifen as an adjuvant for early breast cancer for 6 weeks. Microdialysis of normal breast tissue and, as a control, in subcutaneous abdominal fat was performed for sampling of extracellular proteins in vivo before and after exposures. Results Enterolactone levels increased significantly after flaxseed. IL-1Ra and IL-1Ra/IL-1 beta ratio in the breast increased in a similar fashion after the two different treatments. Flaxseed also increased breast specific levels of IL-1RT2, IL-18 and sST2 and an overall increase of MMP-9. These changes correlated significantly with enterolactone levels. Tamoxifen decreased breast tissue levels of IL-8 and IL-18. None of the treatments induced any changes of IL-1 beta, IL-1RT1, IL-18BP, IL-33, IL-6, IL-6RA, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-3. Conclusions We conclude that dietary flaxseed and tamoxifen exert both similar and different effects, as listed above, on normal breast tissue in vivo and that a relatively modest diet change can induce significant effects on the breast microenvironment.

  • 11.
    Lindahl, Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology.
    Saarinen, Niina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Tamoxifen, Flaxseed, and the Lignan Enterolactone Increase Stroma- and Cancer Cell-Derived IL-1Ra and Decrease Tumor Angiogenesis in Estrogen-Dependent Breast Cancer2011In: CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN 0008-5472, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta promote tumor angiogenesis that might be counteracted by the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), anakinra, a clinically approved agent. A diet with high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as flaxseed (Flax), genistein (GEN), and the mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), may affect breast cancer progression in a similar fashion as the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Both cancer cells and tumor stroma may be targets for cancer therapy. By using microdialysis in a model of human breast cancers in nude mice, we could perform species-specific analyses of released proteins in the microenvironment. We show that tumors treated with tamoxifen and fed Flax or ENL exhibited decreased in vivo release of IL-1 beta derived from the murine stroma and decreased microvessel density whereas dietary GEN had no effects. Cancer cell-released IL-1Ra were approximately 5 times higher than stroma-derived IL-1Ra. Tamoxifen, Flax, and ENL increased IL-1Ra levels significantly whereas GEN did not. The tumor stroma contained macrophages, which expressed the estrogen receptor. In vitro, estradiol decreased IL-1Ra released from breast cancer cells and from cultured macrophages. IL-1Ra decreased endothelial cell proliferation significantly in vitro whereas breast cancer cell proliferation was unaffected in presence of estradiol. Finally, IL-1Ra therapy of tumor-bearing mice opposed estrogen-dependent breast cancer growth and decreased angiogenesis. We conclude that the release of IL-1s both by cancer cells and the stroma, where macrophages are a key component, may offer feasible targets for antiestrogen therapy and dietary interventions against breast cancer.

  • 12.
    Lundberg, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Kihlberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Tellman, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Medical radiation physics. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Tomkeviciene, Ieva
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Kristoffersen Wiberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Warntjes, Marcel Jan Bertus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid reduces local inflammation and tissue perfusion in dense breast tissue in postmenopausal women2024In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose One major risk factor for breast cancer is high mammographic density. It has been estimated that dense breast tissue contributes to similar to 30% of all breast cancer. Prevention targeting dense breast tissue has the potential to improve breast cancer mortality and morbidity. Anti-estrogens, which may be associated with severe side-effects, can be used for prevention of breast cancer in women with high risk of the disease per se. However, no preventive therapy targeting dense breasts is currently available. Inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Although the biological mechanisms involved in the increased risk of cancer in dense breasts is not yet fully understood, high mammographic density has been associated with increased inflammation. We investigated whether low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) affects local breast tissue inflammation and/or structural and dynamic changes in dense breasts. Methods Postmenopausal women with mammographic dense breasts on their regular mammography screen were identified. A total of 53 women were randomized to receive ASA 160 mg/day or no treatment for 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed before and after 6 months for a sophisticated and continuous measure breast density by calculating lean tissue fraction (LTF). Additionally, dynamic quantifications including tissue perfusion were performed. Microdialysis for sampling of proteins in vivo from breasts and abdominal subcutaneous fat, as a measure of systemic effects, before and after 6 months were performed. A panel of 92 inflammatory proteins were quantified in the microdialysates using proximity extension assay. Results After correction for false discovery rate, 20 of the 92 inflammatory proteins were significantly decreased in breast tissue after ASA treatment, whereas no systemic effects were detected. In the no-treatment group, protein levels were unaffected. Breast density, measured by LTF on MRI, were unaffected in both groups. ASA significantly decreased the perfusion rate. The perfusion rate correlated positively with local breast tissue concentration of VEGF. Conclusions ASA may shape the local breast tissue microenvironment into an anti-tumorigenic state. Trials investigating the effects of low-dose ASA and risk of primary breast cancer among postmenopausal women with maintained high mammographic density are warranted.hic density are warranted.

  • 13.
    Mishra, Ameet K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Fulvestrant inhibits growth of triple negative breast cancer and synergizes with tamoxifen in ER alpha positive breast cancer by up-regulation of ER beta2016In: Oncotarget, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 7, no 35, p. 56876-56888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) is used as a predictive marker for antiestrogen therapy in breast cancer patients. In addition to aromatase inhibitors, ER alpha can be targeted at the receptor level using the receptor modulator tamoxifen or by the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant. The role of the second ER, ER-beta (ER beta), as a therapeutic target or prognostic marker in breast cancer is still elusive. Hitherto, it is not known if ER alpha+/ER beta+ breast cancers would benefit from a treatment strategy combining tamoxifen and fulvestrant or if fulvestrant exert any therapeutic effects in ER alpha-/ER beta+ breast cancer. Here, we report that fulvestrant up-regulated ER beta in ER alpha+/ER beta+ breast cancer and in triple negative ER beta+ breast cancers (ER alpha-/ER beta+). In ER alpha+/ER beta+ breast cancer, a combination therapy of tamoxifen and fulvestrant significantly reduced tumor growth compared to either treatment alone both in vivo and in vitro. In ER alpha-/ER beta+ breast cancer fulvestrant had potent effects on cancer growth, in vivo as well as in vitro, and this effect was dependent on intrinsically expressed levels of ER beta. The role of ER beta was further confirmed in cells where ER beta was knocked-in or knocked-down. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) increased the levels of ER beta and fulvestrant exerted similar potency on DNMT activity as the DNMT inhibitor decitabine. We conclude that fulvestrant may have therapeutic potential in additional groups of breast cancer patients; i) in ER alpha+/ER beta+ breast cancer where fulvestrant synergizes with tamoxifen and ii) in triple negative/ER beta+ breast cancer patients, a subgroup of breast cancer patients with poor prognosis.

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  • 14.
    Morad, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Estradiol Affects Extracellular Leptin: Adiponectin Ratio in Human Breast Tissue in Vivo2014In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 99, no 9, p. 3460-3467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Exposure to sex steroids is associated with increased breast cancer risk, and adipokines, leptin and adiponectin have been implicated in cancer progression. However, it is not known whether sex steroids affect adipokine secretion in breast tissue. Objective: To elucidate the role of estrogen and tamoxifen on adipokine release in normal human breast tissue and breast cancer. Setting and Design: Microdialysis sampling was used to collect extracellular in vivo leptin and adiponectin from normal human breast tissue in premenopausal healthy volunteers during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women before tamoxifen treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment. In women with breast cancer, microdialysis was performed intratumorally before surgery. In addition, whole normal breast tissue biopsies were cultured ex vivo, and murine breast cancer models were evaluated. Results: In normal breast tissue, plasma estradiol negatively correlated with local extracellular adiponectin levels (r = -0.34; P less than .05) and positively correlated with leptin (r = 0.37; P less than .05) and leptin: adiponectin ratio (r = 0.38; P less than .05). In postmenopausal women, tamoxifen treatment increased adiponectin (P less than 0.05) and decreased leptin (P less than .01) and the leptin: adiponectin ratio (P less than .01). These in vivo results were confirmed in breast tissue biopsies cultured ex vivo. In patients with breast cancer, extracellular leptin was higher (P less than .01) and adiponectin lower (P less than .05) in tumors than in normal adjacent breast tissue. In a murine model of breast cancer, estrogen exposure increased leptin secretion (P less than .05). Conclusions: Estrogen exposure may have a critical role in the regulation of adipokines in human breast tissue and may serve as therapeutic targets for treatment and prevention.

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  • 15.
    Morad, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Adipokines and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Normal Human Breast Tissue in Vivo - Correlations and Attenuation by Dietary Flaxseed2016In: Journal of mammary gland biology and neoplasia, ISSN 1083-3021, E-ISSN 1573-7039, Vol. 21, no 1-2, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to sex steroids increases the risk of breast cancer but the exact mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Events in the microenvironment are important for carcinogenesis. Diet containing phytoestrogens can affect the breast microenvironment and alter the risk of breast cancer. It has previously been shown that estrogen regulates extracellular levels of leptin, adiponectin, and VEGF in normal breast tissue in vivo. Whether these proteins correlate in breast tissue in vivo or if diet addition of flaxseed, a major source of phytoestrogens in Western diets, alters adipokine levels in breast tissue are unknown. We used microdialysis to sample proteins of normal human breast tissue and abdominal subcutaneous fat in situ in 34 pre-and postmenopausal women. In vitro, co-culture of breast cancer cells and primary human adipocytes was used. In vivo, in normal breast tissue, a significant positive correlation between VEGF and leptin was detected. No correlations were found in fat tissue. Co-culture of adipocytes and breast cancer cells per se increased the secretion of VEGF and leptin and enhanced the effects of estradiol compared to culture of either cell type alone. In vitro, inhibition of VEGF diminished the release of leptin while inhibition of leptin had no influence on VEGF secretion. The levels of leptin decreased and adiponectin increased after a dietary addition of 25 g of flaxseed/day for one menstrual cycle. We conclude that VEGF and leptin correlate significantly in normal human breast tissue in vivo and that dietary addition of flaxseed affect adipokine levels in the breast.

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  • 16.
    Morad, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor and leptin in normal human breast tissue in vivo2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Events in the microenvironment are important for carcinogenesis of the breast. Adipocytes, which produce adipokines with paracrine effects, are the most abundant cell type in breast tissue. Exposure to sex steroids affects the risk of breast cancer. It has previously been shown that estrogen regulates the extracellular levels of leptin, adiponectin, IL-1β, and VEGF in normal human breast tissue in vivo.

    Objective: We aimed to determine if there were any relationships between leptin, adiponectin, IL-1β, and/or VEGF in normal human breast tissue in vivo and to elucidate the role of adipocytes in the regulation of these factors.

    Design and methods: Microdialysis was used to sample proteins of normal human breast tissue and abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) fat in situ in pre-and postmenopausal women. An in vitro co-culture model of breast cancer cells and primary mature human adipocytes was used.

    Results: In vivo, in normal breast tissue, significant positive correlations between VEGF and leptin, and VEGF and leptin/adiponectin ratio were detected. No correlations were found in s.c. abdominal fat tissue. Co-culture of adipocytes and breast cancer cells per se increased the secretion of VEGF and leptin and enhanced the effects of estradiol compared to culture of either cell type alone. In vitro, inhibition of VEGF diminished the release of leptin while inhibition of leptin had no influence on VEGF secretion. In breast tissue, significant correlations between IL-1β and leptin and VEGF were revealed.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that VEGF regulates leptin in normal human breast tissue. Moreover, physical contact between adipocytes and breast cancer cells, induces phenotypic changes and enhances the effects of estradiol. These mechanisms may be involved in breast cancer progression.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Angiogenin Regulation by Estradiol in Breast Tissue: Tamoxifen Inhibits Angiogenin Nuclear Translocation and Antiangiogenin Therapy Reduces Breast Cancer Growth In vivo2010In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 16, no 14, p. 3659-3669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Angiogenin, a 14.2-kDa polypeptide member of the RNase A superfamily, has potent angiogenic effects. Nuclear accumulation of angiogenin is essential for its angiogenic activity. Increased angiogenin expression has been associated with the transition of normal breast tissue into invasive breast carcinoma. In this article, we investigated whether estradiol (E-2) affected angiogenin in breast tissue. Experimental Design: We used microdialysis for sampling of extracellular angiogenin in vivo. In vitro cultures of whole normal breast tissue, breast cancer cells, and endothelial cells were used. Results: We show that extracellular angiogenin correlated significantly with E-2 in normal human breast tissue in vivo and that exposure of normal breast tissue biopsies to E-2 stimulated angiogenin secretion. In breast cancer patients, the in vivo angiogenin levels were significantly higher in tumors compared with the adjacent normal breast tissue. In estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, E-2 increased and tamoxifen decreased angiogenin secretion. Moreover, E-2-induced angiogenin derived from cancer cells significantly increased endothelial cell proliferation. Tamoxifen reversed this increase as well as inhibited nuclear translocation of angiogenin. In vivo, in experimental breast cancer, tamoxifen decreased angiogenin levels and decreased angiogenesis. Additionally, treating tumor-bearing mice with an antiangiogenin antibody resulted in tumor stasis, suggesting a role for angiogenin in estrogen-dependent breast cancer growth. Conclusion: Our results suggest previously unknown mechanisms by which estrogen and antiestrogen regulate angiogenesis in normal human breast tissue and breast cancer. This may be important for estrogen-driven breast cancer progression and a molecular target for therapeutic interventions.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saarinen, Niina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology.
    Nurmi, Tarja
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Engblom, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Tamoxifen and Flaxseed Alter Angiogenesis Regulators in Normal Human Breast Tissue In Vivo2011In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing in the Western world and there is an urgent need for studies of the mechanisms of sex steroids in order to develop novel preventive strategies. Diet modifications may be among the means for breast cancer prevention. Angiogenesis, key in tumor progression, is regulated by the balance between pro-and anti-angiogenic factors, which are controlled in the extracellular space. Sampling of these molecules at their bioactive compartment is therefore needed. The aims of this study were to explore if tamoxifen, one of the most used anti-estrogen treatments for breast cancer affected some of the most important endogenous angiogenesis regulators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenin, and endostatin in normal breast tissue in vivo and if a diet supplementation with flaxseed had similar effects as tamoxifen in the breast. Microdialysis was used for in situ sampling of extracellular proteins in normal breast tissue of women before and after six weeks of tamoxifen treatment or before and after addition of 25 g/day of ground flaxseed to the diet or in control women. We show significant correlations between estradiol and levels of VEGF, angiogenin, and endostatin in vivo, which was verified in ex vivo breast tissue culture. Moreover, tamoxifen decreased the levels of VEGF and angiogenin in the breast whereas endostatin increased significantly. Flaxseed did not alter VEGF or angiogenin levels but similar to tamoxifen the levels of endostatin increased significantly. We conclude that one of the mechanisms of tamoxifen in normal breast tissue include tipping of the angiogenic balance into an anti-angiogenic state and that flaxseed has limited effects on the pro-angiogenic factors whereas the anti-angiogenic endostatin may be modified by diet. Further studies of diet modifications for breast cancer prevention are warranted.

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  • 19.
    Rasti Boroojeni, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naeimipour, Sajjad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lifwergren, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Selegård, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Proteolytic remodeling of 3D bioprinted tumor microenvironments2024In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 16, no 2, article id 025002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In native tissue, remodeling of the pericellular space is essential for cellular activities and is mediated by tightly regulated proteases. Protease activity is dysregulated in many diseases, including many forms of cancer. Increased proteolytic activity is directly linked to tumor invasion into stroma, metastasis, and angiogenesis as well as all other hallmarks of cancer. Here we show a strategy for 3D bioprinting of breast cancer models using well-defined protease degradable hydrogels that can facilitate exploration of the multifaceted roles of proteolytic extracellular matrix remodeling in tumor progression. We designed a set of bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne functionalized hyaluronan (HA)-based bioinks cross-linked by azide-modified poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradable azide-functionalized peptides. Bioprinted structures combining PEG and peptide-based hydrogels were proteolytically degraded with spatial selectivity, leaving non-degradable features intact. Bioprinting of tumor-mimicking microenvironments using bioinks comprising human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and fibroblast in hydrogels with different susceptibilities to proteolytic degradation shows that MCF-7 proliferation and spheroid size were significantly increased in protease degradable hydrogel compartments, but only in the presence of fibroblasts. In the absence of fibroblasts in the stromal compartment, cancer cell proliferation was reduced and did not differ between degradable and nondegradable hydrogels. The interactions between spatially separated fibroblasts and MCF-7 cells consequently resulted in protease-mediated remodeling of the bioprinted structures and a significant increase in cancer cell spheroid size, highlighting the close interplay between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment and the influence of proteases in tumor progression.

  • 20.
    Saarinen, N M
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Enterolactone but not genistein decreases estradiol-induced tumor growth, angiogenesis, and secreted VEGF in vivo in human breast cancer. in CANCER RESEARCH, vol 69, issue 2, pp 325S-325S2009In: CANCER RESEARCH, 2009, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 325S-325SConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 21.
    Saarinen, Niina M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Estrogen-induced angiogenic factors derived from stromal and cancer cells are differently regulated by enterolactone and genistein in human breast cancer in vivo2010In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 127, no 3, p. 737-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiogenesis is a key in cancer progression and its regulators are released both by the tumor cells and the stroma. Dietary phytoestrogens, such as the lignan enterolactone (ENL) and the isoflavone genistein (GEN), may differently affect breast cancer growth. In this study, human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were established in mice creating a tumor with species-specific cancer and stroma cells. Ovariectomized athymic mice supplemented with estradiol (E2) were fed basal AIN-93G diet (BD) or BD supplemented with 100 mg/kg ENL, 100 mg/kg GEN or their combination (ENL+GEN). We show that ENL and ENL+GEN inhibited E2-induced cancer growth and angiogenesis, whereas GEN alone did not. Microdialysis was used to sample extracellular proteins in tumors in vivo. ENL and ENL+GEN decreased both stroma- and cancer cell-derived VEGF, whereas cancer cell-derived PlGF increased. In subcutaneous Matrigel plugs in mice, ENL and ENL+GEN decreased E2-induced endothelial cell infiltration, whereas GEN alone did not. In endothelial cells, ENL inhibited E2-induced VEGFR-2 expression, whereas GEN did not. These results suggest that ENL has potent effects on breast cancer growth, even in combination with GEN, by downregulating E2-stimulated angiogenic factors derived both from the stroma and the cancer cells, whereas dietary GEN does not possess any antiestrogenic effects.

  • 22.
    Svensson, Susanne
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cao, Yihai
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; University of Leicester, England; Glenfield Hospital, England.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    CCL2 and CCL5 Are Novel Therapeutic Targets for Estrogen-Dependent Breast Cancer2015In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 21, no 16, p. 3794-3805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Novel therapeutic targets of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers are urgently needed because current antiestrogen therapy causes severe adverse effects, nearly 50% of patients are intrinsically resistant, and the majority of recurrences have maintained ER expression. We investigated the role of estrogen-dependent chemokine expression and subsequent cancer growth in human tissues and experimental breast cancer models. Experimental Design: For in vivo sampling of human chemokines, microdialysis was used in breast cancers of women or normal human breast tissue before and after tamoxifen therapy. Estrogen exposure and targeted therapies were assessed in immune competent PyMT murine breast cancer, orthotopic human breast cancers in nude mice, cell culture of cancer cells, and freshly isolated human macrophages. Cancer cell dissemination was investigated using zebrafish. Results: ER+ cancers in women produced high levels of extracellular CCL2 and CCL5 in vivo, which was associated with infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages. In experimental breast cancer, estradiol enhanced macrophage influx and angiogenesis through increased release of CCL2, CCL5, and vascular endothelial growth factor. These effects were inhibited by anti-CCL2 or anti-CCL5 therapy, which resulted in potent inhibition of cancer growth. In addition, estradiol induced a protumorigenic activation of the macrophages. In a zebrafish model, macrophages increased cancer cell dissemination via CCL2 and CCL5 in the presence of estradiol, which was inhibited with anti-CCL2 and anti-CCL5 treatment. Conclusions: Our findings shed new light on the mechanisms underlying the progression of ER+ breast cancer and indicate the potential of novel therapies targeting CCL2 and CCL5 pathways. (C)2015 AACR.

  • 23.
    Söderlund, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendrik, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Robertson, Jennifer
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    Gauldie, Jack
    McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Inflammation Induced by MMP-9 Enhances Tumor Regression of Experimental Breast Cancer2013In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 190, no 8, p. 4420-4430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested as therapeutic targets in cancer treatment, but broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors have failed in clinical trials. Recent data suggest that several MMPs including MMP-9 exert both pro-and antitumorigenic properties. This is also the case of the natural inhibitors of MMPs, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The inhibitor of MMP-9 is TIMP-1, and high levels of this enzyme have been associated with decreased survival in breast cancer. Inflammation is one hallmark of cancer progression, and MMPs/TIMPs may be involved in the local immune regulation. We investigated the role of MMP-9/TIMP-1 in regulating innate antitumor immunity in breast cancer. Breast cancers were established in nude mice and treated with intratumoral injections of adenoviruses carrying the human TIMP-1 or MMP-9 gene (AdMMP-9). In vivo microdialysis for sampling of cancer cell-derived (human) and stroma-derived (murine) proteins, immunostainings, as well as cell cultures were performed. We report a dose-dependent decrease of tumor growth and angiogenesis after AdMMP-9 treatment. In addition to increased generation of endostatin, AdMMP-9 promoted an antitumor immune response by inducing massive neutrophil infiltration. Neutrophil depletion prior to gene transfer abolished the therapeutic effects of AdMMP-9. Additionally, AdMMP-9 activated tumor-infiltrating macrophages into a tumor-inhibiting phenotype both in vivo and in vitro. AdMMP-9 also inhibited tumor growth in immune-competent mice bearing breast cancers. Adenoviruses carrying the human TIMP-1 gene had no effect on tumor growth or the immune response. Our novel data identify MMP-9 as a potent player in modulating the innate immune response into antitumor activities. The Journal of Immunology, 2013, 190: 4420-4430.

  • 24.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Jensen, Lasse D
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Adipocytes Promote Early Steps of Breast Cancer Cell Dissemination via Interleukin-82018In: Frontiers in Immunology, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, p. 1-17, article id 1767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fat is a major tissue component in human breast cancer (BC). Whether breast adipocytes (BAd) affect early stages of BC metastasis is yet unknown. BC progression is dependent on angiogenesis and inflammation, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key regulators of these events. Here, we show that BAd increased the dissemination of estrogen receptor positive BC cells (BCC) in vivo in the zebrafish model of metastasis, while dissemination of the more aggressive and metastatic BCC such as estrogen receptor negative was unaffected. While anti-VEGF and anti-IL-8 exhibited equal inhibition of angiogenesis at the primary tumor site, anti-IL-8 reduced BCC dissemination whereas anti-VEGF had minor effects on this early metastatic event. Mechanistically, overexpression of cell-adhesion molecules in BCC and neutrophils via IL-8 increased the dissemination of BCC. Importantly, the extracellular in vivo levels of IL-8 were 40-fold higher than those of VEGF in human BC. Our results suggest that IL-8 is a clinical relevant and promising therapeutic target for human BC.

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  • 25.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Estradiol promotes breast cancer cell migration via recruitment and activation of neutrophils2017In: Cancer Immunology research, ISSN 2326-6066, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 234-247, article id 28159748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estradiol (E2) plays a key role in breast cancer progression. Most breast cancer recurrences express the estrogen receptor (ER), but nearly 50% of patients are resistant to antiestrogen therapy. Novel therapeutic targets of ER-positive breast cancers are needed. Protumoral neutrophils expressing the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) integrin may mediate cancer metastasis, and TGFβ1 is the major chemoattractant for neutrophils. The role of E2 in neutrophil–ER+ breast cancer cell interactions is unknown. We studied this in vivo using murine breast cancers in immunocompetent mice and human breast cancers in nude mice. Cell dissemination was evaluated in a zebrafish model, and microdialysis of breast cancer patients was performed. In vitro studies were done with mammosphere cultures of breast cancer cells and human neutrophils. We found that E2 increased the number of LFA-1+ neutrophils recruited to the invasive edge of mouse tumors, increased TGFβ1 secretion and promoted neutrophil infiltration in mammospheres, and induced overexpression of LFA-1 in neutrophils. In zebrafish, in the presence of E2, neutrophils increased dissemination of ER+ breast cancer cells via LFA-1 and TGFβ1, thus causing noninvasive cancer cells to be highly metastatic. Time-lapse imaging in zebrafish revealed close interactions of neutrophils with cancer cells, which drove breast cancer metastasis. We also found that extracellular TGFβ1 was overproduced in human breast cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal breast tissue. Thus, E2 can regulate immune/cancer cell interactions in tumor microenvironments. Our results indicate that extracellular TGFβ1 is a relevant target in human breast cancer.

  • 26.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Neutrophils Promote Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis via LFA-1 Integrin2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is considered an inflammatory condition where immune cells play an important role in progression and metastasis. Neutrophils may be pro- or antitumorigenic, depending on their phenotype or the number of infiltrating neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment. Massive infiltration of neutrophils in cancer tissue may elicit a cytotoxic effect, leading to tumor regression, whereas a S139 low-grade neutrophil gradient is tumor progressive. Chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors present in the tumor microenvironment, as well as cell-cell interactions mediated by integrins have shown to be determinant steps for cancer cells to break through the endothelial wall and establish metastatic niches. In this work we evaluated the role of lymphocyte functionassociated antigen 1 (LFA-1) integrin in neutrophils-mediated metastasis of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells (MCF-7) cells in a tumor xenograft model in zebrafish and in neutrophil infiltration in MCF-7 mammospheres. The metastatic capability of MCF-7 cells was evaluated in presence or absence of human neutrophils and with/without estradiol treatment. Two days old zebrafish embryos were injected into the perivitelline space with labeled MCF-7 cells and human neutrophils, an anti-human LFA-1 antibody (CD11a) was included. We show that estradiol treatment significantly increased the infiltration of neutrophils into MCF-7 mammospheres and this infiltration was significantly reduced by the presence of an anti-human CD11a antibody. Co-injection of MCF-7 cells with neutrophils significantly increased the migration of MCF-7 cells to distant sites in zebrafish and this effect was inhibited by using an anti-human CD11a antibody. We conclude that neutrophils affect the dissemination of breast cancer cells via LFA-1 integrin. Although estradiol increased the number of infiltrating neutrophils into mammospheres exposure to estradiol seemed to have minor effects on the dissemination in the zebrafish.

  • 27.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Turkina, Maria V
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Lysine in Combination With Estradiol Promote Dissemination of Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer via Upregulation of U2AF1 and RPN2 Proteins2020In: Frontiers in Oncology, E-ISSN 2234-943X, Vol. 10, article id 598684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) maintain the ER at metastatic sites. Despite anti-estrogen therapy, almost 30% of ER+ BC patients relapse. Thus, new therapeutic targets for ER+ BC are needed. Amino acids (AAs) may affect the metastatic capacity by affecting inflammatory cells. Essential AAs (EAAs) cannot be produced by human cells and might therefore be targetable as therapeutics. Here we sampled extracellular EAAs in vivo by microdialysis in human BC. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to identify proteins affected after EAA and estradiol (E2) exposure to BC cells. Proteins relevant for patient survival were identified, knocked down in BC cells, and metastatic capability was determined in vivo in the transgenic zebrafish model. We found that lysine was the most utilized EAA in human ER+BC in vivo. In zebrafish, lysine in presence of E2 increased neutrophil-dependent dissemination of ER+ BC cells via upregulation of U2AF1 and RPN2 proteins, which both correlated with poor prognosis of ER+ BC patients in clinical databases. Knockdown of U2AF1 and RPN2 decreased the expression of several cell-adhesion molecules resulting in diminished dissemination. Dietary lysine or its related metabolic pathways may be useful therapeutic targets in ER+ BC.

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