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  • 1.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Disordered Icosahedral Boron-Rich Solids: A Theoretical Study of Thermodynamic Stability and Properties2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a theoretical study of configurational disorder in icosahedral boron-rich solids, in particular boron carbide, including also the development of a methodological framework for treating configurational disorder in such materials, namely superatom-special quasirandom structure (SA-SQS). In terms of its practical implementations, the SA-SQS method is demonstrated to be capable of efficiently modeling configurational disorder in icosahedral boron-rich solids, whiles the thermodynamic stability as well as the properties of the configurationally disordered icosahedral boron-rich solids, modeled from the SA-SQS method, can be directly investigated, using the density functional theory (DFT).

    In case of boron carbide, especially B4C and B13C2 compositions, the SA-SQS method is used for modeling configurational disorder, arising from a high concentration of low-energy B/C substitutional defects. The results, obtained from the DFT-based calculations, demonstrate that configurational disorder of B and C atoms in boron carbide is not only thermodynamically favored at high temperature, but it also plays an important role in altering the properties of boron carbide − for example, restoration of higher rhombohedral symmetry of B4C, a metal-to-nonmetal transition and a drastic increase in the elastic moduli of B13C2. The configurational disorder can also explain large discrepancies, regarding the proper- ties of boron carbide, between experiments and previous theoretical calculations, having been a long standing controversial issue in the field of icosahedral boron- rich solids, as the calculated properties of the disordered boron carbides are found to be in qualitatively good agreement with those, observed in experiments. In order to investigate the configurational evolution of B4C as a function of temperature, beyond the SA-SQS level, a brute-force cluster-expansion method in combination with Monte Carlo simulations is implemented. The results demonstrate that configurational disorder in B4C indeed essentially takes place within the icosahedra in a way that justifies the focus on lowenergy defect patterns of the superatom picture.

    The investigation of the thermodynamic stability of icosahedral carbon-rich boron carbides beyond the believed solubility limit of carbon (20 at.% C) demonstrates that, apart from B4C generally addressed in the literature, B2.5C represented by B10Cp2(CC) is predicted to be thermodynamically stable with respect to B4C as well as pure boron and carbon under high pressure, ranging between 40 and 67 GPa, and also at elevated temperature. B2.5C is expected to be metastable at ambient pressure, as indicated by its dynamical and mechanical stabilities at 0 GPa. A possible synthesis route of B2.5C and a fingerprint for its characterization from the simulations of x-ray powder diffraction pattern are suggested.

    Besides modeling configurational disorder in boron carbide, the SA-SQS method also opens up for theoretical studies of new alloys between different icosahedral boron-rich solids − for example, (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x and B12(As1−xPx)2. As for the pseudo-binary (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x alloy, it is predicted to display a miscibility gap resulting in B6O-rich and either ordered or disordered B13C2-rich domains for intermediate global compositions at all temperatures up to melting points of the materials. However, some intermixing of B6O and B13C2 to form solid solutions is also predicted at high temperature. A noticeable mutual solubility of icosahedral B12As2 and B12P2 in each other to form B12(As1−xPx)2 disordered alloy is predicted even at room temperature, and a complete closure of a pseudo-binary miscibility gap is achieved at around 900 K.

    Apart from B12(As1−xPx)2, the thermodynamic stability of other compounds and alloys in the ternary B-As-P system is also investigated. For the binary B-As system, zincblende BAs is found to be thermodynamically unstable with respect to icosahedral B12As2 and gray arsenic at 0 K and increasingly so at higher temperature, indicating that BAs may merely exist as a metastable phase. This is in contrast to the binary B-P system, in which zinc-blende BP and icosahedral B12P2 are both predicted to be stable. Owing to the instability of BAs with respect to B12As2 and gray arsenic, only a tiny amount of BAs is predicted to be able to dissolve in BP to form BAs1−xPx disordered alloy at elevated temperature. For example, less than 5% BAs can dissolve in BP at 1000 K. As for the binary As-P system, As1−xPx disordered alloys are predicted at elevated temperature − for example, a disordered solid solution of up to ∼75% As in black phosphorus as well as a small solubility of ∼1% P in gray arsenic at 750 K, together with the presence of miscibility gaps.

    The thermodynamic stability of three different compositions of α-rhombohedral boron-like boron subnitride, having been proposed so far in the literature, is investigated. Those are, B6N, B13N2, and B38N6, represented respectively by B12(N-N), B12(NBN), and [B12(N-N)]0.33[B12(NBN)]0.67. It is found that, out of these sub- nitrides, only B38N6 is thermodynamically stable from 0 GPa up to ∼7.5 GPa, depending on the temperature, and is thus concluded as a stable composition of α-rhombohedral boron-like boron subnitride.

    List of papers
    1. First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 90, no 2, article id 024204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Configurationally disordered crystalline boron carbide, with the composition B4C, is studied using first-principles calculations. We investigate both dilute and high concentrations of carbon-boron substitutional defects. For the latter purpose, we suggest a superatoms picture of the complex structure and combine it with a special quasirandom structure approach for disorder. In this way, we model a random distribution of high concentrations of the identified low-energy defects: (1) bipolar defects and (2) rotation of icosahedral carbon among the three polar-up sites. Additionally, the substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon at all six polar sites, as previously discussed in the literature, is also considered. Two configurational phase transitions from the ordered to the disordered configurations are predicted to take place upon an increase in temperature using a mean-field approximation for the entropy. The first transition, at 870 K, induces substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon atoms among the three polar-up sites; meanwhile the second transition, at 2325 K, reveals the random substitution of the icosahedral carbon atoms at all six polar sites coexisting with bipolar defects. Already the first transition removes the monoclinic distortion existing in the ordered ground-state configuration and restore the rhombohedral system (R3m). The restoration of inversion symmetry yielding the full rhombohedral symmetry (R (3) over barm) on average, corresponding to what is reported in the literature, is achieved after the second transition. Investigating the effects of high pressure on the configurational stability of the disordered B4C phases reveals a tendency to stabilize the ordered ground-state configuration as the configurationally ordering/disordering transition temperature increases with pressure exerted on B4C. The electronic density of states, obtained from the disordered phases, indicates a sensitivity of the band gap to the degree of configurational disorder in B4C.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physical Society, 2014
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109591 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.90.024204 (DOI)000339481700003 ()
    Conference
    Conference name
    Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-14
    2. Configurational order-disorder induced metal-nonmetal transition in B13C2 studied with first-principles superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configurational order-disorder induced metal-nonmetal transition in B13C2 studied with first-principles superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, no 1, article id 014202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large discrepancy between theory and experiment, the electronic character of crystalline boron carbide B13C2 has been a controversial topic in the field of icosahedral boron-rich solids. We demonstrate that this discrepancy is removed when configurational disorder is accurately considered in the theoretical calculations. We find that while the ordered ground state B13C2 is metallic, the configurationally disordered B13C2, modeled with a superatom-special quasirandom structure method, goes through a metal to nonmetal transition as the degree of disorder is increased with increasing temperature. Specifically, one of the chain-end carbon atoms in the CBC chains substitutes a neighboring equatorial boron atom in a B-12 icosahedron bonded to it, giving rise to a B11Ce(BBC) unit. The atomic configuration of the substitutionally disordered B13C2 thus tends to be dominated by a mixture between B-12(CBC) and B11Ce(BBC). Due to splitting of valence states in B11Ce(BBC), the electron deficiency in B-12(CBC) is gradually compensated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physical Society, 2015
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120344 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.92.014202 (DOI)000357484100001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011-4417, 330-2014-6336, 2014-4750]; CeNano at Linkoping University; LiLi-NFM; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science

    Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2018-08-14
    3. Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbides beyond B4C and their thermodynamic stabilities at high temperature and pressure from first principles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbides beyond B4C and their thermodynamic stabilities at high temperature and pressure from first principles
    2016 (English)In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 94, no 5, article id 054104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the thermodynamic stability of carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbide at different compositions, ranging from B4C to B2C, using first-principles calculations. Apart fromB4C, generally addressed in the literature, B2.5C, represented by B10C2p (C-C), where C-p and (C-C) denote a carbon atom occupying the polar site of the icosahedral cluster and a diatomic carbon chain, respectively, is predicted to be thermodynamically stable under high pressures with respect to B4C as well as pure boron and carbon phases. The thermodynamic stability of B2.5C is determined by the Gibbs free energy G as a function of pressure p and temperature T, in which the contributions from the lattice vibrations and the configurational disorder are obtained within the quasiharmonic and the mean-field approximations, respectively. The stability range of B2.5C is then illustrated through the p-T phase diagrams. Depending on the temperatures, the stability range of B2.5C is predicted to be within the range between 40 and 67 GPa. At T greater than or similar to 500 K, the icosahedral C-p atoms in B2.5C configurationally disorder at the polar sites. By investigating the properties of B2.5C, e.g., elastic constants and phonon and electronic density of states, we demonstrate that B2.5C is both mechanically and dynamically stable at zero pressure, and is an electrical semiconductor. Furthermore, based on the sketched phase diagrams, a possible route for experimental synthesis of B2.5C as well as a fingerprint for its characterization from the simulations of x-ray powder diffraction pattern are suggested.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2016
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131508 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.94.054104 (DOI)000381304300001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011-4417, 330-2014-6336, 2014-4750]; Marie Sklodowska Curie Actions [INCA 600398]; CeNano at Linkoping University; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009 00971]

    Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2018-08-29
    4. Effects of configurational disorder on the elastic properties of icosahedral boron-rich alloys based on B6O, B13C2, and B4C, and their mixing thermodynamics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of configurational disorder on the elastic properties of icosahedral boron-rich alloys based on B6O, B13C2, and B4C, and their mixing thermodynamics
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 144, no 13, article id 134503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic properties of alloys between boron suboxide (B6O) and boron carbide (B13C2), denoted by (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x, as well as boron carbide with variable carbon content, ranging from B13C2 to B4C are calculated from first-principles. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamics of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x is studied. A superatom-special quasirandom structure approach is used for modeling different atomic configurations, in which effects of configurational disorder between the carbide and suboxide structural units, as well as between boron and carbon atoms within the units, are taken into account. Elastic properties calculations demonstrate that configurational  disorder in B13C2, where a part of the C atoms in the CBC chains substitute for B atoms in the B12 icosahedra, drastically increase the Young’s and shear modulus, as compared to an atomically ordered state, B12(CBC). These calculated elastic moduli of the disordered state are in excellent agreement with experiments. Configurational disorder between boron and carbon can also explain the experimentally observed almost constant elastic moduli of boron carbide as the carbon content is changed from B4C to B13C2. The elastic moduli of the (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x system are also practically unchanged with composition if boron-carbon disorder is taken into account. By investigating the mixing thermodynamics of the alloys, in which the Gibbs free energy is determined within the mean-field approximation for the configurational entropy, we outline the pseudo-binary phase diagram of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x. The phase diagram reveals the existence of a miscibility gap at all temperatures up to the melting point. Also, the coexistence of B6O-rich as well as ordered or disordered B13C2-rich domains in the material prepared through equilibrium routes is predicted.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2016
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122425 (URN)10.1063/1.4944982 (DOI)000374527900023 ()27059576 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011-4417, 330-2014-6336, 2011-42-59]; CeNano at Linkoping University; Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST "MISiS" [K3-2014-049]; LiLi-

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2015-11-02 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Thermodynamic stability and properties of boron subnitrides from first principles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodynamic stability and properties of boron subnitrides from first principles
    2017 (English)In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 95, no 6, article id 064206Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We use the first-principles approach to clarify the thermodynamic stability as a function of pressure and temperature of three different alpha-rhombohedral-boron-like boron subnitrides, with the compositions of B6N, B13N2, and B38N6, proposed in the literature. We find that, out of these subnitrides with the structural units of B-12(N-N), B-12(NBN), and [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67), respectively, only B38N6, represented by [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67), is thermodynamically stable. Beyond a pressure of about 7.5 GPa depending on the temperature, also B38N6 becomes unstable, and decomposes into cubic boron nitride and a-tetragonalboron- like boron subnitride B50N2. The thermodynamic stability of boron subnitrides and relevant competing phases is determined by the Gibbs free energy, in which the contributions from the lattice vibrations and the configurational disorder are obtained within the quasiharmonic and the mean-field approximations, respectively. We calculate lattice parameters, elastic constants, phonon and electronic density of states, and demonstrate that [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67) is bothmechanically and dynamically stable, and is an electrical semiconductor. The simulated x-ray powder-diffraction pattern as well as the calculated lattice parameters of [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67) are found to be in good agreement with those of the experimentally synthesized boron subnitrides reported in the literature, verifying that B38N6 is the stable composition of a-rhombohedral-boron-like boron subnitride.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2017
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136168 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.95.064206 (DOI)000394658500001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011- 4417, 330-2014-6336, 2014-4750]; Marie Sklodowska Curie Actions [INCA 600398]; CeNano at Linkoping University; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009 00971]

    Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2018-08-29
  • 2.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    First-principles study of configurational disorder in icosahedral boron-rich solids2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a theoretical study of configurationally disordered icosahedral boronrich solids, in particular boron carbides, using density functional theory and alloy theory. The goal is to resolve discrepancies, regarding the properties of boron carbides, between experiments and previous theoretical calculations which have been a controversial issue in the field of icosahedral boron-rich solids. For instance, B13C2 is observed experimentally to be a semiconductor, meanwhile electronic band structure calculations reveal a metallic character of B13C2 due to its electron deficiency. In B4C, on the other hand, the experimentally observed band gap is unexpectedly smaller, not the usual larger, than that of standard DFT calculations. Another example is given by the existence of a small structural distortion in B4C, as predicted in theoretical calculations, which reduces the crystal symmetry from the experimentally observed rhombohedral (R3m) to the based-centered monoclinic (Cm). Since boron carbide is stable as a single-phase over a broad composition range (~8-20 at.% C), substitution of boron and carbon atoms for one another is conceivable. For this reason, the discrepancies have been speculated in the literature, without a proof, to originate from configurational disorder induced by substitutional defects. However, owing to its complex  atomic structure, represented by 12-atom icosahedra and 3-atom intericosahedral chains, a practical alloy theory method for direct calculations of the properties of the relevant configurations of disordered boron carbides, as well as for a thermodynamic  assessment of their stability has been missing.

    In this thesis, a new approach, the superatom-special quasirandom structure (SA-SQS), has been developed. The approach allows one to model configurational disorder in boron carbide, induced by high concentrations of low-energy B/C substitutional defects. B13C2 and B4C are the two stoichiometries, mainly considered in this study, as they are of particular importance and have been in focus in the literature. The results demonstrate that, from thermodynamic considerations, both B13C2 and B4C configurationally disorder at high temperature. In the case of B13C2, the configurational disorder splits off some valence states into the band gap that in turn compensates the electron deficiency in  ordered B13C2, thus resulting in a semiconducting character. As for B4C, the configurational disorder eliminates the monoclinic distortion, thus resulting in the restoration of the higher rhombohedral symmetry. Configurational disorder can also account for an excel lent agreement on elastic moduli of boron carbide between theory and experiment. Thus, several of the previous discrepancies between theory and experiments are resolved.

    Inspired by attempts to enhance the mechanical properties of boron suboxide by fabricating boron suboxide-boron carbide composites, as recently suggested in the literature, the SA-SQS approach is used for modeling mixtures of boron suboxide (B6O) and boron carbide (B13C2), denoted by pseudo-binary (B6O)1–x(B13C2)x alloys. The knowledge of configurational disorder, gained from the previous studies of boron carbide, is applied to model the mixing alloys. By investigating the thermodynamics of mixing between B6O and B13C2, the phase diagram of the (B6O)1–x(B13C2)x alloys is outlined and it reveals the existence of a miscibility gap at all temperatures up to the melting point, indicating the coexistence of B6O-rich and either ordered or disordered B13C2-rich domains in (B6O)1–x(B13C2)x alloys under equilibrium condition. However, a limited intermixing of B6O and B13C2 to form solid solutions at high temperature is predicted, e.g. a solid solution of ~5% B13C2 in B6O and ~20% B6O in B13C2 at 2000 K.

    List of papers
    1. First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 90, no 2, article id 024204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Configurationally disordered crystalline boron carbide, with the composition B4C, is studied using first-principles calculations. We investigate both dilute and high concentrations of carbon-boron substitutional defects. For the latter purpose, we suggest a superatoms picture of the complex structure and combine it with a special quasirandom structure approach for disorder. In this way, we model a random distribution of high concentrations of the identified low-energy defects: (1) bipolar defects and (2) rotation of icosahedral carbon among the three polar-up sites. Additionally, the substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon at all six polar sites, as previously discussed in the literature, is also considered. Two configurational phase transitions from the ordered to the disordered configurations are predicted to take place upon an increase in temperature using a mean-field approximation for the entropy. The first transition, at 870 K, induces substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon atoms among the three polar-up sites; meanwhile the second transition, at 2325 K, reveals the random substitution of the icosahedral carbon atoms at all six polar sites coexisting with bipolar defects. Already the first transition removes the monoclinic distortion existing in the ordered ground-state configuration and restore the rhombohedral system (R3m). The restoration of inversion symmetry yielding the full rhombohedral symmetry (R (3) over barm) on average, corresponding to what is reported in the literature, is achieved after the second transition. Investigating the effects of high pressure on the configurational stability of the disordered B4C phases reveals a tendency to stabilize the ordered ground-state configuration as the configurationally ordering/disordering transition temperature increases with pressure exerted on B4C. The electronic density of states, obtained from the disordered phases, indicates a sensitivity of the band gap to the degree of configurational disorder in B4C.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physical Society, 2014
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109591 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.90.024204 (DOI)000339481700003 ()
    Conference
    Conference name
    Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-14
    2. Configurational order-disorder induced metal-nonmetal transition in B13C2 studied with first-principles superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configurational order-disorder induced metal-nonmetal transition in B13C2 studied with first-principles superatom-special quasirandom structure method
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, no 1, article id 014202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large discrepancy between theory and experiment, the electronic character of crystalline boron carbide B13C2 has been a controversial topic in the field of icosahedral boron-rich solids. We demonstrate that this discrepancy is removed when configurational disorder is accurately considered in the theoretical calculations. We find that while the ordered ground state B13C2 is metallic, the configurationally disordered B13C2, modeled with a superatom-special quasirandom structure method, goes through a metal to nonmetal transition as the degree of disorder is increased with increasing temperature. Specifically, one of the chain-end carbon atoms in the CBC chains substitutes a neighboring equatorial boron atom in a B-12 icosahedron bonded to it, giving rise to a B11Ce(BBC) unit. The atomic configuration of the substitutionally disordered B13C2 thus tends to be dominated by a mixture between B-12(CBC) and B11Ce(BBC). Due to splitting of valence states in B11Ce(BBC), the electron deficiency in B-12(CBC) is gradually compensated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physical Society, 2015
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120344 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.92.014202 (DOI)000357484100001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011-4417, 330-2014-6336, 2014-4750]; CeNano at Linkoping University; LiLi-NFM; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science

    Available from: 2015-07-31 Created: 2015-07-31 Last updated: 2018-08-14
    3. Effects of configurational disorder on the elastic properties of icosahedral boron-rich alloys based on B6O, B13C2, and B4C, and their mixing thermodynamics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of configurational disorder on the elastic properties of icosahedral boron-rich alloys based on B6O, B13C2, and B4C, and their mixing thermodynamics
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 144, no 13, article id 134503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic properties of alloys between boron suboxide (B6O) and boron carbide (B13C2), denoted by (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x, as well as boron carbide with variable carbon content, ranging from B13C2 to B4C are calculated from first-principles. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamics of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x is studied. A superatom-special quasirandom structure approach is used for modeling different atomic configurations, in which effects of configurational disorder between the carbide and suboxide structural units, as well as between boron and carbon atoms within the units, are taken into account. Elastic properties calculations demonstrate that configurational  disorder in B13C2, where a part of the C atoms in the CBC chains substitute for B atoms in the B12 icosahedra, drastically increase the Young’s and shear modulus, as compared to an atomically ordered state, B12(CBC). These calculated elastic moduli of the disordered state are in excellent agreement with experiments. Configurational disorder between boron and carbon can also explain the experimentally observed almost constant elastic moduli of boron carbide as the carbon content is changed from B4C to B13C2. The elastic moduli of the (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x system are also practically unchanged with composition if boron-carbon disorder is taken into account. By investigating the mixing thermodynamics of the alloys, in which the Gibbs free energy is determined within the mean-field approximation for the configurational entropy, we outline the pseudo-binary phase diagram of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x. The phase diagram reveals the existence of a miscibility gap at all temperatures up to the melting point. Also, the coexistence of B6O-rich as well as ordered or disordered B13C2-rich domains in the material prepared through equilibrium routes is predicted.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2016
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122425 (URN)10.1063/1.4944982 (DOI)000374527900023 ()27059576 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies:Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2011-4417, 330-2014-6336, 2011-42-59]; CeNano at Linkoping University; Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST "MISiS" [K3-2014-049]; LiLi-

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2015-11-02 Created: 2015-11-02 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermodynamic consideration and ground-state search of icosahedral boron subselenide B-12(B1-xSex)(2) from a first-principles cluster expansion2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 97, no 17, article id 174103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase stability of icosahedral boron subselenide B-12(B1-xSex)(2), where 0.5 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 1, is explored using a first-principles cluster expansion. The results shows that, instead of a continuous solid solution, B-12(B1-xSex)(2) is thermodynamically stable as an individual line compound at the composition of B9.5Se. The ground-state configuration of B9.5Se is represented by a mixture of B-12(Se-Se), B-12(B-Se), and B-12(Se-B) with a ratio of 1: 1: 1, where they form a periodic ABCABC... stacking sequence of B-12(Se-Se), B-12(B-Se), and B-12(Se-B) layers along the c axis of the hexagonal conventional unit cell. The structural and electronic properties of the ground-state B9.5Se are also derived and discussed. By comparing the derived ground-state properties of B9.5Se to the existing experimental data of boron subselenide B similar to 13Se, I proposed that the as-synthesized boron subselenide B similar to 13Se, as reported in the literature, has the actual composition of B9.5Se.

  • 4.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Stability of SnSe1-xSx solid solutions revealed by first-principles cluster expansion2018In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 30, no 29, article id 29LT01Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The configurational thermodynamics of a pseudo-binary alloy SnSe1-xSx in the Pnma phase is studied using first-principles cluster-expansion method in combination with canonical Monte Carlo simulations. We find that, despite the alloy having a tendency toward a phase decomposition into SnSe and SnS at 0 K, the two constituent binaries readily mix with each other to form random SnSe1-xSx solid solutions even at a temperature below room temperature. The obtained isostructural phase diagram of SnSe1-xSx reveals that the alloy is thermodynamically stable as a single-phase random solid solution over a whole composition range above 200 K. These findings provide a fundamental understanding on the alloying behavior of SnSe1-xSx and bring clarity to the debated clustering tendency in this alloy system.

  • 5.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand; Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore; Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore; Thailand Ctr Excellence Phys, Thailand.
    Feng, Y. P.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phase stability of two-dimensional monolayer As1-xPx solid solutions revealed by a first-principles cluster expansion2019In: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 054005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase stability of two-dimensional monolayer As1-xPx solid solutions, exhibiting the puckered (alpha phase) and buckled (beta phase) structures are investigated using a first-principles cluster-expansion method. Canonical Monte Carlo simulations, together with harmonic approximation, are performed to capture the influences of thermally induced configurational disorder and lattice vibrations on the phase stability of monolayer As1-xPx. We first demonstrate that, as the temperature approaches 0 K, the monolayer As1-xPx displays a tendency toward phase separation into its constituent elemental phases, and thus no stable ordered structures of As1-xPx, both alpha and beta phases, are predicted to be thermodynamically stable. We further reveal with the inclusion of the lattice vibrational contributions that beta-As1-xPx is thermodynamically favored over alpha-As1-xPx, across the entire composition range even at 0 K and increasingly so at higher temperature, and a continuous series of disordered solid solution of beta-As1-xPx, where 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 1, is predicted at the temperature above 550 K. These findings not only indicate that the ordered structures of monolayer alpha-As1-xPx, and beta-As1-xPx, frequently studied in the literature, may not exist in nature, but also presumably suggest that monolayer alpha-As1-xPx is metastable with respect to monolayer beta-As1-xPx.

  • 6.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Peng, Y. P.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phase stability of three-dimensional bulk and two-dimensional monolayer As1-xSbx solid solutions from first principles2019In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 31, no 24, article id 245702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mixing thermodynamics of both three-dimensional bulk and two-dimensional monolayered alloys of As1-xSbx as a function of alloy composition and temperature are explored using a first-principles cluster-expansion method, combined with canonical Monte-Carlo simulations. We observe that, for the bulk phase, As1-xSbx alloy can exhibit not only chemical ordering of As and Sb atoms at x = 0.5 to form an ordered compound of AsSb stable upon annealing up to T approximate to 475 K, but also a miscibility gap at 475 K less than or similar to T less than or similar to 550 K in which two disordered solid solutions of As1-xSbx of different alloy compositions thermodynamically coexist. At T amp;gt; 550 K, a single-phase solid solution of bulk As1-xSbx is predicted to be stable across the entire composition range. These results clearly explain the existing uncertainties in the alloying behavior of bulk As1-xSbx alloy, as previously reported in the literature, and also found to be in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental observations. Interestingly, the alloying behavior of As1-xSbx is considerably altered, as the dimensionality of the material reduces from the three-dimensional bulk state to the two-dimensional monolayered state-for example, a single-phase solid solution of monolayer As1-xSbx is predicted to be stable over the whole composition range at T amp;gt; 250 K. This distinctly highlights an influence of the reduced dimensionality on the alloying behavior of As1-xSbx.

  • 7.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbides beyond B4C and their thermodynamic stabilities at high temperature and pressure from first principles2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 94, no 5, article id 054104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the thermodynamic stability of carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbide at different compositions, ranging from B4C to B2C, using first-principles calculations. Apart fromB4C, generally addressed in the literature, B2.5C, represented by B10C2p (C-C), where C-p and (C-C) denote a carbon atom occupying the polar site of the icosahedral cluster and a diatomic carbon chain, respectively, is predicted to be thermodynamically stable under high pressures with respect to B4C as well as pure boron and carbon phases. The thermodynamic stability of B2.5C is determined by the Gibbs free energy G as a function of pressure p and temperature T, in which the contributions from the lattice vibrations and the configurational disorder are obtained within the quasiharmonic and the mean-field approximations, respectively. The stability range of B2.5C is then illustrated through the p-T phase diagrams. Depending on the temperatures, the stability range of B2.5C is predicted to be within the range between 40 and 67 GPa. At T greater than or similar to 500 K, the icosahedral C-p atoms in B2.5C configurationally disorder at the polar sites. By investigating the properties of B2.5C, e.g., elastic constants and phonon and electronic density of states, we demonstrate that B2.5C is both mechanically and dynamically stable at zero pressure, and is an electrical semiconductor. Furthermore, based on the sketched phase diagrams, a possible route for experimental synthesis of B2.5C as well as a fingerprint for its characterization from the simulations of x-ray powder diffraction pattern are suggested.

  • 8.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Effect of temperature and configurational disorder on the electronic band gap of boron carbide from first principles2018In: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 2, no 10, article id 104603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overestimation, rather than the usual underestimation, of the electronic band gap at 0 K of boron carbide with the ideally stoichiometric composition of B4C, represented by B11CP (CBC), in density functional theory calculations is one of the outstanding controversial issues in the field of icosahedral boron-rich solids. Using a first-principles approach, we explore the effect of temperature and configurational disorder on the electronic band gap of B4C. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to account for the effects of vibrational disorder. The results reveal that the volumetric thermal expansion as well as the thermally induced configurational disorder of icosahedral C-P atoms residing in the B11CP icosahedra have a minimal impact on the band gap of B4C, while a major decrease of the band gap is caused by explicit atomic displacements, induced by lattice vibrations. At 298 K, the band gap of B4C is overestimated, as compared to the experimental value, by approximately 31%. However, configurational disorder induced by introducing a small fraction of B-12 (CBC) and B-12 (B-4) into a matrix of B11CP (CBC) to make the composition of boron carbide approximately B4.3C, claimed to be the carbon-rich limit of the material in experiment, leads to a smaller band gap due to the appearance of midgap states. These results can explain at least a part of the previous discrepancies between theory and experiments for the band gap of boron carbide.

  • 9.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    First-principles prediction of stabilities and instabilities of compounds and alloys in the ternary B-As-P system2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 2, article id 024202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the thermodynamic stability of compounds and alloys in the ternary B-As-P system theoretically using first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that the icosahedral B12As2 is the only stable compound in the binary B-As system, while the zinc-blende BAs is thermodynamically unstable with respect to B12As2 and the pure arsenic phase at 0 K, and increasingly so at higher temperature, suggesting that BAs may merely exist as a metastable phase. On the contrary, in the binary B-P system, both zinc-blende BP and icosahedral B12P2 are predicted to be stable. As for the binary As-P system, As1-xPx disordered alloys are predicted at elevated temperature-for example, a disordered solid solution of up to similar to 75 at.% As in black phosphorus as well as a small solubility of similar to 1 at.% P in gray arsenic at T = 750 K, together with the presence of miscibility gaps. The calculated large solubility of As in black phosphorus explains the experimental syntheses of black-phosphorus-type As1-xPx alloys with tunable compositions, recently reported in the literature. We investigate the phase stabilities in the ternary B-As-P system and demonstrate a high tendency for a formation of alloys in the icosahedral B-12(As1-xPx)(2) structure by intermixing of As and P atoms at the diatomic chain sites. The phase diagram displays noticeable mutual solubility of the icosahedral subpnictides in each other even at room temperature as well as a closure of a pseudobinary miscibility gap around 900 K. As for pseudobinary BAs1-xPx alloys, only a tiny amount of BAs is predicted to be able to dissolve in BP to form the BAs1-xPx disordered alloys at elevated temperature. For example, less than 5% of BAs can dissolve in BP at T = 1000 K. The small solubility limit of BAs in BP is attributed to the thermodynamic instability of BAs with respect to B12As2 and As.

  • 10.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Structural models of increasing complexity for icosahedral boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region from first principles2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 97, no 17, article id 174104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the phase stability of boron carbide, concentrating on the recently proposed alternative structural models composed not only of the regularly studied B11Cp(CBC) and B-12(CBC), but also of B-12(CBCB) and B-12(B-4). We find that a combination of the four structural motifs can result in low-energy electron precise configurations of boron carbide. Among several considered configurations within the composition range of B10.5C and B4C, we identify in addition to the regularly studied B11Cp(CBC) at the composition of B4C two low-energy configurations, resulting in a new view of the B-C convex hull. Those are [B-12(CBC)](0.67)[B-12(B-4)](0.33) and [B-12(CBC)](0.67)[B-12(CBCB)](0.33), corresponding to compositions of B10.5C and B6.67C, respectively. As a consequence, B-12(CBC) at the composition of B6.5C, previously suggested in the literature as a stable configuration of boron carbide, is no longer part of the B-C convex hull. By inspecting the electronic density of states as well as the elastic moduli, we find that the alternative models of boron carbide can provide a reasonably good description for electronic and elastic properties of the material in comparison with the experiments, highlighting the importance of considering B-12(CBCB) and B-12(B-4), together with the previously proposed B11Cp(CBC) and B-12(CBC), as the crucial ingredients for modeling boron carbide with compositions throughout the single-phase region.

  • 11.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Thermodynamic stability and properties of boron subnitrides from first principles2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 95, no 6, article id 064206Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the first-principles approach to clarify the thermodynamic stability as a function of pressure and temperature of three different alpha-rhombohedral-boron-like boron subnitrides, with the compositions of B6N, B13N2, and B38N6, proposed in the literature. We find that, out of these subnitrides with the structural units of B-12(N-N), B-12(NBN), and [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67), respectively, only B38N6, represented by [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67), is thermodynamically stable. Beyond a pressure of about 7.5 GPa depending on the temperature, also B38N6 becomes unstable, and decomposes into cubic boron nitride and a-tetragonalboron- like boron subnitride B50N2. The thermodynamic stability of boron subnitrides and relevant competing phases is determined by the Gibbs free energy, in which the contributions from the lattice vibrations and the configurational disorder are obtained within the quasiharmonic and the mean-field approximations, respectively. We calculate lattice parameters, elastic constants, phonon and electronic density of states, and demonstrate that [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67) is bothmechanically and dynamically stable, and is an electrical semiconductor. The simulated x-ray powder-diffraction pattern as well as the calculated lattice parameters of [B-12(N-N)](0.33)[B-12(NBN)](0.67) are found to be in good agreement with those of the experimentally synthesized boron subnitrides reported in the literature, verifying that B38N6 is the stable composition of a-rhombohedral-boron-like boron subnitride.

  • 12.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Configurational order-disorder induced metal-nonmetal transition in B13C2 studied with first-principles superatom-special quasirandom structure method2015In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, no 1, article id 014202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a large discrepancy between theory and experiment, the electronic character of crystalline boron carbide B13C2 has been a controversial topic in the field of icosahedral boron-rich solids. We demonstrate that this discrepancy is removed when configurational disorder is accurately considered in the theoretical calculations. We find that while the ordered ground state B13C2 is metallic, the configurationally disordered B13C2, modeled with a superatom-special quasirandom structure method, goes through a metal to nonmetal transition as the degree of disorder is increased with increasing temperature. Specifically, one of the chain-end carbon atoms in the CBC chains substitutes a neighboring equatorial boron atom in a B-12 icosahedron bonded to it, giving rise to a B11Ce(BBC) unit. The atomic configuration of the substitutionally disordered B13C2 thus tends to be dominated by a mixture between B-12(CBC) and B11Ce(BBC). Due to splitting of valence states in B11Ce(BBC), the electron deficiency in B-12(CBC) is gradually compensated.

  • 13.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    First-principles study of configurational disorder in B4C using a superatom-special quasirandom structure method2014In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 90, no 2, article id 024204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Configurationally disordered crystalline boron carbide, with the composition B4C, is studied using first-principles calculations. We investigate both dilute and high concentrations of carbon-boron substitutional defects. For the latter purpose, we suggest a superatoms picture of the complex structure and combine it with a special quasirandom structure approach for disorder. In this way, we model a random distribution of high concentrations of the identified low-energy defects: (1) bipolar defects and (2) rotation of icosahedral carbon among the three polar-up sites. Additionally, the substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon at all six polar sites, as previously discussed in the literature, is also considered. Two configurational phase transitions from the ordered to the disordered configurations are predicted to take place upon an increase in temperature using a mean-field approximation for the entropy. The first transition, at 870 K, induces substitutional disorder of the icosahedral carbon atoms among the three polar-up sites; meanwhile the second transition, at 2325 K, reveals the random substitution of the icosahedral carbon atoms at all six polar sites coexisting with bipolar defects. Already the first transition removes the monoclinic distortion existing in the ordered ground-state configuration and restore the rhombohedral system (R3m). The restoration of inversion symmetry yielding the full rhombohedral symmetry (R (3) over barm) on average, corresponding to what is reported in the literature, is achieved after the second transition. Investigating the effects of high pressure on the configurational stability of the disordered B4C phases reveals a tendency to stabilize the ordered ground-state configuration as the configurationally ordering/disordering transition temperature increases with pressure exerted on B4C. The electronic density of states, obtained from the disordered phases, indicates a sensitivity of the band gap to the degree of configurational disorder in B4C.

  • 14.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Effects of configurational disorder on the elastic properties of icosahedral boron-rich alloys based on B6O, B13C2, and B4C, and their mixing thermodynamics2016In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 144, no 13, article id 134503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic properties of alloys between boron suboxide (B6O) and boron carbide (B13C2), denoted by (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x, as well as boron carbide with variable carbon content, ranging from B13C2 to B4C are calculated from first-principles. Furthermore, the mixing thermodynamics of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x is studied. A superatom-special quasirandom structure approach is used for modeling different atomic configurations, in which effects of configurational disorder between the carbide and suboxide structural units, as well as between boron and carbon atoms within the units, are taken into account. Elastic properties calculations demonstrate that configurational  disorder in B13C2, where a part of the C atoms in the CBC chains substitute for B atoms in the B12 icosahedra, drastically increase the Young’s and shear modulus, as compared to an atomically ordered state, B12(CBC). These calculated elastic moduli of the disordered state are in excellent agreement with experiments. Configurational disorder between boron and carbon can also explain the experimentally observed almost constant elastic moduli of boron carbide as the carbon content is changed from B4C to B13C2. The elastic moduli of the (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x system are also practically unchanged with composition if boron-carbon disorder is taken into account. By investigating the mixing thermodynamics of the alloys, in which the Gibbs free energy is determined within the mean-field approximation for the configurational entropy, we outline the pseudo-binary phase diagram of (B6O)1−x(B13C2)x. The phase diagram reveals the existence of a miscibility gap at all temperatures up to the melting point. Also, the coexistence of B6O-rich as well as ordered or disordered B13C2-rich domains in the material prepared through equilibrium routes is predicted.

  • 15.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patscheider, J.
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control of Ti1-xSixN nanostructure via tunable metal-ion momentum transfer during HIPIMS/DCMS co-deposition2015In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 280, p. 174-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti1-xSixN (0 less than= x less than= 0.26) thin films are grown in mixed Ar/N-2 discharges using hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS/DCMS). In the first set of experiments, the Si target is powered in HIPIMS mode and the Ti target in DCMS; the positions of the targets are then switched for the second set. In both cases, the Si concentration in co-sputtered films, deposited at T-s = 500 degrees C, is controlled by adjusting the average DCMS target power. A pulsed substrate bias of -60 V is applied in synchronous with the HIPIMS pulse. Depending on the type of pulsed metal-ion irradiation incident at the growing film, Ti+/Ti2+ vs. Si+/Si2+, completely different nanostructures are obtained. Ti+/Ti2+ irradiation during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS deposition leads to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure with TiN-rich grains encapsulated in a SiNz tissue phase, while Si+/Si2+ ion irradiation in the Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS mode results in the formation of Ti1-xSixN solid solutions with x less than= 024. Film properties, including hardness, modulus of elasticity, and residual stress exhibit a dramatic dependence on the choice of target powered by HIPIMS. Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS TiSiN nanocomposite films are superhard over a composition range of 0.04 less than= x less than= 0.26, which is significantly wider than previously reported. The hardness H of films with 0.13 less than= x less than= 0.26 is similar to 42 GPa; however, the compressive stress is also high, ranging from -6.7 to -8.5 GPa. Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS films are softer at H similar to 14 GPa with 0.03 less than= x less than= 0.24, and essentially stress-free (sigma similar to 0.5 GPa). Mass spectroscopy analyses at the substrate position reveal that the doubly-to-singly ionized metal-ion flux ratio during HIPIMS pulses is 0.05 for Si and 029 for Ti due to the difference between the second ionization potentials of Si and Ti vs. the first ionization potential of the sputtering gas. The average momentum transfer to the film growth surface per deposited atom per pulse less than p(d)greater than is similar to 20 x higher during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS, which results in significantly higher adatom mean-free paths (mfps) leading, in turn, to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure. In contrast, relatively low less than p(d)greater than values during Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS provide near-surface mixing with lower adatom mfps to form Ti1-xSixN solid solutions over a very wide composition range with x up to 0.24. Relaxed lattice constants decrease linearly, in agreement with ab-initio calculations for random Ti1-xSixN alloys, with increasing x. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Pakornchote, T.
    et al.
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand; Thailand Ctr Excellence Phys, Thailand.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Pinsook, U.
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand; Thailand Ctr Excellence Phys, Thailand.
    Tancharakorn, S.
    Synchrotron Light Res Inst Publ Org, Thailand.
    Busayaporn, W.
    Synchrotron Light Res Inst Publ Org, Thailand.
    Bovornratanaraks, T.
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand; Thailand Ctr Excellence Phys, Thailand.
    Phase stabilities and vibrational analysis of hydrogenated diamondized bilayer graphenes: A first principles investigation2019In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 146, p. 468-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase stabilities as well as some intrinsic properties of hydrogenated diamondized bilayer graphenes, 2-dimensional materials adopting the crystal structure of diamond and of lonsdaleite, are investigated using a first-principles approach. Our simulations demonstrate that hydrogenated diamondized bilayer graphenes are thermodynamically stable with respect to bilayer graphene and hydrogen molecule even at 0 GPa, and additionally they are found to withstand the physical change in structure up to at least 1000 K, ensuring their dynamical and thermal stabilities. The studied hydrogenated diamondized bilayer graphenes are predicted not only to behave as direct and wide band gap semiconductors, but also to have a remarkably high resistance to in-plane plastic deformation induced by indentation as implied by their high in-plane elastic constants comparable to those of diamond and of lonsdaleite. The mechanical stability of the materials is confirmed though the fulfilment of the Born stability criteria. Detailed analysis of phonon vibrational frequencies of hydrogenated diamondized bilayer graphenes reveals possible Raman active and IR active modes, which are found to be distinctly different from those of hydrogenated diamond-like amorphous carbon and defective graphene and thus could be used as a fingerprint for future experimental characterization of the materials. (c) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Chulalongkorn Univ, Thailand; Commiss Higher Educ, Thailand.
    Thermodynamic stability of hexagonal and rhombohedral boron nitride under chemical vapor deposition conditions from van der Waals corrected first principles calculations2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 4, article id 040603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of boron nitride (BN), particularly the sp(2)-hybridized polytypes hexagonal BN (h-BN) and rhombohedral BN (r-BN), are interesting for several electronic applications, given the bandgaps in the UV. They are typically deposited close to thermal equilibrium by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at temperatures and pressures in the regions 1400-1800K and 1000-10000Pa, respectively. In this letter, the authors use the van der Waals corrected density functional theory and thermodynamic stability calculations to determine the stability of r-BN and compare it to that of h-BN as well as to cubic BN and wurtzitic BN. The authors find that r-BN is the stable sp(2)-hybridized phase at CVD conditions, while h-BN is metastable. Thus, their calculations suggest that thin films of h-BN must be deposited far from thermal equilibrium.

1 - 17 of 17
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