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  • 1.
    Berg, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rozental, Alexander
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, England.
    Topooco, Naira
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ctr m2Hlth, CA USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Knowledge gain and usage of knowledge learned during internet-based CBT treatment for adolescent depression: a qualitative study2020In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The role of explicit learning of treatment content in internet-based cognitive-behavioural treatment (ICBT) is an emerging field of research. The objective of this study was to explore clients experiences of their ICBT treatment for depression with a focus on knowledge gain and usage of knowledge learned during treatment.

    Methods

    A strategic sample of ten adolescents, aged between 15 and 19 years, who had received ICBT for major depression within a clinical controlled trial were recruited for the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months following trial completion. Data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The participants had a general adherence rate of 6–8 opened modules out of 8 possible.

    Results

    Two main themes were identified; “Active agents of CBT” and “Passive agents of CBT”, with each theme consisting of three and two sub-themes. Active agents of CBT reflect a tendency to specifically remember and actively apply specific CBT principles in present life situations. Passive agents of CBT reflect a tendency to remember CBT treatment principles vaguely and express a passive or reactive usage of learned therapy content.

    Conclusion

    The findings suggest that young clients can remember and apply CBT principles 6 months after their treatment. However, while experiencing benefits of treatment, clients recall and application of treatment strategies vary. The study emphasizes the importance of exploring client recall of CBT components and how valuable it is to explicitly remember contents of a treatment in order to improve and maintain improvement. Further studies on the role of knowledge and memory of ICBT for adolescent populations are warranted.

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  • 2.
    Della Casa, Veronica
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Gubello, Alessio
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mezzalira, Selene
    Univ Basilicata, Italy.
    Bonato, Marina
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Simonelli, Alessandra
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Gatta, Michela
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Miscioscia, Marina
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Minority Stress, Self-Awareness, and Coping Strategies during the COVID-19 Pandemic among Italian Transgender Young Adults2024In: Healthcare, E-ISSN 2227-9032, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The security measures implemented in response to the COVID-19 emergency have caused complex consequences. The aim of the present study is to examine the repercussions of the pandemic on individuals belonging to gender identity minority groups, who have experienced heightened levels of stress in comparison to the general population. Methods: Online interviews with 12 transgender participants who resided in Italy during the pandemic were conducted and subsequently analyzed following the thematic analysis methodology. Results: The majority of the participants reported an increase in stress levels primarily attributed to the lack of acceptance and support within their familial environments, obstacles encountered in accessing specialized healthcare services, and a lack of support from the broader LGBTQ+ community. Despite these challenges, several participants developed effective coping strategies and a subset of them also benefited from multiple resilience factors, including familial support and assistance from mental health professionals. Conclusions: The outcomes of the present study indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic, while fostering certain protective factors within this population, has also given rise to new and critical mental health concerns. These findings hold significant implications for professionals working with transgender populations, highlighting the necessity of addressing these emerging mental health issues.

  • 3.
    Di Luigi, Guendalina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Clareus, Benjamin
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Mejias Nihlén, Theodor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Tove
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Psychometric Exploration of the Swedish Translation of the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS), and a Commentary on the Validity of the Construct of Microaggressions2023In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of the Sexual Orientation Microaggressions Scale (SOMS) in a convenience sample of 267 Swedish LGB+ people (Mean age = 36.41). Testing suggested some strengths in terms of factor structure and 2-week test-retest reliability (ICC > .79). Also, internal consistency (alpha = .80-.91) and convergent validity were supported for most subscales. However, the Assumption of Deviance subscale was associated with low response variability and internal consistency (alpha = .35), and the correlational pattern between the Environmental Microaggressions subscale and mental health variables diverged from the overall trend. Furthermore, measurement invariance between homo- and bisexual participants was not supported for most subscales, and although microaggressions would be theoretically irrelevant to a small comparison sample of heterosexual people (N = 76, Mean age = 40.43), metric invariance of the Environmental Microaggressions subscale was supported in comparison to LGB+ people. We argue that these limitations suggest a restricted applicability of the SOMS in a Swedish context, and this has consequences for the definition and operationalization of the construct of microaggressions as a whole. Therefore, more research on the latent properties of microaggressions in Swedish as well as in other contexts is required.

  • 4.
    Ekeblad, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlman, Malene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pio, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    "What shall we focus on?": A thematic analysis of what characterizes cognitive-behavior therapysessions with high or low quality of working alliance2022In: Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1050-3307, E-ISSN 1468-4381, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1003-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Several studies have shown that the quality of the working alliance predicts symptomatic improvement sessionby-session, including in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). We wanted to explore what characterizes CBT sessions with high and low alliances further using qualitative analysis. Method: Ten CBT-sessions were selected from eight patients therapies in a larger research project on psychotherapy for patients with major depression. Five sessions were chosen from high- and five from low-alliance sessions, based on therapist- and patient-reported Working Alliance Inventory scores. Transcripts of these sessions were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The analysis yielded four themes, each structured into two sub-themes: Therapist style, Person in focus, Content focus, and Therapeutic direction. In contrast to low-alliance sessions, high-alliance sessions were characterized by a more exploring as opposed to expert therapist style; a focus on the patients thoughts, feelings, and behavior, rather than a diffuse focus or a focus on other peoples actions/external events; and a sense of moving forward rather than stagnation. Conclusion: Our qualitative analysis showed theoretically and clinically meaningful processes in CBT sessions of high- vs low working alliance. This method is a useful complement to quantitative within-patient analyses, to expand on the meaning of quantitative findings.

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  • 5.
    Evertsson, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Division of Care and Leave Arrangements in Gay Father Families in Sweden2023In: Sexuality Research & Social Policy, ISSN 1868-9884, E-ISSN 1553-6610, Vol. 20, p. 242-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction This study analyses the division of parental leave and the income development in gay father families through surrogacy in Sweden, seen as one of the most family-friendly and egalitarian countries in the world. Methods Based on longitudinal population register data, descriptive and bivariate regression models are estimated to analyse the parental leave uptake and income development of married partners becoming (first-time) parents in 2006-2015 (in total 53 couples). Retrospective in-depth interviews with 23 gay men in 12 couples, conducted in 2010 and 2018 are analysed thematically to study how fathers discussed and decided how to divide the leave. Results The process of establishing legal parenthood delays the fathers access to reimbursed parental leave. Despite this, the fathers earnings were not considerably affected by the addition of a child to the family. Once the fathers had access to reimbursed leave, they generally shared this equally, with a tendency for the genetic father to take leave first and for a slightly longer period. Conclusions The fathers becoming parents via surrogacy arrangements are a well-off group, able to counter the negative financial consequences of becoming parents. Swedish family policies enable parents to share the leave equally. Less impacted by gender and parenthood norms creating difference between parents, gay father families are in a better position to realise ideals of shared care and sameness. Policy Implications The delayed access to reimbursed parental leave structures the ability of gay couples to become parents and contributes to class inequalities in the transition to parenthood.

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  • 6.
    Gato, Jorge
    et al.
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Barrientos, Jaime
    Univ Alberto Hurtado, Chile.
    Tasker, Fiona
    Birkbeck Univ London, England.
    Miscioscia, Marina
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Cerqueira-Santos, Elder
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Brazil.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Seabra, Daniel
    Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Leal, Daniela
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Houghton, Marie
    Birkbeck Univ London, England.
    Poli, Mikael
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Gubello, Alessio
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Ramos, Mozer de Miranda
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Brazil.
    Guzman, Monica
    Univ Catolica Norte, Chile.
    Urzua, Alfonzo
    Univ Catolica Norte, Chile.
    Ulloa, Francisco
    MUMS Movimiento Diversidad Sexual, Chile.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Psychosocial Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health among LGBTQ plus Young Adults: A Cross-Cultural Comparison across Six Nations2021In: Journal of Homosexuality, ISSN 0091-8369, E-ISSN 1540-3602, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 612-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the world, people have seen their lives interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an online survey, we explored how the psychosocial effects of the pandemic affected the mental health of LGBTQ+ young adults who were confined with their parents during the lockdown period (N = 1,934), from six countries: Portugal, UK, Italy, Brazil, Chile, and Sweden. South American participants experienced more negative psychosocial effects of the pandemic. Depression and anxiety were higher among participants who were younger, not working, living in Europe and who reported feeling more emotionally affected by the pandemic, uncomfortable at home, or isolated from non-LGBTQ friends. Not attending higher education predicted depression while not being totally confined at home, residing habitually with parents, and fearing more future infection predicted anxiety. LGBTQ+ community groups, as well as health and educational services should remain particularly attentive to the needs of LGBTQ+ young adults during health crises.

  • 7.
    Grundström, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ivarsson, Alice
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Torbjörnsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Walz, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Fear of childbirth postpartum and its correlation with post-traumatic stress symptoms and quality of life among women with birth complications - a cross-sectional study2022In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 485-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of the study was to analyze differences in post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and quality of life (QoL) between women with and without severe fear of childbirth postpartum (PP FOC). The secondary aims were to analyze the correlation between PP FOC and PTSS, and PP FOC and QoL, in women undergoing complicated childbirth. This cross-sectional study was conducted in South-East Sweden. Women aged >= 18 years who had undergone complicated childbirth (i.e., acute or emergency cesarean section, vacuum extraction, child in need of neonatal care, manual placenta removal, sphincter rupture, shoulder dystocia, or hemorrhage >= 1000 ml) were invited. Seventy-six women answered demographic questions and three validated instruments measuring PP FOC, PTSS, and QoL. The study population was divided into two sub groups: severe PP FOC or no severe PP FOC. Statistical analyses were conducted using Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-square test or Fishers exact test, and Spearmans rank-order correlation. Severe PP FOC was reported by 29% of the women, and 18% reported PTSS indicating post-traumatic stress disorder. Women with severe PP FOC reported significantly higher levels of PTSS, and significantly lower QoL in five dimensions: physical role functioning, emotional role functioning, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, and social functioning. There was a positive significant correlation between level of PP FOC and PTSS. There were also significant negative correlations between level of PP FOC and most of the QoL dimensions. In conclusion, almost one-third of the women with complicated childbirth reported severe PP FOC, and almost one-fifth reported PTSS indicating post-traumatic stress disorder. PP FOC correlated with PTSS and deteriorated QoL.

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  • 8.
    Grundström, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Previous Trauma Exposure and Its Associations with Fear of Childbirth and Quality of Life among Pregnant Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer People and Their Partners2023In: LGBTQ FAMILY-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL, ISSN 2770-3371, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 175-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of previous trauma exposure among expectant birth-giving parents and their partners within a LBTQ population. The secondary aims were to compare fear of childbirth (FOC) and quality of life (QoL) in relation to previous trauma exposure in pregnant LBTQ people and their partners. A further aim was to analyze associations between severe FOC and clinical and demographic factors in this population. Data was collected from a Swedish LGBTQ competent antenatal clinic. Trauma-exposed pregnant (n = 32) and non-pregnant (n = 21) individuals and pregnant (n = 48) and non-pregnant (n = 30) individuals without previous trauma experiences responded to instruments measuring FOC (Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire) and QoL (EuroQol 5 D-index/-visual analogue scale, VAS). Differences between groups were assessed using non-parametric tests. The proportion of trauma exposure was similar among pregnant responders and their partners (40.0% vs. 41.2%). Trauma-exposed pregnant respondents had a significantly higher prevalence of severe FOC compared to the pregnant respondents without previous trauma. Pregnant trauma-exposed respondents scored lower on EQ5D-VAS than pregnant respondents without trauma, as did non-pregnant trauma exposed respondents compared with non-pregnant -respondents without trauma. Furthermore, trauma-exposed non-pregnant respondents scored lower on the EQ5D-index compared to non-pregnant respondents without trauma. Previous trauma was the only clinical and demographic factor that had any significant association withto severe FOC in the regression analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that previous trauma exposure may contribute to the risk of suffering from severe FOC and lower QoL among LBTQ-identifying prospective parents.

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  • 9.
    Grundström, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Alehagen, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Supporting womens reproductive capabilities in the context of childbirth: Empirical validation of a midwifery theory synthesis2022In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 110, article id 103320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To conduct an empirical validation of the theoretical model of midwifery care suggested by Peters et al. (2020). Design: A qualitative deductive methodology was used to validate the theoretical model of aims and objectives of midwifery care. The existing model was validated for midwifery care before, during and after childbirth by interviewing women who had reported high satisfaction with childbirth and low fear of childbirth postpartum. Setting: Data were collected via interviews with women who had given birth from January to March 2018 at a middle-sized hospital in south-east Sweden. Participants: Swedish-speaking women aged > 18 years, were invited by midwives to participate at a postpartum maternal healthcare ward, and they received oral and written information. They filled in a demographic questionnaire, a grading of their birth experience on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) and the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire Version B (W-DEQ B). We used >7 as the cut-off for high satisfaction with childbirth (NRS), and a sum score <= 60 for low fear of childbirth (W-DEQ B). Of 172 women, 28 were eligible, of whom 20 were interviewed 8-13 months postpartum. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis with a directed approach. Findings: All of the models levels and their aspects were found in the interviews. All women had experienced a trusting relationship, including individual and woman-centred care, communication, choice and continuity, prompt attention and an empathic attitude. A majority described midwifery in terms of promoting security, and almost all had experienced aspects of personal control. The objective of midwifery care, described as the facilitation of womens reproductive capabilities, was described as being met by half of the women. The importance of pep talks and coaching was emphasized, and partner support could be added to the model. Key conclusions and implications for practice: Our findings indicate that the theoretical model proposed by Peters et al. (2020) is mainly applicable to midwifery care of women reporting high satisfaction with their birth experience and low postpartum fear of childbirth. Our findings suggest that this model may serve as a clarification of the unique objective of midwifery care, and could be used by midwives in daily clinical work and in midwifery education programs.

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  • 10.
    Grundström, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Martin, Caroline J. Hollins
    Edinburgh Napier Univ, Scotland.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Martin, Colin R.
    Univ Suffolk, England.
    Translation and validation of the Swedish version of the Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R)2023In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 124, article id 103745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Optimizing womens childbirth experience is essential for development of quality mother infant relationships. The Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised ( BSS-R ) can be used to measure birth satisfaction. Aim: The current investigation sought to translate and validate a Swedish version of the BSS-R. Method: Following translation, a comprehensive psychometric validation of the Swedish - BSS-R ( SW-BSS-R ) was carried out using a multi-model, cross-sectional, between- and within-subjects design. Participants: A total of 619 Swedish-speaking women participated, from which 591 completed SW-BSS-R and were eligible for analysis. Data analysis: Discriminant, convergent, divergent and predictive validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factor structure were evaluated. Results: The SW-BSS-R was found to have excellent psychometric properties and hence is a valid translation of the original UK(English)-BSS-R . Important insights into relationships between mode of birth, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and postnatal depression (PND) were observed. Conclusions and implications for practice: The SW-BSS-R is a psychometrically valid translation of the original BSS-R and is suitable for use in a Swedish-speaking population of women. The study has also highlighted important dynamics between birth satisfaction and areas of significant clinical concern (i.e., mode of birth, PTSD and PND) in Sweden.

  • 11.
    Grundström, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Stenberg, Klara
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Roos, Tova
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Perceived Professional Support During Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Postpartum Among Women Reporting Severe Fear of Childbirth Postpartum2021In: Journal of reproductive medicine, ISSN 0024-7758, E-ISSN 1943-3565, Vol. 66, no 3-4, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how women with severe fear of childbirth postpartum recall the professional support they received before, during, and after childbirth. STUDY DESIGN: This is a qualitative study based on telephone interviews with 10 women reporting fear of childbirth postpartum and who had given birth in 2018. They were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis according to Braun and Clarke. RESULTS: The results showed that most women expressed satisfaction with the support they received from the healthcare professionals before, during, and after childbirth, and most of them could not identify any lacking support. The experiences were categorized into 3 themes: "validation and trust," "guidance," and "being in control." CONCLUSION: In summary, the womens reported fear of childbirth postpartum did not seem related to any perceived lack of professional support. The supposed association between fear of childbirth, negative childbirth experiences, and perceived support may need further illumination.

  • 12.
    Hallström, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Grundström, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Eklind, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Fear of childbirth and mental health among lesbian, bisexual, transgender and queer people: a cross-sectional study2022In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 526-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most studies of fear of childbirth (FOC) are conducted on heterosexual cisgender pregnant populations of birth-giving parents. Among lesbian and bisexual women, as well as transgender and queer people (LBTQ), minority stress can add an extra layer to FOC. Gender binary and cisnormative assumptions leave it to the patient to educate and navigate healthcare providers, which can increase mental health problems. Objective: The aim of this study is to compare FOC and mental illness among expecting birth-giving parents and their partners in an LBTQ population. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 80 self-identified pregnant LBTQ persons and their 54 non-pregnant partners at a LBTQ specialized antenatal clinic in a large Swedish city of over one million inhabitants. The survey included socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and gender orientation, obstetric history, previous mental health, previous trauma exposure and measures of FOC and mental health. Results: Levels of FOC were significantly higher for the pregnant participants (median W-DEQ 67.5) than for partners (median W-DEQ 60.0). The proportion of severe FOC was higher for pregnant participants (20.3%) than for partners (9.4%), although this difference was not statistically significant. Mental illness was significantly associated with FOC. Conclusion: The results add valuable information to our understanding of the specific needs of pregnant LBTQ people and their partners and may help us to develop healthcare in the future.

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  • 13.
    Klittmark, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Gabriella
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ulfsdotter, Aniara
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grundström, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    When complications arise during birth: LBTQ people?s experiences of care2023In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 121, article id 103649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the care experiences of lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LBTQ) people dur-ing births where complications have arisen.Design: Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with self-identified LBTQ people who had experienced obstetrical and/or neonatal complications.Setting: Interviews were conducted in Sweden. Participants: A total of 22 self-identified LBTQ people participated. 12 had experienced birth complications as the birth parent and ten as the non-birth parent.Findings: Most participants had felt invalidated as an LBTQ family. Separation of the family due to com-plications elevated the number of hetero/cisnormative assumptions, as new encounters with healthcare professionals increased. Dealing with normative assumptions was particularly difficult in stressful and vulnerable situations. A majority of the birth parents experienced disrespectful treatment from healthcare professionals that violated their bodily integrity. Most participants experienced lack of vital information and emotional support, and expressed that the LBTQ identity made it harder to ask for help.Conclusions: Disrespectful treatment and deficiencies in care contributed to negative experiences when complications arose during birth. Trusting care relationships are important to protect the birth experience in case of complications. Validation of the LBTQ identity and access to emotional support for both birth and non-birth parents are crucial for preventing negative birth experiences. Implications for practice: To reduce minority stress and create conditions for a trusting relationship, healthcare professionals should specifically validate the LBTQ identity, strive for continuity of carer and zero separation of the LBTQ family. Healthcare professionals should make extensive effort s to transfer LBTQ related information between wards.(c) 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )

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  • 14.
    Lundberg, Tove
    et al.
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Malmquist, AnnaLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Wurm, MatildaCentrum för hälso- och medicinsk psykologi, Örebro universitet.
    HBTQ+: psykologiska perspektiv and bemötande2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Heteronormen, cisnormen och mononormen – varför bör vi känna till dem? Hur kan behandlare skapa ett samtalsklimat där klienterna kan känna sig trygga? Vilken kunskap om hbtq+-personers livsvillkor behövs för ett professionellt bemötande? Och varför räcker inte bara empati?

    Den här boken tar ett omfattande grepp om frågor som rör homo, bi, trans, queer och en rad andra identitetskategorier som alla relaterar till sexualitet, relationsbildning, kön och könsuttryck – i boken samlade under akronymen hbtq+. Trots en positiv utveckling i samhället leder minoritetsstress fortfarande till ökad ohälsa hos hbtq+-personer, och kunskapsluckorna är stora inom samhälls- och vårdinstanser. Författarna sätter in dessa frågor i ett historiskt och teoretiskt ramverk och gör en grundläggande genomgång av aspekter som rör hälsa och ohälsa i relation till hbtq+. Fördjupande kapitel rör områden som barn och ungdomar, föräldraskap och migration. Praktisk kunskap om professionellt bemötande tas upp och handfasta råd vägleder läsaren. Boken vänder sig till dig som är studerande eller verksam inom ett människovårdande yrke.

    HBTQ+ är skriven av flera av Sveriges mest kunniga psykologer och forskare inom området. Antologins redaktörer är Tove Lundberg, leg. psykolog, fil.dr och forskare vid Lunds universitet; Anna Malmquist, leg. psykolog, fil.dr och forskare vid Linköpings universitet; Matilda Wurm, examinerad psykolog och doktorand i psykologi vid Örebro universitet.

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  • 15.
    Lundberg, Tove
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Örebro universitet, Sweden.
    Upplevelser och hantering av minoritetsstress och mikroaggressioner bland unga hbtq-personer i Sverige2022In: ”Jag är inte ensam, det finns andra som jag”: Unga hbtqi-personers levnadsvillkor, Mucf , 2022, p. 315-343Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Lundberg, Tove
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Örebro Universitet.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att göra livet (över)levbart: Transpersoners ontiska, relationella och reflekterande arbete för att hantera utsatthet i vardagen2022In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 7-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transgender people report significantly poorer mental health than cisgender people. In psychological research, these health disparities are explained by theories of minority stress and microaggressions, while other disciplines use theories on normativity, livability, affective work, world making and utopias. Such theories are seldom picked up by psychologists even though they could serve to help psychological research and practice improve mental health in transgender people.The aim of this interview study was twofold. Empirically, it was to explore how 29 transgender people in Sweden (aged 17-63 years), experience and cope with vulnerability to make life survivable/livable. Analytically, psychological theories of minority stress, microaggressions and coping were put in conversation with theories of livability and emotional labor. Queer phenomenology was used to orient our analysis of the empirical material, as well as orient us theoretically, to find new ways of understanding transgender people’s vulnerability psychologically.While participants’ negative experiences are interpreted as covered by theories on minority stress and microaggressions, these theories do not explain all nuances of the exposure. In addition, theories on coping do not fully capture the constantly ongoing work participants need to do to manage everyday situations. The analysis resulted in three themes. One theme describes the ontic work that participants do in response to existential challenges of not being recognized as a subject. Another theme visualizes the relational work that participants do to deal with subtle exposure in their everyday life, trying to relate to oneself and others simultaneously. The final theme shows that participants utilize reactive and agentic reflexivity to try to achieve minority peace and a livable life. We hope that this dialogue between psychology and gender studies can continue in a Swedish context to better serve transgender people’s livability.

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  • 17.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Crucial but Strenuous Process: Female Same-Sex Couples’ Reflections on Second-Parent Adoption2015In: Journal of GLBT Family Studies, ISSN 1550-428X, E-ISSN 1550-4298, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a female same-sex couple has a child together through assisted reproduction, it is important that both partners be granted status as the child's legal parents. Second-parent adoption, where the non-birth mother adopts the child, is currently an option in several Western nations. The article presents findings from interviews with 96 Swedish mothers, all of whom have gone through second-parent adoptions in same-sex relations. The interviewees describe the adoption as crucial for their family. If the parents divorce or if one of them dies, it is deemed important to have legal parenthood established. A second-parent adoption process in Sweden can take several months to finish. In several interviews, the social workers assessing the family for the adoption are depicted as unprofessional and as asking irrelevant or intrusive questions. Others depict social workers as kind and competent. Other methods of granting legal parenthood to non-birth mothers are suggested for Swedish legislation.

  • 18.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bi och pan2017In: HBTQ+: psykologiska perspektiv och bemötande / [ed] Tove Lundberg, Anna Malmquist & Matilda Wurm, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, p. 73-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”But wait where should I be, am I Mum or Dad?”: Lesbian couples reflect on heteronormativity in regular antenatal education and the benefits of LGBTQ-certified options.2016In: International Journal of Birth and Parent Education, ISSN 2054-0779, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 7-10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective parents in Sweden are offered antenatal education led by midwives. The composition of some classes is based on the family situation, and in Stockholm an LGBTQ-certified maternity clinic offers separate classes for LGBTQ parents. Women who attend separate antenatal classes for LGBTQ parents are generally highly satisfied with the programme. They emphasize that they feel comfortable with it, and that the discussed topics are relevant to them. On the contrary, women who attend regular antenatal education, in classes with different-sex couples, reflect on hetero-normativity in the education - midwives focus on stereotypic gender roles, and non-birth mothers’ situation is overlooked when the classes are divided into separate sub-groups for (pregnant) mothers and (non-pregnant) fathers.

  • 20.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Föräldraskap som transperson: Erfarenhet och möjliga vägar2023In: Trans: Fakta, forskning och erfarenheter / [ed] Edward Summanen och Matilda Wurm, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2023, 1, p. 245-257Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How could equal parental leaves be promoted in Europe?: lessons from Swedish lesbian families2020In: Nordic gender equality policy in a Europeanisation perspective / [ed] Knut Dørum, Oxon: Routledge, 2020, p. 40-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although most European countries offer paid parental leave to both mothers and fathers, mothers continue to take the lion’s share. Previous studies have analysed patterns of parental leaves in heterosexual couples, in order to understand the gendered skewness and its effects on the lives of women and men. This chapter adds new perspectives on parental leave as it focuses on lesbian parents. Swedish lesbian parents generally share parental leave more equally than heterosexual couples, and they highlight the benefits of an equal relationship and close parent-child bonds. Both parents’ parental leave is depicted by the interviewees as desired; however, only the birth mother’s leave is depicted as necessary. Therefore, the non-birth mother’s leave is often shortened to meet practical circumstances, while the birth mother’s leave is not. The chapter concludes that access to a long parental leave promotes equal sharing among couples where both parents desire parental leave, while the issue is far more complex in cases where one parent does not.

  • 22.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lesbiska småbarnsföräldrar: utmaningar i en tid av möjligheter2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För lesbiska par har möjligheten till familjebildning förändrats i grunden sedan millennieskiftet. De kan få barn genom assisterad befruktning på fertilitetskliniker, både i Sverige och utomlands, eller genomföra inseminationer på egen hand i hemmet. Två kvinnor kan också ha gemensam vårdnad om sina barn. "Lesbiska småbarnsföräldrar" följer en stor grupp lesbiska par från det att de planerar barn, genom graviditet och förlossning, under spädbarnstiden fram till att barnen är i förskoleålder. Den syftar till att förmedla kunskap om lesbiska familjer till dig som möter familjer i ditt framtida eller nuvarande yrke, exempelvis inom hälso- och sjukvård, familjerätt, skola och förskola. Boken riktas även till en bredare allmänhet med intresse för lesbiska pars familjebildning. "Lesbiska småbarnsföräldrar" tar avstamp i vår samtids möjligheter, men lyfter och diskuterar också de utmaningar som lesbiska par kan ställas inför på vägen mot föräldraskap och som småbarnsfamilj.

  • 23.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pappa, pappa, barn: gaypappors vägar till föräldraskap och familjeliv2022 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För ett manligt samkönat par finns det flera möjliga vägar till föräldraskap. Men trots det står praktiska, rättsliga, ekonomiska och etiska hinder ofta i vägen. Därför kan det ta många år av överväganden, planering och drömmar innan paret blir föräldrar...

  • 24. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pride and Prejudice: Lesbian Families in Contemporary Sweden2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Options and possibilities for lesbian parents have changed fundamentally since the turn of the millennium. A legal change in 2003 enabled a same-sex couple  to share legal parenthood of the same child. An additional legal change, in 2005, gave lesbian couples access to fertility treatment within public healthcare in Sweden. The present thesis focuses on families where two women share legal parenthood of their children. It aims to provide knowledge about lesbian parenting couples and their children, and to focus on the interplay between family members within lesbian families, and between family members and their surroundings. Furthermore, the thesis aims to visualize and analyse notions of heteronormativity and homonormativity in contemporary Sweden. The thesis draws on interviews with 118 parents in 61 families, and 12 children in 11 families. The participants’ stories, descriptions, reflections and discourses have been analysed using discursive psychology and thematic analysis.

    The thesis includes five empirical papers. Paper I focuses on encounters with healthcare professionals prior to and during pregnancy, at childbirth and during the early stages of parenthood. Paper II deals with the participants’ experiences of second-parent adoption processes. Paper III focuses on equality in parenting relations. Paper IV focuses on encounters with fertility clinics within public healthcare. Paper V highlights the children’s reflections and shows how the children talk about fathers and donors.

    List of papers
    1. Efforts to maintain a ’just great’ story: Lesbian parents’ talk about encounters with professionals in fertility clinics and maternal and child healthcare services
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efforts to maintain a ’just great’ story: Lesbian parents’ talk about encounters with professionals in fertility clinics and maternal and child healthcare services
    2014 (English)In: Feminism and Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, E-ISSN 1461-7161, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 56-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    After lesbian couples have decided to become parents, their family-making journeyentails a wide range of encounters with professionals in fertility clinics and/or in maternaland child healthcare services. The article presents the results of an analysis of 96lesbian mothers’ interview talk about such encounters. In their stories and accounts,the interviewees draw on two separate and contradictory interpretative repertoires,the ‘just great’ repertoire and the ‘heteronormative issues’ repertoire. Throughout theinterviews, the ‘just great’ repertoire strongly predominates, while the ‘heteronormativeissues’ repertoire is rhetorically minimized. The recurrent accounts of health servicesas ‘just great’, and the mitigation of problems, are meaningful in relation to abroader discursive context. In a society where different-sex parents are the norm,the credibility of other kinds of parenthood is at stake. The ‘just great’ repertoire hasa normalizing function for lesbian mothers, while the ‘heteronormative issues’ repertoireresists normative demands for adaptation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2014
    Keywords
    Lesbian parent, maternal healthcare, child healthcare, heteronormativity, discursive psychology, interpretative repertoire
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104689 (URN)10.1177/0959353513487532 (DOI)000330772500004 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-23 Created: 2014-02-23 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
    2. A Crucial but Strenuous Process: Female Same-Sex Couples’ Reflections on Second-Parent Adoption
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Crucial but Strenuous Process: Female Same-Sex Couples’ Reflections on Second-Parent Adoption
    2015 (English)In: Journal of GLBT Family Studies, ISSN 1550-428X, E-ISSN 1550-4298, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When a female same-sex couple has a child together through assisted reproduction, it is important that both partners be granted status as the child's legal parents. Second-parent adoption, where the non-birth mother adopts the child, is currently an option in several Western nations. The article presents findings from interviews with 96 Swedish mothers, all of whom have gone through second-parent adoptions in same-sex relations. The interviewees describe the adoption as crucial for their family. If the parents divorce or if one of them dies, it is deemed important to have legal parenthood established. A second-parent adoption process in Sweden can take several months to finish. In several interviews, the social workers assessing the family for the adoption are depicted as unprofessional and as asking irrelevant or intrusive questions. Others depict social workers as kind and competent. Other methods of granting legal parenthood to non-birth mothers are suggested for Swedish legislation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2015
    Keywords
    Heteronormativity, legal parenthood, lesbian mother, non-birth mother, second-parent adoption, social worker
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117929 (URN)10.1080/1550428X.2015.1019169 (DOI)
    Conference
    2015/05/18
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Women in Lesbian Relations: Construing Equal or Unequal Parental Roles?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Women in Lesbian Relations: Construing Equal or Unequal Parental Roles?
    2015 (English)In: Psychology of women quarterly, ISSN 0361-6843, E-ISSN 1471-6402, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 256-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    When a lesbian couple conceives through donor insemination, the partners transform their relations to each other. In this article, I explore how women in lesbian relations depict their parental roles in relation to the notion of equality. Drawing on critical discursive psychology, I conducted and analyzed interviews with 96 Swedish lesbian parents. Findings show how the interviewees draw on three different interpretative repertoires when they talk about their parental roles. In one repertoire, parents describe themselves as being spontaneously equal in relation to the child. In a second repertoire, equality is depicted as a potential result of struggling, where some parents claim to have achieved equality, whereas others describe being frustrated about their unequal situation. Finally, in a third repertoire, inequality is depicted as a given starting point, drawing on a biologistic rhetoric. Although most parents present equality as idealized, most also refer to biology as a reality that sets the benchmark. Findings in the present study could be useful for clinicians working with lesbian couples; rather than assuming that a lesbian couple is more or less equal, it is important to consider the specific couple and their descriptions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2015
    Keywords
    Parental role, mothers, relationship quality, lesbianism, homosexual parents, birth mother, equality, discursive psychology
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117930 (URN)10.1177/0361684314537225 (DOI)000354570500009 ()
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Vulnerability and Acceptance: Lesbian Women's Family-Making through Assisted Reproduction in Swedish Public Health Care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerability and Acceptance: Lesbian Women's Family-Making through Assisted Reproduction in Swedish Public Health Care
    2014 (English)In: Journal of GLBT Family Studies, ISSN 1550-428X, E-ISSN 1550-4298, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 127-150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Female same-sex couples in Sweden have had access to fertility treatment within public health care since 2005. Treatment is generally tax funded, with a minimal of personal expenses. After birth, both mothers gain legal status as the child's parents. This article draws on findings from interviews with 29 lesbian mothers, all of whom have sought treatment at fertility clinics within the Swedish public health care system. Parts of the interviews in which the mothers describe deficiencies in the provided treatment have been scrutinized in detail. Results show how heteronormative assumptions about the family and a feeling of exposure in the role of patient give rise to vulnerability in lesbian mothers. Furthermore, neither routines nor the offered treatment are adapted to lesbian women's specific needs. Regarding dealing with deficiencies, the interviews are filled with expressions of acceptance, which rhetorically minimize the impact of potential stressors. A main conclusion is that legal inclusion of lesbians in fertility treatment is of groundbreaking importance to lesbians with a desire to become parents. The next step is to address heteronormativity within the health care institutions in order to develop treatment adapted to lesbian couples? specific needs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2014
    Keywords
    Lesbian mother, assisted reproduction, fertility treatment, public health care, heteronormativity
    National Category
    Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117932 (URN)10.1080/1550428X.2014.891088 (DOI)
    Conference
    2015/05/18
    Available from: 2015-05-18 Created: 2015-05-18 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
    5. ‘A daddy is the same as a mummy’: Swedish children in lesbian households talk about fathers and donors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘A daddy is the same as a mummy’: Swedish children in lesbian households talk about fathers and donors
    2014 (English)In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 119-133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present article discusses how 12 children (five to eight years) in planned lesbian familiestalk about families, parents and specifically ‘daddies’ as such and not having a father themselves.Findings from child interviews demonstrate that the children described daddies as ‘the same’ asmummies, i.e. as having the same functions. This contrasts with previous research showing howchildren of heterosexuals often describe mothers and fathers as different. The children varied interms of how they labelled donors. Some children adopted the denomination ‘daddy’, drawing ona paternity discourse, while others simply referred to him as ‘a man’.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2014
    Keywords
    Child interviews, conception, father, lesbian family, sperm donor
    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104728 (URN)10.1177/0907568213484342 (DOI)000337970300009 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-24 Created: 2014-02-24 Last updated: 2024-02-21Bibliographically approved
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  • 25.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psykologförbundet och regnbågsfamiljerna: en diskursanalytisk studie av konfliktpunkter mellan Sveriges Psykologförbund och homosexuellas familjebildningar2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det senaste decenniet har svensk lagstiftning ändrats vid två tillfällen som möjliggjort för homosexuella par att gemensamt prövas som adoptivföräldrar och för lesbiska par att få barn med hjälp av assisterad befruktning inom den svenska sjukvården. I anslutning till att lagförslagen lagts fram har Sveriges Psykologförbund fungerat som remissinstans.

    Syftet med studien är att närmare undersöka och skapa en fördjupad förståelse för Sveriges Psykologförbunds ställningstaganden i frågor som rör homosexuellas familjebildningar. Undersökningen består av nio enskilda intervjuer med personer som funnits i Psykologförbundets ledning under den aktuella tidsperioden. Materialet har analyserats med hjälp av kvalitativ metod inom det diskursanalytiska fältet.

    Resultatet visar att homosexuella familjer framställs som problematiska med hjälp av två diskurser, vilka i sin tur är relaterade till vilken fråga som behandlas. En diskurs om svårigheter som tillförs familjen utifrån, i form av negativa samhällsattityder till homosexualitet, är retoriskt användbar i argumentation mot homoadoptioner. Frågan om assisterad befruktning för lesbiska par framställs däremot som problematisk genom argumentation som knyts till svårigheter som tillstöter inifrån familjen. Genom att jämföra den lesbiska familjen mot en heterosexuell norm skapas föreställningar om problem som kretsar kring ett underskott av män och ett överskott av kvinnor som föräldrar. Normativa bilder av biologi, kön och sexualitet framträder, vilka analyseras och diskuteras i uppsatsen.

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  • 26.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swedish lesbian mothers arrange parental leave: Idealizing equality, sharing (more or less) evenly2023In: Queer(y)ing Kinship in the Baltic Region and Beyond / [ed] Ulrika Dahl, Joanna Mizielińska, Raili Uibo, Antu Sorainen, Södertörns högskola, 2023, p. 227-252Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transgender Men Forming Two-Father Families with Their Cisgender Male Partners: Negotiating Gendered Expectations and Self-Perceptions2022In: LGBTQ+ Family: An Interdisciplinary Journal, ISSN 2770-3371, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 369-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the experiences of transgender men who became parents through childbirth and started families with their cisgender male partners. The study explores the transgender mens experiences of having and raising children in this family constellation, with a specific focus on how they experience gender in their parenting role. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three participants. The data was transcribed and analyzed with thematic analysis. Results of the analysis showed that the participants had experienced gender dysphoria before and during pregnancy, but also embraced their childbearing capacity. As transgender fathers, they found themselves expected to fulfill gendered expectations for women and mothers but sometimes appreciated access to womens spaces. The participants had employed different strategies to protect their masculine selves, such as concealing their pregnancy and/or defending the right to be respected as transgender pregnant men. When passing as cisgender men, they experienced being praised for taking care of their children. They did not receive such praise when they were assumed to be women or known to be transgender men. The men struggled with inequality in their relationships, reflecting each partners assigned gender at birth. Still, they emphasized that same-gender relationships facilitated attempts to achieve equality.

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  • 28.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Women in Lesbian Relations: Construing Equal or Unequal Parental Roles?2015In: Psychology of women quarterly, ISSN 0361-6843, E-ISSN 1471-6402, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 256-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a lesbian couple conceives through donor insemination, the partners transform their relations to each other. In this article, I explore how women in lesbian relations depict their parental roles in relation to the notion of equality. Drawing on critical discursive psychology, I conducted and analyzed interviews with 96 Swedish lesbian parents. Findings show how the interviewees draw on three different interpretative repertoires when they talk about their parental roles. In one repertoire, parents describe themselves as being spontaneously equal in relation to the child. In a second repertoire, equality is depicted as a potential result of struggling, where some parents claim to have achieved equality, whereas others describe being frustrated about their unequal situation. Finally, in a third repertoire, inequality is depicted as a given starting point, drawing on a biologistic rhetoric. Although most parents present equality as idealized, most also refer to biology as a reality that sets the benchmark. Findings in the present study could be useful for clinicians working with lesbian couples; rather than assuming that a lesbian couple is more or less equal, it is important to consider the specific couple and their descriptions.

  • 29.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salomonsson, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Life Finds a Way: Young Adults With Lesbian Mothers Reflect on Their Childhood Prior to Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Parents in Sweden2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strapline "life finds a way," from the classic movie Jurassic Park, referred to how the all-female dinosaurs in a theme park had been able to reproduce, despite the laws of nature. Similarly, the participants in the present study described how their lesbian mothers had shown that "life finds a way," when having children and forming a family, prior to the legal recognition of same-sex parents in Sweden. The study draws on interviews with eight young Swedish adults, aged 17-30 (average age 25). They had been raised by lesbian couples but were born prior to the legal recognition of same-sex parenthood. Prior to a legal change in 2003, a same-sex couple could not share legal parenthood. Further, female couples were excluded from Swedish assisted reproduction programs until 2005. The interviews have been analyzed thematically, and the article presents the results in four themes. The first theme, circumvent, oppose, or adapt to legal obstacles, shows the participants reflections on how their parents navigated legal obstacles in order to have children and to live together as a family. The second theme, legal obstacles do not affect everyday life, depicts a common experience of how a lack of legal recognition seldom mattered to the participants during their childhood. Rather, they explained how their parents had been able to form parenthood and close relations without legal recognition. In contrast, the third theme describes occasions when legal parenthood matters. This theme highlights occasions when the lack of legal parenthood was problematic or devastating for the participants, such as when parents divorced, or one parent died. The final theme, the meaning of legal parents in adulthood, explores the participants reflections on the meaning and impact of legal ties (or lack of legal ties) between themselves as young adults and their parents. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research on children and young adults with same-sex parents.

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  • 30.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salomonsson, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Life finds a way: young adults with lesbian mothers reflect on their childhood prior to legal recognition of same-sex parents in Sweden2021In: LGBTQ parents and their children during the family life cycle / [ed] N. Carone, H. Bos, G. Shenkman & F. Tasker, Frontiers in Psychology, e-book , 2021, p. 106-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strapline "life finds a way," from the classic movie Jurassic Park, referred to how the all-female dinosaurs in a theme park had been able to reproduce, despite the laws of nature. Similarly, the participants in the present study described how their lesbian mothers had shown that "life finds a way," when having children and forming a family, prior to the legal recognition of same-sex parents in Sweden. The study draws on interviews with eight young Swedish adults, aged 17-30 (average age 25). They had been raised by lesbian couples but were born prior to the legal recognition of same-sex parenthood. Prior to a legal change in 2003, a same-sex couple could not share legal parenthood. Further, female couples were excluded from Swedish assisted reproduction programs until 2005. The interviews have been analyzed thematically, and the article presents the results in four themes. The first theme, circumvent, oppose, or adapt to legal obstacles, shows the participants' reflections on how their parents navigated legal obstacles in order to have children and to live together as a family. The second theme, legal obstacles do not affect everyday life, depicts a common experience of how a lack of legal recognition seldom mattered to the participants during their childhood. Rather, they explained how their parents had been able to form parenthood and close relations without legal recognition. In contrast, the third theme describes occasions when legal parenthood matters. This theme highlights occasions when the lack of legal parenthood was problematic or devastating for the participants, such as when parents divorced, or one parent died. The final theme, the meaning of legal parents in adulthood, explores the participants' reflections on the meaning and impact of legal ties (or lack of legal ties) between themselves as young adults and their parents. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research on children and young adults with same-sex parents.

  • 31.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björnstam, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thunholm, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Swedish Children of Single Mothers by Choice, and Children of Heterosexual Couples, Reflect on Child Conception and Other Paths to Parenthood2019In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 166-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents findings from interviews with 15 Swedish 6- to 9-year-olds from two family forms: children of single mothers by choice and children of heterosexual couples. The article focuses on the childrens reflections on child conception and other paths to parenthood. The children of single mothers by choice mentioned heterosexual intimacy, assisted reproduction, and adoption. The children of heterosexual couples mentioned heterosexual intimacy and adoption, but not assisted reproduction, in the interviews. Heterosexual intimacy was often, but not always, presented as the obvious or optimal path to parenthood by children in both groups, while assisted reproduction and adoption often were seen as secondary solutions. Some children did, however, present assisted reproduction or adoption as optimal for singles. The findings show that heteronormativity is the predominant discourse, but also that most participants acknowledged other paths to parenthood.

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  • 32.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bredenberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Tasker, Fiona
    Birkbeck Univ London, England.
    Gato, Jorge
    Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Queers in quarantine: Young LGBTQ plus peoples experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 150-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic led to major restrictions of everyday life activities. This worsened the social situation of many people, and marginalized groups have been especially affected. This article explores how LGBTQ+ young adults in Sweden have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent recommendations and restrictions. Fifteen participants between 20-29 years, who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+), were interviewed about their experiences. A thematic analysis of the data showed that the participants perceived their psychological wellbeing to have been greatly affected by the pandemic. Several reported symptoms of clinical depression, as well as anxiety, worry, rumination, and a heightened sensitivity to stress. Stressors included fear of the disease itself, and fear of spreading the virus, as well as the negative consequences of adhering to the recommendations of social distancing, which constantly interplayed with the marginalized position of being a young LGBTQ+ person. Most participants experienced a decrease in minority stress in face-to-face interaction with social distancing measures in place, but an increase in minority stress online. Those who faced minority stress at home experienced the isolation as particularly stressful. Limited access to the LGBTQ+ community was a common stressor. For transgender participants, the effects on transgender healthcare, such as prolonged waiting times for gender dysphoria assessment and hormone treatment, were a major challenge. Our results have added valuable knowledge to research indicating how vulnerable young adults were highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions.

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  • 33.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustavson, Malena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schmitt, Irina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Queering school, queers in school: An introduction2013In: Confero: Essays on education, philosophy and politics, E-ISSN 2001-4562, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 5-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Queer studies of education have become a growing field with a range of theoretical and political positions and methodological approaches. Moreover, research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) kids is tightly connected to anti-homophobia, anti-transphobia and norm-critical activism. One of the key contentions within this field is what researchers and activists mean by “queer” in the context of education: is it a focus on queer/ed subjectivities? Is it about using queer theories to critique forms and norms of education in a given sociopolitical context? Who is queer/ed in schools? Is the language of homophobia and transphobia the best or even correct way to describe and analyse normative educational settings and frameworks?

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    Queering school, gueers in school. An introduction
  • 34.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hanner, Hans
    Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Tove
    Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Lunds universitet.
    Hbtq+ och psykologi i en historisk tillbakablick2017In: HBTQ+: psykologiska perspektiv och bemötande / [ed] Tove Lundberg, Anna Malmquist, Matilda Wurm, Stockolm: Natur och kultur, 2017, p. 15-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Karlsson, Hulda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lassi, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Elderly Peoples Perceptions of Heat Stress and Adaptation to Heat: An Interview Study2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 7, article id 3775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Heatwaves are having a disproportionate impact on the elderly population, as demonstrated by pronounced mortality and morbidity. The present study aimed to explore elders subjective experiences of heat impacts and adaptive strategies. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 19 elderly Swedes were conducted, focusing on their experiences of the extremely hot summer of 2018. Results: Most informants suffered during the heatwave, although some found it pleasant. The readiness to implement adaptive measures was generally high among the healthiest, who were able to avoid excessive heat and adjust their daily routines. In contrast, those highly dependent on care from others had limited options for avoiding the heat, and little capacity to take up adaptive measures. Discussion: With heat becoming an increasing problem, it is important to adjust elderly care so that the most vulnerable elderly people can avoid excessive heat exposure.

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  • 36.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hydén, Margareta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Familjeliv hos samkönade par och andra regnbågsfamiljer2012In: Nätverksfamiljen / [ed] Margareta Bäck-Wiklund & Thomas Johansson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012, 2, p. 139-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kärnfamiljen är fortfarande den vanligaste samlevnadsformen i vårt land men samhällstrenden visar på en allt större variation i samlevnadsmönster. Familjer bryter upp och nya par flyttar samman. Med barnen som länkar bildas nätverk av relationer. Den senmoderna familjen utgör en nätverksfamilj. Med nätverket som metafor upplöses familjen som en sluten social enhet.I stället ställs relationerna och det vardagliga familjelivet i fokus.

    Invanda levnadsmönster, traditionella roller och könsidentiteter utmanas och ifrågasätts. Uppbrotten kan även splittra familjer mellan länder och världsdelar. Vad är en familj? Vilka familjekonstellationer är tänkbara? Hur påverkar de nya strukturerna barns och föräldrars roller? Denna bok skildrar samtidens mångfald i samlevnadsformer, t ex den traditionella kärnfamiljen, nya familjebildningar med styvföräldrar och egna samt gemensamma barn, ensam mor-familjen, heltids-eller deltidspappan, den homosexuella familjen och den inflyttade familjen från en annan kultur.

    I bokens andra del fördjupas resonemangen kring det nya fader- och moderskapet, fosterfamiljen, den utsatta familjen, våld i familjen och problematik kring barnlöshet.  Boken vill beskriva och analysera hur män och kvinnor i nya familjemönster praktiskt utformar föräldraskap, parförhållande liksom ansvar för och omsorg om familjen. Familjen skapas genom sina vardagshandlingar. 

    Boken riktar sig till studerande i socialt arbete, sociologi och andra samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen på universitet och högskola men också till yrkesverksamma inom socialt arbete, vård och inom andra sektorer av det samhällspolitiska området.  Margareta Bäck-Wiklund (red) är professor i socialt arbete med inriktning på familjepolitik och modernt föräldraskap vid institutionen för socialt arbete, Göteborgs universitet. 

    Thomas Johansson (red) är professor i socialpsykologi och verksam vid institutionen för socialt arbete vid Göteborgs universitet med inriktning på familjesociologi och mansforskning.  Båda har tidigare publicerat en rad böcker och artiklar inom sina områden.  Bokens övriga kapitelförfattare är forskare inom framför allt områdena socialt arbete och sociologi men även inom psykologi och etnologi: Maren Bak, Helene Brembeck, Gunilla Halldén,  Sven Hessle, Margareta Hydén, Ingrid Höjer, Anders Möller, Karin Zetterqvist Nelson, Eva Nyberg, Lars Plantin, Christine Roman, Kristina Larsson Sjöberg och Jan Trost .

  • 37.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Höjerström, Sonja
    Linköping University.
    Constructions of surrogates, egg donors, and mothers: Swedish gay fathers narratives2020In: Feminism and Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, E-ISSN 1461-7161, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 508-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explored in detail how Swedish gay fathers (through surrogacy) talked about the surrogate mother and the egg donor. Thirteen semi-structured interviews with 22 gay fathers were conducted and analysed using critical discursive analysis. The surrogates were primarily constructed as a close family member, but occasionally in terms of their instrumental function. They were often described as active and independent, but occasionally as vulnerable or exploited. The egg donors were in some interviews constructed as close family members, while others talked about them as distant acquaintances. Further, donors were constructed either as a significant individual (for the fathers), or as an instrumental provider of the oocyte. While some participants constructed the surrogate and/or donor as their childs mother(s), others were more reluctant or ambivalent about the mother construct. In conclusion, the participants engaged in rhetorical work that shed a positive light on surrogacy, and their own decisions were depicted as solid, ethical and genuine. The participants positive framing can be understood as the production of a counter discourse, in relation to an ongoing debate in Sweden, in which surrogacy is constructed as exploitation, dehumanization and prostitution.

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  • 38.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wikstrom, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Minority stress adds an additional layer to fear of childbirth in lesbian and bisexual women, and transgender people2019In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 79, article id UNSP 102551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore and describe thoughts about and experiences of pregnancy, childbirth and reproductive healthcare in lesbian and bisexual women and transgender people (LBT) with an expressed fear of childbirth (FOC). Design: Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with self-identified LBTs with an expressed FOC. Participants: 17 self-identified LBTs participated. 15 had an expressed FOC, and two were non-afraid partners. Findings: Participants fears were similar to those previously described in research on FOC, e.g., fear of pain, injury, blood, death of the child or of the parent. However, minority stress, including fear and experiences of prejudicial treatment, in maternity care and at delivery wards add an additional layer to the fear of childbirth. Key conclusions: LBTs with FOC are a particularly vulnerable group of patients, whose needs must be addressed in healthcare. Implication for practice: The findings call attention to the need for LBT-competent treatment prior to, and throughout pregnancy and childbirth. In the most vulnerable patients, caregivers must work extensively to build trust, in order to explore and reduce FOC. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 39.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klittmark, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Heteronormative obstacles in regular antenatal education, and the benefits of LGBTQ certified options: Experiences among prospective LGBTQ parents in Sweden2022In: Contemporary Issues in Perinatal Education: Knowledge Into Practice / [ed] Mary Nolan, Shona Gore, Routledge, 2022, p. 240-247Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prospective parents in Sweden are offered antenatal education led by midwives. The composition of some classes is based on the family situation, and some LGBTQ prospective parents are offered separate classes. People who attend such separate classes are generally highly satisfied with the programme. They emphasize that they feel comfortable and find the discussed topics relevant to them. On the contrary, LGBTQ people who attend regular antenatal education reflect on hetero- and cis-normativity in the education, where midwives focus on stereotypic gender roles. In particular, non-pregnant mothers and pregnant transmasculine people feel excluded. Using Sweden as a case study, this chapter explores the heteronormative obstacles in regular antenatal education and the benefits of LGBTQ-certified options.

  • 40.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lundgren, Tora
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Turner, Emily
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Vulnerability and adaptation to heat waves in preschools: Experiences, impacts and responses by unit heads, educators and parents2021In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 31, article id 100271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With global warming, heat waves are becoming more frequent and intense, particularly in northern latitudes, where the pace of warming is faster. Due to its northern location, Swedish society has been built primarily to manage a cold climate, and is less prepared to manage heat, which the 2018 heat wave demonstrated. While young children are recognized as vulnerable to heat, and are reliant on preschool care, few studies have examined how the young and vulnerable people are cared for during heat waves in the institutional preschool setting. This exploratory study demonstrates how children in preschool environments are vulnerable to heat, in order to identify management needs by assessing experienced impacts and responses to the 2018 heat wave in Sweden. Empirically, the study builds on a survey completed by 33 unit heads responsible for 77 preschools in the focused municipality, and qualitative interviews with five educators and five parents, as well as temperature measurements in three selected preschools. This study shows that: (i) children and educators are exposed to both high indoor and outdoor temperatures in the preschools; (ii) both children and educators were affected by the heat wave in the preschools, and their sensitivity is deeply intertwined due to their dependency relationship, rendering a form of double sensitivity to heat; and (iii) the preschool heads and educators were unprepared to sufficiently cope with the heat wave, and organizational strategies for managing heat were lacking, indicating weak adaptive capacity. The significant exposure to heat in preschool environments, the dual sensitivity of children and preschool educators, and the low organizational readiness resulting in uncoordinated responses to reduce heat stress suggest a pronounced vulnerability to heat waves in preschools.

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  • 41.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Martin, Josephine
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Thiel, Agnes
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Childless Bisexual and Gay Mens Expectations of Obstacles and Enabling Factors for Pursuing Parenthood2021In: Journal of GLBT Family Studies, ISSN 1550-428X, E-ISSN 1550-4298, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 323-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article concerns childless bisexual and gay mens expectations of potential future fatherhood. Social context, biological prerequisites and legal restrictions have in previous research proven to be complicating factors in the process of starting a family. This article investigates the experience of 14 bisexual and gay men in Sweden who are contemplating parenthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, resulting in a model that identified obstructing and enabling factors in realizing future parenthood. The path to parenthood was seen as a process containing both the decision to pursue parenthood and the belief that parenthood was a possibility. The process toward parthood was not linear, but a pendular movement, affected by obstructing factors and enabling factors. One of the main findings was the experience of invisibility in relation to involuntary childlessness amongst bisexual and gay men. Simultaneously, the possibility to break this invisibility, to become a parental role model for other bisexual and gay men, and to revise images of the nuclear family were strong motivating factors. The findings are discussed in relation to Swedish gay men and fathers social situation.

  • 42.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Miscioscia, Marina
    Univ Padua, Italy; Padova Univ Hosp, Italy.
    Leal, Daniela
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Tasker, Fiona
    Birkbeck Univ London, England.
    Bredenberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gubello, Alessio
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Gato, Jorge
    Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Houghton, Marie
    Birkbeck Univ London, England.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    "Under House Arrest": Mental Health and Minority Stress Experiences of LGBTQ plus Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe2023In: Sexuality Research & Social Policy, ISSN 1868-9884, E-ISSN 1553-6610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionIncreased rates of mental health issues among LGBTQ+ people have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among young people.MethodSemi-structured interviews were conducted in 2021 with 61 young adult LGBTQ+ people residing in France, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. Each interview was summarized on a template covering the participants' experiences of pandemic restrictions, mental health, and minority stress during this period. A thematic analysis was conducted on the templates.ResultsThe pandemic restrictions had a large impact on the participants' lives, leaving them stuck at home. Not having access to the LGBTQ+ community was an additional stress, as this is a venue for support. Half of the participants had suffered from mental health issues during the pandemic. Those who were living in non-affirmative households had a particularly difficult time and experienced overwhelming stress. Increased feelings of gender dysphoria were seen among trans participants due to the lack of access to gender-affirming healthcare. Most participants experienced less distal minority stress than usual due to social isolation restrictions.ConclusionThe COVID-19 pandemic and the associated social restrictions had a large impact on the lives of LGBTQ+ young adults. Many experience worse mental health, although relief from distal minority stress was common.Policy ImplicationsPolicy makers must consider the needs of LGBTQ+ young adults as they seek to explore and establish their gender and/or sexual identity. During a pandemic, it is particularly important to help young LGBTQ+ people to engage with the LGBTQ+ community.

  • 43.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Möllerstrand, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wikström, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ‘A daddy is the same as a mummy’: Swedish children in lesbian households talk about fathers and donors2014In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 119-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article discusses how 12 children (five to eight years) in planned lesbian familiestalk about families, parents and specifically ‘daddies’ as such and not having a father themselves.Findings from child interviews demonstrate that the children described daddies as ‘the same’ asmummies, i.e. as having the same functions. This contrasts with previous research showing howchildren of heterosexuals often describe mothers and fathers as different. The children varied interms of how they labelled donors. Some children adopted the denomination ‘daddy’, drawing ona paternity discourse, while others simply referred to him as ‘a man’.

  • 44.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    Negotiating who gives birth and the influence of fear of childbirth: Lesbians, bisexual women and transgender people in parenting relationships2021In: Women and Birth, ISSN 1871-5192, E-ISSN 1878-1799, ISSN 1871-5192, Vol. 34, no 3, p. e271-e278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fear of childbirth (FOC) may affect family planning in lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT) couples with two potential carriers of a pregnancy. FOC has previously been researched in heterosexual women, while experiences of LBT people have remained unattended. The choice of birth-giving partner in same-sex couples has gained some attention in previous research, but the potential complexities of the decision have not been studied.

    AIM: The aim is to explore how LBT people negotiate the question of who gives birth, in couples with two potential birth parents, and where one or both partners have a pronounced FOC.

    METHODS: Seventeen self-identified LBT people were interviewed about their expectancies and experiences of pregnancy and childbirth. Data were analysed following a six-step thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: FOC was negotiated as one of many aspects that contributed to the decision of who would be the birth-giving partner. Several participants decided to become pregnant despite their fears, due to a desire to be the genetic parent. Others negotiated with their partner about who was least vulnerable, which led some of them to become pregnant despite FOC. Still other participants decided to refrain from pregnancy, due to FOC, and were delighted that their partner would give birth. Several participants described their partner's birth-giving as a traumatic experience for them, sometimes also when the birth did not require any obstetric interventions. The partner's experience was in some cases not addressed in postnatal care.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is important that healthcare staff address both partners' prenatal expectancies and postnatal experiences.

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  • 45.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    O'Hanlon, Martina
    Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Mjölby.
    Pralica, Anna
    Centrala elevhälsan, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ensamstående mamma och timanställd: En tolkande fenomenologisk analys av sju kvinnors berättelser2017In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 46.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Polski, Anna
    Lunds universitet.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    No one of importance: lesbian mothers' constructions of permamently anonymous sperm donors2016In: Doing good parenthood: ideals and practices of parental involvement / [ed] Anna Sparrman, Allan Westerling, Judith Lind, Karen Ida Dannesboe, Cham: Palgrave Pivot, 2016, p. 29-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Polski, Anna
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    No one of importance: Mothers in lesbian relations talk about permanently anonymous sperm donors.2016In: Doing good parenthood: ideals and practices of parental involvement / [ed] Anna Sparrman, Allan Westerling, Judith Lind, Karen Ida Dannesboe, Cham: Palgrave MaxMillian , 2016, p. 29-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spånberg Ekholm, Alexander
    Swedish gay men's pursuit of fatherhood: legal obstacles and strategies for coping with them2020In: Lambda Nordica, ISSN 1100-2573, E-ISSN 2001-7286, Vol. 24, no 2-3, p. 53-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work is to explore how gay fathers have experienced legal obstacles throughout their process of becoming fathers, and what strategies they have used to cope with the difficulties they have met. The study used semi-structured interviews to capture the fathers’ experiences, and a constructivist grounded theory to analyse the data. Interviews with thirty gay fathers in Sweden were included in the study. The participants had become fathers through surrogacy, shared parenthood with women, or foster care. Legal obstacles had played a prominent role in all three family forms, as well as in adoption – which some participants had unsuccessfully pursued. Obstacles marked both their pursuit of fatherhood and their establishment of legal custody. Some participants had eventually given up their initially preferred path to parenthood and searched for another route. To overcome legal obstacles, the participants had utilised one or more strategies; such as being persistent and well prepared, pretending to be straight, and finding access to assisted reproduction treatment abroad. Regardless of the path to parenthood, the participants stressed the necessity of possessing adequate personal or economic resources to become parents. 

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  • 49.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiklander, Lisa
    Linköping University.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cultivate and constrain: swedish middle class parents negotiate ideals about children’s emotions and parents’ responses to them2021In: Close relations: family, kinship, and beyond / [ed] Helene Wahlström Henriksson, Klara Goedecke, Singapore: Springer, 2021, p. 155-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norms regarding childhood and parenthood differ between social contexts. The present study focuses on Swedish middle-class parents of young children. Based on semi-structured interviews, the study aims to explore norms and ideals regarding children’s emotions and how parents should respond to them. Analysis is informed by discursive psychology, with a focus on ideological dilemmas. Most parents acknowledged an ideal where children are seen as entitled to their own emotions and having the full right to express them. Related to this, two different parenting ideals were identified. The first stipulates that parents should allow and validate the child’s emotional expressions. The second stipulates that parents should be in control of their own emotions, in order to enable children to express theirs. Both ideals were negotiated by the parents as they contradict other ideals and everyday realities.

  • 50.
    Malmquist, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wikström, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Louise
    Nieminen, Katri
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Norrköping.
    How norms concerning maternity, femininity and cisgender increase stress among lesbians, bisexual women and transgender people with a fear of childbirth2021In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Midwifery, Vol. 93, article id 102888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To explore and describe norms concerning maternity, femininity and cisgender in lesbian and bisexual women and transgender people (LBT) assigned female at birth, with an expressed fear of childbirth (FOC).

    Design

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with self-identified LBT people with an expressed FOC.

    Participants

    17 self-identified LBT people participated. 15 had an expressed FOC, and two were non-afraid partners.

    Findings

    Participants described how their FOC was related to ideals of “the primal woman”, including ideals of a natural birth. They also described stress in relation to expectations of gaining a feminine-coded body during pregnancy and of being related to as feminine women.

    Key conclusions

    Maternity ideals, and the ideal of the “natural” birth, can be particularly stressful on those who fear childbirth. Norms concerning femininity and cisgender can contribute to FOC among those who do not comfortably conform with feminine body ideals or feminine gender expressions.

    Implication for practice

    Treatments of FOC must be designed to acknowledge whether and how norms concerning maternity, femininity and cisgender affect the individual's FOC.

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