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  • 1.
    Abdelfattah, Ahmed
    et al.
    Univ Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wisniewski, Michael
    USDA ARS, WV 25430 USA.
    Cacciola, Santa O.
    Univ Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Univ Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Metabarcoding: A powerful tool to investigate microbial communities and shape future plant protection strategies2018In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are the main drivers shaping the functioning and equilibrium of all ecosystems, contributing to nutrient cycling, primary production, litter decomposition, and multi-trophic interactions. Knowledge about the microbial assemblies in specific ecological niches is integral to understanding the assemblages interact and function the function, and becomes essential when the microbiota intersects with human activities, such as protecting crops against pests and diseases. Metabarcoding has proven to be a valuable tool and has been widely used for characterizing the microbial diversity of different environments and has been utilized in many research endeavors. Here we summarize the current status of metabarcoding technologies, the advantages and challenges in utilizing this technique, and how this pioneer approach is being applied to studying plant diseases and pests, with a focus on plant protection and biological control. Current and future developments in this technology will foster a more comprehensive understanding of microbial ecology, and the development of new, innovative pest control strategies.

  • 2.
    Bennett, Alison E.
    et al.
    Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.
    Orrell, Peter
    Ecological Sciences, James Hutton Institute, Dundee, UK.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pozo, Maria José
    Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín (CSIC), Granada, Spain.
    Fungal-Mediated Above–Belowground Interactions: The Community Approach, Stability, Evolution, Mechanisms, and Applications2018In: Aboveground–Belowground Community Ecology / [ed] Ohgushi, Takayuki; Wurst, Susanne; Johnson, Scott N., Springer, 2018, p. 85-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our goal within this chapter is to review fungal-mediated above–belowground interactions in which belowground organisms influence aboveground organisms (or vice versa) primarily via a shared host plant, but to also highlight what we feel are the biggest areas for future research within this field: the community approach, stability, evolution, mechanisms, and application of these interactions. First, the community approach examines multiple simultaneously interacting species as communities, an approach that will greatly benefit from the future use of -omics techniques. Examining a greater diversity of interactions (via competition, facilitation, or predation) will likely reveal more varied outcomes that better describe patterns in nature than when individual interactions are considered. Second, we explore the stability of fungal-mediated above–belowground interactions. Given that systems can have multiple stable states influenced by multiple factors, we ask how frequently these interactions occur across stable states. Third, we present three areas in which we expect selection to influence fungal above–belowground interactions: simple (one-way) selective influences of organisms; evolutionary feedbacks and co-evolutionary arms races; and indirect versus direct selective influences. Fourth, we identify mechanisms driving the indirect interactions observed via host plants in fungal-mediated above–belowground interactions and factors influencing their context dependency. Finally, we explore potential applications of these interactions as novel biotechnologies to promote agricultural production, restore natural and degraded habitats, promote ecosystem services, and mitigate against the impacts of climate change.

  • 3.
    Brengdahl, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kimber, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maguire-Baxter, Jack
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Friberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Genetic Quality Affects the Rate of Male and Female Reproductive Aging Differently in Drosophila melanogaster2018In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 192, no 6, p. 761-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males and females often maximize fitness by pursuing different reproductive strategies, with males commonly assumed to benefit more from increased resource allocation into current reproduction. Such investment should trade off with somatic maintenance and may explain why males frequently live shorter than females. It also predicts that males should experience faster reproductive aging. Here we investigate whether reproductive aging and life span respond to condition differently in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, as predicted if sexual selection has shaped male and female resource-allocation patterns. We manipulate condition through genetic quality by comparing individuals inbred or outbred for a major autosome. While genetic quality had a similar effect on condition in both sexes, condition had a much larger general effect on male reproductive output than on female reproductive output, as expected when sexual selection on vigor acts more strongly on males. We find no differences in reproductive aging between the sexes in low condition, but in high condition reproductive aging is relatively faster in males. No corresponding sex-specific change was found for life span. The sex difference in reproductive aging appearing in high condition was specifically due to a decreased aging rate in females rather than any change in males. Our results suggest that females age slower than males in high condition primarily because sexual selection has favored sex differences in resource allocation under high condition, with females allocating relatively more toward somatic maintenance than males.

  • 4.
    Campolo, O.
    et al.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, F.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Maione, V.
    Agenzia Regionale Sviluppo e Servizi in Agricoltura, Regione Calabria, Italy.
    Zappala, L.
    Depto di Gestione dei Sistemi Agroalimentari e Ambientali, Univ of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, V.
    Depto di AgrariaUniv “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Population Dynamics and Temperature-Dependent Development of Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) to Aid Sustainable Pest Management Decisions2014In: Neotropical Entomology, ISSN 1519-566X, E-ISSN 1678-8052, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 453-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing worldwide trades progressively led to decreased impact of natural barriers on wild species movement. The exotic scale Chrysomphalus aonidum (L.) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), recently reported on citrus in southern Italy, may represent a new threat to Mediterranean citriculture. We studied C. aonidum population dynamics under field conditions and documented its development under various temperatures. To enable describing temperature-dependent development through the use of linear and non-linear models, low temperature thresholds and thermal constants for each developmental stage were estimated. Chrysomphalus aonidum was able to perform four generations on green parts (leaves, sprouts) of citrus trees and three on fruits. In addition, an overall higher population density was observed on samples collected in the southern part of the tree canopy. Temperature had a significant effect on the developmental rate; female needed 625 degree days (DD) to complete its development, while male needed 833 DD. The low threshold temperatures, together with data from population dynamics, demonstrated that C. aonidum is able to overwinter as second instar and as an adult. The results obtained, validated by those collected in the field, revealed few differences between predicted and observed dates of first occurrence of each C. aonidum instar in citrus orchards. Data on C. aonidum phenology and the definition of the thermal parameters (lower and upper threshold temperatures, optimum temperature, and the thermal constant) by non-linear models could allow the estimation of the occurrence in the field of each life stage and would be helpful in developing effective integrated control strategies.

  • 5.
    Campolo, O.
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Zappala, L.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Laudani, F.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Palmeri, V.
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Bees visiting flowers of Thymus longicaulis (Lamiaceae)2016In: Plant Biosystems, ISSN 1126-3504, E-ISSN 1724-5575, Vol. 150, no 6, p. 1182-1188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bee fauna foraging on Thymus longicaulis flowers. Samplings were conducted walking along a transect during the T. longicaulis blooming period (April-June). A total of 547 bee specimens, belonging to 40 different species, were recorded during the survey. Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris were the most abundant visitors that foraged on thyme. Pollen grains collected on the bodies of the bees suggest that these pollinators may play an important role in the pollination of this plant.

  • 6.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fontana, Anna
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Albanese, Giuliana R.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Acquisition and transmission of selected CTV isolates by Aphis gossypii2014In: JOURNAL OF ASIA-PACIFIC ENTOMOLOGY, ISSN 1226-8615, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 493-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a severe threat to the citrus industry. Disease symptoms and severity may vary depending on the CTV isolates. These are responsible for the decline of trees grafted on sour orange rootstock, or stem pitting on some citrus commercial cultivars regardless of rootstock. In the Calabria region (Italy), CTV was first reported on cultivars imported from other countries. However, recent observations suggested that natural spread of CTV was occurring and a study was needed to determine the epidemiological status and aphid transmission of CTV in Calabria. The role played by local A. gossypii in the spread of CIV was analyzed in the laboratory using various viral acquisition, inoculation periods with three different CTV isolates. Single aphid vectors acquired CTV after a minimum of 30 min acquisition access period (AAP) and were able to transmit the virus after a 60 min inoculation access period (IAP) to healthy plants. A minimum of four aphid vectors were needed to reach 50% transmission probability. The results suggested that the three tested strains are transmitted by A. gossypii in a semi-persistent mode. The results demonstrated that local A. gossypii population can acquire and transmit efficiently the tested virus isolates with serious implications on the virus spread. (C) 2014 Korean Society of Applied Entomology, Taiwan Entomological Society and Malaysian Plant Protection Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Grande, Saverio B.
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for the Control of the California Red Scale in Southern Italy2015In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 1065, p. 1149-1156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), is considered one of the most important pests of citrus in the Mediterranean basin as well as in other citrus growing areas worldwide. In Southern Italy, citrus is the most widely cultivated crop and the control of the CRS relies mainly on the application of synthetic insecticides. During 2009 and 2010, selected insecticides (spirotetramat, chlorpyriphos and pyriproxyfen) were evaluated against this pest in two calabrian citrus orchards (southern Italy) under integrated pest management. Treatments were performed according to the dosage reported on the label of the commercial products. Two treatments, at 15-day interval, were performed. Control plots were sprayed with water only. Efficacy was assessed 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the first treatment and at the harvest. In both trials, spirotetramat showed the highest levels of efficacy against CRS and other citrus pests (citrus leafminer, and aphids) that were adequately controlled until the harvest.

  • 8.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Giunti, Giulia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia P.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Zoccali, Paolo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Field efficacy of two organic acids against Varroa destructor2017In: Entomologia generalis, ISSN 0171-8177, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parasitization of honeybees by Varroa destructor represents a serious limiting factor for beekeeping. The past and current widespread use of synthetic acaricides, such as fluvalinate and coumaphos, results in the onset of pest resistance, therefore research efforts focused on the use of alternative solutions to control the population of this parasitic mite. In the present study, the efficacy of two formulates containing Oxalic Acid (OA) or Formic Acid (FA) was evaluated in real field conditions. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the OA formulate in controlling more than 90% of V. destructor phoretic population. On the other hand, FA shown an efficacy of 60% on phoretic mites. A similar pattern was highlighted on brood and adult bees’ infestation. The OA formulate showed a proper efficacy, highlighting its potential as alternative to chemical substances in holding the increase of V. destructor during a late summer treatment.

  • 9.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Maione, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Population dynamics and spread of Unaspis yanonensis in Calabria, Italy2013In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Calabria (southern Italy) poses a serious threat to citrus cultivation. A regional survey was performed to record information about its distribution in local citrus orchards. Field population dynamics were also studied. The arrowhead scale, U. yanonensis, was recorded in the two main citrus cultivation areas of Calabria. In the investigated environments U. yanonensis completed two generations per year; a typical bi-modal oviposition was recorded. The arrowhead scale overwintered as second-instar males and pre-ovipositing females.

  • 10.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Zappala, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Serra, Demetrio
    QuaSicATec, Calabria, Italy.
    Russo, Mariateresa
    QuaSicATec, Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fumigant bioactivity of five Citrus essential oils against Tribolium confusum2014In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 223-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades, the huge use of pesticides caused several environmental problems, so research investigations moved to find a series of compounds with selective toxicity, of a biodegradable and environment-friendly nature, maintaining a positive action in crop and stored products protection. In this perspective, interesting results in the control of pests and fungal pathogens were obtained using essential oils, which are compounds produced by many species of plants as secondary metabolites. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the fumigant activity of five Citrus essential oils against the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Du Val, planning a possible employment in the mill industry. The fumigant effectiveness was evaluated 24, 48, 72 hours and 7 days after the start of exposure and each essential oil was analyzed by means of GC and GC/MS. Further evaluations about the toxicity of these compounds were made by partially filling the glass vials with food matrix, in order to assess the possible interference of this matter on the active compounds. The data obtained indicated that, at a low level of fumigant concentration, essential oils can effectively control stored product pests; in the presence of debris, like flour, the efficacy decreased. Plant extracts caused also increased mortality levels after the end of fumigation. The results obtained from this experimentation confirm the efficacy of essential oils in pest control and, in particular, against stored product pests.

  • 11.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Castracani, Cristina
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Mori, Alessandra
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Grasso, Donato A.
    Università degli Studi di Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Interaction between ants and the Mediterranean fruit fly: New insights for biological control2015In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 90, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, the positive role of ants as biological control agents in agro-ecosystems has gained growing interest. We investigated the predatory relationship between Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander), commonly widespread in the Mediterranean area. Additionally we investigated some bio-ethological aspects of C. capitata larvae that could be relevant timing factors for predation. Field observations highlighted that C. capitata larvae were preyed on by ants, and laboratory assays suggested that movement of medfly larvae, as well as olfactory cues, affected prey location by T. nigerrimum. Further observations on the circadian activity of C. capitata suggest that mature larvae leave the fruit to pupate in the soil mainly in the early morning, and they can bury faster in moistened soil. These ecological aspects are discussed in the context of sustainable agriculture. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Simbiosi SCaRL. Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Romeo, Flora V.
    Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–CREA–Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee, Catania, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Simbiosi SCaRL. Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Timpanaro, Nicolina
    Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria–CREA–Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)2016In: Journal of Economic Entomology, ISSN 0022-0493, E-ISSN 1938-291X, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 360-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC95 ranged from 295.13 to 832.44mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC50 values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38mg liter(-1), while LC95 ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide.

  • 13.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Romeo, Flora Valeria
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Carpinteri, Guido
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Fabroni, Simona
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Rapisarda, Paolo
    Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Agrumicoltura e le Colture Mediterranee (CRA-ACM), Acireale, Catania, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di AGRARIA, University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Effects of inert dusts applied alone and in combination with sweet orange essential oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and wheat microbial population2014In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 61, p. 361-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of kaolin and diatomaceous earth applied alone and in combinations with sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] peel essential oil against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and wheat microbial populations were evaluated. Adult beetles reared on durum wheat (cv Simeto) were used to carry out the tests. Five formulations at five application rates were tested. Both insect mortality and progeny production were affected by the treatment, the application rate and the exposure time. C. sinensis essential oil showed a synergistic effect on the mortality of R. dominica, if combined with kaolin, and antagonistic effect when admixed with diatomaceous earth. Yeasts and moulds as well as total mesophilic aerobic bacteria growths were reduced by C sinensis essential oil applied alone more than the other dusts and dust-essential oil-based treatments. Kaolin admixed with C. sinensis peel essential oil might be a viable alternative to the chemical pesticides commonly used in wheat pest management. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Campolo, Orlando
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Verdone, Maurizio
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Chiera, Eleonora
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Response of four stored products insects to a structural heat treatment in a flour mill2013In: Journal of Stored Products Research, ISSN 0022-474X, E-ISSN 1879-1212, Vol. 54, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat treatment is an ecologically sustainable technique that can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The objective of this trial was the evaluation of efficacy of a commercial structural heat treatment, performed by means of electric heaters in a flour mill. Maximum temperatures, time above 50 degrees C and to reach 50 degrees C were different for each floor of the treated mill. Susceptibility to elevated temperature of different life stages of Tribolium confusum, Gnatocerus cornutus, Sitophilus oryzae, and Rhyzopertha dominica are reported. The mortality at 12, 24 and 36 h after the beginning of the heat exposure was evaluated. Eggs of T. confusum were the most sensitive stage to heat treatment. For total effectiveness of the treatment, a time between 24 and 36 h was necessary. The use of electric heaters could represent a viable alternative to other methods used for pest control in the milling sector. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Laudani, Francesca
    et al.
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia P.
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Edwards, Martin G.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Malacrinó, Antonino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Abd El Halim, Hesham M.
    Benha University, Egypt.
    Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.
    Newcastle University, England.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    RNAi-mediated gene silencing in Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)2017In: Open Life Sciences, ISSN 2391-5412, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 214-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful strategy for gene function analysis, and it is also widely studied in view of a promising use in pest control. The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most devastating pests of palm in the world. Conventional pest management practices are not adequate to control this insect, thus the development of efficient approaches with minimal environmental impact are needed. In this work, the potential of RNAi in R. ferrugineus has been investigated through the silencing of three different genes (alpha-amylase, V-ATPase, Ecdysone receptor). For each gene we tested two different doses (1,500 and 5,500 ng) and two delivery techniques (injection and ingestion), evaluating both gene knockdown and mortality on insects. Results show that RNAi mediated gene silencing in R. ferrugineus varies from gene to gene, and that the response is dose-dependent, with stronger effects when dsRNA was administered by injection. In parallel, the same study was carried out with the model organism Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), with results showing a different pattern of response, although the two insects belong to the same order.

  • 16.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meta-Omics Tools in the World of Insect-Microorganism Interactions2018In: Biology, ISSN 2079-7737, Vol. 7, no 4, article id E50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are able to influence several aspects of insects' life, and this statement is gaining increasing strength, as research demonstrates it daily. At the same time, new sequencing technologies are now available at a lower cost per base, and bioinformatic procedures are becoming more user-friendly. This is triggering a huge effort in studying the microbial diversity associated to insects, and especially to economically important insect pests. The importance of the microbiome has been widely acknowledged for a wide range of animals, and also for insects this topic is gaining considerable importance. In addition to bacterial-associates, the insect-associated fungal communities are also gaining attention, especially those including plant pathogens. The use of meta-omics tools is not restricted to the description of the microbial world, but it can be also used in bio-surveillance, food safety assessment, or even to bring novelties to the industry. This mini-review aims to give a wide overview of how meta-omics tools are fostering advances in research on insect-microorganism interactions.

  • 17.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, O.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, F.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, V.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fumigant and Repellent Activity of Limonene Enantiomers Against Tribolium confusum du Val2016In: Neotropical Entomology, ISSN 1519-566X, E-ISSN 1678-8052, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 597-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of pesticides, as carried out in the last 50 years, caused several negative environmental and human health consequences, leading to the development of alternative techniques to control pests, such as the use of compounds of plant origin. In this study, we assessed the fumigant and repellent activity of both the enantiomers of limonene, a monoterpene usually found in many plant species, against Tribolium confusum du Val. We tested both molecules at different doses, air temperatures, and in absence and presence of flour. R-(+)-limonene resulted more effective than S-(-)-limonene; indeed, it was able to reach 100% of efficacy at a concentration of 85 mg/L air when tested at different temperatures without flour. Data showed a positive relationship between efficacy and temperature, and a negative effect of the presence of debris on the bioactivity of limonene. Furthermore, repellency trials reported a higher activity of R-(+)-limonene compared to the other enantiomer.

  • 18.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy .
    Medina, Raul F
    Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy .
    Instar- and host-associated differentiation of bacterial communities in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0194131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are acknowledged for their role in shaping insects' evolution, life history and ecology. Previous studies have shown that microbial communities harbored within insects vary through ontogenetic development and among insects feeding on different host-plant species. In this study, we characterized the bacterial microbiota of the highly polyphagous Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), at different instars and when feeding on different host-plant species. Our results show that the bacterial microbiota hosted within the Mediterranean fruit fly differs among instars and host-plant species. Most of the bacteria harbored by the Mediterranean fruit fly belong to the phylum Proteobacteria, including genera of Alphaproteobacteria such as Acetobacter and Gluconobacter; Betaprotobacteria such as Burkholderia and Gammaproteobacteria such as Pseudomonas.

  • 19.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ohio State Univ, OH 43210 USA.
    Kimber, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brengdahl, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Friberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heightened condition-dependence of the sexual transcriptome as a function of genetic quality in Drosophila melanogaster head tissue2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1906, article id 20190819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory suggests sexual traits should show heightened condition-dependent expression. This prediction has been tested extensively in experiments where condition has been manipulated through environmental quality. Condition-dependence as a function of genetic quality has, however, only rarely been addressed, despite its central importance in evolutionary theory. To address the effect of genetic quality on expression of sexual and non-sexual traits, we here compare gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster head tissue between flies with intact genomes (high condition) and flies carrying a major deleterious mutation (low condition). We find that sex-biased genes show heightened condition-dependent expression in both sexes, and that expression in low condition males and females regresses towards a more similar expression profile. As predicted, sex-biased expression was more sensitive to condition in males compared to females, but surprisingly female-biased, rather than male-biased, genes show higher sensitivity to condition in both sexes. Our results thus support the fundamental predictions of the theory of condition-dependence when condition is a function of genetic quality.

  • 20.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Mosca, Saveria
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Giunti, Giulia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia Patricia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    A Metabarcoding Survey on the Fungal Microbiota Associated to the Olive Fruit Fly2017In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 677-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the “core” associate fungi of B. oleae. This fungal communitywasmainly represented by sooty mould fungi, such as Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aureobasidium spp., by plant pathogens like Colletotrichum spp. and Pseudocercospora spp., along with several other less abundant taxa whose ecology is unclear in most of the cases. Our findings lead to new insights into the microbial ecology of this specific ecological niche, enabling the understanding of a complex network of interactions within the olive agroecosystem.

  • 21.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy; Universita of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Molecular analysis of the fungal microbiome associated with the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae2015In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 18, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A molecular approach was used to investigate the fungal microbiome associated with Bactrocera oleae a major key pest of Olea europea, using the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) as barcode gene. Amplicons were cloned and a representative number of sequenced fragments were used as barcode genes for the identification of fungi. The analysis of the detected sequence types (STs) enabled the identification of a total of 34 phylotypes which were associated with 10 fungal species, 3 species complexes and 8 genera. Three phylotypes remained unresolved within the order Saccharomycetales and the phylum Ascomycota because of the lack of closely related sequences in GenBank. Cladosporium was the most abundantly detected genus, followed by Alternaria and Aureobasidium, well-known components of olive sooty moulds. Interestingly, Colletotrichum sp. and other fungal plant pathogens were also detected, leading to potential new insights into heir epidemiology. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Malacrinó, Antonino
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Rassati, Davide
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Mehzabin, Rupa
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Battisti, Andrea
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Fungal communities associated with bark and ambrosia beetles trapped at international harbours2017In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 28, p. 44-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera; Scolytinae) establish trophic relationships with fungi, which could be also agents of plant diseases. Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg) are two species of Palaearctic origin that have been introduced in several countries around the world. Here, we investigated their associated fungal communities using individuals trapped at harbours in their native range, without strictly focusing on nutritional symbionts. Targeting the ITS2 region of the fungal rDNA through pyrosequencing, we retrieved taxa known to be agents of plant diseases, taxa never previously reported associated with these beetle species, and sequence clusters not linked to any known fungus. These findings underline that surveillance at harbours should be extended to the fungi associated with trapped bark and ambrosia beetles, taking into account their role as potential vectors of plant pathogens. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cascone, Pasquale
    Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Portici, NA, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Grande, Saverio B.
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria.
    Guerrieri, Emilio
    Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Portici, NA, Italy; Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Portici, NA, Italy.
    Hymenoptera wasps associated with the Asian gall wasp of chestnut (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) in Calabria, Italy2014In: Phytoparasitica, ISSN 0334-2123, E-ISSN 1876-7184, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 699-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parasitoid complex of the Asian chestnut gall wasp Drycosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu was studied in Calabria (Italy). A total of 14 different species of parasitoids were collected, of which three are recorded on the Asian gall wasp for the first time. The composition of the parasitoid complex collected in Calabria was compared with that reported from Italy and from Europe. The altitude of the sites of collection seemed to have an effect on the distribution and abundance of the single species of parasitoids.

  • 24.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Scirto, Giuseppe
    Associazione Regionale Allevatori Calabria, Lamezia Terme, CZ, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    A scientific note on a new pest for European honeybees: first report of small hive beetle Aethina tumida, (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) in Italy2015In: Apidologie, ISSN 0044-8435, E-ISSN 1297-9678, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 527-529Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Romeo, Flora V.
    et al.
    Ctr Ric Olivicoltura Frutticoltura and Agr CREA OFA, Italy.
    Macedo, Juliana Alves
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Brazil.
    Malacrinó, Antonino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Natural Strategies to Improve Quality in Food Protection2018In: Journal of Food Quality, ISSN 0146-9428, E-ISSN 1745-4557, article id 7480910Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 26.
    Strano, Cinzia P.
    et al.
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Mediterranea Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Influence of Host Plant on Thaumetopoea pityocampa Gut Bacterial Community2018In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 487-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial communities associated to the gut of insects are attracting an increasing interest, mainly because of their role in influencing several host life-traits. The characterization of the gut microbial community is pivotal for understanding insect ecology and, thus, to develop novel pest management strategies. The pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pytiocampa (Denis amp; Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), is a severe defoliator of pine forests, able to feed on several pine species. In this work, we performed a metabarcoding analysis to investigate, for the first time, the diversity of the gut bacterial community of pine processionary larvae associated with three different host pine species (Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra subsp. laricio, and Pinus pinaster). We found that the gut microbial community of T. pityocampa larvae collected on P. halapensis was different from that associated with larvae collected from P. nigra and P. pinaster. Moreover, the high presence of bacteria belonging to the genera Modestobacter, Delftia, and unidentified Methylobacteriaceae retrieved in larvae feeding on P. halapensis suggested that specific interactions can occur. Our results provide the evidence that different host plant differently impact on the microbiota diversity of T. pityocampa larvae, contributing to the general knowledge of this pest with information that could be useful in shaping the next generation of pest control strategies.

  • 27.
    Zoccali, Paolo
    et al.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Malacrinò, Antonino
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Campolo, Orlando
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Laudani, Francesca
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Algeri, Giuseppe M.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Giunti, Giulia
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Strano, Cinzia P.
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Benelli, Giovanni
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; The BioRobotics Institute, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pontedera, Italy.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    University of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    A novel GIS-based approach to assess beekeeping suitability of Mediterranean lands2017In: SAUDI JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ISSN 1319-562X, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 1045-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Honeybees are critically important for the environment and to the economy. However, there are in substantial decline worldwide, leading to serious threat to the stability and yield of food crops. Beekeeping is of pivotal importance, combining the wide economical aspect of honey production and the important ecological services provided by honeybees. In this scenario, the prompt identification of beekeeping areas is strategic, since it maximised productivity and lowered the risks of colony losses. Fuzzy logic is an ideal approach for problem-solving tasks, as it is specifically designed to manage problems with a high degree of uncertainty. This research tested a novel GIS-based approach to assess beekeeping suitability of lands located in Calabria (Southern Italy), without relying to Analytic Hierarchy Process - Multiple Criteria Decision Making (AHP-MCDM), thus avoiding the constraints due to the technique and decision makers’ influences. Furthermore, the data used here were completely retrieved from open access sources, high-lighting that our approach is characterized by low costs and can be easily reproduced for a wide arrays of geographical contexts. Notably, the results obtained by our experiments were validated by the actual beekeeping reality. Besides beekeeping, the use of this system could not only be applied in beekeeping land suitability evaluations, but may be successfully extended to other types of land suitability evaluations. (C) 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.

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