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  • 1.
    Calamba, Katherine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Lorraine, France.
    Barrirero, Jenifer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Joesaar, M. P. Johansson
    SECO Tools AB, Sweden.
    Bruyere, S.
    Univ Lorraine, France.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pierson, J. F.
    Univ Lorraine, France.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muecklich, F.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Growth and high temperature decomposition of epitaxial metastable wurtzite (Ti1-x,Al-x)N(0001) thin films2019In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, article id 137414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure, growth, and phase stability of (Ti1-x,Al-x)N films with high Al content were investigated. (Ti1-x,Al-x)N (x= 0.63 and 0.77) thin films were grown on MgO (111) substrates at 700 degrees C using a UHV DC magnetron sputtering system. The (Ti-0.37,Al-0.63)N film is a single crystal with a cubic NaCl (B1) structure while the (T-i0.23,Al-0.77)N film only shows epitaxial growth of the same cubic phase in the first few atomic layers. With increasing film thickness, epitaxial wurtzite (B4) forms. The thin cubic layer and the wurtzite film has an orientation relationship of c-(Ti-0.23,Al-0.77)N(111)[110]parallel to w-(Ti-0.23,Al-0.77)N(0001)[11 (2) over bar0]. Continued deposition results in a gradual break-down of the epitaxial growth. It is replaced by polycrystalline growth of wurtzite columns with a high degree of 0001 texture, separated by a Tienriched cubic phase. In the as-deposited state, c-(Ti-0.27,Al-0.63)N displays a homogeneous chemical distribution while the w-(Ti-0.23,Al-0.77)N has segregated to Al- and Ti-rich domains. Annealing at 900 degrees C resulted in the spinodal decomposition of the metastable c-(Ti-0.27,Al-0.63)N film and formation of coherent elongated c-AlN and cTi-N-rich domains with an average width of 4.5 +/- 0.2 nm while the width of the domains in the w-(Ti-0.23,Al-0.77)N film only marginally increases to 2.8 +/- 0.1 nm. The slower coarsening rate of the wurtzite structure compared to cubic is indicative of a higher thermal stability.

  • 2.
    Calamba, Katherine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Lorraine, France.
    Pierson, J. F.
    Univ Lorraine, France.
    Bruyere, S.
    Univ Lorraine, France.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barrirero, Jenifer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Muecklich, F.
    Saarland Univ, Germany.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jöesaar Johansson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SECO Tools AB, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dislocation structure and microstrain evolution during spinodal decomposition of reactive magnetron sputtered heteroepixatial c-(Ti-0.37,Al-0.63)N/c-TiN films grown on MgO(001) and (111) substrates2019In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 125, no 10, article id 105301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heteroepitaxial c-(Ti-0.37,Al-0.63)N thin films were grown on MgO(001) and MgO(111) substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering. High resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron micrographs show coherency between the film and the substrate. In the as-deposited state, x-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps show a strained epitaxial film. Corresponding geometric phase analysis (GPA) deformation maps show a high stress in the film. At elevated temperature (900 degrees C), the films decompose to form iso-structural coherent c-Al- and c-TiN-rich domains, elongated along the elastically soft amp;lt;100amp;gt; directions. GPA analysis reveals that the c-TiN domains accommodate more dislocations than the c-AlN domains. This is because of the stronger directionality of the covalent bonds in c-AlN compared with c-TiN, making it more favorable for the dislocations to accumulate in c-TiN. The defect structure and strain generation in c-(Ti,Al)N during spinodal decomposition is affected by the chemical bonding state and elastic properties of the segregated domains.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fournier, Daniele
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ene, Vladimir-Lucian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Romania.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Formation mechanism and thermoelectric properties of CaMnO3 thin films synthesized by annealing of Ca0.5Mn0.5O films2019In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 8482-8491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-step synthesis approach was utilized to grow CaMnO3 on M-, R- and C-plane sapphire substrates. Radio-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering was used to grow rock-salt-structured (Ca, Mn)O followed by a 3-h annealing step at 800 degrees C in oxygen flow to form the distorted perovskite phase CaMnO3. The effect of temperature in the post-annealing step was investigated using x-ray diffraction. The phase transformation to CaMnO3 started at 450 degrees C and was completed at 550 degrees C. Films grown on R- and C-plane sapphire showed similar structure with a mixed orientation, whereas the film grown on M-plane sapphire was epitaxially grown with an out-of-plane orientation in the [202] direction. The thermoelectric characterization showed that the film grown on M-plane sapphire has about 3.5 times lower resistivity compared to the other films with a resistivity of 0.077cm at 500 degrees C. The difference in resistivity is a result from difference in crystal structure, single orientation for M-plane sapphire compared to mixed for R- and C-plane sapphire. The highest absolute Seebeck coefficient value is -350 mu VK-1 for all films and is decreasing with temperature.

  • 4.
    Gharavi, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Balke, B.
    Univ Stuttgart, Germany.
    Fournier, D.
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pallier, Camille
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and characterization of single-phase epitaxial Cr2N thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering2019In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 1434-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr2N is commonly found as a minority phase or inclusion in stainless steel, CrN-based hard coatings, etc. However, studies on phase-pure material for characterization of fundamental properties are limited. Here, Cr2N thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto (0001) sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction and pole figure texture analysis show Cr2N (0001) epitaxial growth. Scanning electron microscopy imaging shows a smooth surface, while transmission electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity show a uniform and dense film with a density of 6.6gcm(-3), which is comparable to theoretical bulk values. Annealing the films in air at 400 degrees C for 96h shows little signs of oxidation. Nano-indentation shows an elastic-plastic behavior with H=18.9GPa and E-r=265GPa. The moderate thermal conductivity is 12Wm(-1)K(-1), and the electrical resistivity is 70cm. This combination of properties means that Cr2N may be of interest in applications such as protective coatings, diffusion barriers, capping layers and contact materials.

  • 5.
    Gharavi, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kerdsongpanya, Sit
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rensselaer Polytech Inst, NY 12180 USA.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nong, N. V
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Balke, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Germany.
    Fournier, D.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
    Belliard, L.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, France.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pallier, Camille
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of CrN and CrN/Cr2N thin films2018In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 51, no 35, article id 355302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CrN thin films with an N/Cr ratio of 95% were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto (0001) sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction and pole figure texture analysis show CrN (111) epitaxial growth in a twin domain fashion. By changing the nitrogen versus argon gas flow mixture and the deposition temperature, thin films with different surface morphologies ranging from grainy rough textures to flat and smooth films were prepared. These parameters can also affect the CrN(x )system, with the film compound changing between semiconducting CrN and metallic Cr2N through the regulation of the nitrogen content of the gas flow and the deposition temperature at a constant deposition pressure. Thermoelectric measurements (electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient), scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy imaging confirm the changing electrical resistivity between 0.75 and 300 m omega cm, the changing Seebeck coefficient values between 140 and 230 mu VK-1, and the differences in surface morphology and microstructure as higher temperatures result in lower electrical resistivity while gas flow mixtures with higher nitrogen content result in single phase cubic CrN.

  • 6.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Rennes 1, France.
    Deputier, S.
    University of Rennes 1, France.
    Demange, V.
    University of Rennes 1, France.
    Bouquet, V.
    University of Rennes 1, France.
    Galca, A. C.
    National Institute Mat Phys, Romania.
    Iuga, A.
    National Institute Mat Phys, Romania.
    Pintilie, L.
    National Institute Mat Phys, Romania.
    Guilloux-Viry, M.
    University of Rennes 1, France.
    Effect of in-plane ordering on dielectric properties of highly {111}-oriented bismuth-zinc-niobate thin films2017In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, no 19, p. 11306-11313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bi1.5-xZn0.92-yNb1.5O6.92-delta (BZN) thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on two different Pt-covered substrates, namely textured {111} Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(100) Si substrate (Pt/Si) and epitaxial {111} Pt/R-plane sapphire substrate (Pt/sapphire). In both cases, the BZN films present {111} and {100} out-of-plane orientations, in relative ratios of 65: 35 on Pt/Si and 80: 20 on Pt/sapphire, respectively. The film grown on Pt/Si is textured, while the film deposited on Pt/sapphire presents epitaxial-like relationships with the substrate, for both out-of-plane orientations. Dielectric measurements were taken on both types of thin films, using Pt/BZN/Pt planar capacitor structures. The BZN/Pt/sapphire film presents higher dielectric constant (245 at 100 kHz) and higher tunability (12% at 600 kV/cm) than the BZN/Pt/Si film (200; 6%), while the dielectric losses values are nearly same (similar to 0.05).

  • 7.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wet-cleaning of MgO(001): Modification of surface chemistry and effects on thin film growth investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 2, article id 021407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the wet-cleaning process using solvents and detergent on the surface chemistry of MgO(001) substrate for film deposition was investigated. Six different wet-cleaning processes using solvent and detergent were compared. The effect on film growth was studied by the example system ScN. The surface chemistry of the cleaned surface was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the film/substrate interface after film growth was investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The surface composition is dependent on the wet-cleaning process. Sonication in a detergent before the solvents yield a pure oxide surface compared to hydroxide/carbonate contaminated surface for all the other processes. An annealing step is efficient for the removal of carbon contamination as well as most of the hydroxide or carbonates. The study of the film/substrate interface revealed that the wet-cleaning process significantly affects the final interface and film quality. The substrate cleaned with detergent followed by solvent cleaning exhibited the cleanest surface of the substrate before annealing, after annealing, in addition to the sharpest film/substrate interface. (C) 2017 American Vacuum Society.

  • 8.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tureson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stilkerich, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of impurities on morphology, growth mode, and thermoelectric properties of (111) and (001) epitaxial-like ScN films2019In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 52, no 3, article id 035302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ScN is an emerging semiconductor with an indirect bandgap. It has attracted attention for its thermoelectric properties, use as seed layers, and for alloys for piezoelectric application. ScN and other transition metal nitride semiconductors used for their interesting electrical properties are sensitive to contaminants, such as oxygen or fluorine. In this present article, the influence of depositions conditions on the amount of oxygen contaminants incorporated in ScN films were investigated and their effects on the electrical properties (electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient) were studied. Epitaxial-like films of thickness 125 +/- 5 nm to 155 +/- 5 nm were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on c-plane Al-2, O-3(111) and r-plane Al2O3 at substrate temperatures ranging from 700 degrees C to 950 degrees C. The amount of oxygen contaminants in the film, dissolved into ScN or as an oxide, was related to the adatom mobility during growth, which is affected by the deposition temperature and the presence of twin domain growth. The lowest values of electrical resistivity of 50 mu Omega cm were obtained on ScN(1 1 1)/ MgO(111) and on ScN(001)/r-plane Al2O3 grown at 950 degrees C with no twin domains and the lowest amount of oxygen contaminant. At the best, the films exhibited an electrical resistivity of 50 mu Omega cm with Seebeck coefficient values maintained at -40 mu V K-1, thus a power factor estimated at 3.2 x 10(-3) W m(-1) K-2 (at room temperature).

  • 9.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Abadias, Gregory
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    P-type Al-doped Cr-deficient CrN thin films for thermoelectrics2018In: APPLIED PHYSICS EXPRESS, ISSN 1882-0778, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 051003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric properties of chromium nitride (CrN)-based films grown on c-plane sapphire by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. In this work, aluminum doping was introduced in CrN (degenerate n-type semiconductor) by co-deposition. Under the present deposition conditions, over-stoichiometry in nitrogen (CrN1+delta) rock-salt structure is obtained. A p-type conduction is observed with nitrogen-rich CrN combined with aluminum doping. The Cr0.96Al0.04N1.17 film exhibited a high Seebeck coefficient and a sufficient power factor at 300 degrees C. These results are a starting point for designing p-type/n-type thermoelectric materials based on chromium nitride films, which are cheap and routinely grown on the industrial scale. (C) 2018 The Japan Society of Applied Physics

  • 10.
    Tureson, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Marteau, Marc
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Cabioch, Thierry
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fournier, Daniele
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Singh, Niraj
    Indian Inst Technol Mandi, India.
    Soni, Ajay
    Indian Inst Technol Mandi, India.
    Belliard, Laurent
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of ion-implantation-induced defects and Mg dopants on the thermoelectric properties of ScN2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, no 20, article id 205307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For applications in energy harvesting and environmentally friendly cooling, and for power sources in remote or portable applications, it is desired to enhance the efficiency of thermoelectric materials. One strategy consists of reducing the thermal conductivity while increasing or retaining the thermoelectric power factor. An approach to achieve this is doping to enhance the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, while simultaneously introducing defects in the materials to increase phonon scattering. Here, we use Mg ion implantation to induce defects in epitaxial ScN (111) films. The films were implanted with Mg+ ions with different concentration profiles along the thickness of the film, incorporating 0.35 to 2.2 at. % of Mg in ScN. Implantation at high temperature (600 degrees C), with few defects due to the temperature, does not substantially affect the thermal conductivity compared to a reference ScN. Samples implanted at room temperature, in contrast, exhibited a reduction of the thermal conductivity by a factor of 3. The sample doped with 2.2 at. % of Mg also showed an increased power factor after implantation. This paper thus shows the effect of ion-induced defects on thermal conductivity of ScN films. High-temperature implantation allows the defects to be annealed out during implantation, while the defects are retained for room-temperature implanted samples, allowing for a drastic reduction in thermal conductivity.

  • 11.
    Tureson, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Fournier, Daniele
    Sorbonne Universites, Paris, France.
    Singh, Niraj
    Indian Institute Technology Mandi, India.
    Acharya, Somnath
    Indian Institute Technology Mandi, India.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ionbond Switzerland Olten, Switzerland.
    Belliard, Laurent
    University of Paris 06, France.
    Soni, Ajay
    Indian Institute Technology Mandi, India.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reduction of the thermal conductivity of the thermoelectric material ScN by Nb alloying2017In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 122, no 2, article id 025116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ScN-rich (Sc,Nb)N solid solution thin films have been studied, motivated by the promising thermoelectric properties of ScN-based materials. Cubic Sc1-xNbxN films for 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 0.25 were epitaxially grown by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on a c-plane sapphire substrate and oriented along the (111) orientation. The crystal structure, morphology, thermal conductivity, and thermoelectric and electrical properties were investigated. The ScN reference film exhibited a Seebeck coefficient of -45 mu V/K and a power factor of 6 x 10(-4) W/m K-2 at 750K. Estimated from room temperature Hall measurements, all samples exhibit a high carrier density of the order of 10(21) cm(-3). Inclusion of heavy transition metals into ScN enables the reduction in thermal conductivity by an increase in phonon scattering. The Nb inserted ScN thin films exhibited a thermal conductivity lower than the value of the ScN reference (10.5W m(-1) K-1) down to a minimum value of 2.2 Wm(-1) K-1. Insertion of Nb into ScN thus resulted in a reduction in thermal conductivity by a factor of similar to 5 due to the mass contrast in ScN, which increases the phonon scattering in the material. Published by AIP Publishing.

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