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  • 1.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    The impact of off-site construction transport on air quality2023Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While transport is inevitable in our economy and daily lives, it also engenders negative effects on the society and environment. The effects of air pollution are responsible for more than 364,200 premature deaths in Europe each year. Most urban areas still exceed the NOx and PM WHO air quality guidelines, of which a large share of pollutants is attributable to freight transport. The construction sector forms no exception, as it intrinsically strongly relies on off-site logistics activities, i.e. transports to and from sites. Although construction works lead to an urban economic uptake on the long-haul, the environmental nuisances from construction logistic (CL) activities during the works have so far been overlooked. This thesis focuses on the air quality impact of off-site construction transport, covering four main parts. First, as there is a lack of knowledge within cities on how to set construction transport demands and how to involve actors in these processes, a stakeholder framework is presented. Next, I identify the available and required transport data (and digitization possibilities) to assess the sector’s environmental impact, such as On-Board Units. Secondly, impact assessments were conducted across various construction supply chain implementations, on single-site, city-wide and national level. Hence, a methodological approach to derive construction-related vehicles from Heavy-Goods Vehicle (HGV) traffic based on algorithmic and geospatial analyses is proposed. Results indicate that construction transport represents 26.40% of total HGV traffic in the Brussels-Capital Region (BCR), generating €45,631.85 of external costs per workday, and 17.58% in Belgium (or €1.45mio per day). Subsequently, the framework was deployed to assess the transport performance of the multimodal Brussels Construction Consolidation Centre. The use of this setup can mitigate external costs by up to 59% compared to business-as-usual operations, most notably on congestion and climate change costs. However, improvements are necessary to tackle local emissions, attributable to less performant -yet ubiquitous- vessel engines. Air pollution damage costs also remain high on city level analyses, with CL inflicting €55,123.07 per month (or €2,505.59 per workday) in the BCR. A fortiori, with the growing concern on urban air quality, this raises the question of where, when and by whom the most exposure costs are inflicted. So far, the geo-temporal link between the emitting freight vehicle and its receptor densities was considered static. The third part introduces a dynamic impact-pathway approach, highlighting that PM & NO2 source impacts engender €61.604 of health costs in the BCR each day. Large differences were found on the local level compared to the traditional static approach, indicating that the proposed dynamic methodology should be used for micro-scale analyses (on link, building or neighborhood level). Striking is that vulnerable population segments such as toddlers, school children and elderly, who are more sensible to the effects of air pollution, incur 60.28% of the total health costs, although these segments represent only a quarter of the BCR population. Moreover, a strong overlap was found between the receptor’s presence (in particular children) and peak freight traffic movements. The fourth part investigates the exposure effects when off-site construction transport flows are spatiotemporally rerouted around air pollution hotspots. Although an increase in emissions is observed due to higher travelled distances and slower driving speeds, results show that the inflicted health costs can be mitigated up to 25.53%. Conclusively, this study suggests to decouple policies from absolute transport emissions and focus on the actual health impact, considering the spatiotemporal relationship of both emissions and receptors. Although tailoring a one-size-fits-all construction logistic plan can initially prove to be difficult due to the unique character of each construction site’s supply chain, the conducted studies also show that this individual complexity can be overcome by overall better integrated urban transport planning, and can ultimately lead to significant sustainability benefits.

  • 2.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Fufa, Selamawit Mamo
    Mommens, Koen
    A Sustainability Assessment Framework for On-Site and Off-Site Construction Logistics2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban areas pay increasing attention to new construction and infrastructure works, mainly due to the rapid global rise in urbanisation. In the long run, these works have a positive correlation with the economic and social attractiveness of cities. Construction strongly relies on lo- gistics activities, which cannot be neglected in the environmental equation. An important aspect in tackling the negative effects of construction logistics (CL) lies in understanding the source and mit- igation potential of the impacts incurred. However, currently, limited robust impact assessments are available for this sector. Given the lack of these rigorous assessments, it is difficult to evaluate the environmental criteria concerned, especially when comparing innovative CL solutions. In this paper, we present a holistic sustainability assessment framework designed for CL activities based on life cycle approaches, which covers four main iterative steps: (1) goal and scope definition, (2) data identification and availability, (3) scenario and setup evaluation and (4) environmental impact assessment. To measure both the off-site and on-site CL impact, two distinct and complementary methodologies are used: External Cost Calculations and Life Cycle Assessment. The framework was implemented on a pilot case in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium). It provides a holistic view of CL impacts for policy evaluations and implementations on the project, portfolio or city level. The results show that off-site zero-emission construction vehicles are the way forward if cities want to achieve environmental goals by 2035. However, market readiness for high-capacity vehicles must be considered. Otherwise, the positive effects on air pollution, climate change and noise are offset by a saturation of the road transport network and its associated congestion and infrastructure dam- age costs.

  • 3.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Elsene, Belgium.
    Huang, He
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Elsene, Belgium.
    Macharis, Cathy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Elsene, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Elsene, Belgium.
    A GPS-based approach to measure the environmental impact of construction-related HGV traffic on city level2023In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 98, no 106955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction logistics (CL) is assumed to represent 20-35% of total urban freight traffic and account for a sig- nificant share of environmental nuisances. However, methodologies used so far make abstraction of travelled vehicle-kilometres (vkm), hence inadequately determining the true environmental impact of off-site CL activities. In turn, the lack of baseline assessments renders the development of sector-specific transport policies difficult. In Belgium, the use of On-Board Units shows promising results to answer this research gap. This paper presents a methodological approach to derive CL vkm on vehicle and trip level, based on algorithmic (R) and geospatial (GIS) analyses of GPS data from all HGV driving in or through the territory of Belgium, which serves as input to conduct a city-wide environmental impact assessment in terms of external costs. The proposed methodology was deployed on 66 large construction sites in the Brussels-Capital Region (BCR) active between 2020-2022, during the month of September 2021. Subsequently, results were translated to monetary terms to capture the generated environmental and mobility impacts. With its 968,041.96 monthly driven vkm, CL represents 26.40% of total HGV traffic in the BCR. This share generates €45,631.85 of external costs per workday, totaling €1,003,900.61 per month. Particular attention is paid to local air pollution (NOx, PM) and global emitted pollutants (GHG; CO2- eq.) which account for €55,123.07 and €80,409.95 per month of damage costs, respectively. To mitigate these damage costs and meet environmental goals, governments should pay increasing attention to urban construction transport by stimulating CL setups or developing emission-free public procurement procedures. The results of this study can serve as baseline for future policy recommendations and scenario evaluations.

  • 4.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Macharis, Cathy
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Rerouting urban construction transport flows to avoid air pollution hotspots2023In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, over 96% of the urban population is exposed to exceeding air pollution concentrations. Freight transport daily engenders €61,604 of air pollution health costs in the Brussels-Capital Region (BCR), of which 60% is incurred by vulnerable population segments. The construction sector is responsible for 26.40% of truck traffic in the BCR. This paper examines the exposure effects when off-site construction logistics flows are redirected around air pollution hotspots. Consequently, alternative routing scenarios are computed, and its emission dispersed assuming a Gaussian relation. Concentrations are then associated to spatiotemporal receptor densities. The health impact is monetized using hospital exposure-response functions. While overall emissions increase across all scenarios, health costs are mitigated up to 25.53% by rerouting existing flows. This study suggests to decouple policies from absolute transport emissions and focus on its health impact, considering spatiotemporal dynamics of both emissions and receptors.

  • 5.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Macharis, Cathy
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    The health impact of freight transport-related air pollution on vulnerable population groups2023In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, over 364,200 people in Europe die prematurely due to the effects of air pollution, in which the transportation sector plays an important role. In Brussels, freight transport generates €61,604 of air pollution health costs daily. Research has shown that dynamic spatiotemporal modeling of both emission sources and exposed people (using mobile phone data) renders more accurate impact results when analyzed in microenvi- ronments. However, mobile data underrepresent population segments that are more sensitive to the effects of air pollution, such as toddlers, children and elderly individuals. This paper examined the link between vulnerable people aged 0–3, 3–18 and >65 years and freight transport-related air pollution concentrations in the Brussels- Capital Region (BCR). To this end, dynamic tailpipe emissions and their spatiotemporal dispersion were calcu- lated using output from the Transport Agent-Based Model (TRABAM) on a daily basis. Population densities were calculated as a function of the residences’ occupancy rate and school/class size and opening hours. The effects of exposure were then evaluated using age- and sex-differentiated exposure-response functions and monetized using local hospital cost factors. Data were compiled for 2021. A strong overlap between people’s presence at the institutions’ locations was noticed with a peak in (freight) transportation movements in the city. The results showed that €37,000 [€34,517.47–€40,047.13] of freight transport-related air pollution health costs were incurred daily by vulnerable population segments. While these vulnerable groups made up 25.34% of the total BCR population, they incurred 60% [56.03%–65.01%] of the engendered transportation air pollution costs. The results were then geographically analyzed to identify 465 traffic-related air pollution hotspots across the terri- tory, which accounted for €36,000 [€33,677.85–€39,101.31] of total costs. The latter can be used in future studies to assess sector-specific freight transportation policies, which should take into consideration spatio- temporal population densities on the local level.

  • 6.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    The effects of a water-bound construction consolidation centre on off-site transport performance: the case of the Brussels-Capital Region2022In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 2092-2101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The environmental logistics impact is significant in urban areas, characterised by high receptor den- sities, less accessible sites and limited storage space. With the aim to reduce negative externalities generated by urban construction transport and improve the use of existing inland waterway transport (IWT) infrastructure, the City of Brussels has implemented a water-bound Construction Consolidation Centre ((BCCC). While the concept of a CCC has been implemented in different European cities, limited impact studies are available. This paper assesses the environmental off-site road and IWT’s transport performance of the multimodal BCCC case. Design/methodology/approach: The sustainability impact is evaluated using economic external cost calculations, contextualised with transport planning indicators. Subsequently, findings are compared to business-as-usual (BAU) operations without a CCC as part of a scenario evaluation, for the 24 large construction sites supplied through the CCC between Sep-2019 and Dec-2020.

    Findings: Improvements in the IWT sector are necessary to tackle local emissions (NOx, PM) which rise signifi- cantly compared to BAU (+257 %), mainly attributable to less performant -yet ubiquitous- vessel engines and their long running life. In contrast, other externalities decrease, most noticeably on congestion costs (-91 %), climate change (-66 %), noise (-79 %) and infrastructure costs (-60 %). Overall, €49,404.67 of external costs are saved annually, a 58.72 % reduction compared to BAU. Additionally, improvements are observed on transport planning and efficiency, with 73 % timely deliveries and 93.32 % delivery compliance, hence respecting the Just- In-Time and Just-In-Place principles.

    Research limitations/implications: Promising results are shown to incentivize industry and policy makers for adopting a CCC in light of alleviating the impact of urban construction logistics (CL), if the overall external costs and mobility impacts are considered. Results should be further compared to other logistic solutions to evaluate complementary measures, including more differentiated scenario evaluations.

    Practical implications: Although IWT alleviates road network use, air pollution from vessels should be addressed. An IWT-CCC can offer decision-makers a transport planning solution to decrease urban nuisances and increase resource efficiency use, if specific IWT-CCC and CL applicability requirements are considered. Originality/value: This paper adds knowledge to the sector’s impact mitigation potential using IWT-CCC, offering insights for decisional support and policy recommendations.

  • 7.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    The influence of the construction holidays on HGV traffic in Belgium2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although construction logistics activities are the source of significant environmental nuisances, they are often overlooked. Limited knowledge is available about the true vehicle-kilometres (vkm) associated with the large number of vehicles in the sector. Furthermore, current studies are insufficiently robust to determine the share of construction logistics in total freight transport and its environmental effects. Countries like Belgium and the Netherlands have organized simultaneous holiday periods for the construction sector. This period is driven by the sector itself to avoid delays (within teams and between related companies). The scheme is well-respected despite the regional aspect, as 88% of the construction sector is adhering to it. Consequently, the comparison of the freight transport activities – be it traffic counts or GPS data – could be made between the organized holiday period and a reference period. This paper proposes a macro-level analysis to determine (1) the share, (2) the fleet composition and (3) the environmental impact of construction logistics within Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV) traffic. This is done using On-Board Unit (GPS) data, covering almost all road vehicles with a gross weight of >3,5t on the entire territory of Belgium. This analysis is conducted over reference periods of 4 years (2016-2019). This allows to quantify the influence of the HGV construction logistics fleet on Belgian traffic, for which an external costs analysis (air pollution, accidents, climate change, congestion, loss of habitat, infrastructure, noise and well-to-tank costs) is conducted. Results show that these vehicles, largely construction-related, represent approximately 17.58% of total HGV traffic, or 14.86% of total daily active HGVs. Overall, these transports generate €1.45mio daily external costs, a share which represents 15.33% of total HGV external costs in Belgium. These figures should be considered lower bounds.

  • 8.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, MOBI Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Mommens, Koen
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, MOBI Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Janné, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Venås, Christoffer
    Dept. of Architectural Engineering, SINTEF, Norway .
    Flyen, Cecilie
    Dept. of Architectural Engineering, SINTEF, Norway .
    Fufa, Selamawit Mamo
    Dept. of Architectural Engineering, SINTEF, Norway .
    Macharis, Cathy
    Dept. of Business Technology and Operations, MOBI Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium .
    Economic, social and environmental impact assessment for off-site construction logistics: the data availability issue2020In: World Sustainable Built Environment - Beyond 2020, IOP Publishing , 2020, no 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. The ongoing urbanization trend makes local governments densify their built environment, hence stimulating construction and renovation works in urban areas. Construction intrinsically strongly relies on logistics activities, which in turn are the source of environmental nuisances. The latter are referred to as external costs when they are not borne by the polluter himself, such as greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, congestion, etc. Accurate external cost calculations require accurate data to consider significant calculation-variables. However, current calculations are often based on the number of vehicles used and on transported volume rather than vehicle- or tonne-kilometres, hence not adequate to conduct external cost calculations. Methods. The MIMIC-project1 aims to reduce the impact of construction logistics. Therefore, an integrated impact assessment framework will be developed, assessing the economic and environmental influence of different off-site construction logistics solutions. The necessary data to conduct such an impact assessment are however not always available, complicating calculations. This paper highlights the current gap in accurate data on urban construction logistics flows, the considerable uncertainty about existing figures on construction transport and their methodology, and presents the data availability issue in the development of such a framework, using empirical research. Results. Logistics flows data are typically scattered amongst different actors and various in format. Harmonizing different data categories and sources to feed the framework with relevant logistics variables, this paper presents what is possible to calculate using available data in 4 pilot cases in Belgium, Sweden, Norway and Austria. The various data sources highlight the complexity to develop a framework flexible enough to cope with specific local constraints, whilst generic enough to allow comparability across the European cases, and ultimately across construction logistics globally. Furthermore, a shift is needed towards other data collection methods (GPS, digital waybills etc.). Conclusions. This paper presents the data availability issue in the development of an impact assessment framework for construction logistics, harmonizing different data sources in order to conduct external cost calculations for construction transport.

  • 9.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    et al.
    Mobility, Logistics & Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    Mobility, Logistics & Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Macharis, Cathy
    Mobility, Logistics & Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Building bridges: a participatory stakeholder framework for sustainable urban construction logistics2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban built environment concentrates due to the growing urbanization trend, triggering construction and renovation works in urban areas. Although construction works often revitalize cities upon completion, the associated logistics activities engender a significant financial and environmental footprint if not handled appropriately. Cities have the largest potential to reduce negative impacts through requirements on construction logistics. However, today, there is a lack of knowledge within cities on how to set such demands and how to involve and manage the numerous and varying stakeholders in these processes. This paper presents a participatory decision-making framework for the governance of urban construction logistics on economic, environmental and societal levels, building further on the Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis (MAMCA). The framework was then implemented on a use case in the dense urban Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium), gathering a wide variety of stakeholders in the context of a sustainable Construction Logistics Scenario (CLS) evaluation. Special attention was paid on the identification of implementation barriers and the role of governments to facilitate the introduction and city-wide roll-out of novel CLS. Findings show how different processes are site-, actor- and condition-specific, thereby delivering a common built object which is often based on different motivations and concerns. The study proposes a flexible, replicable and upscalable framework both from an inter- and intracity perspective, which can serve to support (1) the management of processes and CLS, (2) the management of people and the community, and (3) the project and city, in the context of multi-level governance.

  • 10.
    Huang, He
    et al.
    MOBILISE Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Ixelles, Belgium.
    Canoy, Rocsildes
    MOBILISE Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Ixelles, Belgium.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    MOBILISE Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Ixelles, Belgium.
    Te Boveldt, Geert
    MOBILISE Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Ixelles, Belgium.
    Criteria preprocessing in multi‐actor multi‐criteria analysis2023In: Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, ISSN 1057-9214, E-ISSN 1099-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-actor multi-criteria analysis is a group decision-making framework that allows multiple stakeholder groups to be involved in the decision-making process, facilitating the understanding of the points of consensus and conflict among the stakeholder groups. Carefully selecting suitable criteria is important as they illustrate the possibly divergent priorities of the respective stakeholder group, and overlooking important criteria can lead to erroneous outcomes. Furthermore, the number of criteria needs specific consideration, as a too large number poses problems for human cognition, but a too small number inaccurately represents the stakeholder's interest. In stakeholder groups with many members, such as those representing citizens, defining a criteria set is likely to be even more complicated. Currently, there is no formal guideline to assist facilitators in defining these criteria sets. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for criteria preprocessing with stakeholder involvement that includes a guideline for firstly selecting criteria into a tentative list and secondly selecting the final criteria set. It provides a procedure on how to determine criteria considering the priorities of stake- holder groups with regard to the context. As a final step, we propose a mathematical model for selecting a number of criteria that are both cognitively manageable and rep- resentative for the participants' priorities. Based on the principles of the Pareto analy- sis, as well as the cognitive judgment theory “magic number seven plus or minus two”, a recommendation list of the criteria is generated. It prevents key criteria from being omitted while at the same time limiting the overall number of criteria. This framework is applied to a social decision-making case for construction logistics, and the results are compared with the conventional approach of criteria definition.

  • 11.
    Janné, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Billger, Monica
    Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Belgium.
    Selamawit Mamo, Fufa
    Sintef, Norway.
    Al Fahel, Rodrigue
    Closer, Sweden.
    Mommens, Koen
    Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Belgium.
    Smart Construction Logistics Governance: A systems view of construction logistics in urban development2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce disturbances and impact from construction transports during urban development, logistics flows need to be managed and controlled efficiently. One way to do so is using construction logistics setups. However, these rarely take both initiator and end-user perspectives into consideration. The paper builds on a longitudinal multiple-case study with cases from Belgium, Norway, and Sweden. The cases provide insights on different tools and approaches for gathering stakeholder input, simulation and forecasting of transport volumes, what type of services are needed in urban construction projects, and different governance measures and incentives. A cross-case analysis was performed to find similarities and differences between the countries. The result of the study is a conceptual framework, presenting a systems overview of the decision routes in urban development linked to construction logistics.

  • 12.
    Macharis, Cathy
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Challenge for the near future: Instruments for a climate friendly use of road infrastructure2019In: Road pricing in the Benelux: Towards an efficient and sustainable use of road infrastructure: Theory, application and policy / [ed] van den Berg, L., & Polak, J., Brussels, Belgium: BIVEC-GIBET , 2019, p. 21-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While transport is inevitable in our economy and daily lives, it also engenders many negative effects on the economy, society, and environment. A great share of the external costs associated with climate change is attributable to transport. However, most damage costs are not entirely carried by the causer of the nuisances, hence not internalized in the pricing system. The alarming pace at which global warming and climate change are escalating cannot be denied. The transport sector still lags behind with regards to emitted greenhouse gases and faces difficulties to achieve the emission reduction goals. In order to meet the set targets by 2030 and 2050 and tackle this urgent challenge, the implementation of multiple measures will be required. In line with the ‘polluter pays’ principle, a possible instrument to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the internalization rate of road freight transport is the implementation of a road pricing scheme. Not only would it stimulate the use of more environmentally friendly vehicles; this concept could also prove its use in pursuing a level playing field across different transport modes. Implementation of a pricing system should be well thought of, as perverse effects can easily arise. Road pricing will also incentivize the switch to zero-emission vehicles. A pricing scheme should be implemented coherently on a European level in order to avoid additional kilometres due to detour and related externalities.

  • 13.
    Mommens, Koen
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Van Lier, Tom
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Macharis, Cathy
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    A dynamic approach to measure the impact of freight transport on air quality in cities2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is recently considered as largest treat to human health. Freight transport vehicles are responsible for a large share of the air pollution. The impact of pollutants is heavily depending on the number of people present in the proximity of the emission source. This impact is generally calculated using the impact-pathway-approach. Yet, the geo-temporal link between the emission source and the number of people in proximity of that source is currently considered to be static. This research presents the combination of dynamic receptor densities and dynamic emission sources by quantifying the impact of air pollution (particulate matter and mono-nitrogen oxides) generated by freight transport in the Brussels Metropolitan Region. The results of this new approach were compared to the current practice in literature. Very large differences, up to factor 45, were found on the local level. The proposed dynamic methodology should consequently be used for micro-scale analyses on transport related air pollution. However, the overall difference for the entire Brussels Metropolitan Region is neglectable (0,5%).

  • 14.
    Venås, Christoffer
    et al.
    SINTEF Community, Oslo, Norway.
    Flyen, Cecilie
    SINTEF Community, Oslo, Norway.
    Fufa, Selamawit Mamo
    SINTEF Community, Oslo, Norway.
    Janné, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brusselaers, Nicolas
    MOBI research centre, VUB, Brussels, Belgium.
    Mommens, Koen
    MOBI research centre, VUB, Brussels, Belgium.
    Macharis, Cathy
    MOBI research centre, VUB, Brussels, Belgium.
    No or low emissions from construction logistics – Just a dream or future reality?2020In: : World Sustainable Built Environment conference: Beyond 2020, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2 - 4 November, 2020, IOP Publishing , 2020, no 4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Construction sites are among the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the construction industry. Large quantities of construction materials and other resources need to be transported to, within, and from construction sites. Implementation of different construction logistics solutions can reduce the impact from construction. The objectives of this article are to map the status and present the current practice of construction logistics in Norway, and to discuss how different no or low emission construction logistics solutions can be promoted. Methods: Methods applied are a literature review including findings from the recent development of emission free construction sites and qualitative case study with interviews carried out in Norway. Results: Findings indicate that lack of regulations, specific requirements and awareness, and use of traditional methods to avoid risks are some of the challenges for minimizing impact from construction logistics. However, opportunities are also present; mainly driven by political ambitions, improved environmental requirements in public procurement tenders and market demands and ambitions for reductions in emissions and costs. Preliminary results from interviews in Norway support these findings. Conclusions: The study show that the goal of achieving no or low emission from construction site is possible through setting ambitious requirements, good planning and a close and open collaboration between involved stakeholders. Grant support: This work is part of the Joint Programming Initative (JPI) Urban Europe project "Minimizing impact of construction material flows in cities: Innovative Co-Creation", supported by the national research councils of the participating countries (Sweden, Norway, Austria, Belgium).

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