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  • 1.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    VTI.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stress research institute, Stockholm university.
    Kircher, Albert
    VTI.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Clinical neuroscience, Karolinska institute.
    The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss: A driving simulator study2009In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 47, p. 393-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.

  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    VTI.
    Kircher, Albert
    VTI.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect of milled rumble strips versus virtual rumble strips on sleepu drivers: A driving simulator study2009Report (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Centre of Research and Technology Hellas/Hellenic Institute of Transport, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Watch Out! Something Precious is Moving2011In: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World: Road Traffic Safety / [ed] Evangelos Bekiaris, Marion Wiethoff, Evangelia Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 1, p. 233-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One critical situation when a driver needs to have a high degree of awareness, to avoid critical situations or crashes, is when passing a school bus, stopped for boarding or de-boarding of children. With the help of an experiment in VTI’s moving base driving simulator, a scenario, using in-vehicle information before the bus was reached, was tested. The aim was to enhance drivers’ perception, in order to reduce the speed of vehicles passing by the stopped bus. Both alert and sleep deprived drivers were tested. The results showed a significant speed reduction thanks to the information given beforehand. Sleep deprivation did not seem to have an impact on speed reduction. This suggests that the warning signals are seen and followed, regardless the drivers’ state of alertness. Thus, it seems likely that this type of information may be useful as an Intelligent Transport System (ITS), to provide driver support about upcoming hazards. One step towards further research in this direction is performed within the EU project SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, the main objectives of which are presented at the end of this chapter.

  • 4. Benz, T
    et al.
    Gaitanidou, E
    Spyropoulou, I
    Yannis, G
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Modelling road traffic safety - the IN-SAFETY approach2006In: World congress on intelligent transportation systems,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 5.
    Benz, Thomas
    et al.
    PTV AGKarlsruhe, Germany.
    Gaitanidou, Evangelia
    Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Institute of Transport (CERTH/HIT), Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toffolo, Silvana
    IVECO, ER&CTorino, Italy.
    Yannis, George
    National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece.
    Spyropoulou, Ioanna
    National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens, Greece.
    Models on the Road2011In: Infrastructure and Safety in a Collaborative World / [ed] Evangelos Bekiaris, Marion Wiethoff, Evangelia Gaitanidou, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 1, p. 97-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the application of macro and micro traffic simulation modelling for the needs of road safety assessment and planning is dealt. The overall concept of traffic simulation modelling regarding safety is presented, together with a series of macro and micro simulation models (namely RuTSim, S-Paramics, SATURN and VISSIM) that are widely used and have been specifically applied for the needs of IN-SAFETY project. ITS and ADAS related scenarios defined within IN-SAFETY, aiming to enhance the road safety level, have been tested through specially developed applications of these models and their results indicate the influence of the use of such technologies, as well as the effectiveness of the selected models in simulating and evaluating their effects. Future enhancement in the models will provide the possibility of further using them in the context of road safety and the involvement of innovative technologies.

  • 6.
    Bång, Karl-Lennart
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Köhler, Joakim
    WSP Sverige AB, Stockholm.
    Wahlstedt, Johan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Tyréns AB, Helsingborg .
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Handbok för kapacitetsanalys med hjälp av simulering2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande handbok är att beskriva hur trafiksimulering kan användas som en alternativ metod eller komplement till analytiska metoder för att bestämma kapacitet och framkomlighet. Liksom metodbeskrivningarna i TRV2013/64343 är beskrivningarna avsedda att kunna användas för att med hjälp av trafiksimulering uppskatta effekterna av en given utformning i samband med planering, konsekvensanalys, projektering och drift av vägtrafikanläggningar. Simulering kan användas som ett komplement till de analytiska metoderna, eller som ersättning i fall som inte täcks av dessa metoder. Härigenom minskas risken för onödiga kostnader förorsakade av såväl över- som underkapacitet.

  • 7.
    Carlo Cacciabue, Pietro
    et al.
    KITE Solut, Italy .
    Enjalbert, Simon
    University of Lille Nordic France, France .
    Soderberg, Hakan
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Unified Driver Model simulation and its application to the automotive, rail and maritime domains2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 21, p. 315-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the implementation of a model of a driver into a computerised numerical simulation. The model is developed to capture the essential characteristics and common aspects of cognition and behaviour of a human being in control of a "vehicle" in different surface transport systems, namely trains, cars and ships. The main functions of the simulation are discussed as well as the experiments carried out in different types of driving simulators to support the estimation of the parameters utilised in the numerical simulation. The validation processes carried out in the rail and maritime domains are also discussed together with a critical review of capacities and limitations of the proposed approach.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation2006In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Tokyo: JSTE , 2006, p. 249-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, rural roads with separated oncoming lanes are becomingincreasingly important due to their superior safety properties.The level-of-service of such roads may however be reducedsince traffic is restricted by the barrier between the oncoming lanes.This level-of-service impact can be evaluated through traffic microsimulation.Such simulation based assessments of rural highwaysrequire simulation models capable of modeling rural road traffic.This paper presents a simulation study of different rural road designswith separated oncoming lanes using a rural road traffic simulationmodel. The presentation illustrates the use of simulationfor rural highways and the result of the study indicates that oncominglane separation is a competitive alternative despite slightlevel-of-service reductions compared to undivided two-lane highways.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Arne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut,, VTI.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut,, VTI.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metod för beräkning av fördröjningar på vägavsnitt utan omkörningsmöjlighet2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This VTI report presents a method for calculating expected queue length and travel timedelay on one lane road sections without overtaking possibilities. The method wasdeveloped 2001 and presented in a working paper. The background for the modeldevelopment was that the Swedish Road Administration (now the Swedish TransportAdministration) planned to build so called 1+1 roads, i.e. roads with longer sectionswithout overtaking possibilities. The method developed has later on also shown to bevaluable for level of service calculations of 2+1 roads with varying share of two lanesections and for developing speed-flow relationships for the Administration’s ”Effectcalculations for road facilities”.The method uses section length, traffic flow, average speed and standard deviation asinput. The method is divided with respect to calculation of effects due to single slowrunningvehicles and effects at “normal” speed distribution. Since no data wereavailable when the model was developed, the model results were instead compared totraffic simulations with the microscopic traffic simulation model AIMSUN. The resultsshow a good correlation but the analytical model gives in general approximately 1.2 percent lower travel time delay. The differences can probably partly be explained by thestochastic parts of the simulation model. One should also remember that neither theanalytical model nor the simulation model has been calibrated and validated with realdata for this type of roads. Thus, the differences between the models do not necessaryimply that the analytical model is the one deviating from reality.

  • 10.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    VTI, Göteborg.
    Ahlström, Christer
    VTI, Linköping.
    Björketun, Urban
    VTI, Linköping.
    Kettwich, Carmen
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.
    Yahya, Mohammad-Reza
    VTI, Linköping.
    Patten, Christofer
    VTI, Borlänge.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vadeby, Anna
    VTI, Linköping.
    Inverkan av elektroniska reklamskyltar på trafiksäkerhet: En studie på E4 i Stockholm2011Report (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Traffic analysis and logistics, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bernhardsson, Viktor
    Traffic analysis and logistics, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ekström, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Variabla hastighetsgränser för Stockholms motorvägsnät: Effekter av alternativa algoritmer och möjligheter till styrning genom skattade trafiktillstånd2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limits are commonly used on Stockholm’s urban motorways, and it is part of the Stockholm Motorway Control System (MCS). The goal of today’s system is to reduce the risk of accidents during congested conditions, traffic jams etc. This is done by updating the speed limits shown on variable message signs based on a measured average speed at fixed detectors. As the demand for travel in Stockholm during peak-hours exceeds the available capacity in the road network, the need for an efficient traffic system is high. Variable speed limit systems have the possibility to contribute to increased efficiency, but since today’s system aims to increase safety, effects that lead to increased efficiency are limited. Further, in todays’ variable speed limit systems there are a large dependency of precise and available measurements from stationary detectors to be able to display speed limits that reflects the current traffic conditions. The purpose of this report is to investigate alternative control algorithms to decide on the variable speed limits to be displayed at variable message signs on the urban motorway of Stockholm.

    The goal is to increase efficiency compared to today's system. Two different road stretches with different complexity and different traffic conditions, resulting in two different types of congestion, are studied. Thereby, the studied control algorithms on the two road stretches are chosen based on the possibility of solving a specific problematic traffic situation in the best way. Hence, the studied control algorithms might differ for the two road stretches. Furthermore, for one of the roads stretches it is investigated if estimation of the traffic state can be used as input to the control algorithm as a complement to missing and erogenous measurements from stationary detectors in order to improve the calculations of the variable speed limits. The control algorithms are evaluated with microscopic traffic simulation and the method developed in the project Mobile Millenium Stockholm (MMS), using a macroscopic traffic flow model together with a Kalman filter, is used for estimation of the traffic state.

    The result shows that there are control algorithms with the potential to increase efficiency. However, the choice of suitable control algorithm for improving traffic efficiency is dependent on the traffic situation, the complexity of the road design and the traffic conditions. Furthermore, estimation of the traffic state is useful when information is lost due to malfunctioning detectors or as a complement to reduce the amount of stationary detectors.

  • 12.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH), Sweden.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Analysis of a cooperative variable speed limitsystem using microscopic traffic simulation2015In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 52, p. 173-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit systems where variable message signs are used to show speed limits adjusted to the prevailing road or traffic conditions are installed on motorways in many countries. The objectives of variable speed limit system installations are often to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Currently, there is an interest in exploring the potential of cooperative intelligent transport systems including communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, we study the potential benefits of introducing infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits in variable speed limit systems. We do this by proposing a cooperative variable speed limit system as an extension of an existing variable speed limit system. In the proposed system, communication between the infrastructure and the vehicles is used to transmit variable speed limits to upstream vehicles before the variable message signs become visible to the drivers. The system is evaluated by the means of microscopic traffic simulation. Traffic efficiency and environmental effects are considered in the analysis. The results of the study show benefits of the infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits for variable speed limit systems in the form of lower acceleration rates and thereby harmonized traffic flow and reduced exhaust emissions.

  • 13.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Impacts of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 43, p. 595-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on, for example,traffic volume or road conditions exists on motorwaysin many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of traffic simulation. By adding cooperative systems functionality to an existing VSLS there is a potential for further increase in traffic efficiency and also to reduce the environmental impacts of the traffic on the road. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts.

  • 14.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Impacts of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System2012In: Procedia – Social AndBehavioral Sciences , 2012, Vol. 43, p. 595-606Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on, for example,traffic volume or road conditions exists on motorwaysin many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of traffic simulation. By adding cooperative systems functionality to an existing VSLS there is a potential for further increase in traffic efficiency and also to reduce the environmental impacts of the traffic on the road. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts.

  • 15.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microscopic traffic simulation for evaluation of a cooperative variable speed limit system2013In: 1st SUMO User Conference 2013. Proceedings, Berichte aus dem DLR-Institut für Verkehrssystemtechnik, Band 21, Berlin: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. Institut für Verkehrssystemtechnik, Berlin-Adlershof , 2013, p. 147-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where gantries are showing speed limits based on, for example, traffic volume or other road or traffic conditions exists on motorways in many countries. The aim of the VSLS is usually to improve traffic efficiency. Lately, cooperative intelligent transport systems allowing for communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure has received increasing interest. A cooperative VSLS, utilizing communication between vehicles and the infrastructure, could possibly result in further improved traffic efficiency and decreased exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. In this paper, a cooperative VSLS is evaluated by the use of a microscopic traffic simulator. The cooperative VSLS is described together with a discussion on how the modeling of the cooperative VSLS and the assumptions made regarding vehicles behavior will impact the final results of the evaluation. Results from the simulations are presented with in terms of traffic efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  • 16.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Stockholm.
    Effects of a Cooperative Variable Speed Limit System on Traffic Performance and Exhaust Emissions2013In: TRB 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variable Speed Limit Systems (VSLS) where variable message signs show speed limits based on traffic or road conditions exist on motorways in many countries. The purpose of the VSLS is to decrease the number of accidents while increasing efficiency of traffic system. Cooperative systems are a type of intelligent transport system that has received increasing interest lately. The central part of a cooperative system is communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, a cooperative systems extension of a VSLS is proposed and evaluated by means of microscopic traffic simulation. In the proposed cooperative VSLS, communication between the vehicles and the infrastructure is made available via a roadside unit communicating the speed limits to vehicles upstream on the road. Both aggregate and micro-scale emission models are used to estimate emission from vehicle states in traffic flow. The results of the study show that the cooperative VSLS has a potential to contribute to flow harmonization and to reduce environmental impacts. The emission estimates in the study are dependent on the emission models being applied.

  • 17.
    Grumert, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    Division of Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering, Department of Transportation Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluation of Four Control Algorithms Used in Variable Speed Limit Systems2016In: TRB 95th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, Washington: Transportation Research Board , 2016, article id 16-2880Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control algorithms used for deciding on the speed limits in variable speed limit systems are crucial for the performance of the system. Today, many of the control algorithms used are based on fixed thresholds in speed and/or flow for lowering and increasing the speed limit. The algorithms are not necessarily reflecting the conditions on the road, which might lead to low traffic efficiency. Our hypothesis is that by use of a simple and efficient control algorithm that is better in reflecting the conditions on the road, both traffic efficiency and traffic safety could be increased. In this study, four control algorithms used in variable speed limit systems, and fulfilling the above criteria, are evealuted through microscopic traffic simulation. Performance indicators related to traffic safety, traffic efficiency and environmental impacts are presented. The results show that the design of, and the objective with, the control algorithm have a great impact on the performance. Moreover, the time needed for incident detection, the duration of and the size of the speed limit reduction and the location of the congestion are of importance for the performance of the control algorithms. These results will be of importance for design and implementation of future efficient variable speed limit systems.

  • 18.
    Hegeman, Geertje
    et al.
    DHV BV Mobility Department, Zaandam, The Netherlands.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Hoogendoorn, Serge
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Overtaking Assistant Assessment Using Traffic Simulation2009In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 617-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulationstudy of the potential effects of an overtaking assistant fortwo-lane rural roads. The overtaking assistant is developed to supportdrivers in judging whether or not an overtaking opportunitycan be accepted based on the distance to the next oncoming vehicle.Drivers have been found to consider this to be a difficultpart of an overtaking manoeuvre. The assistant’s effects on trafficefficiency, driver comfort and road safety have been investigatedusing traffic simulation. The results indicate that this type overtakingassistant can provide safety benefits in terms of increasedtime-to-collision to the next oncoming vehicle during overtakingmanoeuvres. This safety benefit can be achieved without negativeconsequences for traffic efficiency and driver comfort. A driverassistance system that supports the distance judging part of overtakingmanoeuvres can therefore contribute to improved trafficconditions on the two-lane rural roads of the future.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Local performance measures of pedestrian traffic2014In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 159-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated. We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows. Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance evaluation of railway platform design using microscopic simulation2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient interchange stations, where travelers are changing lines and/or travel modes, are essential for the functionality of the whole public transport system. By studying pedestrian movements, the level of service and effectiveness imposed by the design of the interchange station can be evaluated.

    We address the problem by microsimulation, where a social force model is used for the phenomenological description of pedestrian interactions. The contribution of this paper is the proposal of measures describing the density, delay, acceleration and discomfort for pedestrian flows.

    Simulation experiments are performed for the movements in two canonical pedestrian areas, a corridor and a corridor intersection. Clearly, each of the four measures gives a description for how pedestrians impede each other, and hence for the efficiency at the facility. There is, however, different information provided by each measure, and we conclude that they all are well-motivated for quantifying the level of service in a pedestrian flow. We also illustrate the outcome for a railway platform, with two trains arriving in parallel.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Waiting pedestrians in the social force model2015In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 419, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic simulation of pedestrian traffic is an important and increasingly popular method to evaluate the performance of existing or proposed infrastructure. The social force model is a common model in simulations, describing the dynamics of pedestrian crowds given the goals of the simulated pedestrians encoded as their preferred velocities. The main focus of the literature has so far been how to choose the preferred velocities to produce realistic dynamic route choices for pedestrians moving through congested infrastructure. However, limited attention has been given the problem of choosing the preferred velocity to produce other behaviors, such as waiting, commonly occurring at, e.g., public transport interchange stations. We hypothesize that: (1) the inclusion of waiting pedestrians in a simulated scenario will significantly affect the level of service for passing pedestrians, and (2) the details of the waiting model affect the predicted level of service, that is, it is important to choose an appropriate model of waiting. We show that the treatment of waiting pedestrians have a significant impact on simulations of pedestrian traffic. We do this by introducing a series of extensions to the social force model to produce waiting behavior, and provide predictions of the model extensions that highlight their differences. We also present a sensitivity analysis and provide sufficient criteria for stability. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Jonkers, Eline
    et al.
    TNO, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Carsten, Oliver
    Institute for Transport Studies, Leeds, UK.
    Nellthorp, John
    Institute for Transport Studies, Leeds, UK.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Data and framework for scaling up2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global aim of the ecoDriver project is to increase the fuel efficiency by 20% by optimising the driver-powertrain-environment feedback loop and delivering effective advice to drivers. In the course of the project, field experiments will take place with a wide range of vehicles — e.g. cars, light trucks and vans, medium and heavy trucks and buses — covering both individual and collective transport. The last step of the project (Sub Project 5; SP5) is to scale up the results from these tests and analyse costs and benefits for a number of futurescenarios.

    The aim of SP5 is to predict the impact of the ecoDriver systems and solutions in the future, drawing on all the evaluations carried out in the project. With the results of SP5 it will be possible to make estimates about the costs and benefits of the suggested green driving support systems on a global (EU-27) level, both for society as a whole and for sub-groups like manufacturers and consumers. SP5 will construct a set of possible scenarios for the future depending on various road maps envisioned today. The predictions for future years will be made based on available data from within and outside of the project, and on advanced microscopic traffic modelling. SP5 takes the following steps to meet the objectives:

    • Collect data needed for scaling up and developing scenarios
    • Create a range of scenarios
    • Assess the network implications of green driving support systems for future networks
    • Predict the global impacts for a range of systems and scenarios
    • Carry out a cost benefit analysis for a range of systems and scenarios

    This deliverable describes the data needs for each step. It also contains a description of the approaches proposed for the scenario building, the microscopic traffic simulations, the scaling up and the cost-benefit analysis.

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. VTI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    VTI, Linköping, Sweden.
    A simulation model for assessment and evaluation of busterminal design2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interchange stations with their connections between modes and lines are central for a high quality public transport system. Bus access at the station needs to operate reliably and efficiently in order to prevent congestion and queues. Here, a discrete event simulation model of vehicle movements and interactions at bus terminals is developed and implemented. The model has a modular approach, where common spatial sections at terminals are represented by modules that can be combined into various terminal layouts. These modules describe the events a vehicle may go through in a particular section of the terminal, such as arriving to a bus stop or stopping at a traffic light at the exit. The model can be used in planning processes, both for new terminals and redesign of existing ones, and is able to describe the detailed movements and interactions between vehicles that occur at larger terminals. The model is tested in a numerical experiment representing Norrköping interchange station in Sweden. The experiment shows that the model is able to evaluate and compare different scenarios and can thus be a useful tool in planning processes.

  • 24.
    Lindberg, Therese
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Center for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    Peterson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden; K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Center for Public Transport, Lund, Sweden.
    A Simulation Model of Local Public Transport Access at a Railway Station2017In: Proceedings of Raillille 2017 - 7th lnternational Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis / [ed] N. Tomii, I.A. Hansen, J. Rodriguez, P. Pellegrini, S. Dauzère-Pérès, D. De Almeida, 2017, p. 922-943Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A high quality railway service requires that all parts of the complete journey, from door to door, are well-functioning. This includes any transfers taking place, as well as last mile transportation to and from the railway station. Since the last mile often consists of local public transport, the access to this mode at stops and terminals and how well these are functioning are of great importance. A critical aspect is the capacity of the stop or the terminal in relation to the number of departures, where a higher capacity generally means an increase in size. At the same time it is desirable to limit the use of valuable land and keeping the facility as small as possible. The trade-off between capacity and size needs to be evaluated when designing stops and terminals. In this study we have developed a discrete event simulation model of a combined bus and tram stop, which is a part of a larger multi-modal station. The objective of the study is to evaluate the modelling approach for the situation at hand. Of special interest are the complexities due to the different driving patterns of buses and trams. The developed model is capable of evaluating design alternatives and is applied in a case study of a stop at Norrköping railway station in southern Sweden. The model was found to realistically capture the various events occurring at such a stop and the case study further showed that the model is a useful tool in design evaluation.

  • 25.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Evaluation of safety effects of driver assistance systems through traffic simulation2005In: Workshop on traffic modeling,2005, The University of Arizona , 2005, p. 32-33Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Lundgren, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation2006In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1953, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety is a major concern in all countries, and large effortsare constantly dedicated to create safer traffic environments. Todayincreasing attention is turned toward active safety improvingcountermeasures that improve road safety by reducing accidentrisks. Such active countermeasures include advanced driver assistancesystems (ADAS). To ensure that these new applicationsresult in real safety improvements, a priori estimations of safetyeffects are needed. This paper considers estimation of the safetyeffects of ADAS through traffic simulation. Requirements imposedon a traffic simulation model to be used for ADAS evaluation arepresented, and a car-following model to be used in simulations thatinclude ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed. ADAS have an impacton traffic through the functionalities of ADAS and throughchanges in driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles. Driverbehavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been consideredin previous simulation studies, including those for ADASequippedvehicles. Simulation runs of rural road traffic that usedthe proposed car-following model did, however, indicate that behavioralchanges caused by the ADAS were important factors forthe safety impact. Modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADASequippedvehicles is therefore essential for reliable conclusions onthe road safety effects of ADAS.

  • 27.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A review of guidelines for applying traffic simulation to level-of-service analysis2011In: / [ed] Haris N. Koutsopoulos och Karl L. Bang, Elsevier, 2011, p. 771-780Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic traffic simulation is often used as an alternative or complementary tool to analytical methods and procedures for level-of-service analyses of road traffic facilities. The increased usage of traffic simulation for level-of-service analysis has raised a need for guidelines on how to apply and use traffic simulation models. Many countries have developed or are currently developing traffic simulation guidelines. This is also the case in Sweden, were the new Swedish highway capacity manual will include a chapter on traffic simulation. This paper presents a survey of the current traffic simulation guidelines in USA, Germany, UK, Denmark and Sweden. The guidelines have been analysed with respect to the aspects covered: when to apply simulation; the workflow of a simulation study; data collection needs; calibration and validation; experimental design; statistical analysis; and calculation of level-of-service measures. The guidelines analysed are focused on different aspects and none of them covers all of the topics listed above. Some of the guidelines are connected to specific simulation software packages and some are written in a more general manner. Most of the aspects covered are general and applicable in any country. The main reason for developing country specific guidelines is often a need for guidelines in the local language. Experimental design and statistical analysis are not treated extensively in the guidelines; neither do the guidelines discuss how to deal with calibration based on limited real world measurements. Calculation of level-of-service measures are quite extensively treated in some of the guidelines and to a little extent in others. All of the guidelines contain important contributions for the simulation chapter of the new Swedish highway capacity manual

  • 28.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    comparison of car-following models2004In: Transportforum,2004, Linköping: VTI , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Comparison of car-following models2004Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Enhancements to the Intelligent Driver Model2010In: TRB 89th annual meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a modified version of the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) [M. Treiber, A. Hennecke, and D. Helbing, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 2 (2000)]. The IDM is a car-following model. A car-following model controls the accelerations of individual vehicles in a microscopic traffic simulation model. The original IDM has been observed to result in negative vehicle accelerations in situations where the distance to the preceding vehicle is much larger than the estimated desired safety distance. In this paper, we propose a modified function for the interaction with preceding vehicles which do not include this model property. A comparison of the results of simulations with the original and the modified IDM shows that the modified IDM results in higher average speed for a specific flow, a less steep speed-flow relationship and higher capacity. The speed-flow relationships of simulations with the modified IDM are also shown to better match the speed-flow relationships in real traffic on Swedish freeways. The differences between the results for the original and the modified IDM increase if the models are extended to include drivers' anticipation of the downstream traffic condition.

  • 31.
    Peters, Björn
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden VTI, Linköping.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden VTI, Linköping.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden VTI, Linköping.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing a unified model of driving behaviour for cars and trains2012In: Human factors of Systems and Technology / [ed] Dick de Waard, Natasha Merat, Hamish Jamson, Yvonne Barnard, and Oliver Carsten, Maastricht: Shaker Publishing, 2012, p. 343-357Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unified model of driver behaviour and driver interaction with innovative technologies was developed in the European project ITERATE. The model aims to be applicable for all surface transport modes. As a basis of the model development it was assumed that underlying factors influencing human behaviour such as age, gender, culture etc. are constant between transport modes. The model can be of great use when designing innovative technologies since it will allow for assessment and tuning of the systems in a safe and controllable environment without use in real traffic. This paper presents the results of a set of driving simulator experiments carried out to support the model development process. The experiments are unique  in the sense that common scenarios were run on two identical portable driving simulator platforms circulated among project partners across five countries as well  as full scale train and car driving simulators. This allowed a large number of subjects to take part in the experiment. An important finding from the experiments was that country/culture was found to be a significant factor for almost all performance indicators in both car and train experiments. Furthermore, it seems like small scale simulators provide comparable results as more advanced simulators.

  • 32.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    VTI.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hastighet-flödessamband för mötesfria landsvägsutformningar2009Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Strömgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of Transportation and Logistics (ToL), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olstam, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Model for Traffic Simulation of Flared Rural Road Intersections2015In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 6, no 2015, p. 239-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a micro-simulation model that takes flared design of rural intersections into consideration. The intersection model is designed with input parameters that describe the geometric conditions of the flare. The behavior model includes both a traditional gap-acceptance sub-model and a passage model for modelling of vehicles’ possibility to pass other vehicles using the flare. The intersection model developed has been implemented in the traffic micro simulation model RuTSim. The gap-acceptance part of the model has been calibrated using data for stop and yield 3-way intersections. The validation was performed by using video recordings to calculate delay for the yield regulated intersection and time in queue and service time for the stop regulated intersection. The results from the validation simulations correspond well with the empirical validation data. The effect of the flare on delay has been studied by using 3 different intersection lay-outs and different levels of minor and major flow. The result shows that the delay is decreasing with increasing intersection radius.

  • 34.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Traffic Simulation Modeling Framework for Rural Highways2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Models based on micro-simulation of traffic flows have proven to be useful tools in the study of various traffic systems. Today, there is a wealth of traffic microsimulation models developed for freeway and urban street networks. The road mileage is however in many countries dominated by rural highways. Hence, there is a need for rural road traffic simulation models capable of assessing the performance of such road environments. This thesis introduces a versatile traffic micro-simulation model for the rural roads of today and of the future. The developed model system considers all common types of rural roads including effects of intersections and roundabouts on the main road traffic. The model is calibrated and validated through a simulation study comparing a two-lane highway to rural road designs with separated oncoming traffic lanes. A good general agreement between the simulation results and the field data is established.

    The interest in road safety and the environmental impact of traffic is growing. Recent research has indicated that traffic simulation can be of use in these areas as well as in traditional capacity and level-of-service studies. In the road safety area more attention is turning towards active safety improving countermeasures designed to improve road safety by reducing the number of driver errors and the accident risks. One important example is Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). The potential to use traffic simulation to evaluate the road safety effects of ADAS is investigated in the last part of this thesis. A car-following model for simulation of traffic including ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed and the developed simulation framework is used to study important properties of a traffic simulation model to be used for safety evaluation of ADAS. Driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been considered in simulation studies including ADAS-equipped vehicles. The work in this thesis does however indicate that modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADAS-equipped vehicles is essential for reliable conclusions on the road safety effects of ADAS.

  • 35.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A versatile model for rural road traffic simulation2005In: Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2005,2005, Washington, DC, USA: Transportation Research Board , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation2008In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 14, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems(ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controlsand Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced ata rapid pace. ADAS can both substitute and complement traditionalinfrastructure based safety improving countermeasures. Toexploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimatethe systems future impact already at early developmentstages. This paper presents a traffic simulation framework foranalysis of the aggregation of individual driver/vehicle behaviourdue to ADAS to effects on the traffic system. Application of thesimulation framework is exemplified by a study of centre line rumblestrips on rural roads. The effects of physical milled rumblestrips are compared to the effects of “virtual” in-vehicle rumblestrips for both alert and sleep deprived drivers. The use of trafficsimulation made it possible to study the combined impact ofchanges in drivers’ free driving speed, reaction time and overtakingbehaviour. Indications that the different rumble strips have animpact on average journey speeds were found amongst the simulationresults. Changes in safety indicators that can be related tochanges in overtaking behaviour were also observed.

  • 37.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of system effects of driver assistance systems by traffic simulation2007In: Young researchers seminar,2007, Brno: CDV , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 38.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Effekter vid mötesfri utformning av E18 Karlskoga - Lekhyttan2007Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Estimating Traffic System Wide Impacts of Driver Assistance Systems Using Traffic Simulation2011In: Human Modelling in Assisted Transportation / [ed] P.C. Cacciabue, M. Hjalmdahl, A. Luedtke och C. Riccioli, Italia: Springer-Verlag Italia Srl , 2011, 1, p. 173-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to estimate impacts of proposed driver assistance systems already at early stages of the system development process. Estimations of the impacts of new technologies have to be based on laboratory studies and modelling. This paper presents a traffic simulation based framework for estimation of the traffic system wide impacts of driver assistance systems. The framework includes a two-step methodology. In the first step of the analysis, the considered driver assistance system’s impact on driver behaviour is observed. The second step of the analysis consist of traffic simulation modelling taking into account the system functionality as well as the observed driver behaviour of the considered driver assistance system. Driver behaviour studies for use of the data for traffic simulation modelling is discussed and traffic simulation modelling of different types of driver assistance systems is exemplified by modelling of an overtaking assistant, of in-vehicle virtual rumble strips and of adaptive cruise control.

  • 40.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Evaluation of safety effects of driver assistance systems through traffic simulation2006In: Transportforum,2006, Linköping: VTI , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Framkomlighet på väg 67 Stingtorpet - Tärnsjö2006Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Integrerad fordons- och trafiksimulering för uppskattning av emissioner och energieffektivitet2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Simulering av trafik på landsväg2004In: Transportforum,2004, Linköping: VTI , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Traffic simulation for road safety assessment of intelligent transportation systems2005In: Modeling and Simulation for Public Safety,2005, Linköping: Linköping University , 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traffic simulation modelling of driver assistance systems2009In: Road safety and simulation, Paris, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traffic simulation modelling of driver assistance systems2009In: 16th World congress on ITS, Stockholm, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traffic simulation modelling of driver assistance systems2011In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 23, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New in-vehicle driver assistance systems are currently introduced at a rapid pace. To exploit the fullpotential of these systems, it is necessary to estimate the systems future impact already at early stages of thesystem development process. This paper gives an introduction to the use of microscopic traffic simulation foranalysis and evaluation of the impacts of driver assistance systems. Application of traffic simulation foranalysis of driver assistance systems is exemplified by studies of an overtaking assistant and of adaptivecruise control.

  • 48.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traffic Simulation Modelling of Rural Roads and Driver Assistance Systems2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic traffic simulation has proven to be a useful tool for analysis of varioustraffic systems. This thesis consider microscopic traffic simulation of rural roads andthe use of traffic simulation for evaluation of driver assistance systems.

    A traffic simulation modelling framework for rural roads, the Rural Traffic Simulator(RuTSim), is developed. RuTSim is designed for simulation of traffic on singlecarriageway two-lane rural roads and on rural roads with separated oncoming trafficlanes. The simulated traffic may be interrupted by vehicles entering and leaving themodelled road at intersections or roundabouts.

    The RuTSim model is applied for analysis of rural road design alternatives.Quality-of-service effects of three alternatives for oncoming lane separation of anexisting Swedish two-lane road are analysed. In another model application, RuTSimis used to simulate traffic on a Dutch two-lane rural road. This application illustratesthat the high level of model detail of traffic micro-simulation may call for use of differentmodelling assumptions regarding driver behaviour for different applications,e. g. for simulation of traffic in different cultural regions.

    The use of traffic simulation for studies of driver assistance systems facilitateimpact analyses already at early stages of the system development. New and additionalrequirements are however then placed on the traffic simulation model. It isnecessary to model both the system functionality of the considered driver assistancesystem and the driver behaviour in system equipped vehicles. Such requirements canbe analysed using RuTSim.

    In this thesis, requirements on a traffic simulation model to be used for analysisof road safety effects of driver assistance systems are formulated and investigatedusing RuTSim. RuTSim is also applied for analyses of centre line rumble stripson two-lane roads, of an overtaking assistant and of adaptive cruise control. Thesestudies establish that the assumptions made regarding driver behaviour are crucialfor traffic simulation based analyses of driver assistance systems.

    List of papers
    1. Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Versatile Model for Simulation of Rural Road Traffic
    2005 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1934, p. 169-178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries the road mileage is dominated by rural highways.For that reason it is important to have access to efficienttools for evaluation of the performance of such roads. For otherroad types, e. g., freeways and urban street networks, a wealth ofmicro-simulation models is available. However, only a few modelsdedicated to rural roads have been developed. None of thesemodels handles traffic flows interrupted by intersections or roundabouts,nor are the models capable of describing the traffic flow onrural roads with a cable barrier between oncoming lanes. Theseare major drawbacks when Swedish roads, on which cable barriersand roundabouts are becoming increasingly important, aremodeled. Moreover, as new areas of application for rural roadsimulation arise, a flexible and detailed model is needed. Suchapplications include, among other things, simulation of driver assistancesystems and estimation of pollutant emissions. This paperintroduces a versatile traffic micro-simulation model for the ruralroads of today and of the future. The model system presented,the Rural Traffic Simulator (RuTSim), is capable of handling allcommon types of rural roads, including the effects of roundaboutsand intersections on the traffic on the main road. The purpose ofthe paper is to describe the simulation approach and the trafficmodeling used in RuTSim. A verification of the RuTSim model isalso included. RuTSim is found to produce outputs representativeof all common types of rural roads in Sweden.

    Keywords
    Intersections; Microsimulation; Roundabouts; Rural highways; Traffic flow; Traffic models; Traffic simulation; Sweden; Cable barriers
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12420 (URN)10.3141/1934-18 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rural Highway Design Analysis Through Traffic Micro-Simulation
    2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Highway Capacity and Quality of Service, Tokyo: JSTE , 2006, p. 249-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, rural roads with separated oncoming lanes are becomingincreasingly important due to their superior safety properties.The level-of-service of such roads may however be reducedsince traffic is restricted by the barrier between the oncoming lanes.This level-of-service impact can be evaluated through traffic microsimulation.Such simulation based assessments of rural highwaysrequire simulation models capable of modeling rural road traffic.This paper presents a simulation study of different rural road designswith separated oncoming lanes using a rural road traffic simulationmodel. The presentation illustrates the use of simulationfor rural highways and the result of the study indicates that oncominglane separation is a competitive alternative despite slightlevel-of-service reductions compared to undivided two-lane highways.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Tokyo: JSTE, 2006
    Keywords
    Highway design ; Level of service ; Microsimulation ; Rural highways ; Traffic simulation ; Two lane highways
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12425 (URN)4-905990-61-0 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
    3. On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Application of Traffic Micro-Simulation To Road Environments in Different Regions
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C. : Transportation Research Board , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New areas of application of traffic micro-simulation models arecurrently being explored. Examples include analysis of IntelligentTransportation Systems, safety assessments and vehicle emissionsstudies. Many of these new applications depend on reliable andrepresentative simulated vehicle trajectories. The traffic simulationmodels used for these applications must therefore modeldriver/vehicle behavior with greater detail than what is necessaryfor traditional traffic engineering applications. In this paper,we argue that this increased model complexity may reducethe applicability of the models to other situations with differentdriver/vehicle behavior. Such situations include simulation of trafficin different countries or regions as well as simulation of roadenvironments with different properties. The objective of the paperis to bring focus to modeling considerations that are important fortoday’s increasingly detailed traffic micro-simulation applications.Model application to traffic in different regions is exemplified by acase study in which the Rural Traffic Simulator developed in Swedenis applied to simulation of traffic on a Dutch two-lane highway.Simulation of traffic in different regions and new model applicationsis to a certain extent facilitated by the model calibrationand validation. The high level of detail of micro-simulation modelsmay however require use of different modeling assumptions for different applications. Advances in vehicle trajectory measurementtechniques will allow developments of more detailed traffic microsimulationmodels. It is therefore increasingly important that themodels are estimated and cross-validated using data sets that arecollected in the regions and traffic conditions that the models aredeveloped for.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington D.C. : Transportation Research Board, 2008
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12426 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Safety Effects of Driver Assistance Systems Through Traffic Simulation
    2006 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 1953, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety is a major concern in all countries, and large effortsare constantly dedicated to create safer traffic environments. Todayincreasing attention is turned toward active safety improvingcountermeasures that improve road safety by reducing accidentrisks. Such active countermeasures include advanced driver assistancesystems (ADAS). To ensure that these new applicationsresult in real safety improvements, a priori estimations of safetyeffects are needed. This paper considers estimation of the safetyeffects of ADAS through traffic simulation. Requirements imposedon a traffic simulation model to be used for ADAS evaluation arepresented, and a car-following model to be used in simulations thatinclude ADAS-equipped vehicles is proposed. ADAS have an impacton traffic through the functionalities of ADAS and throughchanges in driver behavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles. Driverbehavior for ADAS-equipped vehicles has usually not been consideredin previous simulation studies, including those for ADASequippedvehicles. Simulation runs of rural road traffic that usedthe proposed car-following model did, however, indicate that behavioralchanges caused by the ADAS were important factors forthe safety impact. Modeling of the behavior of drivers in ADASequippedvehicles is therefore essential for reliable conclusions onthe road safety effects of ADAS.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12422 (URN)10.3141/1953-10 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    5. Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Rumble Strips and Driver Fatigue Using Traffic Simulation
    2008 (English)In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 14, p. 69-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in in-vehicle Advanced Driver Assistance Systems(ADAS) is increasing. New systems such as Adaptive Cruise Controlsand Collision Avoidance Systems are currently introduced ata rapid pace. ADAS can both substitute and complement traditionalinfrastructure based safety improving countermeasures. Toexploit the full potential of these systems, it is necessary to estimatethe systems future impact already at early developmentstages. This paper presents a traffic simulation framework foranalysis of the aggregation of individual driver/vehicle behaviourdue to ADAS to effects on the traffic system. Application of thesimulation framework is exemplified by a study of centre line rumblestrips on rural roads. The effects of physical milled rumblestrips are compared to the effects of “virtual” in-vehicle rumblestrips for both alert and sleep deprived drivers. The use of trafficsimulation made it possible to study the combined impact ofchanges in drivers’ free driving speed, reaction time and overtakingbehaviour. Indications that the different rumble strips have animpact on average journey speeds were found amongst the simulationresults. Changes in safety indicators that can be related tochanges in overtaking behaviour were also observed.

    Keywords
    traffic simulation, system effects, ADAS, rumble strip
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12421 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
    6. Overtaking Assistant Assessment Using Traffic Simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overtaking Assistant Assessment Using Traffic Simulation
    2009 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 617-630Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic traffic simulationstudy of the potential effects of an overtaking assistant fortwo-lane rural roads. The overtaking assistant is developed to supportdrivers in judging whether or not an overtaking opportunitycan be accepted based on the distance to the next oncoming vehicle.Drivers have been found to consider this to be a difficultpart of an overtaking manoeuvre. The assistant’s effects on trafficefficiency, driver comfort and road safety have been investigatedusing traffic simulation. The results indicate that this type overtakingassistant can provide safety benefits in terms of increasedtime-to-collision to the next oncoming vehicle during overtakingmanoeuvres. This safety benefit can be achieved without negativeconsequences for traffic efficiency and driver comfort. A driverassistance system that supports the distance judging part of overtakingmanoeuvres can therefore contribute to improved trafficconditions on the two-lane rural roads of the future.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Delay; Microscopic traffic simulation; Overtaking assistant; Overtaking frequency; Rural road; TTC
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12424 (URN)000270610700006 ()
    Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    7. Vehicle Trajectory Impacts of Adaptive Cruise Control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Trajectory Impacts of Adaptive Cruise Control
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems / Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1547-2450, E-ISSN 1547-2442, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is assumed to have a potentialto improve quality-of-service and safety and to reduce the environmentalimpact of the road traffic system. This paper use vehicletrajectories from traffic simulation to study impacts of ACCon vehicle acceleration and deceleration rates. The analysis isbased on traffic simulations with car-following models includingACC functionality and driver behaviour in ACC-equipped as wellas standard non-equipped vehicles. The simulation results showthat ACC can improve the traffic situation in terms of reduced accelerationand deceleration rates even though macroscopic trafficproperties may remain uninfluenced. This supports the hypothesisedpositive road safety and environmental effects of ACC. It isalso established that the results are largely dependent on the assumptionsmade regarding driver behaviour in ACC-equipped andstandard vehicles. It is consequently crucial to include appropriateassumptions regarding driver behaviour in traffic simulation basedanalyses of ACC.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12419 (URN)10.1080/15472450.2012.639641 (DOI)000302055100004 ()
    Note
    funding agencies|Swedish Road Administration through the Swedish network of excellence Transport Telematics Sweden||Linkoping University||Available from: 2008-09-25 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
  • 49.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Trafikledning för bättre miljö2003Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Tapani, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vehicle Trajectory Impacts of Adaptive Cruise Control2012In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems / Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1547-2450, E-ISSN 1547-2442, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 36-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is assumed to have a potentialto improve quality-of-service and safety and to reduce the environmentalimpact of the road traffic system. This paper use vehicletrajectories from traffic simulation to study impacts of ACCon vehicle acceleration and deceleration rates. The analysis isbased on traffic simulations with car-following models includingACC functionality and driver behaviour in ACC-equipped as wellas standard non-equipped vehicles. The simulation results showthat ACC can improve the traffic situation in terms of reduced accelerationand deceleration rates even though macroscopic trafficproperties may remain uninfluenced. This supports the hypothesisedpositive road safety and environmental effects of ACC. It isalso established that the results are largely dependent on the assumptionsmade regarding driver behaviour in ACC-equipped andstandard vehicles. It is consequently crucial to include appropriateassumptions regarding driver behaviour in traffic simulation basedanalyses of ACC.

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