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  • 1.
    Abednazari, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Xu, Junyang
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Millinger, Eva
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Respiratory Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brudin, Lars
    Department of Clinical Physiology, County Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hepatocyte growth factor is a better indicator of therapeutic response than C-reactive protein within the first day of treatment in pneumonia2006In: Chemotherapy, ISSN 0009-3157, E-ISSN 1421-9794, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 260-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute bacterial infectious diseases are mostly treated empirically at admission before the culture results are available. According to the risk for serious complications in the case of therapeutic failure, it is important to evaluate the therapy results and change to a more appropriate antibiotic regime as soon as possible. In the present study, 40 patients with X-ray-verified community-acquired pneumonia were examined and blood specimens were collected before and within 24 h of treatment. Body temperature, C-reactive protein (CRP) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were investigated. Thirty-two patients received an appropriate initial antibiotic therapy regarding clinical outcome, but in 8 patients the treatment was changed because of therapy failure. Changes of HGF levels after 18–24 h of treatment could predict the therapeutic results accurately in 38 of 40 cases (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%, positive likelihood ratio 16.0). HGF was significantly better to predict therapy outcome than CRP (p < 0.0001).

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ESLAB - Embedded Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Slack-time aware dynamic routing schemes for on-chip networks2007Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is a new on-chip communication paradigm for future IP-core based System-on-Chip (SoC), designed to remove a number of limitations of today-s on-chip interconnect solutions. A Nointerconnects cores by means of a packet switched micro-network, which improves scalability and reusability, resulting in a shorter time to market. A typical NoC will be running many applications concurrently, which results in shared network capacity between different kinds of traffic flows. Due to the diverse characteristic of applications, some traffic flows will require real-time communication guarantees while others are tolerant to even some loss of data. In order to provide different levels of Quality-of-Service (QoS) for traffic flows, the communication traffic is separated into different service classes. Traffic in NoC is typically classified into two service classes: the guaranteed throughput (GT) and the best-effort (BE) service class. The GT class offers strict QoS guarantees by setting up a virtual path with reserved bandwidth between the source (GT-producer) and destination (GT-consumer), called a GT-path. The BE class offers no strict QoS guarantees, but tries to efficiently use any network capacity which may become available from the GT traffic. The GT traffic may not fully utilize its bandwidth reservation if its communication volume varies, leading to time intervals where there is no GT traffic using the bandwidth reservation. These intervals are referred to as slack-time. If the slack can not be used this leads to unnecessarily reduced performance of BE traffic, since a part of the available network capacity becomes blocked. This thesis deals with methods to efficiently use the slack-time for BE traffic. The contributions include three new dynamic schemes for slack distribution in NoC. First, a scheme to inform the routers of a GT-path about available slack is evaluated. The GT-producer plans its traffic using a special playout buffer and issues control packets containing the actual amount of slack-time available. The results show that this scheme leads to decreased latency, jitter and packet drops for BE traffic. Secondly, an extension to this scheme is evaluated, where slack is distributed among multiple GT-paths (slack distribution in space). This opens up the possibility to balance the QoS of BE traffic flows which overlap with the GT-paths. Thirdly, a scheme to distribute slack among the links of a GT-path (slack distribution in time) is proposed. In this approach, arriving GT-packets, at a certain router along the GT-path, can wait for a maximum defined amount of time. During this time, any waiting BE traffic in the buffers can be forwarded over the GT-path. The results confirm that this is especially important during high BE-traffic load, where this technique decreases the jitter of BE traffic considerably.    

  • 3.
    Avdic, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Användare och utvecklare: om anveckling med kalkylprogram1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I avhandlingen behandlas förutsättningar och effekter av kalkylprogramanveckling (KPA). KPA utförs av anvecklare, som fungerar både som användare och utvecklare. Anvecklare har djup verksamhetskunskap och viss verktygskunskap. Systemet, som anvecklaren utvecklar med kalkylprogram, kallas kalkylsystem. Den grundläggande forskningsfrågan i avhandlingen är: "Vilka nya möjligheter får användare att utföra arbetsuppgifter då de själva kan bygga informationssystem?" Avhandlingens syfte är att formulera en begreppsmodell över vilka förutsättningar och effekter, som gäller för kalkylprogramanveckling.

    Avhandlingens strategi kan sägas vara kvalitativ, hermeneutisk, abduktiv och empirinära. Fyra empiriska studier har genomförts. Empiri har i stor utsträckning styrt studier av relaterad teori. Den praktikgeneriska modellen har använts som referensmodell i avhandlingen, vilket har lett till ett synsätt, som innebär att när anvecklaren anvecklar, agerar han i minst två praktiker, utvecklarpraktiken och huvudpraktiken. Varje praktik har sin uppsättning av förutsättningar, t ex kunskap, normer och verktyg.

    Den integrerade karaktären på anveckling, gör interaktivitet i utvecklingsarbetet möjlig, vilket i sin tur innebär att anvecklaren snabbt kan växla mellan utveckling och användning. Ökad verktygskunskap kan innebära att anvecklaren ökar sin verksamhetskunskap. Då anvecklarens verksamhetskunskap ökar, ökar möjligheterna att analysera och ifrågasätta verksamheten. Anveckling innebär också att hänsyn kan tas till svårformaliserbara mål och normer, samt att formalisering av tyst kunskap möjliggörs. Anveckling i en miljö med lokala nätverk förenklar möjligheterna att distribuera kalkylsystem för granskning och verifiering. Kalkylsystemets transparens underlättar analys och diskussion. I avhandlingen diskuteras anveckling som ett sätt att hantera kontinuerlig omvärldsförändring på ett sätt som kan innebära omprövning av normer i verksamheten. Då anveckling betraktas som en form av systemutveckling, skiljer sig anveckling starkt från traditionell systemutveckling i och med att anveckling kännetecknas av integration, medan traditionell systemutveckling kännetecknas av specialisering. 

  • 4.
    Bartha, Erzsébet
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kalman, Sigga
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care VHN. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Center for Medical Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Postoperativ smärtlindring - till vilket pris?: En hälsoekonomisk modellanalys av två smärtlindringsmetoder2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  common  method  for  postoperative  pain  control  after  major  abdominal surgery in routine care is epidural analgesia (EDA) using a combination of local anaesthetics  with  opiate  and  patient-controlled   intravenous  analgesia  using opiate (PCIA). It is a matter of dispute which method is better and should be favoured in different clinical situations. The superior analgesic effect of epidural analgesia reported in clinical trials has been difficult to transform into clinical practice.  In a large number  of patients  the epidural  analgesia  is discontinued earlier  than planned  because  of technical  difficulties.  The influence  of better analgesic effect on outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity has also been an issue  of  controversy.  There  are  no  clear  recommendations  which  treatment should  be  selected  in  specific  situations.  According  to  the  guidelines  of  the Swedish  Society  of Anaesthesiology  both  EDA  and  PCIA  can  be chosen  in several  situations.  Apart  from  efficacy  and  effectiveness  a  policy  decision should    also    consider    cost-effectiveness.    Since    economic    analyses    on postoperative pain treatment are rare an analysis of costs and consequences of planned  and discontinued  treatment  is of interest  when  comparing  these  two strategies. The aim of this report is to estimate cost-effectiveness  of treatment with EDA and PCIA under clinical circumstances by a decision analytic model using a clinical database as datasource.

    Using   a   decision-tree,   treatment   with   EDA   was   compared   with   PCIA (morphine) by describing the possible clinical pathways for the successful and early-terminated treatments. The length of treatment was 3 days. A database on 644 patients collected for the purpose of quality control during 1997-99 was the main data source. By using the model costs and effects were established. The effects were expressed as number of pain-free days and the costs in Swedish krona (SEK). Number of pain-free days at rest (pain intensity<30 using visual analogue  scale  1-100  mm)  was  the  primary  measure  of  effect.  The  cost- effectiveness,  the average cost for reaching a particular outcome with a given treatment, is expressed as cost-effectiveness ratio (CER). When decision has to be  taken  to  replace  a  treatment  with  a  more  expensive  and  more  effective treatment, an estimate of the additional resources that have to be used to obtain the additional benefit is needed. That is the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).

    The result of the main analysis is that the cost for each pain-free day is 6.489 SEK for treatment with EDA and 2.602 SEK for PCIA. The incremental cost- effectiveness  ratio  is  50.215  SEK.  This  is  the  additional  cost  for  each  of additional  pain-free  day in a situation  when treatment  strategy  from PCIA is converted to EDA. The sensitivity analysis of our result shows that the result of the cost analysis is robust. However changes in assumptions of effect size have substantial impact on the result*.

    *  See  an  English  version  of  the  report.  Bartha  E,  Carlsson  P,  Kalman  S. Evaluation  of  costs  and  effects  of  epidural  analgesia  and  patient-controlled intravenous  analgesia after major abdominal  surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2005 Oct 28; [Epub ahead of print]

  • 5.
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psykiskt störda brottslingar: En studie av begreppet "jämställd med sinnessjukdom" - dess historiska bakgrund och praktiska tillämpning1989Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this thesis is to study the concept of "equivalent to insanity", its historical background and practical application.

    Based on a legal historical presentation I show that the term "equivalent to insanity" has one content under the 1864 Penal Statutes, and an entirely different one under the 1962 Criminal Code.

    The empirical findings are, that those persons in my material who were assessed to be "equivalent to insane" (298 persons), display similar characteristics as corresponding clientele in previous studies. They are, apart from being mentally disordered, also severely socially handicapped.

    After having examined the concept "equivalent to insanity" and described the persons which were deemed "equivalent", I then concentrate on the question of the reliability of these assessments. The findings are that there is good accordance between different assessments of the same criminal case.

    To answer the question whether this special category of offenders is treatable, I have used a control group consisting of offenders who where assessed not to be "equivalent to insane" (256 persons). My criterion for "treatability" is recidivism into crime in a three-year period. The results are, that psychiatric treatment has apositive crime preventive effect on some categories of offenders (especially offenders sentenced for assault), but none of significance on others (especially property offenders). It is therefore erroneous to pose the question: Does psychiatric treatment have more crime preventive effect than a prison sentence? The question is far too general. One must take into consideration the crime category dominating the study groups. But it is probable that even further ambiguities are concealed in the question. It is therefore cruicial that further research be aimed at seeking crime preventive factors of psychiatric treatment of mentally disordered offenders.

  • 6.
    Berglind, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Ignatova, Simone
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larkö, Olle
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Uppskattning av antal patienter med basalcellscancer i Sverige under 2003 samt kostnader för diagnostik och behandling2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SSI:s vetenskapliga UV-råd skall ge myndigheten råd om det vetenskapliga underlaget beträffande sambandet UV-strålning och biologiska effekter. Vidare ligger i uppdraget att ge vägledning inför SSI:s ställningstagande i frågor av policykaraktär. Rådet har under året haft följande ledamöter: docent Harry Beitner, docent Yvonne Brandberg, meteorolog Weine Josefsson, professor Olle Larkö, professor Ulrik Ringborg (ordförande), docent Bernt Lindelöf, professor Per Söderberg, professor Rune Toftgård, docent Johan Hansson och docent Johan Westerdahl. Till rådet har adjungerats myndighetsspecialist Lars-Erik Paulsson.

    Alla tre hudcancerformer - malignt melanom, skivepitelcancer och basalcellscancer – ökar i Sverige och internationellt. Gemensamt för alla tre formerna är att ökningen sammanhänger med exposition av solens UV-strålning, den viktigaste yttre riskfaktorn. Av detta följer att modifiering av UV-exposition, framför allt genom ändrade solvanor i befolkningen, bör kunna leda till en minskning av förekomsten av hudcancer. Primär prevention genom förebyggande insatser med syfte minskad UV-exposition, bedöms vara ett betydelsefullt sätt att motverka uppkomsten av alla tre formerna av hudcancer.

    Ett annat gemensamt drag hos dessa tre tumörformer är nyttan av tidig diagnostik. Ett tidigt avlägsnande av en hudcancer innebär mindre sjukvårdsinsatser och, för framför allt malignt melanom, minskad risk för tumörspridning. Tumörutvecklingen sker ofta via förstadier och ökad kunskap om dessa leder till möjligheter att avlägsna förstadier innan dessa har hunnit bli elakartade tumörer. Denna form av tidigdiagnostik gränsar till den primära preventionen.

    Av de tre formerna hudcancer är det i första hand malignt melanom som kan förorsaka död i sjukdomen. Ett väsentligt mål med förebyggande insatser är därför att minska dödligheten. För alla tre formerna kan insjuknande förorsaka betydande besvär för patienten. På grund av den rikliga förekomsten av maligna hudtumörer är sjukvårdskostnader betydande. Därför är mål för förebyggande insatser också minskad morbiditet och sjukvårdskostnader. Förutom hudcancer orsakar solens UV-strålning betydande problem i form av ögonskador.

    I årets rapport redovisas (1) epidemiologiska aspekter av malignt hudmelanom, som under senare år uppvisar en stegrad ökningstakt; (2) maligna melanom hos barn och ungdomar; (3) förslag till studier av skivepitelcancer och yrke; (4) förekomst och kostnader för medicinsk handläggning av patienter med basalcellscancer, som visar höga incidenssiffror och höga kostnader; (5) lymfom och UV-strålning; (6) UV-strålning och katarakt, betydelsefullt med förebyggande åtgärder; (7) förslag till workshop om cellulära effekter av UV-strålning; (8) rekommendation att använda den uppgraderade versionen av European Code Against Cancer; (9) UV-strålning och vitamin D, viss UV-dos är av nytta; (10) dosrat och fraktioner av UV-strålning i relation till utveckling av hudcancer och hos möss, påverkar ej preventiva strategier; (11) debatt om ökad solexposition eventuellt skulle leda till förbättrad överlevnad för melanompatienter ändrar ej preventiva strategier; (12) synpunkter på primär prevention från 6th World Conference on Melanoma, Vancouver, 2005.

  • 7.
    Bonde, Torben
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Size and dynamics of active soil organic matter fraction as influenced by soil management1991Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of what has been termed an "active fraction" of soil organic matter (SOM) and the effect of management on the size and turnover of this fraction are the leading themes in the present thesis. The techniques employed to study the amount and turnover of this fraction include: long-term mineralization-incubations for determination of potentially mineralizable carbon (Co) and nitrogen (No), fumigation-incubation for determination of microbial biomass-C and N, and istotope techniques using 13C and 15N for determination of the dynamics of soil C and N. The field experiments include temperate agro-ecosystems, tropical forests and tropical agro-ecosystems cropped with pasture and sugar-cane.

    The amount of microbial biomass-C in the temperate systems were in a range of 322-812 µg g-1 corresponding to 3-40% of total-C, while biomass-N ranged between 59-144 µg g-1 or 3.5-6.8% of total-N. In the tropical systems the amount of biomass-C ranged between 266-1463 µg g-1 corresponding to 1.3-4.8% of total-C, while biomass-N amounted to 35-170 µg g-1 or 2.5-4.2% of total-N. No significant differences between temperate and tropical systems with regard to microbial biomass and total SOM were found among comparable soil layers, despite very different litter inputs, soils and climatic conditions.

    In the temperate agro-ecosystems, the turnover time of biomass-C was 2 yr, while 15N incorporated into microbial tissue seemed to remain in the microbes, indicating a very slow turnover of biomass-N. In the tropical systems, the turnover of microbial biomass-C was about 0.15 yr.

    In the temperate systems, the amounts of N mineralized in long-term incubations increased with increasing additions of N-fertilizer and organic matter and amounted to 93-165 µg g-1 or 6.2-8.8% of total-N. In cases where the mineralization pattern allowed determination of No, the No ranged between 7-13% of total-N. The seasonal variation of No and the effects of management on No support the concept of an active fraction of SOM and that mineralization-incubations provide estimates of this fraction. In a top-soil layer in the tropical systems No amounted to 564-922 µg g-1 or 15-22% of total-N. The Co fraction corresponded to the active fraction as measured by means of the δ13C technique. The concomitant assessment of both C and N during long-term mineralization-incubations revealed two different SOM fractions having widely differing C/N ratios, namely about 2.5-3.0 and 34-37.

    In one temperate system, the non-biomass active-N corresponded to 6% of total-N. The turnover of this fraction was estimated to 7-10 yr. In one tropical site, the active soil-C amounted to 21-25% of total-C and had a turnover time of about 2 yr as measured by means of the δ13C technique.

    In a long-term tropical field experiment, the natural 13C abundance in particle size classes revealed the active SOM to be associated with sand- and silt-size particles (app. 25% of total-C), while the soil-C with intermediate turnover was associated with claysize particles (app. 25% of total-C), the turnover time being 4-6 and 59 yr, respectively. The remaining SOM was associated mainly with clay-size particles and was likely to constitute the stable passive fraction of SOM.

    The dynamics of microbial biomass and indices of nitrification in the time series of introduced tropical pastures displayed a pattern, which suggested the pastures to degrade within a decade. However, the large amount of fairly stable SOM is likely to protect the soils from changes in management and given the nutrients lost form the system are replenished, the pastures may remain productive.

  • 8.
    Buonaguro, L
    et al.
    Viral Oncogenesis and Immunotherapies & AIDS Reference Center, Italy.
    Devito, C
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tornesello, ML
    Viral Oncogenesis and Immunotherapies & AIDS Reference Center, Italy.
    Schröder, U
    Eurocine Vaccines AB, Sweden.
    Wahren, B
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular Virology.
    Buonaguro, FM
    Viral Oncogenesis and Immunotherapies & AIDS Reference Center, Italy.
    DNA-VLP prime-boost intra-nasal immunization induces cellular and humoral anti-HIV-1 systemic and mucosal immunity with cross-clade neutralizing activity2007In: Vaccine, ISSN 0264-410X, E-ISSN 1873-2518, Vol. 25, no 32, p. 5968-5977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immune response to HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs), presenting a clade A Ugandan gp120, has been evaluated in a mouse model by intra-nasal (i.n.) administration by a VLP + VLP homologous or a DNA + VLP heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol, including a HIV-1 DNA gp160/rev plasmid. Furthermore, the effect of the Eurocine lipid-based mucosal L3 adjuvant on the VLP immunogenicity has been assessed as well. The designed heterologous protocol is able to increase the env-specific humoral and cellular immune response, compared to the homologous protocol, which is to some extent increased by the administration of L3-adjuvanted VLP boosting dose. The anti-gag response is statistically increased in both homologous and heterologous protocols, particularly when the VLP boosting dose is adjuvanted. Immune sera from immunized animals exhibit >50% ex vivo neutralizing activity against heterologous A and B-clade viral isolates. An envelope B-cell epitope mapping shows an enhanced response against V3 epitopes all across the C2-V5 region in the heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy. The induction of humoral immunity at mucosal sites, which represents the main port of entry for the HIV-1 infection, is extremely relevant. In this framework, the DNA-VLP heterologous prime-boost protocol appears a promising preventive vaccine approach which can significantly benefit from specific mucosal adjuvants, as the Eurocine L3. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Egon
    Haemostasis Biochemistry, Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park, DK-2760 Måløv, Denmark.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biochemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inhibitors of factor VIIa affect the interface between the protease domain and tissue factor2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 349, no 3, p. 1111-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood coagulation is triggered by the formation of a complex between factor VIIa (FVIIa) and its cofactor, tissue factor (TF). The γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich domain of FVIIa docks with the C-terminal domain of TF, the EGF1 domain of FVIIa contacts both domains of TF, and the EGF2 domain and protease domain (PD) form a continuous surface that sits on the N-terminal domain of TF. Our aim was to investigate the conformational changes that occur in the sTF·PD binding region when different types of inhibitors, i.e., one active-site inhibitor (FFR-chloromethyl ketone (FFR)), two different peptide exosite inhibitors (E-76 and A-183), and the natural inhibitor tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), were allowed to bind to FVIIa. For this purpose, we constructed two sTF mutants (Q37C and E91C). By the aid of site-directed labeling technique, a fluorescent label was attached to the free cysteine. The sTF·PD interface was affected in position 37 by the binding of FFR, TFPI, and E-76, i.e., a more compact structure was sensed by the probe, while for position 91 located in the same region no change in the surrounding structure was observed. Thus, the active site inhibitors FFR and TFPI, and the exosite inhibitor E-76 have similar effects on the probe in position 37 of sTF, despite their differences in size and inhibition mechanism. The allosteric changes at the active site caused by binding of the exosite inhibitor E-76 in turn induce similar conformational changes in the sTF·PD interface as does the binding of the active site inhibitors. A-183, on the other hand, did not affect position 37 in sTF, indicating that the A-183 inhibition mechanism is different from that of E-76.

  • 10.
    Comstock, Mica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Winroth, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enabling mass customization in the mobile telephone industry: agility, flexibility and the changing role of assembly at Erisson2001In: Proceedings of the 34th CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems, Athens, Greece: CIRP , 2001, p. 195-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results of an investigation conducted to explore the status of Mass Customization in the mobile telephone industry and its implications for assembly operations. The study focused on the manufacture of two representative mobile telephone models at Sweden's Ericsson. The findings include the level of variety and customization in each model, where in the value chain this differentiation was implemented, and how it was conceptually, methodologically and technologically enabled. The analysis, aided by several frameworks from the literature, points to a changing role for assembly in this industry, and suggests research direction to meet future customized manufacturing challenges.

  • 11.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anchoring symbols to sensory data1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent agents embedded in physical environments need the ability to connect, or anchor, the symbols used to perform abstract reasoning to the physical entities which these symbols refer to. Anchoring must deal with indexical and objective references, definite and indefinite identifiers, and a temporary impossibility to perceive physical entities. Furthermore it needs to rely on sensor data which is inherently affected by uncertainty, and to deal with ambiguities. In this thesis, we outline the concept of anchoring and its functionalities. Moreover we define the general structure for an anchoring module and we present an implementation of the anchoring functionalities in two different domains: an autonomous airborne vehicle for traffic surveillance and a mobile ground vehicle performing navigation.

  • 12.
    Dahlstedt, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ålund, AleksandraLinköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Hertzberg, FredrikLärarhögskolan, Stockholms Universitet.Urban, SusanneLinköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utbildning, arbete, medborgarskap: strategier för social inkludering i den mångetniska staden2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillgång till utbildning är en förutsättning för jämlika levnadsvillkor och ett fullvärdigt medborgarskap. Men med en allt mer polari serad och etniskt skiktad arbetsmarknad är utbildning inte längre en tillräcklig förutsättning för social mobilitet, trots att samhället är mer beroende av kunskap och utbildning än någonsin.I denna bok beskrivs relationen mellan utbildning och möjligheten att uppnå de levnadsvillkor som det sociala medborgarskapet föreskriver. Vilka strategier utvecklar barn till invandrare för att övervinna hinder i samhället och erfarenheter av exkludering och stigmatisering? Framför allt fokuseras övergången mellan skola och arbete: Hur präglas utbildningsval och syn på arbete och karriär av sociala bakgrundsfaktorer som klass, kön och etnisk tillhörighet? Vilken betydelse har boendemiljön och den lokala skolan för valet av skola? Hur inverkar föräldragrupper, föreningar och andra sociala rörelser på övergången mellan skola och arbetsmarknad?

    I denna bok beskrivs relationen mellan utbildning och möjligheten att uppnå de levnadsvillkor som det sociala medborgarskapet föreskriver. Vilka strategier utvecklar barn till invandrare för att övervinna hinder i samhället och erfarenheter av exkludering och stigmatisering? Framför allt fokuseras övergången mellan skola och arbete:

    Hur präglas utbildningsval och syn på arbete och karriär av sociala bakgrundsfaktorer som klass, kön och etnisk tillhörighet?

    Vilken betydelse har boendemiljön och den lokala skolan för valet av skola?

    Hur inverkar föräldragrupper, föreningar och andra sociala rörelser på övergången mellan skola och arbetsmarknad?

  • 13.
    Ekström, Ulla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Szczepanski, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Arts, Craft and Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nycklar till Naturen: Med barnen i Närmiljön1989 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Nycklar till naturen ger idéer om hur man i förskolan kan arbeta med närmiljön under hela året. Författarna gör tillsammans med barn en inspirerande och humoristisk vandring genom landskapet och årstiderna. Omtyckta inslag i boken är sammanfattningarna ”Så trodde man förr”.

  • 14.
    Emanuelson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Performance enhancement in a well-structured pattern matcher through partial evaluation1980Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial evaluation is a technique which can be utilized for the generation of compiled code from the corresponding interpreter. In this work the partial evaluation technique is applied to a pattern match interpreter, in order to achieve the simultaneous goals of a general, well-structured program which is extendible and still make high performance at execution possible. A formal definition of pattern matching is presented, which is the basis for the interpreter. The partial evaluation technique is evaluated with respect to other techniques for implementation of pattern matchers. Control structures for pattern matching such as backtracking, generators, and recursion are presented, and the appropriateness of these for use in partial evaluation is discussed.

  • 15.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supporting the use of design knowledge: an assessment of commenting agents1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to an understanding of the usefulness of and effects from using commenting agents for supporting the use of design knowledge in user interface design. In two empirical studies, we have explored and investigated commenting agents from the aspects of usefulness, appropriateness of different tool behaviour and forms of comments. Our results show a potential value of the commenting approach, but also rais,es several questions concerning the cost and actual effects.

    The use of formalized design is considered valuable, yet problematic. Such knowledge is valuable in order to achieve reuse, quality assurance, and design training, but hard to use due to the large volumes, complex structures and weak reference to the design context. The use of knowledge-based tools, capable of generating comments on an evolving design, has been seen as a promising approach to providing user interface designers with formalized design knowledge in the design situation. However, there is a lack of empirical explorations of the idea.

    In our research, we have conducted a three-part study of the usefulness of commenting tools. First, a Wizard-of-Oz study with 16 subjects was performed to investigate designers' perceptions of the usefulness of a commenting tool, along with the appropriateness of different tool behaviors and forms of comment. We focus on tool mode (active/passive support) and mood (imperative/declarative comments). Secondly, eight professional designers participated in an interview about support needs. Thirdly, a conceptual design prototype was tested by 7 designers, using cooperative evaluation. A broad set of qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to collect and analyse data.

    Our results show that a commenting tool is seen as disturbing but useful (since it affects the user's work situation). Using a commenting tool affects the designer's evaluation behaviour, i.e., there is an indication of some form of knowledge transfer. The short-term result is an increased consciousness in terms of design reflection and guideline usage. In terms of preferred tool behaviour, our results show that imperative presentation, i.e. pointing out ways of overcoming identified design problems, is the easiest to understand. A high perceived mental workload relates to problems detecting comments when using a commenting tool; this means that comments from an active agent risk being overlooked.

    In addition, a large part of this thesis can be described as a report of our experiences from using Wizard of Oz techniques to study user interface design support tools. We present our experience and advice for future research.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, K
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ålands Centralsjukhus, Finland.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Björnerem, A
    Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Regionssjukhuset, Tromsö, Norway.
    Platz-Christensen, JJ
    Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Malmö.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Gender and Medicine.
    Validation of the use of Pap-stained vaginal smears for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis2007In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, no 7, p. 809-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears (Pap smears) are used to screen for cervical cancer. Since there is a lack of consensus in published reports respecting the efficacy of Pap-stained smears in BV diagnostics, there is a need to validate their use for diagnosis of BV. Slides from the international BV00 workshop were Pap stained and independently analyzed by four investigators under a phase-contrast microscope. All workshop slides - whether Pap-stained, Gram-stained or rehydrated air-dried smears - were scored according to the same Nugent classification. The diagnostic accuracy of Pap smears for diagnosis of BV had a sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.92, with a positive and negative predictive value of 0.84 and 0.93, respectively. The interobserver weighted kappa index was 0.86 for Pap-stained smears compared to 0.81 for Gram-stained smears, and 0.70 for rehydrated air-dried smears using the mean Nugent score as the criterion standard. Provided that the samples are taken from equivalent locations (the vaginal fornix) and analyzed according to the same scoring criteria, there is no discernable difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the three smear-staining methods. The Pap-stained vaginal smears can be used as a wholly adequate alternative to Gram-stained smears for BV diagnosis. © Apmis 2007.

  • 17.
    Falkenroth, Esa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Database technology for control and simulation2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis shows how modern database technology can improve data management in engineering applications. It is divided into four parts. The first part reviews modern database technology with respect to engineering applications. The second part addresses data management in control applications. It describes how active database systems can monitor and control manufacturing processes. A database-centred architecture is presented along with a compiler technique that transforms manufacturing operations into queries and deterministic terminating rule-sets. The database-centred approach was evaluated through a case study involving a medium-sized production cell. The third part focuses on data management in industrial simulators. More precisely, it shows how main-memory database systems can support modelling, collection, and analysis of simulation data. To handle update streams from high-performance simulators, the database system was extended with a real-time storage structure for simulation data. Fast retrieval is achieved using a computational indexing method based on a super-linear equation-solving algorithm. The fourth and final part compares the two database-centred approaches. 

  • 18.
    Ferdousi, Hosne Ara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zetterström, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pulmonary Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dreborg, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bronchial hyper-responsiveness predicts the development of mild clinical asthma within 2 yr in school children with hay-fever2005In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 478-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In children with mild asthma, symptoms are not always apparent. Therefore, results of tests play an important role for the diagnosis. First, to investigate whether children with bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) but no symptoms of asthma in 1992 had developed clinical asthma at follow up in 1994. The second aim was to find out the diagnostic properties of tests for asthma/allergic inflammation, using either doctor diagnosed asthma (DDA), self-assessed symptoms of asthma or iso-capnic hyperventilation of cold air (IHCA), as the standard, to diagnose asthma in a group of children with hay fever. Twenty-eight children with pollinosis, 12 of them with a history of asthma for the first time during the season 1992, were studied during the birch pollen season and in the autumn of 1994. During both periods, the bronchial hyper-reactivity was estimated by methacholine bronchial provocation tests (MBPT), bronchial variability by peak expiratory flow rate variability, subjective symptoms of asthma by visual analogue scale (VAS) and bronchial inflammation by serum and urine levels of inflammatory mediators. In 1994 IHCA was added during both seasons. Eight of 16 children with BHR but without clinical asthma in 1992 had developed asthma in 1994, 14 of 16 reacted to IHCA and 13 to MBPT. All 12 children with DDA in 1992 had still asthma in 1994 and 14 children with BHR in 1992 had persistent BHR in 1994. Of 23 children with BHR in 1992, 17 had DDA in 1994 and all maintained their BHR. Furthermore, 20 of them reacted to IHCA in 1994. In 1994, 24 of 28 hay-fever children had a positive IHCA tests and 24 had positive MBPT. In relation to VAS, the sensitivity of IHCA and MBPT to predict present asthma was high, but the specificity low, whereas the specificity of most other tests was high, but based on few individuals. In relation to DDA both the IHCA test (65–80%) and the MBPT test (79–85%) had a high sensitivity and it was three to six times more likely to find a positive test among asthmatics than in non-asthmatics. Children with hay fever without clinical asthma have a high risk of developing asthma within 2 yr. In relation to DDA, inhalation of cold air and the MBPT showed a high sensitivity.

  • 19.
    Fransén, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fenech, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Association between ulcerative growth and hypoxia inducible factor-1α polymorphisms in colorectal cancer patients2006In: Molecular Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0899-1987, E-ISSN 1098-2744, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 833-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been found to be involved in several different physiological mechanisms, such as blood-vessel formation, apoptosis, and erythropoiesis. HIF-1α is hydroxylated at normoxia and rapidly degraded via the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL)/ubiquitin-proteasome degradation system to prevent angiogenesis. In a previous study, the C1772T (P582S) and the G1790A (A588T) polymorphisms were identified in the human HIF-1α gene, which was shown to have a higher transactivating capability in vitro compared to the wild type allele. However, the role for these polymorphisms in vivo is still unclear. In the present investigation, we have therefore studied the role of the two polymorphic variants in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) with PCR/RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), single strand conformation analysis (SSCA), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). A significant higher-risk was identified between patients heterozygous for the C1772T polymorphism and the more severe ulcerative growth pattern compared to homozygous C1772C wild type tumors (RR = 5.2; 95% CI 1.26–21.6; P = 0.006). This was also verified on the allelic level (RR = 6.5; 95% CI 1.58–26.8; P = 0.001). In addition, patients carrying one or more polymorphic alleles in either the HIF-1α C1772T or the G1790A polymorphisms display significant higher risk for the development of ulcerative CRCs (RR = 4.17; 95% CI = 1.33–13.08; P = 0.004). These results suggest that the HIF-1α polymorpisms are an important factor for development of a subset of ulcerative intestinal tumors. Future screening of the polymorphic HIF-1α allele may therefore be of importance in the selection of treatment strategies of CRC.

  • 20.
    Gladh, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eldh, Monica
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mattsson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Quality of life in neurologically healthy children with urinary incontinence2006In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 1648-1652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To bring forward the arguments for active treatment of urine incontinence in otherwise healthy children, a quality-of-life (QoL) study was performed.

    Subjects and methods: A self-rating QoL questionnaire, child-adjusted and validated, was completed by 120 neurologically healthy children, aged 6–16 y, with urinary incontinence. Another 239 age-matched children made up a control group. The two groups were compared both totally and in age-related subgroups (6–8, 9–12, >12 y) concerning the index for all questions, for universal parts (without questions dealing with incontinence) as well as for specific key domains.

    Results: The patient group had a significantly lower index than the control group both with and without items related to incontinence (p <0.0001). Social situation, self-esteem and self-confidence were most influenced, particularly in the youngest children. Thirty-one children (13%) of the control group reported incontinence and did not score their QoL as good as their continent peers but better than the study patients.

    Conclusion: From the quality-of-life aspects, the study supports active treatment of urinary incontinence in children already at younger ages.

  • 21.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmlund, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ferraud, Lilianne
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rutqvist, Lars Erik
    Clinic of Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skoog, Lambert
    Division of Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expression of COX-2 and steroid converting enzymes in breast cancer2006In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 219-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COX-2 is upregulated in many breast tumors, and one of the products of COX-2 is PGE2 that is suggested to upregulate aromatase through cAMP signaling in breast cancer. Although aromatase can increase the estrogen levels in tumors, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) activity is finally needed for the estrone/estradiol regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate if the protein expression of enzymes involved in estrogen synthesis shows covariation with the expression of COX-2. We also wanted to correlate these results with prognosis. We analyzed the expression of COX-2, aromatase, 17HSD1 and 17HSD2 with immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays composed of 356 primary breast tumors. In the present study COX-2 was correlated to aromatase (P<0.00001), 17HSD1 (P=0.0073), and 17HSD2 (P<0.00001). Patients with ER positive tumors expressing low amounts of 17HSD2 had decreased breast cancer survival (P=0.013). Elevated expression of COX-2 and aromatase was more frequent among larger tumors (P=0.017 and P=0.013). COX-2 expression correlates with the levels of the examined steroid converting enzymes and may contribute to increased estrogen levels in the tumor. In breast cancer cells, the regulatory function of 17HSD2 could be lost, and in the present study patients with low or non-detectable levels of 17HSD2 had worse prognosis than had breast cancer patients with higher levels of the enzyme.

  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Extending temporal action logic2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An autonomous agent operating in a dynamical environment must be able to perform several "intelligent" tasks, such as learning about the environment, planning its actions and reasoning about the effects of the chosen actions. For this purpose, it is vital that the agent has a coherent, expressive, and well understood means of representing its knowledge about the world.

    Traditionally, all knowledge about the dynamics of the modeled world has been represented in complex and detailed action descriptions. The first contribution of this thesis is the introduction of domain constraints in TAL, allowing a more modular representation of certain kinds of knowledge.

    The second contribution is a systematic method of modeling different types of conflict handling that can arise in the context of concurrent actions. A new type of fluent, called influence, is introduced as a carrier from cause to actual effect. Domain constraints govern how influences interact with ordinary fluents. Conflicts can be modeled in a number of different ways depending on the nature of the interaction.

    A fundamental property of many dynamical systems is that the effects of actions can occur with some delay. We discuss how delayed effects can be modeled in TAL using the mechanisms previously used for concurrent actions, and consider a range of possible interactions between the delayed effects of an action and later occurring actions.

    In order to model larger and more complex domains, a sound modeling methodology is essential. We demonstrate how many ideas from the object-oriented paradigm can be used when reasoning about action and change. These ideas are used both to construct a framework for high level control objects and to illustrate how complex domains can be modeled in an elaboration tolerant manner. 

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, M C
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jaworski, J
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Low Choline Concentrations in Normal-Appearing White Matter of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Normal MR Imaging Brain Scans2007In: American Journal of Neuroradiology, ISSN 0195-6108, E-ISSN 1936-959X, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 1306-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spectroscopic studies (1H-MR spectroscopy) of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with MR imaging brain lesions have already been performed, but our intention was to investigate NAWM in MS patients who lack brain lesions to elucidate whether the same pathologic changes could be identified.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We checked 350 medical files of patients with MS who are registered in our institution. Fourteen patients (11 women and 3 men; mean age, 48.6 years; handicap score, Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] 2.9; range, 1–6.5) with clinically definite MS and a normal MR imaging of the brain were included. 1H-MR spectroscopy was performed in 4 voxels (size approximately 17 × 17 × 17 mm3) using absolute quantification of metabolite concentrations. Fourteen healthy control subjects (11 women and 3 men; mean age, 43.3 years) were analyzed in the same way.

    RESULTS: Significant differences in absolute metabolite concentrations were observed, with the patients with MS showing a lower total concentration of N-acetyl compounds (tNA), including N-acetylaspartate and N-acetyl aspartylglutamate (13.5 mmol/L versus 14.6 mmol/L; P = .002) compared with the healthy control subjects. Unexpectedly, patients with MS presented significantly lower choline-containing compounds (Cho) compared with healthy control subjects (2.2 mmol/L versus 2.4 mmol/L; P < .001). The EDSS showed a positive correlation to myo-inositol concentrations (0.14 mmol/L per EDSS; r2 = 0.06) and a negative correlation to tNA concentrations (−0.41 mmol/L per EDSS; r2 = 0.22).

    CONCLUSION: The unexpected finding of lower Cho concentrations has not been reported previously. We suggest that patients with MS who lack lesions in the brain constitute a separate entity and may have increased protective or healing abilities.

  • 24.
    Hagander, Louise
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Karolinska institutet.
    Quantitative Sensory Testing, Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Peripheral Nervous Lesions2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In diagnosis of peripheral neuropathies, quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess thermal and vibration sensitivity. QST is a psychophysical method susceptible to the influence of several factors. It is important to standardize the test. Vibrations may cause peripheral nerve lesions. Snoring induces oropharyngeal vibrations which could cause nervous lesions and consequent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Objectives: to study the effect of anatomical site, applied pressure and local skin temperature on QST. To develop methodology for QST and EMG in oropharynx. To evaluate the presence of oropharyngeal nerve lesions in patients with OSA and snoring. Methods: Thermal and vibration thresholds were tested in 47 normal subjects at different sites in hand and foot. The effect of different local pressures on vibration thresholds and of different skin temperatures on thermal thresholds was studied. In 14 habitual snorers and 31 OSA-patients vibration detection thresholds (VDT) and cold detection thresholds (CDT) were tested intra-orally. Comparison was made to 23 non-snoring individuals. Concentric needle EMG was performed in m. palatoglossus in OSA patients, habitual snorers and normal subjects. Resuts: In general, the hand was more sensitive than the foot to QST. Thenar was most sensitive to warmth. There were no other significant differences between any of the sites within the hand or foot for thermal or vibration stimuli. Warm and cool thresholds were independent of local skin temperature. Different applied pressures did not change VDT. In OSA-patients, both VDT and CDT were elevated at the tonsillar pillars compared to non-snorers. VDT were not significantly different between snorers and normals, but this was true for CDT (p=0.001). In 10/11OSA patients, palatoglossus EMG showed signs of motor neuropathy. 11/22 habitual snorers showed moderate pathology. Conclusion: In the hand, the preferred site for thermal testing is the thenar eminence and for VDT the pulp of the index finger. Warming or cooling of the skin is unnecessary. Low pressure differences did not influence the results of VDT. Signs of palatal motor and sensory nervous lesions were present in most OSAS-patients and some snorers, supporting the hypothesis of a progressive nervous lesion. CDT and EMG could be used to evaluate structural damage, which might be important to identify snorers at risk and in choice of therapy.

  • 25.
    Hallberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Timing issues in high-level synthesis1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High-level synthesis transforms a behavioral specification into a register-transfer level implementation of a digital system. Much research has been put into auto- mating this demanding and error-prone task. Much of the effort has been directed towards finding techniques which minimize the length of the operation schedule and/or the implementation cost. As the techniques have matured and found their way into commercial applications, new problems have emerged such as the need to be able to specify not only the functional but also the timing behavior, and the difficulty to generate implementations with this timing behavior.

    This thesis addresses the timing-related problems in high-level synthesis by modeling the timing of a design at three different levels. In the high-level model, timing is expressed by constraints on the execution time of sequences of operations. At the middle level the timing is given by the selected clock period and the operation schedule. Finally, the low-level model is used to estimate the delay of each individual operation, taking into account the effects given by functional and storage units, multiplexors, interconnections, and the controller. This elaborated low-level timing model provides the basis for deciding the middle-level timing in such a way that the possibility of reaching a final implementation with this timing behavior is maximized. The middle level timing, in turn, is used to verify the timing constraints given by the high-level model.

    A set of design transformations has been developed to enable an integrated high-level synthesis algorithm performing automatic clock period selection, multicycle scheduling, resource allocation, and resource binding. The task of finding a sequence of transformations which leads to a (near) optimal solution yields a combinatorial optimization problem. To solve this problem an optimization algorithm based on the tabu search heuristic is proposed.

    The resulting high-level synthesis system has been applied to standard bench- marks and an example from the operation and maintenance (OAM) functionality of an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) switch. The results motivate the usage of the proposed low-level and high-level timing models and demonstrate the efficiency of the implemented high-level synthesis system.

  • 26.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A blueprint for using commercial games off the shelf in defence training, education and research simulations2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two types of simulations, those made for business and those made for pleasure. The underlying technology is usually the same, the difference being how and for what purpose the simulation is used. Often the two purposes can be combined. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the mutual benefit that exists between the military community and the entertainment business. These mutual benefits have only in recent years begun to be seriously explored.

    The objective of this work is to explore how to modify and use commercial video games off the shelf, in defence training, education and research. The work focuses on the process of how and what to consider when modifying commercial off the shelf games for military needs.

    The outlined blueprint is based on studies performed with combatants from the Swedish Army. To facilitate the develop­ment of the blueprint, a great number of commercial games used by military communities around the world are evaluated. These evaluations, in harmony with literature in the area, are used to develop a basic theoretical framework. The basic theoretical framework characterizes the approach and style throughout the work.

    From a general point of view, there are two overall findings; first there is an urgent need for more intuitive, pedagogical and powerful tools for preparation, management and evaluation of game-based simulation, especially since the real learning often takes place during the modification process rather the during the playing session. Second, there is a defective understanding of the differences between and purposes of a defence simulation and a game. Defence simulations focus on actions and events, while video games focus on human reactions to actions and events. 

  • 27.
    Hedlund, Joel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cantoni, Roberto
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Baltscheffsky, Margareta
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Baltscheffsky, Herrick
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Persson, Bengt
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics.
    Analysis of ancient sequence motifs in the H+ -PPase family2006In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 273, p. 5183-5193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique family of membrane-bound proton-pumping inorganic pyrophosphatases, involving pyrophosphate as the alternative to ATP, was investigated by characterizing 166 members of the UniProtKB ⁄ Swiss-Prot + UniProtKB ⁄TrEMBL databases and available completed genomes, using sequence comparisons and a hidden Markov model based upon a conserved 57-residue region in the loop between transmembrane segments 5 and 6. The hidden Markov model was also used to search the approximately one million sequences recently reported from a large-scale sequencing project of organisms in the Sargasso Sea, resulting in additional 164 partial pyrophosphatase sequences. The strongly conserved 57-residue region was found to contain two nonapeptidyl sequences, mainly consisting of the four ‘very early’ proteinaceous amino acid residues Gly, Ala, Val and Asp, compatible with an ancient origin of the inorganic pyrophosphatases. The nonapeptide patterns have charged amino acid residues at positions 1, 5 and 9, are apparent binding sites for the substrate and parts of the active site, and were shown to be so specific for these enzymes that they can be used for functional assignments of unannotated genomes.

  • 28.
    Hektor, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What's the use?: Internet and information behavior in everyday life2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A widespread access to computers and the Internet at home signals a change in the "information environment" of everyday life. This thesis deals with how this new situation can be studied and understood.

    Based on the assumption that Internet should be seen as an informationsystem that is finding its place alongside more familiar information systems in everyday life, the objective is set out to develop a conceptual framework of information behavior in everyday life.

    The empirical material consists of previous research on informationbehavior (predominantly from the Information Studies field of research), and of qualitative case studies of ten information users in the context of their nonwork everyday lives, collected by means of diaries and interviews.

    The primary result is a model which offers a viable framework forunderstanding information behavior in everyday life, with the characteristics that: It considers all forms of information behavior; it makes it possible to study information systems in concert that previously have been studied only separately; it goes deeply into the circumstances of everyday life; it offers means to understand the significance of social relations and communities for individual information behavior.

    The secondary result offers insights into particular user behavior concerning the Internet in relation to other information systems in everyday life.

  • 29.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håkansson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odselius, Leif
    Micronic Laser System Inc., P.O Box 3141, SE-183 03 Täby, Sweden.
    High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors2006In: HDP'06. Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, IEEE , 2006, p. 157-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a board-to-board interconnect technique utilizing elastomeric connectors and parallel microstrip lines on a flexible foil cable with low dielectric loss (tandelta = 0.002). It is shown that a pad structure combined with an elastomeric connector can be co-designed such that a good signal integrity and thus a high data transmission rate is achieved. It is also shown that 2 Gbps data transmission rate can be achieved with a 490-mm-long microstrip on the flexible cable, where crosstalk is taken into account. Utilizing the elastomeric connector together with the flat and flexible cable, dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed and processed since standard printed circuit board processing techniques can be utilized

  • 30.
    Ilias, Michail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westermark, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brantmark, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson-Engels, Stefan
    Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation of a Fiber-Optic Fluorescence Spectroscopy System to Assist Neurosurgical Tumor Resections2007In: Novel Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications III (Proceedings Volume) / [ed] Christian D. Depeursinge, Bellingham, Washington, USA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2007, Vol. 6631, p. 66310W-1-66310W-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, is difficult to totally resect without aid due to its infiltrative way of growing and its morphological similarities to surrounding functioning brain under direct vision in the operating field. The need for an inexpensive and robust real-time visualizing system for resection guiding in neurosurgery has been formulated by research groups all over the world. The main goal is to develop a system that helps the neurosurgeon to make decisions during the surgical procedure. A compact fiber optic system using fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for guiding neurosurgical resections. The system is based on a high power light emitting diode at 395 nm and a spectrometer. A fiber bundle arrangement is used to guide the excitation light and fluorescence light between the instrument and the tissue target. The system is controlled through a computer interface and software package especially developed for the application. This robust and simple instrument has been evaluated in vivo both on healthy skin but also during a neurosurgical resection procedure. Before surgery the patient received orally a low dose of 5-aminolevulinic acid, converted to the fluorescence tumor marker protoporphyrin IX in the malignant cells. Preliminary results indicate that PpIX fluorescence and brain tissue autofluorescence can be recorded with the help of the developed system intraoperatively during resection of glioblastoma multiforme.

  • 31.
    Indurain, Ainhoa
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Nephrology UHL.
    Fernström, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nephrology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Nephrology UHL.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Klåda hos dialyspatienter2007In: Dialäsen : tidningen för personal inom njursjukvård, ISSN 1104-4616, Vol. 3, p. 47-50Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uremisk klåda är ett stort problem hos patienter med avancerad njursvikt. En enkätstudie på dialyspatienter visade att omfattningen av problemet var större än förväntat. Att tillfredställande behandla uremisk klåda är svårt och många olika behandlingsalternativ finns. Den enda behandlingen som är riktigt effektiv är njurtransplantation.

  • 32.
    Jakobsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psykoterapins uppgift: Hälsa, bot och självförbättring i modernt psykoanalytiskt tänkande1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to critically examine, by means of theoretical analysis, the limits of psychotherapeutic intervention and the view of mental health embraced by the psychotherapy which is based on a psychodynamic thinking and procedure. This is done by asking how different theorists, e g Freud, Heinz Kohut and Otto Kernberg, are dealing with the questions of the indications of a need of psychotherapy, the desired extension of a therapeutic change and how the goals of treatment should be formulated.

    The conclusion is that modern psychoanalysis offers some promise of treatment for a wide range of phenomena extending the traditional concept of negative health. Mental health, from the psychodynamic viewpoint, contains ideals which are primarily taken from four value perspectives: knowledge, autonomy, adaptation and well-being with certain ideals of life style and quality of life in connection with imperatives about the good, satisfying and meaningful life. A fourth category, autonomy, has had a very strong position in the psychoanalytic tradition. As an ideal it too should be assigned to the educational domain.

    Modern psychodynamic psychotherapies, especially the ones with an increasing element of support, have now come very close to a universal means with positive, restorative goals for the patient's whole self, including the conscious parts of his person. The psychoanalytic self psychology and object relations theory, considered as belief systems or philosophies of life, provide the practising psychotherapist both with thereasons of intervention and the belief system needed as a remedy.

  • 33.
    Jansson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Storm, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Margolin, Sara
    Department of Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital/ Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Genetics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenmark Askmalm, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Lindblom, Annika
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A new polymorphism in the coding region of exon four in HSD17B2 in relation to risk of sporadic and hereditary breast cancer2007In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ synthesis of oestrogens is of great importance in the development and progression of breast cancer. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) type 2 catalyses oxidation from oestradiol to oestrone, and thereby protects the breast epithelial cells from oestradiol. Low expression of 17HSD type 2 has been associated with decreased survival in breast cancer, but no studies have investigated the mechanism behind the low expression. The 17HSD type 2 gene (HSD17B2) was screened for mutations with Single Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP)-DNA sequencing in 59 sporadic breast cancer cases, 19 hereditary breast cancer cases and seven breast cancer cell lines. DNA samples from 226 healthy individuals were used to identify if changes were previously unknown polymorphisms. No mutation was detected and therefore mutations in HSD17B2 do not explain why some breast tumours exhibit low 17HSD type 2 expression. However, a previously unknown polymorphism was found in exon four (Met226Val). Using molecular modelling, we found that the substituted residue is located at the outer part of the steroid binding site, probably causing minor alterations in the substrate binding. We further studied if the polymorphism contributes to breast cancer susceptibility in a larger material, but did not find an increased risk in the group of 317 sporadic breast cancer patients, 188 breast cancer patients with two close relatives with breast cancer or 122 hereditary breast cancer patients, compared to the healthy control group. We suggest that the detected polymorphism does not contribute to a higher risk of developing breast cancer.

  • 34.
    Jansson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Cohen, Maja
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sivik, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 14 affects estradiol levels in breast cancer cells and is a prognostic marker in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer2006In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 66, no 23, p. 11471-11477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estrogens have an important role in the progression of breast cancer. The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) family has been identified to be of significance in hormone-dependent tissues. 17HSD1 and 17HSD2 are the main 17HSD enzymes involved in breast cancer investigated this far, but it is possible that other hormone-regulating enzymes have a similar role. 17HSD5 and 17HSD12 are associated with sex steroid metabolism, and 17HSD14 is a newly discovered enzyme that may be involved in the estrogen balance. The mRNA expression of 17HSD5, 17HSD12, and 17HSD14 were analyzed in 131 breast cancer specimens by semiquantitative real-time PCR. The results were compared with recurrence-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival of the patients. The breast cancer cell lines MCF7, SKBR3, and ZR75-1 were transiently transfected with 17HSD14 to investigate any possible effect on estradiol levels. We found that high 17HSD5 was related to significantly higher risk of late relapse in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients remaining recurrence-free later than 5 years after diagnosis (P = 0.02). No relation to 17HSD12 expression was found, indicating that 17HSD12 is of minor importance in breast cancer. Patients with ER-positive tumors with high expression levels of 17HSD14 showed a significantly better prognosis about recurrence-free survival (P = 0.008) as well as breast cancer-specific survival (P = 0.01), confirmed by multivariate analysis (P = 0.04). Transfection of 17HSD14 in the human breast cancer cells MCF7 and SKBR3 significantly decreased the levels of estradiol, presenting an effect of high expression levels of the enzyme. ©2006 American Association for Cancer Research.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Sten
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zeng, Xiaohu
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Nils-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Measurement of average texture of cold-rolled aluminium sheet by electron back-scattering diffraction: a comparison with neutron diffraction2001In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 315, no 1-2, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         Measurements of the average texture on sheet of commercial pure aluminium have been performed using neutron diffraction and electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). Orientation distribution function maps have been calculated and compared. The results show a good correspondence provided that the data from the EBSD measurements are corrected according to a texture index versus inverted number of measurement procedure. Most errors are probably related to differences in investigated volume and calculation technique and to the fact that the microstructure was difficult for EBSD measurements.

  • 36.
    Josifovski, Vanja
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design, implementation and evaluation of a distributed mediator system for data integration1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor of the strength of a modern enterprise is its capability to effectively store and process information. As a legacy of the mainframe computing trend in recent decades, large enterprises often have many isolated data repositories used only within portions of the organization. The methodology used in the development of such systems, also known as legacy systems, is tailored according to the application, whiteout concern for the rest of the organization. From organizational reasons, such isolated systems still emerge within different portions of the enterprises. While these systems improve the efficiency of the individual enterprise units, their inability to interoperate and provide the user with a unified information picture of the whole enterprise is a "speed bump" in taking the corporate structures to the next level of efficiency.

    Several technical obstacles arise in the design and implementation of a system for integration of such data repositories (sources), most notably distribution, autonomy, and data heterogeneity. This thesis presents a data integration system based on the wrapper-mediator approach. In particular, it describes the facilities for passive data mediation in the AMOSII system. These facilities consist of: (i) object-oriented (OO) database views for reconciliation of data and schema heterogeneities among the sources, and (ii) a multidatabase query processing engine for processing and executing of queries over data in several data sources with different processing capabilities. Some of the major data integration features of AMOSII are:

    • A distributed mediator architecture where query plans are generated using a distributed compilation in several communicating mediator and wrapper servers.
    • Data integration by reconciled OO views spanning over multiple mediators and specified through declarative OO queries. These views are capacity augmenting views, i.e. locally stored attributes can be associated with them.
    • Processing and optimization of queries to the reconciled views using OO concepts such as overloading, late binding, and type-aware query rewrites.
    • Query optimization strategies for efficient processing of queries over a combination of locally stored and reconciled data from external data sources.

    The AMOSII system is implemented on a Windows NT/95 platform. 

  • 37.
    Karlsson, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A systematic approach for prioritizing software requirements1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most commercial development projects, there are more candidate requirements subject to implementation than available time and resources allow for. A carefully chosen set of requirements must therefore be selected for implementation. A systematic approach for prioritizing candidate requirements is a very useful means to provide necessary and useful input for the crucial selection decision.

    This thesis provides results from the development and applications of different approaches for prioritizing requirements in close collaboration with Ericsson Radio Systems AB. A pairwise comparison approach for prioritizing requirements according to multiple criteria has been developed and applied. To overcome the high number of comparisons that the approach often required in projects with many requirements, different candidate approaches have been investigated and applied for reducing the required effort. An approach for managing requirement interdependencies and their implications for the prioritizing approach has been developed. A support tool packaging the prioritizing approach and automating much of the manual work in the approach has been developed and evaluated in practice.

    Qualitative results indicate that the proposed approach is an effective means for selecting among candidate requirements, for allocating resources to them and for negotiating requirements. The approach further enables knowledge transfer and visualization, helps to establish consensus among project members and creates a good basis for decisions. Quantitative results indicate that the requirements actually selected for implementation have a profound impact on the final product. In several projects where requirements were prioritized according to the criteria value for customer and cost of implementation, implementing the requirements which optimize the relation of value for customer to cost of implementation would reduce the development cost and development time. Software systems with substantially the same value for customer can consequently be delivered with a reduction in cost and lead-time when the proposed prioritizing approach is deployed carefully.  

  • 38.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Actions, interactions and narratives1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of reasoning about action and change is concerned with the formalization of actions and their effects as well as other aspects of inhabited dynamical systems. The representation is typically done in some logical language. Although there has been substantial progress recently regarding the frame problem and the ramification problem, many problems still remain. One of these problems is the representation of concurrent actions and their effects. In particular, the effects of two or more actions executed concurrently may be different from the union of the effects of the individual actions had they been executed in isolation. This thesis presents a language, TAL-C, which supports detailed and flexible yet modular descriptions of concurrent interactions. Two related topics, which both require a solution to the concurrency problem, are also addressed: the representation of effects of actions that occur with some delay, and the representation of actions that are caused by other actions.

    Another aspect of reasoning about action and change is how to describe higher-level reasoning tasks such as planning and explanation. In such cases, it is important not to just be able to reason about a specific narrative (course of action), but to reason about alternative narratives and their properties, to compare and manipulate narratives, and to reason about alternative results of a specific narrative. This subject is addressed in the context of the situation calculus, where it is shown how the standard version provides insufficient support for reasoning about alternative results, and an alternative version is proposed. The narrative logic NL is also presented; it is based on the temporal action logic TAL, where narratives are represented as first-order terms. NL supports reasoning about (I) metric time, (II) alternative ways the world can develop relative to a specific choice of actions, and (III) alternative choices of actions.

  • 39.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Boivie, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fridriksson, Steen
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hillman, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åskknallshuvudvärk: oftast ett godartat tillstånd2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, no 37, p. 2632-2637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed a study of 137 consecutive patients with thunderclap headache (TCH), showing that a large majority of the patients do not have a subarachnoidal haemorrhage (SAH). It is concluded that 11% of all TCH is caused by SAH and that history and findings in the clinical neurological examination cannot discriminate safely between an SAH and a more benign cause. All patients should be investigated with a CT scan and an analyses of the cerebrospinal fluid to exclude a SAH if the CT scan did not show an SAH. The 10-year follow-up showed that none of the patients with TH without SAH had a cerebral haemorrhage of any kind. Pathological results on CT and CSF examinations were found in 14 of the patients with non-SAH TCH, including five with cerebral infarction, three with intracerebral haemorrhage, four with aseptic meningitis and one with venous sinus thrombosis.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Jan-Åke
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cederlöf, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Security aspects of the authentication used in quantum key growing2006In: Advanced Free-Space Optical Communication Techniques/Applications III,2006 / [ed] Sjöqvist, LJ; Wilson, RA; Merlet, TJ, Bellingham, WA ,USA: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2006, p. 63990H-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lin, Ling
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Management of 1-D sequence data - from discrete to continuous1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data over ordered domains such as time or linear positions are termed sequence data. Sequence data require special treatments which are not provided by traditional DBMSs. Modelling sequence data in traditional (relational) database systems often results in awkward query expressions and bad performance. For this reason, considerable research has been dedicated to supporting sequence data in DBMSs in the last decade. Unfortunately, some important requirements from applications are neglected, i.e., how to support sequence data viewed as continuous under arbitrary user-defined interpolation assumptions, and how to perform sub-sequence extraction efficiently based on the conditions on the value domain. We term these kind of queries as value queries (in contrast to shape queries that look for general patterns of sequences).

    This thesis presents pioneering work on supporting value queries on 1-D sequence data based on arbitrary user-defined interpolation functions. An innovative indexing technique, termed the IP-index, is proposed. The motivation for the IP-index is to support efficient calculation of implicit values of sequence data under user-defined interpolation functions. The IP-index can be implemented on top of any existing ordered indexing structure such as a B+-tree. We have implemented the IP-index in both a disk-resident database system (SHORE) and a main-memory database system (AMOS). The highlights of the IP-index - fast insertion, fast search, and space efficiency are verified by experiments. These properties of the IP-index make it particularly suitable for large sequence data.

    Based on the work of the IP-index, we introduce an extended SELECT operator, σ*, for sequence data. The σ* operator, σ*cond(TS), retrieves sub-sequences (time intervals) where the values inside those intervals satisfy the condition cond. Experiments made on SHORE using both synthetic and real-life time sequences show that the σ* operator (supported by the IP-index) dramatically improve the performance of value queries. A cost model for the σ* operator is developed in order to be able to optimize complex queries. Optimizations of time window queries and sequence joins are investigated and verified by experiments.

    Another contribution of this thesis is on physical organization of sequence data. We propose a multi-level dynamic array structure for dynamic, irregular time sequences. This data structure is highly space efficient and meets the challenge of supporting both efficient random access and fast appending. Other relevant issues such as management of large objects in DBMS, physical organization of secondary indexes, and the impact of main-memory or disk-resident DBMS on sequence data structures are also investigated.

    A thorough application study on "terrain-aided navigation" is presented to show that the IP-index is applicable to other application domains. 

  • 42.
    Lin, Man
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis and synthesis of reactive systems: a generic layered architecture perspective1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies methods and tools for the development of reactive real-time control systems. The development framework is called Generic Layered Architecture (GLA). The work focuses on the analysis and synthesis of software residing in the lowest two layers of GLA, namely, the Process Layer and the Rule Layer. The Process Layer controls cyclic computation and the Rule Layer produces responses by reacting to discrete events. For both layers there exist earlier defined languages suitable for describing applications. The programs in the Process Layer and the Rule Layer are called PL and RL programs, respectively.

    Several issues are studied. First of all, we study the semantics and correctness of RL programs. This includes providing semantics for desired responses and correctness criteria for RL programs and introducing operational semantics and static checkers together with some soundness results. The combination of rules and reactive behavior, together with a formal analysis of this behavior, is the main contribution of this work. The second issue is the estimation of the worst-case execution time (WCET) of PL and RL programs. This work allows one to check if the computation resource of the system is adequate and aims at the predictability of GLA systems. It contributes to the real-time systems area by performing WCET analysis on different execution models and language constructs from those studied in the literature. Finally, we deal with the synthesis of GLA software from a high-level specification. More specifically, we motivate GLA as the framework to develop hybrid controllers and present a semi-automatic tool to generate control software in GLA from a specification expressed in terms of hybrid automata.

    These methods provide formal grounds for analysis and synthesis of software in GLA. Together with the language and tools developed previously, they ease the process of developing real-time control-systems.

  • 43.
    Linderström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Industrimoderniteten och miljöfrågans utmaningar: en analys av LO, SAF, Industriförbundet och miljöpolitiken 1965-20002001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental issue has perhaps been the most difficult problem in the history of late industrial modernity. It has challenged the ideological and political confidence in modernisation and the cultural ethos of progress. Since the mid 1960's and onwards an environmental discourse has emerged and an environmental policy has been formed in Sweden. The politics of environmental discourse, during almost four decades, can be characterised as of changing from a mode of despair, ambivalence and restrictions towards industrial modernity, to a resurgence of the idea modernisation and progress taking environmental concern as a driving force. The challenging environmental issue is now in important respects considered integrated into the institutionai dimensions of modernity, and ecology is seen as a rationale for the further development of modernity in a process of ecological modernisation.

    This thesis analyses the politics of environmental discourse between 1965-2000 in Sweden from an actor-oriented perspective. The main purpose of this study is to reconstruct and analyse the environmental issue from the perspective of the interest-organisations of the Swedish labour-market, Landsorganisationen (LO), Svenska arbetsgivareförening (SAF) and Sveriges Industriförbundet. This empirical research points to a fruitful way to explore the roots and development of ecological modernisation. The study shows that the interest-organisationshave been pivotal actors in the politics of environmental discourse and the formation of public environmental policy during this period. Furthermore, the results suggests that the environmental issue in certain respects transcends the more traditional political conflicts. A new pattern of consensus and conflicts through the discourse practice of the interest-organisations has been developed on the environmental issue.

  • 44.
    Lindström, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Does distance matter? On geographical dispersion in organisations1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the discussion on organisations and organisational form, several concepts have appeared to denote what is said to be new organisational forms. These concepts many times imply a geographical dispersion of organisations. The changes to organisational structure-and notably geographical dispersion-are often seen as enabled by developments in information and communication technology (ICT), developments providing us with tools that make it possible to communicate and handle information over geographical distances "better" and more "efficiently" than ever before. Thus, it is implied that distance is dead or at least losing in importance for organisations.

    In this thesis, however, it is contended that distance is still an important concept and the aim of the thesis is to gain an understanding of the possible importance of geographical distance for the design and management of organisations. More specifically, it focuses on how different communication modes-basically face-to-face as compared to technology-mediated communication-affect the process of organising. This is discussed both on a general level and with a special focus on the role and work of managers.

    It is concluded that distance is still a very important fact in organisational life. Basically, this is because social interaction through technology differs in fundamental ways from social interaction face-to-face. Even if many tasks can be handled through technology-mediated communication if considered in isolation, the picture changes when all tasks are considered simultaneously and over time. Then the necessity of having shared frames and a common set of significant symbols and the difficulties involved in creating, recreating, and maintaining these via technology imposes a lower limit on the amount of face-to-face interaction necessary.  

  • 45.
    Lisander, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundvall, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tomner, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Anaesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Forensic Science and Toxicology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Enhanced rate of ethanol elimination from blood after intravenous administration of amino acids compared with equicaloric glucose2006In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 39-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the effect of an amino acid mixture given intravenously (i.v.) on the rate of ethanol elimination from blood compared with equicaloric glucose and Ringer's acetate as control treatments.

    Methods: In a randomized cross-over study, six healthy men (mean age 23 years) fasted overnight before receiving either Ringer's acetate, glucose or the amino acid mixture (Vamin 18 g N/l®) by constant rate i.v. infusion over 4.5 h. Ethanol (0.4 g/kg) was given by an i.v. infusion lasting 60 min during the time each of the treatments was administered. At various times post-infusion, blood samples were taken for determination of ethanol by headspace gas chromatography. Blood glucose and heart rate were monitored at regular intervals. Concentration–time profiles of ethanol were plotted for each subject and the rate of ethanol disappearance from blood as well as other pharmacokinetic parameters were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Results: The rate of ethanol elimination from blood was increased significantly (P < 0.001) after treatment with amino acids (mean ± SD, 0.174 ± 0.011 g/l/h) compared with equicaloric glucose (0.121 ± 0.016 g/l/h) or Ringer's acetate (0.110 ± 0.013 g/l/h). Heart rate was also slightly higher during infusion of the amino acid mixture (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions: When the rate of ethanol elimination from blood is relatively slow, such as after an overnight fast, it can be increased by ∼60% after treatment with i.v. amino acids. The efficacy of amino acid treatment was not related to the supply of calories because glucose was no more effective than Ringer's acetate. We suggest that amino acids might increase hepatic oxygen consumption, resulting in a more effective conversion of NADH to NAD+ in mitochondria. An important feature of the experimental design was ensuring hepatic availability of amino acids during much of the time that ethanol was being metabolized.

  • 46.
    Lotfi, Kourosh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Karlsson, Karin
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Haematology UHL.
    Fyrberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Lund University Hospital.
    Jonsson, Viggo
    Oslo University.
    Peterson, Curt
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Eriksson, Staffan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Center, Uppsala.
    Albertioni, Freidoun
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The pattern of deoxycytidine- and deoxyguanosine kinase activity in relation to messenger RNA expression in blood cells from untreated patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia2006In: Biochemical Pharmacology, ISSN 0006-2952, E-ISSN 1356-1839, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 882-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK) catalyze the first step in the intracellular cascade of fludarabine (2-fluoroadenine-β- d-arabinofuranoside) and cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine) phosphorylation, which leads to activation of these prodrugs, commonly used for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Thus, resistance to nucleoside analogues may primarily be due to low levels of deoxynucleoside kinase activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity profiles of dCK and dGK and characterize the possible relationship between the levels of dCK enzymatic activities and mRNA levels in B-CLL cells from untreated patient samples in an attempt to determine the best approach for predicting sensitivity to nucleoside analogues and thereby optimizing treatment of CLL. For this purpose, dCK and dGK analyses were done in blood cells from 59 untreated symptomatic patients with CLL. The dGK activity towards 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine was significantly lower than of dCK (median 73 pmol/mg protein/min (85-121, 95% CI) versus 353 pmol/mg protein/min (331-421)). The median dCK mRNA level was 0.107 (0.096-0.120, 95% CI). There was a lack of correlation between the activities of dCK and dGK, which indicates that these proteins are regulated independently. We also found that the dCK and dGK activity measurement towards their endogenous substrates were comparable to the nucleoside analogues tested. Such variations in enzyme activities and mRNA levels may well explain differences in clinical responses to treatment. There was no correlation between the levels of dCK mRNAs and enzymatic activities using a quantitative real-time PCR procedure. Sequencing of dCK mRNA did not reveal alternate splicing or mutations in the coding region. The relation between activity and mRNA levels was studied by short interfering RNA (siRNA) method, which showed that in the siRNA treated cells the down-regulation of dCK expression, and activity followed each other. However, in control cells the mRNA levels remained stable but the protein activity markedly decreased. These data demonstrate that the dCK activity is not reflected by dCK mRNA expression that indicates a post-translational mechanism(s). © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Planned or experience-based processes for eco-design innovation: exploring product development driven by environmental performance targets2001In: International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, ISSN 1466-2132, E-ISSN 1741-511X, Vol. 1, no 1/2, p. 164-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-design research suggests that environmental considerations should be integrated with product development with no or only minor changes to existing development processes. These processes are expected to be systematic, predictable and thoroughly planned. This paper explores if this assumption is still valid when requirements on environmental performance call for more innovative product development. An analytic model is derived from innovation management literature and used to analyse the development of a new industrial gas turbine, a project for which challenging emission level targets meant that new combustion technology had to be applied. The main conclusion is that the application of new technology is followed by changes of the development process, meaning that development becomes guided by real-time experiences rather than by formal plans.

  • 48.
    Mats, Cedwall
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Semantisk analys av processbeskrivningar i naturligt språk1977Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to study control structures in Natural Swedish, especially those occuring when tasks of algorithmic nature are described, and how to transform these specifications into programs, which can then be executed.

    The report describes and discusses the solutions that are used in an implemented system which can read and comprehend descriptions of patience (solitaire) games. The results are partly language dependent, but are not restricted to this specific problem environment.

    The system is divided into four modules. The syntactic module splits the sentence approximately to its component parts. In addition to the standard component categories, such as subject and predicate, every preposition is regarded as a component category of the sentence. The semantic analysis within a sentence works with a set of internallsation rules, one for each combination of a verb and a component part. The third module deals with the semantics on text level and integrates the representation of a sentence into the program code that is built up. The last module is an interpreter which can execute the programs representing patience games. 

  • 49.
    Moidu, Khalid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Analysis of prerequisites to introduce computer-based information systems in health care: a developing country study1989Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To attain a state of global health requires integrated efforts of many professionals. The lingua franca for the many professionals involved in health care is data and information. For example, information on the extent of an infectious disease found in a community is required by the health care management, to mobilize appropriate resources. Information on the pattern and spread of a disease is vital for the care providers, to understand how to best control and care for the affected. That action is based on information is well recognized; in response, information systems to support health care delivery are being developed, including computer-based systems. Systems that meet the composite needs of the organization must support the peripheral care providers with appropriate information, and then extract from the database of the primary care provider the appropriate primary data for the health care administration. This data will then be more accurate, since the data providers are also the prime users of data and information.

    Before designing an information system that supports the health care providers and management, detailed analyses of the developmental state, the human element, the technological potential, and the social implications of such system, are required. This comprehensive analysis serves as a prerequisite to the study and design of the organization's information system. Especially in developing countries, the successful introduction of computers demands a well defined strategy adapted to the local conditions. The design must be preceded by a Stage of Assessment (STAGE I) and a Stage of System Analysis (STAGE II).

    In Stage I, the Part I of the study required an assessment: of acceptance, of existing skills, the capability to learn, and the capacity to absorb the technology, of the people in the environment. The appraisal (survey) of the human element of the system, an end-user group (physicians), was accomplished through self-enumerating questionnaires. The results highlighted respondents' interest and expectations from computer based information systems. Fears such as for redundancy (i.e., a superfluousness in their jobs) were expressed [1].

    In Stage I, Part II of the study, the problems concerning the technological potential of computers and the justification to use computers over manual information systems, especially in a dispersed primary health care organization, were addressed. Whether the system design should be either administration-oriented (top down) or health professional-oriented (bottom up), as well as the development of criteria other than those based on cost-benefit for systems evaluation, were the other points of issue. By the application of syntheses methodologies, such-as the Delphi technique, Glaser's state of the art, and including a literature review, the computer's potential to support health care delivery was evaluated. The computer's role was classified and its decision support at each level to the health care professionals described. The conclusions derived were that a computer could today support the decision process by ensuring method and supplying knowledge. However, the application of computers as tools for reasoning is in rather limited areas and is still a field calling for further research [II]. The properties that give information value were identified and a justification for a computer-based information system delineated. To support primary health care delivery, an integrated system design is required. An alternate methodology to evaluate such systems is described [III].

    In Stage II, the study is conducted within specific co-operating primary health care organizations, and the conclusions from Stage I studies provided the guide-lines for this stage. A descriptive study of district health sites in developing countries was undertaken. As a part of the systems analysis study, questionnaires were mailed to the three principle sets of data providers/users, (i.e., the district health administrator, hospital consultant, and the primary health care physicians). Preliminary assessments extracted from some sites on attitudes towards and acceptance of computers in health care are presented in this thesis.

    The conclusion derived is that a prelude study to develop guide-lines for computerization is essential before conducting an in-depth methodological systems analysis. Each health care site must therefore be assessed before an appropriate computer-based information system is developed for implementation in that environment.

  • 50.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Xu, Junjang
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abdiu, Avni
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Plastic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nayeri, Tayeb
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liedberg, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Autocrine production of biologically active hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by injured human skin2006In: Journal of dermatological science (Amsterdam), ISSN 0923-1811, E-ISSN 1873-569X, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent regenerative factor involved in wound healing. Previous studies have shown that mesenchymal cells produce HGF, stimulating epithelial cells in a paracrine fashion.

    Objective

    To examine whether autocrine HGF production by keratinocytes can occur upon skin injury.

    Methods

    A 31-year-old male patient sustained a burn affecting 80% of his total body surface area. Biopsies were taken from intact skin near the injured area, and skin keratinocytes were separated and cultured. Conditioned medium from keratinocytes was analyzed for HGF by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and dot blotting. Binding of HGF from conditioned medium to its receptor, c-Met, was compared with recombinant HGF by SPR. Finally, we examined the motogenic effect on mouse transformed skin epithelial cells (CCL-53.1) of HGF from conditioned medium.

    Results

    HGF was detected in the cultured keratinocyte medium. Similar to recombinant HGF, HGF from conditioned medium had a high affinity for dextran sulfate and albumin, and the same epitopes were engaged by the interaction of HGF with the c-Met receptor. The conditioned medium from keratinocytes obtained from the burn patient, but not medium from keratinocytes obtained from healthy volunteers, accelerated the motogenesis of CCL-53.1 cells. Unexpectedly, anti-HGF antibodies did not prevent this effect. However, anti-c-Met antibodies completely inhibited the motogenic effect.

    Conclusion

    Upon injury, human skin keratinocytes might produce biologically active HGF in an autocrine fashion. This HGF might have different structural and/or biological properties from HGF produced by mesenchymal cells.

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