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  • 1.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fields of Gold: The Bioenergy Debate in International Organizations2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of producing energy from biomass has, for the last two decades, occupied attention of policy-makers, private industries, researchers and civil societies around the world. The highly contested and contingent character of the biofuel production, its entanglement in the nexus of three problematic issues of energy, climate and agriculture, as well as its injection into the current socioeconomic arrangements, is what makes it timely to analyse.

    The thesis sheds light on the state of international debate on bioenergy by looking at deliberations of three major global institutions: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Energy Agency (IEA) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The primary aim is to trace and analyse how the concept of bioenergy is conceptualized and contextualized in assessments, reports, policy papers and other documents issued by FAO, IEA and IPCC in the 1990-2010 period. The secondary aim of the thesis, based on results derived from the primary objective, is set to problematize and reflect upon currently dominating socioeconomic arrangements that the concept of biomass-derived energy is inserted into. The research questions are organized around four distinctively contentious issues in the debate: biofuel production in developing countries, the food vs. fuel dilemma, bioenergy as a win-win-win solution and the future role of the second-generation bioenergy technology. The research questions are operationalized by applying four theoretical perspectives: the world-economy, Michel Foucault’s genealogy, discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, and Fredric Jameson’s critical approach.

    The institutional debate illustrates that, while bioenergy appears to be an easy, plausible and thus attractive patch able to temporarily fix societal challenges of energy insecurity, climate change and agricultural crisis without changing much in the socioeconomic structure, its implementation exposes internal discrepancies of the hegemonic capitalist system. Whether bioenergy could actually function as a feasible win-win-win solution is of secondary importance. It is its economic feasibility expressed in the pressure on cost-effectiveness that matters the most but, at the same time, causes serious internal discrepancies in conceptualizations pursued by the organizations. The results point to two main conclusions. On the one hand, bioenergy is inevitably entrapped by the rules and arrangements of the hegemonic system that, in turn, cause internal contradictions. On the other hand, the institutional debate attempts to stabilize the shaky conceptualization of bioenergy, so that it can appear consistent and plausible, even if the possibility of reaching the closure of meaning fades away, with more conflicts on the rise. Furthermore, the results also show that the three international organizations exhibit uniform patterns of argumentations and the way they similarly discuss biomass-derived energy illustrates the objective to stabilize the meaning and adjust the concept of bioenergy to the hegemonic system.

    List of papers
    1. Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective
    2010 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1336-1343Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as well as creates internal contradictions that perpetuate unequal exchange embedded in the system. Simultaneously, these organizations frame Brazil as a semi-peripheral state that, while successful in finding a niche concurring with the core's demand for cheap energy and cost-effective decarbonization strategies, is not necessarily a suitable role model for the periphery's socio–economic development.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2010
    Keywords
    Bioenergy, Biofuels, Developing countries, Brazil, FAO, IEA, IPCC
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54729 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.01.011 (DOI)000277906300017 ()
    Projects
    The Politics of Bioenergy
    Note
    Original Publication: Magdalena Kuchler, Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective, 2010, Ecological Economics, (69), 6, 1336-1343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2010.01.011 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: Genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: Genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations
    2012 (English)In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 581-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks critically at how food and agriculture-, energy security-, and climate change-oriented international organizations have consolidated and modified the biofuel discourse in relation to the agricultural system. Using Foucault-based genealogical analysis of discursive formations, the paper traces the last 20 years of institutions’ biofuel debate in relation to rural production. We find that the prevalent motive is an aspiration to combine the agriculture and energy markets into one, which prompts structural changes and challenges in the rural sector. This has implications for the future role and shape of global agriculture and – contrary to the food vs. fuel perspective – calls for re-conceptualizing the biofuel debate as the food vs. food dilemma.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2012
    Keywords
    biofuels, bioenergy, discourse, FAO, IEA, IPCC, food, energy, fuel, climate, international organizations
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80821 (URN)10.1016/j.foodpol.2012.06.005 (DOI)000308787100010 ()
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Bioenergy as an empty signifier
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioenergy as an empty signifier
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article scrutinizes the bioenergy concept in the context of the three challenges of energy insecurity, climate change, and the agricultural crisis that, borrowing from Gramsci, constitute a “global organic crisis”. The analysis, based on theoretical concepts developed by Laclau and Mouffe, explores assessments, reports, policy papers, and other central documents from three influential international organizations, i.e., IEA, FAO, and IPCC, in the areas analysed. We argue that, as a floating signifier in a given field of discursivity, the bioenergy notion loses its unfixed ability to occupy specific positions and convey different meanings within the three overlapping discursive areas of energy, climate, and agriculture. These three discursive formations are “sutured” around the notion of bioenergy, where a hegemonic thread of capitalist economics, fixated on economic growth and presupposing the necessity of cost-effectiveness, results in internal contradictions within the signification, transforming bioenergy into an empty signifier.

    Keywords
    bioenergy, discourse, climate change, energy security, agriculture, international organizations
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80827 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Stability rather than change is the order of the day: the case of second-generation biofuels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stability rather than change is the order of the day: the case of second-generation biofuels
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a critical look at the conceptualization of second-generation bioenergy based on the institutional discourse pursued by food and agriculture-, energy security-, and climate change-focused international organizations. Set against the backdrop of two distinct perspectives on the understanding and role of innovation, progress, and the future in contemporary capitalist societies, the paper explores how advanced biofuels are distinguished from their conventional predecessors, how the intention to shift from first- to second-generation production patterns is facilitated and justified, and the role of innovation in pursuing this shift. I argue that the notions of “new” and “innovative” put forward in the advanced biofuel project not only exemplify the illusion of an emptied and decontextualized future, but also express an ideological view devoid of utopian potential.

    Keywords
    bioenergy, second-generation, international organizations, future, innovation, progress, ideology
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80829 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-30 Created: 2012-08-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stability rather than change is the order of the day: the case of second-generation biofuelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a critical look at the conceptualization of second-generation bioenergy based on the institutional discourse pursued by food and agriculture-, energy security-, and climate change-focused international organizations. Set against the backdrop of two distinct perspectives on the understanding and role of innovation, progress, and the future in contemporary capitalist societies, the paper explores how advanced biofuels are distinguished from their conventional predecessors, how the intention to shift from first- to second-generation production patterns is facilitated and justified, and the role of innovation in pursuing this shift. I argue that the notions of “new” and “innovative” put forward in the advanced biofuel project not only exemplify the illusion of an emptied and decontextualized future, but also express an ideological view devoid of utopian potential.

  • 3.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Stakeholding as sorting of actors into categories: implications for civil society participation in the CDM2017In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following a deliberative shift towards public–private partnership networks in global environmental governance, the multi-stakeholder framework is increasingly advocated for engaging multiple actors in collective decision-making. As this arrangement relies on proper participatory conditions in order to include all relevant stakeholders, input legitimacy is crucial to achieving legitimate outcomes. However, ‘stakeholding’ implies that actors—recast into a specific institutional context—are sorted into new formal or informal categories. This paper scrutinizes the clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to interrogate the problematic issue of ‘stakeholding’—i.e. the ‘sorting’ of actors—in enacting the multi-stakeholder framework. Based on an analysis of 25 CDM projects that provides insight into the widest range of participation opportunities for civil society regarding specific projects, this paper considers how certain institutional context of the Mechanism’s stakeholder framework affects the involvement of civil society actors and the implications of this for balanced and fair input legitimacy. The findings suggest that, in practice, the informal corporate-induced sorting of actors into internal and external stakeholders keeps civil society actors outside the CDM’s inner circle, forcing them to voice their concerns regarding specific projects via CDM insiders or through irregular channels. Furthermore, the absence of a clear definition of stakeholder in local consultations results in the inclusion of unsorted actors, destabilizing the distribution of participation opportunities. The paper concludes that recasting the deliberative principles of openness and plurality into the CDM’s corporate-inspired stakeholding creates a specific institutional context that imposes more than one set of perhaps incompatible stakeholder categories while impairing input legitimacy.

  • 4.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sweet dreams (are made of cellulose): Sociotechnical imaginaries of second-generation bioenergy in the global debate2014In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 107, p. 431-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper critically examines the sociotechnical imaginaries of second-generation bioenergy technology in the global debate, exemplified by the deliberations of international organizations specializing in food and agriculture, energy security, and climate change. The analysis is guided by two objectives: first, to identify and illuminate visions of future advanced biofuels by implementing the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries; second, to scrutinize these imaginaries using a critical and diagnostic utopian method to determine whether the projected visions entail the promise of radical change and hope for socioeconomic transition to a “green” future, or instead manifest an ideological stranglehold striving to perpetuate the status quo. The article demonstrates that sociotechnical imaginaries of advanced biofuel technology superficially project the illusion of utopian potential. On closer examination, however, visions of future second-generation biofuels are limited by the necessity of cost-effectiveness that underpins market competitiveness. They manifest utopian impotence to imagine the future beyond the ideological closure of the currently dominant socioeconomic system.

  • 5.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The human rights turn: ENGOs changing tactics in the quest for a more transparent, participatory and accountable CDM2017In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 648-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-state actors are increasingly participating in international climate diplomacy. The tactics employed by diverse civil society agents to influence climate policymaking are radicalizing through the adoption of more confrontational language. Activist groups have been seeking opportunities to influence policymakers regarding the rules related to transparency, public participation and accountability in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). By scrutinizing efforts of three environmental NGOs (ENGOs) - Climate Action Network, Center for International Environmental Law and Carbon Market Watch - the analysis concentrates on what tactical shifts have occurred in the framing positions and approaches of these activists during the 1997-2015 period. After several years of legal advocacy, expertise and/or critique in an effort to reform input legitimacy of CDM governance, the selected ENGOs have recently drifted away from narratives of green governmentality and ecological modernization and, instead, radicalized their rhetorical tactics by turning to a human rights perspective under the umbrella of climate justice.

  • 6.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Unravelling the argument for bioenergy production in developing countries: A world-economy perspective2010In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1336-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a critical look at how energy security-, food and agriculture-, and climate change-oriented international organizations frame biomass energy production in developing countries, in particular, ethanol production in Brazil. Using the world-economy system as a theoretical lens, the paper raises a concern as to whether the way these global institutions frame bioenergy's role in developing regions manifests energy and ecological inequalities between the core and the periphery, as well as creates internal contradictions that perpetuate unequal exchange embedded in the system. Simultaneously, these organizations frame Brazil as a semi-peripheral state that, while successful in finding a niche concurring with the core's demand for cheap energy and cost-effective decarbonization strategies, is not necessarily a suitable role model for the periphery's socio–economic development.

  • 7.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedrén, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bioenergy as an Empty Signifier2016In: Review of Radical Political Economics, ISSN 1552-8502, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 235-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article provides insight into the contemporary international bioenergy debate and scrutinizes how the idea of biofuel production as a win-win-win solution to energy insecurity, climate change, and agricultural stagnation came into being, what discursive forces bind such a conceptualization, and where dislocations arise. Based on critical assumptions of discourse theory developed by Laclau and Mouffe, the analysis explores assessments, reports, policy papers, and other central documents from three influential international organizations—the International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization—that provide an entry point to the global debate on biofuels. We show that the bioenergy concept occupies specific positions and conveys different meanings within the three overlapping discourses of energy, climate, and agriculture. These three discursive areas are further “sutured” around the notion of biofuel production, where a hegemonic thread of the capitalist market economics, fixated on economic growth and presupposing the necessity of cost-effectiveness, results in internal contradictions and dislocations within the win-win-win conceptualization, emptying bioenergy of any content.

  • 8.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedrén, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bioenergy as an empty signifier2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedrén, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bioenergy as an empty signifierManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article scrutinizes the bioenergy concept in the context of the three challenges of energy insecurity, climate change, and the agricultural crisis that, borrowing from Gramsci, constitute a “global organic crisis”. The analysis, based on theoretical concepts developed by Laclau and Mouffe, explores assessments, reports, policy papers, and other central documents from three influential international organizations, i.e., IEA, FAO, and IPCC, in the areas analysed. We argue that, as a floating signifier in a given field of discursivity, the bioenergy notion loses its unfixed ability to occupy specific positions and convey different meanings within the three overlapping discursive areas of energy, climate, and agriculture. These three discursive formations are “sutured” around the notion of bioenergy, where a hegemonic thread of capitalist economics, fixated on economic growth and presupposing the necessity of cost-effectiveness, results in internal contradictions within the signification, transforming bioenergy into an empty signifier.

  • 10.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Challenging the food vs. fuel dilemma: Genealogical analysis of the biofuel discourse pursued by international organizations2012In: Food Policy, ISSN 0306-9192, E-ISSN 1873-5657, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 581-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks critically at how food and agriculture-, energy security-, and climate change-oriented international organizations have consolidated and modified the biofuel discourse in relation to the agricultural system. Using Foucault-based genealogical analysis of discursive formations, the paper traces the last 20 years of institutions’ biofuel debate in relation to rural production. We find that the prevalent motive is an aspiration to combine the agriculture and energy markets into one, which prompts structural changes and challenges in the rural sector. This has implications for the future role and shape of global agriculture and – contrary to the food vs. fuel perspective – calls for re-conceptualizing the biofuel debate as the food vs. food dilemma.

  • 13.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pros and Cons of International Biofuel Production: An overview of research and policy reports 20082008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This briefing from the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research presents a summary of

    research and policy reports on positive and negative aspects of liquid biofuels. It covers three areas:  economic  and  energy  security,  rural  development  and  agricultural  production  and environmental challenges. It will also shortly depict the cases of Brazilian ethanol as a model of processing agricultural crops to liquid fuels for transport, and finally cover the future bioenergy production potential in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The purpose of this briefing is to provide an overview of present discussions and to present arguments from a variety of organisations  and  scholars.  As  a  service  to  a  reader,  the  briefing  contains  an  extensive reference list for further studies.

    The reports and research covered in this briefing are quite disparate. Nevertheless, ten significant conclusions can be observed:

    •  Biofuels cannot solely substitute oil in meeting the expected future energy demand in transportation.

    •  Development of next-generation biofuels can ease the food vs. fuel competition since they can be processed from other sources of biomass than the major food crops.

    •  Countries in tropical regions are more suited for biomass production. However,  we lack sufficient research on future stresses compounded due to climate change  and economic globalisation.

    •  International trade rules, particularly governing agricultural commodities, as well  as development of standards and certifications will play a significant role in  shaping global, as well as local conditions of future biofuel production. Thus, the outcomes of trade  agreement  and  policies  will  impinge  on  development  goals  and  livelihood security in developing countries.

    •  An  important  factor  for  developing  countries  will  be  whether  biofuels  will  be considered as an agricultural or non-agricultural good by WTO. If they are classified as agricultural commodities they can be eligible for special measures such as subsidies for environmental reasons. But this may also be used to uphold agricultural subsidies in industrialised countries.

    •  Liquid  biofuel  production  can  be  beneficial  for  developing  countries  in  tropical regions. Present research indicates that rural communities in SSA may benefit if they hold control over the local or regional production conditions.

    •  Taking into account present conditions, food security of several SSA countries could be under strain caused by increased biofuel production.

    •  Depending on production conditions, SSA countries can stand to gain in the future.

    However,  we  lack  comprehensive  research  on  the  conditions  for  a  sustainable development of biofuel production which will benefit development aspirations.

    •  Although economies of scale is one factor to consider, sustainable development  in SSA can benefit from small-scale production since this type of agriculture can put less stress on environment, in contrast to large-scale production projects.

    •  The production of liquid biofuels in SSA should be directed to meet other important needs in addition to transports (in contrast to the Brazilian example)  like  heating, cooking and electricity generation.

  • 14.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Simulative governance: on the collaborative language of civil society participation in the CDM's stakeholder framework2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is often used as a prime example of new and hybrid forms of governance operating at the public-private frontier. The practical enactment of this arrangement involves a wide array of non-state actors. This broad involvement is here assumed to mark a shift towards more polycentric and networked modes of governing where agents are invited as 'stakeholders' in the process of rule-setting and implementation. In this paper we depart from the liberal norm of consensus and instead examine its political effects. We do so by employing the post-political critique to interrogate what it entails for civil society actors to be stakeholders that raise their concerns on specific CDM projects. Based on analyses of documentation of the project validation and direct communication with the CDM Executive Board, as well as interviews with key actors in the CDM process, we ask what kinds of politicizing and/or de-politicizing effects that the stakeholder framework fosters and what spaces for social critique and resistance it produces. The analysis suggests that stakeholding in the CDM constitutes a form of simulative governance that holds a promise of activated civil society participation but, simultaneously, employs tactics that aim at avoiding politicization of local communities and de-politicizing voices of critique from global civic actors. The paper contributes to the post-political critique by lifting it beyond the Western-centric focus on advanced modern societies and opening up to spaces where de-politicization practices can take the form of non-activating potentially political actors.

  • 15.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Simulative governance: on the collaborative narrative of civil society participation in the CDM stakeholder framework2016In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 434-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is often cited as an exemplar of new, hybrid forms of global environmental governance operating at the public–private interface. Practically, enacting this arrangement involves a wide range of non-state actors. This broad involvement is here assumed to mark a shift towards more polycentric and networked modes of governance in which agents collaborate as ‘stakeholders’ in the process of consensual rule-setting and implementation. Using post-political critique, the depoliticising effects of the stakeholder framework on civil society actors are interrogated, using formal and informal participation opportunities to raise concerns regarding specific CDM projects. The analysis suggests that the CDM’s collaborative narrative of stakeholding structurally fails to stimulate public (re)engagement and is, instead, a prime example of simulative governance that struggles to achieve the simultaneity of two incompatibilities: the participatory revolution and the post-political turn.

  • 16.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholding as governmental rationality and practice: on the political effects of collaborative carbon market governance2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kuchler, Magdalena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate science and policy research coming into being. Examples from the international politics of bioenergy and the case of avoided deforestation.2009In: Climate science and policy research conceptual and methodological challenges / [ed] Lövbrand E, Linnér B-O and Ostwald M, 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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