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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Franzén, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berndes, Goran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lakshmi, G
    Indian Institute Science, Bangalore, India.
    Ravindranath, N H
    Indian Institute Science, Bangalore, India.
    Jatropha cultivation in southern India: assessing farmers experiences2012Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 246-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with 106 farmers who started growing Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) in 20042006, this research sought to increase the knowledge around the real-life experience of Jatropha farming in the southern India states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Launched as an alternative for diesel in India, Jatropha has been promoted as a non-edible plant that could grow on poor soils, yield oil-rich seeds for production of bio-diesel, and not compete directly with food production. Through interviews with the farmers, information was gathered regarding their socio-economic situation, the implementation and performance of their Jatropha plantations, and their reasons for continuing or discontinuing Jatropha cultivation. Results reveal that 82% of the farmers had substituted former cropland for their Jatropha cultivation. By 2010, 85% (n = 90) of the farmers who cultivated Jatropha in 2004 had stopped. Cultivating the crop did not give the economic returns the farmers anticipated, mainly due to a lack of information about the crop and its maintenance during cultivation and due to water scarcity. A majority of the farmers irrigated and applied fertilizer, and even pesticides. Many problems experienced by the farmers were due to limited knowledge about cultivating Jatropha caused by poor planning and implementation of the national Jatropha program. Extension services, subsidies, and other support were not provided as promised. The farmers who continued cultivation had means of income other than Jatropha and held hopes of a future Jatropha market. The lack of market structures, such as purchase agreements and buyers, as well as a low retail price for the seeds, were frequently stated as barriers to Jatropha cultivation. For Jatropha biodiesel to perform well, efforts are needed to improve yield levels and stability through genetic improvements and drought tolerance, as well as agriculture extension services to support adoption of the crop. Government programs will -probably be more effective if implementing biodiesel production is conjoined with stimulating the demand for Jatropha biodiesel. To avoid food-biofuel competition, additional measures may be needed such as land-use restrictions for Jatropha producers and taxes on biofuels or biofuel feedstocks to improve the competitiveness of the food sector compared to the bioenergy sector.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Franzén, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ravindranath, N.H.
    Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
    Performance of Jatropha biodiesel production and its environmental and socio-economic impact – A case study in Southern India2011Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, s. 2470-2477Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     In India expectations have been high on production of biodiesel from the oil-crop Jatropha. Jatropha is promoted as a drought- and pest-resistant crop, with the potential to grow on degraded soil with a low amount of inputs. These characteristics encourage hope for positive environmental and socio-economic impacts from Jatropha biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to explore the performance of Jatropha biodiesel production in Southern India, to identify motivational factors for continued Jatropha cultivation, and to assess environmental and socio-economic impacts of the Jatropha biodiesel production. 106 farmers who have or have had Jatropha plantations were visited and interviewed regarding their opinion of Jatropha cultivation. The result indicates that 85 percent of the farmers have discontinued cultivation of Jatropha. The main barriers to continued cultivation derive from ecological problems, economic losses, and problems in the development and execution of the governmental implementation of the Jatropha programme. The Jatropha characteristics were overrated, and the plantations failed to provide income to the farmer. A common factor for the farmers who continued Jatropha cultivation was that they had the economic means to maintain non-profitable plantations. As the Jatropha programme was not as successful as expected, the expected positive environmental and socio-economic impacts have not been realized.

  • 3.
    Berndes, Goran
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Borjesson, Pal
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Göteborg University and Linköping University, Sweden.
    Palm, Matilda
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Multifunctional biomass production systems - an overview with presentation of specific applications in India and Sweden2008Ingår i: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 16-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This perspective discusses multi-functional biomass production systems, which are located, designed, integrated and managed so as to provide specific environmental services, in addition to biomass supply. Besides discussing the general concept and outlining a range of different possible applications, we present in somewhat more detail specific applications of such systems for the cases of Sweden and India. The overall conclusion is that the environmental benefits from a large-scale establishment of multi-functional biomass production systems could be substantial. Given that suitable mechanisms to put a premium on the provided environmental services can be identified and implemented, additional revenues can be linked to biomass production systems and this could enhance the socioeconomic attractiveness and significantly improve the competitiveness of the produced biomass on the market. The provision of additional environmental services also contributes to local sustainable development, which is in many cases a prerequisite for local support for the production systems.

  • 4.
    Cederberg, Christel
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Persson, Martin
    Chalmers Tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Remissvar till Näringsdepartementet - Förändrad markanvändning kan skapa bieffekter2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta brief baserar sig på ett remissvar till Näringsdepartementet. Remissvaret i februari 2013 kom som följd av Näringsdepartementets inbjudan till remiss på Europeiska kommissionens förslag till Europaparlamentets och rådets direktiv om ändringar av direktiv 98/70/EG om kvaliteten på bensin och dieselbränslen och om ändring av direktiv 2009/28/EG om främjande av användning av energi från förnybara energikällor. Svaret hanterar främst förslaget utifrån hur biodrivmedelsproduktion påverkar markanvändning både direkt och indirekt genom s.k “Indirect Land Use Change” (ILUC). 

  • 5.
    Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johnsson, Hannes
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Environmental Impact Assessments: Suitable for supporting assessment of biofuel sustainability?2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union requires that 10% of the energy in the transport sector shall come from renewable sources by 2020. In addition, biofuels used for transport need to fulfill certain sustainability requirements set out in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). To meet these requirements, the EU will need to produce and import large amounts of sustainable biofuels. Therefore, there is a need for ways to verify the sustainability of imported biofuels, so that unsustainable biofuels can be avoided. One strategy may involve analyzing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports (EIRs) conducted for specific biofuel projects. For EIRs to be useful as such information sources they need to be sufficiently comprehensive in relation to the RED but also sufficiently reliable. In this study, 19 biofuel project EIRs are analyzed with respect to how they cover the RED sustainability considerations. In addition, EIA legislation, requirements, quality, and enforcement are discussed to determine not only whether EIRs can be sufficiently comprehensive, but also sufficiently reliable for supporting information to studies intended to assess the sustainability of biofuels, from an RED perspective. Notable differences between EIRs for different types of projects were found. EIRs for projects including both plantation establishment and the construction of a biofuel plant had better RED coverage than EIRs for projects including either the plantations or the biofuel plant. As might be expected, EIAs for “plantation projects” generally leave out features related to biofuel processing, and EIAs for “biofuel plant” projects generally leave out features related to feedstock production. In general, EIA legislation is insufficient and most target countries seem to have rather low potential to enforce legislation. Several additional EIA-related problems need to be overcome in order for EIRs to be regarded as sufficiently reliable information tools.

  • 6.
    Ferrer-Balas, D
    et al.
    Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Adachi, J
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Banas, S
    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology, and Sustainability, Washington DC, USA.
    Davidson, C
    Carnegie Mellon University, Puttsburg, USA.
    Hoshikoshi, A
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Mishra, A
    TERI University at New Delhi, India.
    Motodoa, Y
    Hokkaido University, Japan.
    Onga, M
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    An international comparative analysis of sustainability transformation across seven universities2008Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, ISSN 1467-6370, E-ISSN 1758-6739, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 295-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the key aspects of transformation of universities towards sustainability, such as the ideal characteristics of the “sustainable university”, and the drivers and barriers in the transformation, by comparing the strategies of seven universities world-wide. Design/methodology/approach – A systems transformation analysis of seven case studies has been applied through a self-evaluation based on the tridimensional Framework-Level-Actors (FLA) method. Findings – The study shows that none of the three dimensions of change is predominant over the others. The main barrier to be overcome is the lack of incentive structure for promoting changes at the individual level. The main drivers for change are the presence of “connectors” with society, the existence of coordination bodies and projects, and the availability of funding, all of which are important for progress. Enhancing interdisciplinarity is a strategic objective at almost all of these universities, while transformative learning is less present. A common characteristic for most of the institutions is establishing and supporting networks of expertise within the universities. These universities show important strategic efforts and initiatives that drive and nucleate change for sustainable development, the result of a combination of drivers. Practical implications – The FLA-method has proved useful for being used at the level of comparing case-studies through a bird's-eye perspective. Originality/value – The paper demonstrates the application of a simple tool that gives a global perspective on transformational strategies used in seven cases world-wide in the search for commonalities and differences.

  • 7.
    Hageback, J
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Sundberg, J
    Göteborg University.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Chen, Deliang
    Göteborg University.
    Xie, Yun
    Beijing Normal University, China.
    Knutsson, Per
    Göteborg University.
    Climate variability and land-use change in Danangou watershed, China – Examples of small-scale farmers’ adaptation2005Ingår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 72, nr 1-2, s. 189-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [ar]

    With global concern on climate change impacts, developing countries are given special attention due their susceptibility. In this paper, change and variability in climate, land use and farmers' perception, adaptation and response to change are examined in Danangou watershed in the Chinese Loess Plateau. The first focus is to look at how climate data recorded at meteorological stations recently have evolved, and how farmers perceived these changes. Further, we want to see how the farmers respond and adapt to climate variability and what the resulting impact on land use is. Finally, other factors causing change in land use are considered. Local precipitation and temperature instrumental data and interview data from farmers were used. The instrumental data shows that the climate is getting warmer and drier, the latter despite large interannual variability. The trend is seen on the local and regional level. Farmers' perception of climatic variability corresponds well with the data record. During the last 20 years, the farmers have become less dependent on agriculture by adopting a more diversified livelihood. This adaptation makes them less vulnerable to climate variability. It was found that government policies and reforms had a stronger influence on land use than climate variability. Small-scale farmers should therefore be considered as adaptive to changing situations, planned and non-consciously planned.

  • 8.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Accounting methods for international land-related leakage and distant deforestation drivers2014Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 99, s. 21-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    International agricultural trade flows are increasingly important as distant drivers in global land-use changes, creating teleconnections between geographically separated locations of consumption and production. Land-use displacement and associated carbon emissions can undermine the effectiveness of land-use and climate policies, such as activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). Nevertheless, few accounting methods exist for international emissions leakage from land-use change, due to methodological and policy challenges. In this paper we review methods to quantify international land-use displacement and teleconnections through international trade. Weaknesses and strengths of those methods are assessed as well as the conclusiveness of results. We identify limitations and potential ways forward for the quantification of land-related leakage in general, while highlighting implications for REDD-leakage accounting in particular. Results show that land-related leakage assessments are facilitated by applying a weak leakage definition, without the requirement to demonstrate causal leakage effects. Suitable quantification approaches combine method elements such as economic modeling, trade-flow analysis, biophysical accounting and life-cycle assessments. Depending on the use of monetary or physical input data the results can change considerably. All reviewed methods face limitations such as uncertainties and data gaps in emission factors

  • 9.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD2012Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 33-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS), the Climate Action Reserve (CAR), the CarbonFix Standard (CFS), and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

  • 10.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Guyana – Norway REDD+ agreement Payments based on performance – or politics?2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The second audit of Guyana’s progress under the Norway-Guyana REDD+ agreement was completed in December 2012. It found that seven out of ten verification indicators were not or only partially met. Nevertheless, the Norwegian government allocated additional funds of 45 million USD to Guyana due to “continued improvements”. Focali has written about the debated bilateral agreement between Norway and Guyana earlier (Focali Brief 2010:01 & 2011:01) and is now revisiting the process. 

  • 11.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    In the aftermath of a REDD+ bilateral agreement2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. University of Sustainable Dev, Germany; Thunen Institute Forest Ecosyst, Germany.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; GMV, Sweden.
    Verendel, Vilhelm
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; GMV, Sweden.
    Ibisch, Pierre
    University of Sustainable Dev, Germany.
    Do national strategies under the UN biodiversity and climate conventions address agricultural commodity consumption as deforestation driver?2018Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 70, s. 580-590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest conversion in the tropics is increasingly driven by global demand for agricultural forest-risk commodities such as soy, beef, palm oil and timber. In order to be effective, future forest conservation policies should include measures targeting both producers (the supply side) and consumers (the demand side) to address commodity driven deforestation. Whereas the UN Conventions on Biodiversity (CBD) and Climate Change (UNFCCC) do not make reference to this driving factor, here we explore whether and how recent national strategies by member states to the Conventions acknowledge the role of agricultural commodities in tropical deforestation. A text analysis of 139 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to climate change mitigation and 132 National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) shows that the general trade-off between national development aspirations and forest conservation is commonly acknowledged. However, only few strategies link deforestation to commodity production and consumption, whereas most documents do not mention this topic. This lack of reference to a key driver of tropical deforestation limits the prospects of safeguarding tropical forests for biodiversity and climate change mitigation purposes as part of the two UN Conventions, and might jeopardise their overall effectiveness. These findings were complemented by a content analysis of INDCs, NBSAPs and REDD + documents from eight case countries affected by commodity-driven deforestation. We investigated whether this driver is acknowledged in the national strategies, and which policy measures are suggested to address forest loss from agricultural commodities. We found that six case countries mention agricultural commodities as deforestation driver in their REDD + documents, whereas the biodiversity and climate change strategies were silent on the topic. Policy measures targeting commodity production were suggested in four REDD + strategies, ranging from incentive payments, sustainable agricultural practices and land-use planning to demand-side approaches such as certification and the promotion of sustainable lifestyles. One conclusion from this exercise is that UN member states seem not to consider climate and biodiversity national plans the adequate forum to discuss detailed forest conservation approaches. We argue that in order to increase effectiveness, strategies under the UN Conventions should take commodity-driven deforestation into account, through measures that address both the producer and the consumer side.

  • 13.
    Jonsson, Anna C.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Asplund, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Barriers to and drivers of the adpotion of energy crops by Swedish farmers: An empirical approach2011Ingår i: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011: Policy Issues / [ed] Bahram Moshfegh, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, s. 2509-2516, artikel-id 030Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the Swedish government and the EU intend to encourage farmers to expand energy crop production, knowledge of the factors motivating adoption decisions is vital to policy success. Earlier studies have demonstrated that important barriers to farmer adoption of energy crops include converting from annual to perennial crops and from traditional crops or production systems to new ones. Economic motivations for changing production systems are strong, but factors such as values (e.g., aesthetics), knowledge (e.g., habits and knowledge of production methods), and legal conditions (e.g., cultivation licenses) are crucial for the change to energy crops. This paper helps fill gaps in the literature regarding why farmers decide to keep or change a production system. Based on a series of focus group interviews with Swedish farmers, the paper explores how farmers frame crop change decisions and what factors they consider most important. The main drivers of and barriers to growing energy crops, according to interviewees, are grouped and discussed in relation to four broad groups of motivational factors identified in the literature, i.e., values, legal conditions, knowledge, and economic factors. The paper ends by discussing whether some barriers could be overcome by policy changes at the national and European levels.

  • 14.
    Karlson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Centre for Environment and Sustainability, GMV, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Remote sensing of vegetation in the Sudano-Sahelian zone: A literature review from 1975 to 20142016Ingår i: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 124, s. 257-269Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scarcity of in situ vegetation data inhibits research and natural resource management in the Sudano- Sahelian zone (SSZ). Satellite and aerial remote sensing (RS) constitute key technologies for improving the availability of vegetation data, and consequently the preconditions for scientific analysis and monitoring. The aim of this paper was to investigate how the hands-on application of RS for vegetation analysis has developed in the SSZ by reviewing the scientific literature published between 1975 and 2014. The paper assesses the usages and the users of RS by focusing on four aspects of the material (268 peer-reviewed articles), including publication details (time of publication, scientific discipline of journals and author nationality), geographic information (location of study areas and spatial scale of research), data usage (application of RS systems and procedures for accuracy assessments), and research topic (scientific objective of the research). Three key results were obtained: i) the application of RS to analyze vegetation in the SSZ has increased consistently since 1977 and it seems to become adopted by a growing number of scientific disciplines; ii) the contribution of African authors is low, potentially signalling a need for an increased transfer of knowledge and technology from developed countries; iii) RS has pri- marily been used to analyze changes in vegetation productivity and broad vegetation types, whereas its use for studying interactions between vegetation and environmental factors has been relatively low. This calls for stronger collaborative RS research that enables the mapping of additional vegetation variables of high relevance for the environmental problems facing the SSZ. Remotely sensed vegetation data are needed at spatial scales that suits the requirements of both research and natural resource management in order to further enhance the usefulness of this technology. 

  • 15.
    Karlson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers, Sweden.
    Reese, Heather
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Romeo Bazie, Hugues
    University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
    Tankoano, Boalidioa
    Polytech University of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species2016Ingår i: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 50, s. 80-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA=78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA=68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore conchided that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Karlson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reese, Heather
    Section of Forest Remote Sensing, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sanou, Josias
    Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), Département Productions Forestières, Burkina Faso.
    Tankoano, Boalidioa
    Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso, Development Rural Institute/Department of Forestery, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mapping Tree Canopy Cover and Aboveground Biomass in Sudano-Sahelian Woodlands Using Landsat 8 and Random Forest2015Ingår i: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 7, s. 10017-10041Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate and timely maps of tree cover attributes are important tools for environmental research and natural resource management. We evaluate the utility of Landsat 8 for mapping tree canopy cover (TCC) and aboveground biomass (AGB) in a woodland landscape in Burkina Faso. Field data and WorldView-2 imagery were used to assemble the reference dataset. Spectral, texture, and phenology predictor variables were extracted from Landsat 8 imagery and used as input to Random Forest (RF) models. RF models based on multi-temporal and single date imagery were compared to determine the influence of phenology predictor variables. The effect of reducing the number of predictor variables on the RF predictions was also investigated. The model error was assessed using 10-fold cross 

    validation. The most accurate models were created using multi-temporal imagery and variable selection, for both TCC (five predictor variables) and AGB (four predictor variables). The coefficient of determination of predicted versus observed values was 0.77 for TCC (RMSE = 8.9%) and 0.57 for AGB (RMSE = 17.6 tons∙ha−1). This mapping approach is based on freely available Landsat 8 data and relatively simple analytical methods, and is therefore applicable in woodland areas where sufficient reference data are available. 

  • 17.
    Karlson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Reese, Heather
    Section of Forest Remote Sensing, Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Gothenburg, GMV, Ctr Environm & Sustainabil, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden Chalmers, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tree Crown Mapping in Managed Woodlands (Parklands) of Semi-Arid West Africa Using WorldView-2 Imagery and Geographic Object Based Image Analysis2014Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 14, nr 12, s. 22643-22669Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35–100 m2) and large (>100 m2) trees compared to small (<35 m2) trees. The results indicate potential of GEOBIA and WorldView-2 imagery for tree crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. 

  • 18.
    Knutsson, Per
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Göteborg University.
    A process-oriented Sustainable Livelihoods Approach – a tool for increased understanding of vulnerability, adaptation and resilience2006Ingår i: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) is often proposed to holistically capture

    vulnerability in assessments of livelihoods in aid and development programs. The full capacity of the approach has however only rarely been used in these assessments, lacking a clear account of processes of change and flexibility of assets, as well as the ability to quantify all capital assets of a livelihood system. The descriptions of livelihoods so far are in fact non-holistic. This paper attempts to use SLA in its full capacity through a quantification of the different capitals covered; natural, physical, economic, social and human. Further, the relationships between capitals are explored in a Chinese rural context of changing climate and land-use, and examples are given on how investments in one capital in reality can end up being accounted for in other capitals. The results indicate that through an analytical and process-oriented SLA, an effective tool for assessment of vulnerability can be developed. Such a tool would assist development organizations and policy-makers to target poverty traps and escape routes in the face of rapid and multiple changes.

  • 19.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    et al.
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Impact of Plantations on Forest Use and Forest Status in Orissa, India2001Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 37-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Orissa 100 thousand ha of village plantations were established from 1985 to 1992 as an aid project to support the subsistence needs of rural poor and to relieve heavy pressure on the natural forests. The aim of this paper is to examine the welfare and environmental effects of these village plantations. To do this, extensive data collection was needed which included both household utilization of different sources of biomass as well as remote-sensing information, to establish the status of the vegetation and it's spatial location vis-a-vis the users. The study shows that plantations have the potential for substantial welfare improvements for the target population, especially women, through increased consumption of biomass, decreased time for collection and decreased pressure on natural forests. However, interventions need to be very selective in order to be successful, with special consideration given to plantation location compared to natural forest.

  • 20.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pattanayak, Subhrendu
    Duke University, USA.
    Sills, Erin
    North Carolilna State University, USA.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Salas, Ariana
    CATIE.
    Ternald, Daniel
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    In Search of Double Dividends from Climate Change Interventions Evidence from Forest Conservation and Houshould Energy Transitions2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna utgör mänsklighetens största utmaning och vi har bara börjat hantera dem. Forskningen pekar på att klimatförändringarnas effekter kommer att drabba fattiga människor i utvecklingsländer särskilt negativt. Det handlar t.ex. om minskande skördar till följd av temperaturökningar eller översvämningar till följd av höjd vattennivå och extrema väderfenomen. Samtidigt finns förväntningar på att utsläppen av växthusgaser kan minskas kostnadseffektivt exempelvis genom minskad avskogning och förbättrade spisar i utvecklingsländer. Det är därför inte förvånande att klimat-relaterade biståndsinterventioner ökar som andel av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete – 2013 uppgick det till 15 % av det globala bilaterala biståndet och i enlighet med det Hållbara utvecklingsmålet 13a skall det samlade klimatbiståndet uppgå till 100 miljarder USD årligen från och med 2020. Även vad det gäller svenskt bistånd så har vi sett samma trend mot ökat klimatbistånd.

  • 21. Lundgren, Lina
    et al.
    Henders, Sabine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sustainability and climate impact of selected CDM projects: A compilation of seven student papers from a course in climate science and policy2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

     

    P R E FACE

    This CSPR briefing is a compilation of seven course papers written in an advanced level university course called "Climate science and policy" led by the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research (CSPR) in Norrköping. Madelene Ostwald, assistant professor at the centre, was the course leader. The students are all from different backgrounds and took the course as a Single Subject Course.

    The main examination in the course was to write a paper, assessing sustainable development and climate impacts for different Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects as well as to discuss this in relation to the methodological parameters in a CDM project; baseline, additionality, permanence, leakage and monitoring. The students chose themselves which project to assess as well as which aspects to focus on. Out of the seven assessed CDM projects, five are Afforestation/Reforestation projects, one of which is large-scale and the rest small-scale projects. Two biomass projects are also assessed, one small-scale and one large- scale.

    The editor for this CSPR briefing has been Lina Lundgren with assistance from Sabine Henders and Madelene Ostwald.

     

    IN T R O DU CT IO N

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was created in 1992 in order to address the threats of climate change. The main aim of the convention is to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere on a level where no dangerous interference with the climate system should occur. The Kyoto Protocol 4, created in 1997 during a UNFCCC parties meeting, sets binding targets for the identified Annex I 5 parties to reduce GHG emissions. Although emission targets are set in the Kyoto Protocol, it is up to each individual country to decide how the reduction should occur. As a supplement to national measures in reducing emissions three market-based mechanisms were established: Emissions Trading, The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI). The CDM focuses on projects in developing countries (see below for more details). These so-called flexible mechanisms were created to allow reducing emissions of GHGs in a cost efficient way, based on the assumption that one ton of emissions reduction has a global effect regardless of where it occurs - so it can be implemented where it is least expensive to reach the reduction (UNFCCC, 2008).

  • 22.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Climate Science and Policy Research Conceptual and Methodological Challanges2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of climate change research has grown immensely over the last decade. Beyond the extensive efforts to map and understand how the various components of the climate system interact and respond to human forcing, academics from a range of fields are today deeply involved in the social and political struggle to develop effective and legitimate climate change policies. While initially focused on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, we have in recent years seen a growing academic interestin local, national, regional and trans-national climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts.In a time when decision makers have linked such efforts to other policy areas such as energy security, finance, land use, and social development, new academic fields have also become involved in the study of climate change. Hence, climate change research is increasingly conducted at the interface between the natural and social sciences, engineering and the humanities. This development spurs self-reflection in the research community. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with the mandate to assess the latest research for decision-makers, is currently working and deliberating on how to design the nextround of assessment in the light of a widen agenda of climate change policy. It is at this dynamic interface that we find the expanding field of climate science and policy research.

    Climate science and policy research is by no means a stable academic field. Rather, it is byvirtue a broad, diverse and hybrid enquiry that includes a range of epistemological, theoretical and methodological orientations. While much of the research under this umbrella has developed in parallel to (and often in direct response to) climate change policy, the field also includes a wide set of scholarly efforts to challenge and problematise the ideas and discourses underpinning such policies. This scholarly diversity may question climate science and policyresearch as a meaningful academic label. And indeed, as indicated by the various contributions to this report, the interpretations of what this field is all about vary considerably. However, despite this variety, we argue that the different academic contributions to this field converge around the quest to interpret, understand, problematise and, at times, solve the challenges facing society under a changing climate. Some of this scholarly work has, directly or indirectly, sought to inform climate change policy. In other cases climate change has emerged as a vantage point for advancing the academic understanding of how links between nature and society, science and policy, development and environment, North and South are constituted and sustained.

    In this report we draw attention to a set of conceptual and methodological challenges that wethink arise from this broad scholarly enquiry. In the first chapter, Simonsson examines the importance of scale in climate change research. In order to effectively inform policy, she suggests that the academic study of climate change needs to adjust to the geographies ofclimate change policy-making. However, since science may not be able to deliver climate information at the spatial resolution asked by decision-makers, Simonsson also calls for greater scholarly awareness of the scalar challenges in climate science for policy. In the second chapter, Ostwald and Kuchler trace the conceptual genealogy of climate science and policy research. Starting in the historic development of the climate sciences, they end up in amuch more complex and inter-disciplinary research landscape. Ostwald and Kuchler ask how researchers in the field of climate science and policy research can relate to this complexity.

    In the third chapter, Glaas, Friman, Wilks and Hjerpe situate climate science and policy research in the scholarly debate on Mode 1 and Mode 2 science. Following a long-standing debate on the role of science in climate policy making, they ask whether this field of enquirygains its legitimacy from autonomous basic research produced in sites distinctly demarcatedfrom the world of policy (Mode 1), or from knowledge produced in the context of application (Mode 2). While it may be  challenging for scholars of climate science and policy to engage inboth modes of knowledge production at the same time, the authors point at examples where the distinction between Mode 1 and Mode 2 breaks down into a new research domain whichthey label as Mode 1.5. A similar discussion is raised by Hansson and Wibeck in chapter four.While climate science and policy research can be interpreted as an academic field in its own right, its close links to action can also result in a difficult balancing act for researchers. Drawing upon examples from public acceptance studies, Hansson and Wibeck highlight problems that arise when climate researchers advance a normative agenda and hereby influence the people they study. Finally, in chapter five, Jonsson, Lövbrand and Andersson offer examples of research produced in direct collaboration with affected stakeholders. While such participatory research. often is said to increase the legitimacy and problem-solving capacity of climate science and policy research, the authors discuss how and when thatpromise holds true.

    The conceptual and methodological challenges discussed in this report are the result of a seminar series held at the Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research (CSPR) at Linköping University from autumn 2007 to spring 2008. As such the chapters reflect an ongoing debate and internal self-reflection at a centre that still is young and under development. Since its establishment in 2004, the CSPR has grown steadily and today functions as an interdisciplinary platform for more than 20 senior and junior researchers active in the field of climate science and policy research. In this report we do not set out to give a comprehensive picture of the challenges facing researchers at the CSPR, nor scholars inthe broader field of climate science and policy research. Neither is it a statement of whatCSPR is, but rather a bouquet of thoughts around our own research. By sharing our reflections with a broader scholarship, we do, however, hope that this report will contribute to theongoing debate on the scope, direction and function of this expanding and dynamic academic field.

  • 23.
    Mattson, Eskil
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Matilda
    University of Gothenburg.
    Klimathotet ökar viljan att värna regnskog2007Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 24.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nissanka, S P
    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Holmer, Bjorn
    Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Palm, Matilda
    Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Recovery and protection of coastal ecosystems after tsunami event and potential for participatory forestry CDM - Examples from Sri Lanka2009Ingår i: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By using an integrated approach, tsunami affected land, vegetation and inhabitants were assessed to evaluate the potential to restore and protect coastal land in the context of Kyoto Protocols Clean Development Mechanism in Hambantota district in the south-eastern part of Sri Lanka. Firstly, assessments of the Status of the tsunami affected area were carried out by collecting soil and well water samplings for carbon and salinity analysis. Secondly, identification of potential tree species for carbon sequestration and sustainable development was conducted to determine carbon stock and suitability to grow under the prevailing conditions. In addition, interviews to understand the local peoples perception of forest plantations and land use were conducted. The results showed that the resilience process of salt intruded lands from the 2004 Asian tsunami has progressed rapidly with low salinity level in the soils 14 months after the event, while the well water showed evidence of salinity contamination. The carbon stock was highest in natural forests followed by coconut plantations. Land users could envision expanding their present plantations or establish new ones. The barriers were defined as lack of financial investment capital and limited land for extended plantations. If a Clean Development Mechanism project is to be established, the coconut tree was found to be the most appropriate tree species since it has high carbon content, had co-benefits and possesses a salt-tolerant characteristic. Finally, the tsunami event has triggered land users to perceive environmental benefits of protection from mangrove or other adequate vegetation such as coconut plantations as welcome and desired to decrease their vulnerability. The assessment of multi-functionality of forest plantations, such as small-scale community based Clean Development Mechanism, its generated income from carbon credits as well as the wish for environmental protection should be considered to increase the attractiveness of plantation projects in the coastal areas.

  • 25.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Nissanka, S. P.
    University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka .
    Marambe, Buddie
    University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka .
    Homegardens as a Multi-functional Land-Use Strategy in Sri Lanka with Focus on Carbon Sequestration2013Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 892-902Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability.

  • 26.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Environmental Analysis, Swedish Board of Agriculture.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nissanka, SP
    Department of Crop Science, University of Peradeniya.
    Food security in Sri Lankan homegardens – what does science tell us?2017Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Agroforestry and other types of multifunctional land-use systems have increasingly been highlighted as win-win-win solutions to meet the challenges of climate change, agricultural intensification, secure ecosystem services as well as support to food security. In this brief the authors seek in the literature for evidence and information on the food security link to homegardens; a traditional agroforestry system common in Sri Lanka, and promoted by the Sri Lankan government . 

  • 27.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Centre for Environment and Sustainability, Chalmers University of Technology; University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR.
    Nissanka, SP
    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    What is good about Sri Lankan homegardens with regards to food security?: A synthesis of the current scientific knowledge of a multifunctional land-use system2018Ingår i: Agroforestry Systems, ISSN 0167-4366, E-ISSN 1572-9680, Vol. 92, s. 1469-1484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been growing interest in agroforestry systems due to their great potential to mitigate threats to household food and nutrition security from soaring food prices but also as carbon sinks. In Sri Lanka, smallholder farms such as homegardens constitute a majority of Sri Lanka’s total annual crop and timber production. Despite Sri Lankan homegardens being considered desirable and sustainable land-use systems, their role in food and nutrition security is not yet entirely understood. By synthesising scientific articles and grey literature we sought the link between food security and homegardens by quantifying their products or services and ascertaining whether food security characteristics are assessed as direct or indirect impacts. The results show that 27% of 92 identified articles directly quantified aspects that are relevant to food security. Another 51% of the articles quantified indirect aspects that have relevance for food security, including climate, soil, ecosystem services, structural and floristic diversity and economic aspects. Twenty-two percent of the articles were categorised as being qualitative or conceptual and contained no direct assessments or quantification of food security. The presence of significant merits from homegardens includes providing food security throughout the year at low-cost while sustaining numerous ecosystem services. This benefits particularly the poor farmers. However, many studies are descriptive and only provide location-specific information on single research focuses such as plant species, yield and management. There are few comparisons with crop land, forests or other production systems, and there is even less empirical evidence and quantification of the food security and other benefits. Seven areas where more scientific focus would be beneficial are identified. Homegardens are strong in national policies and to reach a greater level of efficiency within these activities our findings suggest more emphasis on a higher degree of inclusiveness of relevant stakeholders and long-term engagements with context specific guidance.

  • 28.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    n/a.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nissanka, S.P.
    n/a.
    Achard, Frederic
    n/a.
    Is REDD a viable option for Sri Lanka?2008Ingår i: Forest Adaptation 2008, IUFRO, SLU and FAO, Umeå, Sweden, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nissanka, S.P.
    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Pushpakumara, D.K.N.G.
    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Quantification of carbon stock and tree diversity of homegardens in a dry zone area of Moneragala district, Sri Lanka2015Ingår i: Agroforestry Systems, ISSN 0167-4366, E-ISSN 1572-9680, Vol. 89, nr 3, s. 435-445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Homegarden agroforestry systems are sug- gested to hold a large potential for climate change mitigation and adaptation. This is due to their multifunc- tional role in providing income, food and ecosystem services while decreasing pressure on natural forests and hence saving and storing carbon. In this paper, above- ground biomass carbon and tree species diversity of trees was quantified in homegardens around two villages in the dry south-eastern part of Moneragala district of Sri Lanka. A total of 45 dry zone homegardens were sampled on size, diameter at breast height, tree height and species diversity. Using allometric equations, we find a mean above-ground biomass stock of 13 mega grams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha-1) with a large range among homegardens (1–56 Mg C ha-1, n = 45) due to a 

    variation of tree diversity and composition between individual homegardens. Mean above-ground carbon stock per unit area was higher in small homegardens (0.2 ha, 26 Mg C ha-1, n = 11) and statistically differ- ent compared to medium (0.4–0.8 ha, 9 Mg C ha-1, n=27) and large (1.0–1.2ha, 8MgCha-1, n=7) homegardens. In total, 4,278 trees were sampled and 70 tree species identified and recorded. The Shannon Wiener index were used to evaluate diversity per homegarden and ranged from 0.76 to 3.01 with a mean value of 2.05 ± 0.07 indicating a medium evenly distributed diversity of sampled tree species. The results show a vast heterogeneity in terms of carbon stock and tree diversity within the less studied dry zone homegar- dens; results that contribute to more knowledge of their expansion potential as well as climate mitigation and adaptation potential. The results are also useful for whether homegardens should be considered to be included as an activity to enhance natural forest cover within Sri Lanka’s newly commenced UN-REDD National Programme. 

  • 30.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    n/a.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Matilda
    n/a.
    Rätt kompensation stoppar tropisk avskogning2007Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31. Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Matilda
    Tropisk avskogning måste lösas globalt: (in Göteborgs posten debatt)2007Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Centre for Environment and Sustainability, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Centre for Environment and Sustainability, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wallin, Göran
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nissanka, S.P.
    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Heterogeneity and assessment uncertainties in forest characteristics and biomass carbon stocks: Important considerations for climate mitigation policies2016Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 59, s. 84-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The management of forests to store carbon and mitigate climate change has received significant inter- national attention during the last decade. Using in situ data from a 2008–2009 forest inventory field campaign in Sri Lanka, this study describes the structural characteristics and carbon stocks of six natural forest types. This paper has a dual scope: i) to highlight the variation in carbon stored in aboveground biomass within and between forest types and ii) to determine the implications of the allometric equa- tions chosen to calculate biomass carbon stocks. This study concerns work related to climate change interventions, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and other forest-related, performance-based initiatives that require proper monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon stocks, sinks and emissions. The results revealed that forests are heterogeneous in terms of tree density and height–diameter relationships, both between and within the six forest types investigated. The mean aboveground carbon stock in the different forest types ranged from 22 to 181 Mg C ha−1 , and there were statistically significant differences in the carbon stocks of the six forest types in 7 of 15 cases. The estimated carbon stock depended heavily on the allometric equation used for the calculations, the variables, and its application to the specific life zone. Due to the diversity of forest structures, these results suggest that caution should be taken when applying default values to estimate forest carbon stocks and emission values in reporting and accounting schemes. The results also indicated the need for allometric equations that are context-specific for different forest types. Therefore, new field investigations and mea- surements are needed to determine these specific allometric equations, as well as the potential variation in forest carbon stocks in tropical natural forests. 

  • 33.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Persson, U Martin
    Gothenburg Centre of Globalization & Development, Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Division of Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nissanka, S P
    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    REDD plus readiness implications for Sri Lanka in terms of reducing deforestation2012Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 100, s. 29-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992-1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17 MtCO(2) yr(-1) in the 1992-1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5-10/tCO(2) if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial.

  • 34.
    Milne, Eleanor
    et al.
    Colorado State University, CO USA.
    Neufeldt, Henry
    World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF, Kenya.
    Rosenstock, Todd
    World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF, Kenya.
    Smalligan, Mike
    Michigan State University ,MI, USA.
    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo
    University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Malin, Daniella
    Sustainable Food Lab, VT USA.
    Easter, Mark
    Colorado State University, CO USA.
    Bernoux, Martial
    Institute Rech Dev UMR Eco and Sols IRD, France.
    Ogle, Stephen
    Colorado State University, CO USA.
    Casarim, Felipe
    Ecosyst Serv Winrock Int, AR USA.
    Pearson, Timothy
    Ecosyst Serv Winrock Int, AR USA.
    Bird, David Neil
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Steglich, Evelyn
    Texas Agrilife Blackland Research and Extens Centre, Austria.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Denef, Karolien
    Colorado State University, CO USA.
    Paustian, Keith
    Colorado State University, CO USA.
    Methods for the quantification of GHG emissions at the landscape level for developing countries in smallholder contexts2013Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 8, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape scale quantification enables farmers to pool resources and expertise. However, the problem remains of how to quantify these gains. This article considers current greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods that can be used in a landscape scale analysis in terms of relevance to areas dominated by smallholders in developing countries. In landscape scale carbon accounting frameworks, measurements are an essential element. Sampling strategies need careful design to account for all pools/fluxes and to ensure judicious use of resources. Models can be used to scale-up measurements and fill data gaps. In recent years a number of accessible models and calculators have been developed which can be used at the landscape scale in developing country areas. Some are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and others on dynamic ecosystem models. They have been developed for a range of different purposes and therefore vary in terms of accuracy and usability. Landscape scale assessments of GHGs require a combination of ground sampling, use of data from census, remote sensing (RS) or other sources and modelling. Fitting of all of these aspects together needs to be performed carefully to minimize uncertainties and maximize the use of scarce resources. This is especially true in heterogeneous landscapes dominated by smallholders in developing countries.

  • 35.
    Milne, Eleanor
    et al.
    Colorado State University, USA and the University of Leicester, UK..
    Neufeldt, Henry
    CGIAR, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Smalligan, Mike
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Rosenstock, Todd
    World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kenya.
    Bernoux, Martial
    Institut de Recherche pour le De ́veloppement UMR Eco & Sols (IRD), France.
    Bird, Neil
    Joanneum Research, Resources—Institute for Water, Energy and Sustainability, Austria.
    Casarim, Felipe
    Ecosystem Services Winrock International, USA.
    Denef, Karolien
    The Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, USA.
    Easter, Mark
    The Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, USA.
    Malin, Daniella
    Sustainable Food Lab, USA.
    Ogle, Stephen
    The Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, USA.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Paustian, Keith
    The Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, USA.
    Pearson, Timothy
    Ecosystem Services Winrock International, USA.
    Steglich, Evelyn
    Texas Agrilife—Blackland Research and Extension Center, USA.
    Methods for the quantification of emissions at the landscape level for developing countries in smallholder contexts2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The GHG (greenhouse gas) mitigation potential from the agricultural sector is set to increase in coming decades. Much of the agricultural mitigation potential lies in developing countries where systems are dominated by smallholder farmers. There is therefore an opportunity for smallholders not only to gain environmental benefits from carbon friendly practices, but also to receive much needed financial input, either directly from carbon financing, or from development agencies looking to support carbon friendly activities. However, the problem remains of how to quantify carbon gains from mitigation activities carried out by smallholder farmers. Landscape-scale quantification enables farmers to pool resources and expertise, which can put participation in carbon markets and access to other funding sources, within their reach. Therefore, funding agencies, governments and NGOs are increasingly recognizing the benefits of taking a landscape approach to GHG quantification. This paper gives an overview of approaches that have been taken to date for landscape-scale GHG quantification, covering both measurement and modelling and the reliance of one upon the other. The discussion covers ground-based measurement approaches for carbon stock changes in biomass and soils, methods for measuring GHG flux and the application of remote sensing techniques. Computational approaches for estimating carbon stock changes and GHG emissions are discussed, in addition to the use of more complex dynamic ecosystem models. This is followed by an analysis of some of the resources that are available for those wishing to do GHG quantification at the landscape scale in areas dominated by smallholders. This analysis is intended to provide an aid to funding agencies, government agencies, NGOs, academics and others. Information for this section comes from questionnaires distributed to selected resource developers.

  • 36. Milver, Andreas
    et al.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Olvmo, Mats
    An integrated GIS-method for describing impact of land use on the Baltic Sea2008Ingår i: 5th International conference on geographic information system,2008, Proceeding: ICGIS , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 37.
    Nyberg, Gert
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden .
    Knutsson, Per
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Centre for Environment and Sustainability, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology,Göteborg, Sweden .
    Öborn, Ingrid
    Department Crop Production Ecology, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden; World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wredle, Ewa
    Department Animal Nutrition and Management, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jakinda Otieno, David
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mureithi, Stephen
    Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mwangi, Peter
    Department of Botany, Jomo-Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Said, Mohammed
    International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jirström, Magnus
    Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Grönvall, Antonia
    Department Animal Nutrition and Management, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wernersson, Julia
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Food and Resource Economics (IFRO), University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svanlund, Sara
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Saxer, Laura
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Geutjes, Lotje
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karmebäck, Vera
    Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wairore, John N
    Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wambui, Regina
    Department of Botany, Jomo-Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya.
    De Leeuw, Jan
    World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Malmer, Anders
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Enclosures in West Pokot, Kenya: Transforming land, livestock and livelihoods in drylands2015Ingår i: Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, ISSN 2041-7128, Vol. 5, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dryland livestock production systems are changing in many parts of the world, as a result of growing human populations and associated pressure on water and land. Based on a combination of social and natural science methods, we studied a 30-year transformation process from pastoralism to a livestock-based agro-pastoral system in northwestern Kenya, with the overall aim to increase the understanding of the ongoing transition towards intensified agro-pastoralist production systems in dryland East Africa.

    Key to this transformation was the use of enclosures for land rehabilitation, fodder production, and land and livestock management. Enclosures have more soil carbon and a higher vegetation cover than adjacent areas with open grazing. The level of adoption of enclosures as a management tool has been very high, and their use has enabled agricultural diversification, e.g. increased crop agriculture, poultry production and the inclusion of improved livestock. Following the use of enclosures, livelihoods have become less dependent on livestock migration, are increasingly directed towards agribusinesses and present new opportunities and constraints for women. These livelihood changes are closely associated with, and depend on, an ongoing privatization of land under different tenure regimes.

    The results indicate that the observed transformation provides opportunities for a pathway towards a sustainable livestock-based agro-pastoral system that could be valid in many dryland areas in East Africa. However, we also show that emergent risks of conflicts and inequalities in relation to land, triggered by the weakening of collective property rights, pose a threat to the sustainability of this pathway. 

  • 38.
    Nyberg, Gert
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Mureithi, Stephen M.
    Univ Nairobi, Kenya.
    Muricho, Deborah N.
    Univ Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning, CSPR. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Enclosures as a land management tool for food security in African drylands2019Ingår i: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, E-ISSN 1747-4248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing sedentary agro-pastoralist livelihoods may be explained by land degradation, population pressure, agricultural commodification, and economic development. We reviewed scientific and grey literature for the effects of enclosures on food security. Only 8% of the 114 reviewed scientific articles addressed food production, while 69% approached environmental parameters that indirectly affect food security, most of which had positive results. Thirty-one percent focused on social and economic impacts, land tenure conflicts and elite capture with negative connotations. The grey literature showed an opposite balance between positive environmental views and negative socio-economic impacts. Enclosures are not a panacea for dryland development, but their use need to be recognized and understood. Multidisciplinary research and cooperation on the applied management of enclosures in the context of food security is highly needed. Furthermore, agro-pastoralist land-use practices need more policy space and practical management support, such as clear tenure legislation, agroforestry methodologies, and support in fodder production systems.

  • 39.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV), University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate-related forest policies and trends2015Ingår i: The future use of Nordic forests: a global perspective / [ed] Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner, Cham: Springer, 2015, s. 99-109Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the carbon cycle, forests have a place in climate-related forest policies and trends. By describing forest-related measures driven by international climate negotiations, such as the afforestation and reforestation under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), or the voluntary carbon market, this chapter illustrates how carbon has become an important but fuzzy commodity. The demand for carbon-focused measures is also seen in suggested activities in the Swedish context, shown with the Arctic Boreal Climate Development (ABCD) project. It can be said that due perhaps to the complexity involved in quantifying and accounting for carbon, other benefits such as energy substitution or improved hydrology from carbon-improving management strategies are being enhanced in the debate.

  • 40.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Contribution to mitigation by developing countries ETMA/EGFA: To provide background information to EU positions on developing country mitigation efforts2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Key messages

    General:

     

    The term substantial deviation from baseline in developing countries lies in the order -15% to -30% below a BAU baseline; corresponding to the Annex I 30% reduction range the non Annex I deviation required below BAU is roughly 16%;

     

    The baseline setting is crucial for both economic sectors and as well as for REDD/LUCF activities;

     

    Available information on mitigation potential in developing countries is limited to a small set of studies using different approaches; findings drawn from this still bear considerable uncertainty;

     

    Depending on the emissions projections a conservative estimation on the potential contribution of the aggregate group of developing countries results in the order of 10 to 20% below the respective BAU by 2020, excluding REDD/LUCF activities; even then, a significant potential gap in global mitigation efforts required aim for keeping the 2 degree track still has to be taken into account;

     

    Recently published or implemented national plans on action against climate change in selected emerging economies provide only limited information on the extent possible actions undertaken domestically could mitigate GHG emissions; however, the ambition of the respective countries deserves acknowledgement from Annex I.

     

    In the negation process it does not seem wise to shift the focus in the negotiations from the 15-30% deviation from baseline to a range of allowed emissions growth in developing countries;

    Relevant findings on mitigation potential:

     

    Available information on mitigation potential focuses in general on the aggregate non Annex I Parties or on selected emerging economies, such as China, Brazil, India, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, Argentina and Indonesia; information on REDD/ LUCF activities is limited to regions, such as Central and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia respectively, and to a limited set of particular countries, such as Brazil, DR Congo, India and others;

    • A significant GHG mitigation potential exists in developing regions and particular developing countries by 2020;

     

    The abatement potential in the aggregate group of developing countries lies in the order of 30% below the respective BAU by 2020, in absolute terms in the order of 10 to 15 Gt CO eq below BAU, depending on the approach chosen;

     

    A considerable mitigation potential exists at a very low cost level on a regional and national scale by 2020, sometimes even related with no net-costs; this goes especially for Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and South Korea, where a no-regret potential of roughly 10% below BAU by 2020 (~ 1.6 Gt CO eq) in aggregate is estimated;

     

    The same set of countries could benefit from additional mitigation efforts in the order of 15% below BAU by 2020 in other areas, i.e. air quality, too (~ 1.2 Gt CO eq additionally);

     

    Data on REDD/ LUCF activities still bear a high uncertainty. A conservative estimation for annual global emissions from REDD/LUCF activities ranges from 3.2 up to 4.7 Gt CO eq between 2005 and 2030. Compared to this, Africa could be able to reduce GHG emissions in the order of one third of the aggregate global level at a carbon price of USD 20/tCO eq while Latin America has a similar or even higher potential at a carbon price of USD 50/tCO eq.

     

     

  • 41.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    EU/India climate financial mechanism. Report prepared by Research Project Clipore for the Government during the Swedish Presidency Fall 2009: In charge of the chapter on REDD2009Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 42.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Expanding Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry activities under the Clean Development Mechanism – Discussions within the United Nations Climate Negotiations2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Göteborg University.
    GIS-based support system for decision making of local forest control –illustrated examples from Orissa, India2002Ingår i: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 35-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A support tool system comprising risk and priority analyses was illustrated in a geographical information system environment and also tested with data from two forest protection areas for comparison of the system output. The system is recommended as a management monitoring tool for areas where village forest protection at a local level is taking place. The geographical area in the eastern part of India is subject to scarcity of forest resources and is representative in the context of widespread occurrence of local forest protection. Data used were topography, hectares protected, population census, distance to forest and other villages, degree of forest regeneration, presence of plantations, age of protection, surrounding forest resources, and population mix. Methods used were digitizing information for the systems' different layers, analyses of satellite information, field work, gathering of local information, and the application of five risk/priority analyses: erosion, ecological and institutional sustainability, conflict, and degree of dependency. Questions asked were how the different analyses should be interpreted and how the system could be kept updated. The results show that the system needs resource-demanding and field assistance to be kept dynamic. The system is also dependent on the interpretations of the analyses. The limits or levels of assistance for forest management depend on the resources available. The system illustrates how a tool can be utilized for decisions regarding input of resources. It can further be very useful in defining and comparing different areas in order to detect areas in need of assistance and the type of help needed.

  • 44.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    The Norrköping Protocol for REDD+: Recommendations on Sweden’s REDD+ approach in the future2011Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 45.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Baral, Ranjan
    Utkal University, Orissa, India.
    Local forest protection, gender and caste - Dhani Hill, Orissa, India2000Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 115-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey covering 35% of all households in five villages was conducted in a local forest protection group in Orissa, India. The aim was to study dependency, involvement and attitude towards forest protection based on gender and caste. A conceptual model indicating differences between the groups was used as a base. Women experienced more problems of restrictions caused by the protection and more threats associated with the forest than did men. Voting in meetings and a wish for more plantations was of greater importance for women than for men, while men emphasised importance of co-operation with government. Direct involvement was very low among women, even though they were well informed about forest issues. Tribal groups were the main contributers of labour, while general caste had been involved for considerably longer in forest protection than other groups. The tribal groups also wanted more plantations and had a good understanding of the ecosystem. For example, they indicated the value of a growing forest. Men and general caste tended to be more outspoken in this type of questionnaire situation compared to women and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The general attitude towards Dhani Hill, however, was positive and could be linked to daily use and future optimism. This optimism and the involvement of all the different groups should be considered as crucial in the timing of local forest management interventions. This should be seen together with the diversified opinions and ways of expressing such opinions depending on gender and caste.

  • 46.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chen, Deliang
    Göteborg University.
    Land-use and Climate Change in China with Focus on Shaanxi province in the Chinese Loess Plateau - Lesson for Future Climate Politics2008Ingår i: Global Warming and Climate Change, Ten Years after Kyoto and Still Counting / [ed] Velma I. Grover, Science Publishers , 2008, s. 999--1012Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Now as we stand at the crossroads, the steps taken by national governments, business communities and others involved in the negotiations will determine which path we will take as a world community, to mitigate and to adapt to climate change. As discussed in the book, in the coming years it is more politics than policies that will determine the way forward to climate change negotiations, Kyoto protocol and beyond regime. This book combines philosophical approach to climate change (including a development debate and a discussion on need for equitable approach to climate change negotiations), with scientific facts and its impact on human health. Adaptation is one of the important issues in the book.

  • 47.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Chen, Deliang
    Göteborg University.
    Land-use change: impacts of climate variations and policies among small-scale farmers in the Loess Plateau, China2006Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 361-371Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes are taking place in many developing countries causing land-use change. In China there has been enormous economic growth since 1978 followed by impacts on the environmental, social and economical conduct of the society. One of the counter actions taken by the Government to halt the environmental degradation in the Loess Plateau has been the introduction of the Slope Land Conversion Program/Crop Conversion Program in 1999, stopping agricultural activity in slope areas, mainly used by small-scale farmers. At the same time climate variations have also been evident in the area, with decreases in rainfall and increases in temperature since 1970. The aim here is to examine what vegetation changes are seen at the regional scale in the area from 2000 to 2002 and how they correlate to local land-use changes. How the land-use changes are correlated with climate variations and/or policies and reforms is then investigated. The data included in this integrated assessment includes remote sensing information for the end of August from MODIS and ASTER images, climate and statistical data, as well as farmers' participatory data. The results show that the large-scale vegetation cover has increased, which correlates well with the dramatic local land-use change caused by the policy implementation. The land-use change shows some correlation with the climate variables (both lagged and simultaneous) but climatic factors alone do not fully explain the regional increase in vegetation. Hence the direct force behind the extreme land-use change is most likely associated with policy and economics, although climatic has some impact on regional scale vegetation pattern. The result from this study is contributing to the increasing growth of literature in climate change research on the complex issue of multiple stressors, i.e. processes that many areas in the developing world are exposed to.

  • 48.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden; Centre for Environment and Sustainability, GMV, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Henders, Sabine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Making two parallel land-use sector debates meet: Carbon leakage and indirect land-use change2014Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, s. 533-542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several land-based policy options are discussed within the current quest for feasible climate change mit-igation options, among them the creation and conservation of forest carbon sinks through mechanismssuch as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation also called REDD+ and the substi-tution of fossil fuels through biofuels, as legislated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive. While those twopolicy processes face several methodological challenges, there is one issue that both processes encounter:the displacement of land use and the related emissions, which is referred to as carbon leakage in the con-text of emissions accounting, and indirect land-use change also called ILUC within the bioenergy realm.The debates surrounding carbon leakage and indirect land-use change issues run in parallel but are ratherisolated from each other, without much interaction. This paper analyzes the similarities and differences aswell as common challenges within these parallel debates by the use of peer-reviewed articles and reports,with a focus on approaches to address and methods to quantify emissions at national and internationalscale. The aim is to assess the potential to use synergies and learn from the two debates to optimizeclimate benefits. The results show that the similarities are many, while the differences between carbonleakage and ILUC are found in the actual commodity at stake and to some degree in the policy forumin which the debate is taken. The geographical scale, actors and parties involved also play a role. Bothprocesses operate under the same theoretical assumption and face the same problem of lacking methodsto quantify the emissions caused by international displacement. The approach to international displace-ment is one of the main differences; while US and EU biofuel policymakers acknowledge uncertainties inILUC accounting but strive to reduce them, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changeexcludes accounting for international carbon leakage. Potential explanations behind these differences liein the liability issue and the underlying accounting principles of producer responsibility for carbon leak-age and consumer responsibility for ILUC. This is also reflected on the level of lobby activities, where ILUChas reached greater public and policy interest than carbon leakage. Finally, a possible way forward forinternational leakage accounting in future climate treaties could be the adoption of accounting methodstaking a consumer perspective, to be used alongside the existing set-up, which could improve climateintegrity of land-based policies.

  • 49.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Asplund, Therese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mapping energy crop cultivation and identifying motivational factors among Swedish farmers2013Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 50, s. 25-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a meta-study, the paper describes the existing options, areal extents, and Swedish farmers' conditions for energy crop production promoted by the governments to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The drivers of and barriers to cultivating various energy crops are described in terms of a variety of motivational factors. The approach used peer-reviewed and gray literature using three Internet sources. Questions addressed include the energy crops available to Swedish farmers and how well established they are in terms of areal extent. What drivers of and barriers to growing energy crops do farmers perceive? How do various motivational factors for these drivers and barriers correspond to the adoption of certain energy crops? The results indicate that 13 energy-related crops are available, of which straw (a residue), oil crops, and wheat are the most extensively produced in terms of cultivated area. Results confirm earlier research findings that converting from annual to perennial crops and from traditional crops or production systems to new ones are important barriers. Economic motivations for changing production systems are strong, but factors such as values (e.g., esthetic), knowledge (e.g., habits and knowledge of production methods), and legal conditions (e.g., cultivation licenses) are crucial for the change to energy crops. Finally, there are knowledge gaps in the literature as to why farmers decide to keep or change a production system. Since the Swedish government and the EU intend to encourage farmers to expand their energy crop production, this knowledge of such motivational factors should be enhanced.

  • 50.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    et al.
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Jusoff, K
    Lindqvist, Sven
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Indicating local protection efforts in forest vegetation change in Orissa, India using NOAA AVHRR data2000Ingår i: Journal of Tropical Forest Science, ISSN 0128-1283, Vol. 12, s. 778-793Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
12 1 - 50 av 73
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