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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Öppen och sluten på samma gång: att integrera kunskap över företags gränser2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson, Christian Berggren, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, p. 84-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag får allt svårare att behärska alla de teknologiområden som behövs för utvecklingen av sofistikerade produkter för den internationella marknaden. Därför ökar betydelsen av samarbete med olika typer av partners vars kunskaper kompletterar dem som finns internt. Detta har lett till ett ökat intresse för det som kallas öppen innovation. Det innebär att företag öppnar sina innovationsprocesser och involverar kunder, leverantörer, konsulter, akademier och ibland även konkurrenter för att underlätta in- och utflöde av kunskaper och teknologier. Företag kan vara öppna i olika faser av produktframtagningsprocessen, från idégenerering till kommersialisering, och samarbetet kan kretsa kring olika typer av kunskapsinnehåll (teknologi, produkter, processer). Tidigare forskning har framför allt betonat fördelarna med ökad öppenhet. Utifrån vår forskning om öppen innovation, som innefattar både intervjubaserade fallstudier av innovationsprojekt och en enkät till 415 företag om öppen innovation, vill vi lyfta fram tre utmaningar i detta sammanhang: den egna spetskompetensen, kostnader för integration av extern kunskap och risken för kunskapsläckage. Resultaten visar att företag behöver utforma sina innovationsprocesser så att de kan vara öppna och slutna på samma gång.

  • 2.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Solutions for sustained expertise in project-based organizations : Organizing for disciplinary leadership or disciplinary community2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prerequisite for effective knowledge integration is access to differentiated and specialized knowledge bases. Knowledge integration often takes place in interdisciplinary project teams, where members spend most of their time working closely with members of opposing disciplinary domains in problem-solving processes. The disciplinary knowledge of individual team members is therefore key to the quality and outcome of the knowledge integration in organizations relying on interdisciplinary project work. This paper returns to a challenge well-described in previous research into project-based organizing, namely how to sustain and develop disciplinary expertise in the long run in an organization that promotes dispersal of disciplinary peers and an increased cross-learning across disciplines. So far, only a few studies have contributed to developing insights into how these challenges can be met, and how different organizational solutions might counteract the risks of losing disciplinary depth. Based on a comparative study of three cases, this study sets out to identify and analyze solutions that emerge in project-based organizations as a response to the challenge of sustaining and developing disciplinary expertise. The paper centers on structural solutions, and identifies two main types of expert structures that in different ways support disciplinary expertise: Expert structures for disciplinary leadership or for disciplinary community. These two types are further analyzed in relation to how they support disciplinary expertise.

  • 3.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enabling Knowledge Integration in Coopetitive R&D Projects: The Management of Conflicting Logics2012In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 771-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of how knowledgeintegration can be managed in coopetitiveR&D projects. The findings from this study imply that knowledgeintegration in a coopetitiveR&D project is not built on shared knowledge or a shared understanding of the content of project work but that knowledgeintegration is enabled by a shared understanding of the process of project work. Such understanding can be established by the use of mechanisms such as planning and process specification and presentation genres. These mechanisms support the process of knowledgeintegration while simultaneously putting constraints on what knowledge is exchanged and they can structure discussions when face-to-face communication takes place. The findings further suggest that, to avoid unintended knowledge leakages, individual and collective settings of project work should be clearly separated such that problem solving stays an individual activity while decision making still rests with the project team as a collective activity.

  • 4.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Integrating knowledge between competitors: The case of a collaborative R&D project in the defense equipment industry2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge Integration in Product Development Projects2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is concerned with knowledge integration in product development projects. Knowledge integration is conceived of as processes of goal-oriented interrelating with the purpose of benefiting from knowledge complementarities existing between individuals with differentiated knowledge bases. Knowledge integration is a subject of importance to many firms as the degree of integration of specialised and distributed knowledge helps explain differences in firms’ product development performance. However, knowledge integration is poorly understood as detailed, empirical, studies are lacking. Hence, the purpose of this dissertation is to explore what mechanisms of knowledge integration are suitable in different project settings.

    The dissertation is based on two empirical studies, both of which are longitudinal, real-time studies of product development projects. A detailed account of the project work in each of the two projects, the Stacker project and the Turbine project, is presented together with an analysis of each case. Thereafter, a comparative analysis is conducted, in which both similarities and differences between the two projects and their settings are discussed. As a result of the studies, an iterative model of knowledge integration is proposed. The iterative model has a number of features which would benefit the analysis of knowledge integration in empirical settings. It recognises the importance of considering to what extent the “knowledge problematic” of a specific product development project needs to involve acting and interacting and how these are made complementary in an iterative process. Second, it indicates the significance of using various artefacts and how these may be involved in acting as well as interacting. Third, it recognises that acting and interacting may be associated with different costs of knowledge integration.

  • 6.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Knowledge Integration in Projects Facing Dynamic Complexity and Receptive Uncertainty2007In: The IRNOP VIII Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 7.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Organising Interdisciplinary Project Work - Processes of Interacting and Interrelating2003In: International Conference on Organizational Learning and Knowledge,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 8.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öppet fast ändå slutet: separation och integration i konkurrenssamarbete2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 177-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Maintaining and developing disciplinary expertise in project-based organizations: a well-known problem with few solutions?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bredin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustaining and Developing Disciplinary Expertise in Project-based Organizations : Balanced and Integrated Solutions2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What different types of solutions for organizing disciplinary expertise have developed in project-based firms that rely extensively on interdisciplinary and co-located project teams?

    In Sustaining and Developing Disciplinary Expertise in Project-Based Organizations: Balanced and Integrated Solutions, authors Cecilia Enberg and Karin Bredin explore the implications of this question by:

    • drawing on multiple works by experts in the field, as well as their own previous research;
    • undertaking case studies of three project-based tech companies with different organizational setups;
    • conducting interviews with both management and employees with diverse areas of expertise (including designers, programmers, and testing specialists);
    • recommending the most effective corporate approaches to developing and maintaining expertise among specialists in both cross-functional and single-discipline teams; and
    • offering their insight into areas where further research might be done.

    Enberg and Bredin’s research bridges organizational management and human resource management using a framework to analyze both structural and activity-based solutions for the maintenance and development of disciplinary expertise. Managers, researchers, and disciplinary specialists alike will benefit from the case studies described and analyzed within these pages.

  • 11.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut.
    Att öppna upp för teknikkonsulters kunskapsbidrag i utvecklingssamarbeten2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 221-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kunskapsintegration i produktutvecklingsprojekt: Om möjligheterna att styra en dynamisk och framväxande process2012In: Styrning: med projekt och kunskap i fokus / [ed] Jonas Söderlund & Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 205-223Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrning är viktigt. Styrning är intressant. Styrning är svårt. Styrning behövs, och det behövs nya tankar och idéer för att stimulera utveckling och förbättringsarbete inom detta område.

    I boken bidrar ett tiotal forskare med nya perspektiv på styrning. Framför allt diskuteras förhållandet mellan strategi och   styrning, styrning i marknadsdrivande organisationer, styrning och organisatorisk kunskap och styrning i projektbaserade organisationer.

    Boken försöker bidra till ökad förståelse för styrning ur ett kunskaps­baserat perspektiv där de organisatoriska förmågorna står i centrum, och där styrning bidrar med att bygga och vidmakthålla förmågor och därmed stärka företagets konkurrenskraft.I boken diskuteras betydelsen av kunskap och projekt - och framför allt styrningen av relationen dem emellan.

    Idén är också att utveckla tankar kring hur komplementariteter och ambidexteritet i styrningssammanhang kan förstås och hanteras.Styrning är ett ständigt aktuellt fenomen och nu, när projekt och kunskap står i fokus, ändras styrningens innehåll och möjligheter.

    Hur styrningen av våra verksamheter sker och förändras bör vara allas angelägenhet. Personligen kommer jag framöver låta mina tankar om styrning vägledas av denna boks många insikter och illustrationer.

  • 13.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Exploring the dynamics of knowledge integration: Acting and interacting in project teams2006In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 143-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates knowledge integration in product development projects. While much previous literature draws attention to the need for clearly specified goals, extensive knowledge sharing and close face-to-face interaction for activity and knowledge integration, alternative explanations are offered. The findings highlight the integrative capacity of individuals' experience and tacit foreknowledge of the stacker artefact, as well as the complementary role of meetings and ad hoc problem solving. The article proposes an iterative model of the individual/collective dynamics involved and calls attention to its economizing potential. More generally, it provides an example of how the issue of knowledge integration may be reformulated into a dynamic perspective, recognizing the intergenerational learning benefits that accrue. The conclusions extend the argument of Zollo and Winter by showing how different task-related learning mechanisms may be combined and obtain their integrative capacity within an iterative process. Copyright © 2006 Sage Publications.

  • 14.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge integration at the edge of technology: On teamwork and complexity in new turbine development2010In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT, ISSN 0263-7863, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 756-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes an empirical point of departure in the development of a new steam turbine. Project work here relied on a process of iteration between a small core group of team members with extensive experience and team members with less of that currency. In this project, the core group had a major integrative role, whereas other team members were mainly responsible for the specific tasks assigned to them. Quite a few of the latter category felt uneasy about their role and felt decoupled from the project. In our analysis we use the Teamwork Quality (TWQ) construct proposed by Hoegl and Gemuenden (2001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that in highly complex projects of this type, team-based knowledge integration need not presuppose equality of participation and we introduce the notion of a Segregated Team to account for these findings.

  • 15.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Processes of Interacting and Interrelating in Projects2004In: The European Academy of Management 2004 Conference,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 16.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Processes of interacting and interrelating in projects: exploring the individual-collective dynamic in distributed knowledge contexts2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kompetensförstärkande eller kompetensförstörande?: tankar kring konsekvenser av agil projektorganisation2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson, Christian Berggren, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2015, p. 62-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Produktutveckling är en central aktivitet för många företags konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet. Traditionella utvecklingsprojekt karakteriseras av integration av specialiserad kunskap under en begränsad period genom att olika individers kunskap utnyttjas och kombineras. Efter avslutat projekt upplöses teamen och individerna sprids ut i nya projekt. Så kallade agila arbetssätt framhävs ofta som framgångsrecept för produktutveckling och har på senare år vunnit mark i svenska industriföretag. Genom att etablera permanenta, tvärfunktionella team kan produktutvecklingsprocessen effektiviseras. I sådana team betonas vikten av att individer lär av varandra och breddar sin tekniska kompetens för att lösa uppgifter som ligger utanför den egna kunskapsdisciplinen. Utifrån ingående fallstudier av ett antal produktutvecklingsprojekt analyserar vi i kapitlet konsekvenserna av agil projektorganisering för kunskapsintegration. Vi visar att sådana arbetsformer ur ett dynamiskt perspektiv kan vara såväl kompetensförstärkande som kompetensförstörande. Tvärfunktionella och interdisciplinära arbetssätt kan effektivt lösa komplexa problem, men i ett längre perspektiv krävs också utrymme för individuell specialisering i urskiljbara kunskapsområden.

  • 18.
    Enberg (f.d Frohm), Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Collective competence in an interdisciplinary project context2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of articles in management journals has recognised knowledge as being the organisation's prime resource, and particular interest has been given to the ways in which knowledge is managed by organisations in order to stay competitive. Management of knowledge incorporates aspects related to the question of how to co-ordinate knowledge held by highly specialised individuals and projects are often considered to be a solution to this problem of coordinating different knowledge bases. Therefore, this study, exploring the processes involved in the establishment and maintenance of collective competence, is undertaken in the context of an interdisciplinary development project. Learning processes in highly constrained projects are also explored.

    The findings suggest that collective competence is reached from the basis of two different logics, an interacting logic and an interrelating logic, each associated with a number of different processes. These processes make possible the creation of a representation of the context that forms the basis of each individual's contribution to project work. 

  • 19.
    Enberg (f.d Frohm), Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interacting and interrelating in projects: exploring the individual-collective cynamic in teamwork2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skillful planning and the reliance on frequent face-to-face interaction is often emphasized as preconditions for successful project work in literature on project management and product development. Our case study observations of a project involving the development of a new stacker, however, contrast with such a view. Here, most project work was carried out individually and as a matter of routine, complemented by interactive instances, such as project meetings and ad hoc problem solving interaction. Moreover, instead of a shared project goal or a shared knowledge base, the material stacker stood out as an artifact of great significance in achieving activity and knowledge coordination. Inspired by literature on sense-making, we propose a simplified model of the individual-collective dynamic in such contexts, and differentiate between processes of interacting and interrelating. Finally we discuss its coordination properties as a matter of cognitive feasibility and economizing on cost.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Axelson, Mattias
    Handelshögskolan Stockholm, Center for Innovation and Operations Management.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Knowledge Integration in Inter-firm R&D Collaboration: How do Firms Manage Problems of Coordination and Cooperation?2011In: Knowledge Integration & Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-based Firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, Jonas Söderlund, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 148-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success.

  • 21.
    Tell, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Lindkvist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Knowledge integration at the edge of technology2008In: The Advanced RD Management Workshop,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 21 of 21
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