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  • 1.
    Ahn, Henrik Casimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Jodal, M.
    Lindhagen, J
    Lundgren, O.
    Nilsson, Gert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Bestämning av tunntarmsblodflödet med laser Doppler teknik1984In: Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma,1984, 1984Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahn, Henrik Casimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Johansson, K.
    Lindhagen, J.
    Nilsson, Gert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Förändringar av blodflödet i ventrikeln i samband med mätt med laser Dopplerteknik1984In: Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma,1984, 1984Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ahn, Henrik Casimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Johansson, K.
    Lindhagen, J.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Laser Doppler flowmetry in the assessment of gastric blood flow1984In: man. Scand J of Gastroenterology,1984, 1984, 98:33-98:33 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ahn, Henrik Casimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Lindhagen, J.
    Nilsson, Gert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Jodal, M.
    Lundgren, O.
    Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the assessment of blood flow in the small intestine1984In: Third World Congress of Microcirculation,1984, 1984Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ahn, Henrik Casimir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Lindhagen, J
    Nilsson, Gert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Jodal, M
    Lundgren, O
    Evaluation of Laser Doppler Flowmetry in the assessment of intestinal blood flow1985In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 4, no 88, 951-957 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 6.
    Arildsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asker, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Skin capillary appearance and skin microvascular perfusion due to topical application of analgesia cream2000In: Microvascular Research, ISSN 0026-2862, E-ISSN 1095-9319, Vol. 59, no 1, 14-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local topical analgesia changes basal skin perfusion and its regulation. In particular, the response induced by local heating, which in nontreated skin comprises a rapidly increased perfusion followed by a normalization within 30 s, is altered to a delayed and persistent perfusion increase. The response dependency to the analgesia cream application time, that is, the intradermal penetration of the analgesics and in which vascular plexa the response occurs, is not known. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the appearance of superficial skin capillaries and skin microvascular perfusion changes due to different application periods of topical analgesia cream (EMLA). Twelve subjects were treated with EMLA and placebo applied to the volar side of each forearm, respectively. The treatment areas were assigned different application times (20 min, 40 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h). The areas were cleared from the creams and shortly thereafter provoked during 9 s with a probe heated to 45°C. To assess capillary number density and skin perfusion, capillary microscopy, and Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), respectively, were used. The number density of physiologically active capillary was significantly decreased with longer application times of EMLA (P < 0.005). The LDPI-signal showed a persistent perfusion increase after provocation associated with increasing application time of the cream. This perfusion pattern was not seen after 20 min of treatment, but was present in 9 of 12 subjects after 3 h of treatment. No significant relationship between changes in the capillary number density and the LDF measurement was found. In conclusion, a longer application time and therefore a higher intradermal concentration and a deeper penetration of the analgesics was associated with a delayed and persistent perfusion increase after local heating. There was a discrepancy between changes in capillary number density and skin perfusion, indicating that the perfusion increase does not occur in the capillaries but in the deeper lying vessels. Hence, the contribution of the capillary perfusion to the LDF-signal is smaller than previously anticipated. Capillary number density and presumably their perfusion were decreased with longer application times.

  • 7.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Arildsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Compartmental skin perfusion resposes affected by analgesia1999In: Congress of the International Society for Skin Imaging,1999, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Mörk, C.
    Kvernebo, K.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Skin Capillary Ensemble Analysis in Erythromelagia2000In: 21th European Conference on Microcirculation,2000, 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mørk, Cato
    National Hospital, Dept. of Dermatology, Oslo, Norway.
    Kvernebo, Knut
    Hamlet Hospital, Copenhagen Denmark and University of Oslo, Norway.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Computer assisted evaluation of skin capillary density supports the hypothesis of microvascular shunting in erythromelalgiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Erythromelalgia subjects often suffer from burning pain in distal parts of the extremities, aggravated by warmth and relieved by cooling. Affected skin is hyperemic and has an increased skin temperature. The shunting hypothesis for the pathogenesis of erythromelalgia, postulates maldistribution of skin microvascular blood flow with increased thermoregulatory flow through arteriovenous shunts and an inadequate nutritive perfusion with a corresponding tissue hypoxia. Our aim was to characterize recruitment and steal distribution changes in affected skin with the aid of an enhanced technique of computer-assisted analysis of capillary beds. This method was used to determine the capillary density before and after central body heating in 14 patients with erythromelalgia and 10 controls. Symptoms were induced in 8 patients and their skin temperature became higher (p<0.05) after central body heating, but the number of visible or active capillaries in the dorsal aspect of the foot decreased significantly, as compared to asymptomatic patients and controls. Since the increased temperature should, normally induce capillary recruitment, and other studies using laser Doppler techniques have shown an increase in global skin perfusion during EM attacks, we conclude that the reduced capillary density shown in this study, is compatible with the hypothesis of blood shunting through AV anastomoses, deep in the dermis.

  • 10.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Capillary density, distribution and homogeneity in erythromelalgic subjects evaluated using computer-assisted video-microscopy1996In: World Congress for Microcirculation,1996, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Computer assisted capillary microscopy: Theory and clinical applications. In1995In: Sixth Int Symp CNVD,1995, 1995, 45- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 12.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Datorbaserad kapillärmikroskopi1994In: Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma,1994, 1994Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Estimation of spatial heterogeneity of the capillary bed using mathematical triangulation and distance models1996In: Nordic Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering,1996, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Technical aspects of image analysis in evaluating spatial heterogeneity of skin capillary bed ensembles1998In: European Conference on Microcirculation,1998, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Asker, Claes
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    The changes in capillary detection accuracy in video microscopy images depending on the choice of the image grayscale transform1997In: Congress of the International Society for Skin Imaging,1997, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Benosman, Mourad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Tlemcen University, Algeria.
    Bereksi-reguig, Fethi
    Tlemcen University, Algeria.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of ECG-trunk muscle signal amplitude and heart rate relationship2013In: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology, ISSN 0309-1902, E-ISSN 1464-522X, Vol. 37, no 7, 449-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate if bioelectrical signals, generated from trunk muscles identified in an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal presented in this paper as ECG-Trunk Muscles Signals amplitude (Ecg-TMSA) are correlated with Heart rate (HR) during different levels of physical activity and also if Ecg-TMSA is not influenced by mental activity. HR and Ecg-TMSA were derived from ECG in 14 subjects when walking and jogging at different treadmill velocities from 4–10 (km h−1). The mean relationship for all 14 subjects was HR = (42.3 ± 0.2) + (45.3 ± 2.8) Ecg-TMSA, r2 = 0.91. The result of one individual data points example for a 21 min experiment was (r2 = 0.93, p < 0.0001, n = 336). The obtained results show a linear relationship between Ecg-TMSA and HR. Moreover, the Ecg-TMSA was not affected by mental activity

  • 17.
    Benosman, Mourad
    et al.
    Abou Bekr Belkaid university, Tlemcen, Algeria.
    Bereksi-reguig, Fethi
    Abou Bekr Belkaid university, Tlemcen, Algeria.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Distingush physical activity from mental stress analyzing ECG signals with overlayed non cardiac muscle activity2012In: BIOMEIC'12, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Benosman, Mourad
    et al.
    Abou Bekr Belkaid university, Tlemcen, Algeria.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bereksi-reguig, Fethi
    Abou Bekr Belkaid university, Tlemcen, Algeria.
    Measuring muscle activity with ECG electrodes to distinguish physical activity from mental stress2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ewerlöf, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salerud, E. Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Estimating skin blood saturation by selecting a subset of hyperspectral imaging data2015In: Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues XIII / [ed] Daniel L. Farkas; Dan V. Nicolau; Robert C. Leif, SPIE, 2015, Vol. 9328Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin blood haemoglobin saturation (𝑠b) can be estimated with hyperspectral imaging using the wavelength (λ) range of 450-700 nm where haemoglobin absorption displays distinct spectral characteristics. Depending on the image size and photon transport algorithm, computations may be demanding. Therefore, this work aims to evaluate subsets with a reduced number of wavelengths for 𝑠b estimation. White Monte Carlo simulations are performed using a two-layered tissue model with discrete values for epidermal thickness (𝑇epi) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's ), mimicking an imaging setup. A detected intensity look-up table is calculated for a range of model parameter values relevant to human skin, adding absorption effects in the post-processing. Skin model parameters, including absorbers, are; μ's (λ), 𝑇epi, haemoglobin saturation (𝑠b), tissue fraction blood (𝑐b) and tissue fraction melanin (𝑐mel). The skin model paired with the look-up table allow spectra to be calculated swiftly. Three inverse models with varying number of free parameters are evaluated: A(𝑠b, 𝑐b), B(𝑠b, 𝑐b, 𝑐mel) and C(all parameters free). Fourteen wavelength candidates are selected by analysing the maximal spectral sensitivity to 𝑠b and minimizing the sensitivity to 𝑐b. All possible combinations of these candidates with three, four and 14 wavelengths, as well as the full spectral range, are evaluated for estimating 𝑠b for 1000 randomly generated evaluation spectra. The results show that the simplified models A and B estimated 𝑠b accurately using four wavelengths (mean error 2.2% for model B). If the number of wavelengths increased, the model complexity needed to be increased to avoid poor estimations.

  • 20.
    Franzén, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Ghassemifar, M.R.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Tarpila, Erkki
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hand surgery UHL.
    Actin fiber orientation in connective tissue contraction. A quantitative study using the perforated rat mesentery model.1996In: Wound Repair and Regeneration, ISSN 1067-1927, E-ISSN 1524-475X, Vol. 4, 454-460 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Fredly, Siv
    et al.
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway / Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Fugelseth, Drude
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway / Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Nygaard, Cathrine S
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stiris, Tom
    Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway / Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kvernebo, Knut
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway / Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.
    Noninvasive assessments of oxygen delivery from the microcirculation to skin in hypothermia-treated asphyxiated newborn infants2016In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 76, no 6, 902-906 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become standard treatment for severe and moderate hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy (HIE). Our group has developed an optically based, noninvasive concept of assessing the capacity for oxygen delivery from the microcirculation to the cells of a tissue under investigation. The hypothesis was that mechanisms of reduced oxygen delivery due to reduced metabolism in cooled asphyxiated neonates could be characterized with this concept.

    METHODS:

    The skin of 28 asphyxiated newborn infants was studied on days 1 and 3 during TH and on day 4 following rewarming with laser Doppler perfusion measurements (LDPM), computer-assisted video microscopy (CAVM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Twenty-five healthy neonates served as a control group.

    RESULTS:

    The LDPM decreased during cooling (P < 0.01). Functional capillary density was higher both during and following TH compared with control infants (P < 0.01). Capillary flow velocities were reduced during TH (P < 0.05). The heterogeneity of the flow velocities was larger in the HIE infants than in the control infants. Tissue oxygen extraction was higher during TH (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSION:

    This study indicates that assessments of skin microvascular density, capillary flow velocity, and oxygen extraction can be used to characterize reduced oxygen delivery to cells during TH

  • 22.
    Fredly, Siv
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway.
    Kvernebo, Knut
    Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biophotonic Assessment of Microcirculation in Healthy Newborn Children2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23. Ghassemifar, M.R.
    et al.
    Tarnuzzer, R.W.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Schultz, G.S.
    Franzén, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in rat and mouse mesenteric wounds after TGF-ß1 treatment1997In: Wound Repair and Regeneration, ISSN 1067-1927, E-ISSN 1524-475X, Vol. 5, 339-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Haj-Hosseini, Neda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lowndes, Shannely
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blood interference in fiber-optical based fluorescence guided resection of glioma using 5-aminolevulinic acid2011In: Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VII / [ed] Nikiforos Kollias; Bernard Choi; Haishan Zeng; Hyun Wook Kang; Bodo E. Knudsen; Brian J. Wong; Justus F. R. Ilgner; Kenton W. Gregory; Guillermo J. Tearney; Laura Marcu; Henry Hirschberg; Steen J. Madsen; Andreas Mandelis; Anita Mahadevan-Jansen; E. Duco Jansen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011, 78833R-1-78833R-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescence guidance in brain tumor resection is performed intra-operatively where bleeding is included. When using fiber-optical probes, the transmission of light to and from the tissue is totally or partially blocked if a small amount of blood appears in front of the probe. Sometimes even after rinsing with saline, the remnant blood cells on the optical probe head, disturb the measurements. In such a case, the corresponding spectrum cannot be reliably quantified and is therefore discarded. The optimal case would be to calculate and take out the blood effect systematically from the collected signals. However, the first step is to study the pattern of blood interference in the fluorescence spectrum. In this study, a fiber-optical based fluorescence spectroscopy system with a laser excitation light of 405 nm (1.4 J/cm2) was used during fluorescence guided brain tumor resection using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). The blood interference pattern in the fluorescence spectrum collected from the brain was studied in two patients. The operation situation was modeled in the laboratory by placing blood drops from the finger tip on the skin of forearm and the data was compared to the brain in vivo measurements. Additionally, a theoretical model was developed to simulate the blood interference pattern on the skin autofluorescence. The blood affects the collected fluorescence intensity and leaves traces of oxy and deoxy-hemoglobin absorption peaks. According to the developed theoretical model, the autofluorescence signal is considered to be totally blocked by an approximately 500 μm thick blood layer.

  • 25.
    Haj-Hosseini, Neda
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Compensation of blood interference in fiber-optical based fluorescence guided resection of brain tumor2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Hellem, S.
    et al.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Bone blood flow1989In: Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 27. Hellem, S.
    et al.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Use of single fiber laser Doppler flowmetry in measuring local blood flow in cancellous bone1986In: XIV International Conference of European Society for Microcirculation,1986, 1986Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arildsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reflection Spectroscopy of Analgesized Skin2001In: Microvascular Research, ISSN 0026-2862, E-ISSN 1095-9319, Vol. 62, no 3, 392-400 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analgesized skin, when subjected to heat stimuli, responds by increasing skin perfusion. This response does not originate from increased perfusion in superficial capillaries, but rather in the deeper lying vessels. The aim of this study was to assess changes in blood chromophore content, measured by reflection spectroscopy, in relation to the perfusion increase, especially regarding the chromophores oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Eleven normal subjects were treated with analgesic cream (EMLA) and placebo for 20, 40, 60, 120, and 180 min. Individual reactions to local heating were classified as responses if the change in reflection data or the change in perfusion, as measured by laser Doppler blood flowmetry, exceeded 2 standard deviations of normal variation. The increase in blood perfusion or in blood content gave rise to an increased absorption, interpreted as an increase due mainly to the chromophore oxyhemoglobin. The number of responses increased with increased treatment time for EMLA-treated areas. In general, there was a good agreement between both methods; 44 of 55 classifications coincided for the two methods used. In conclusion, analgesized forearm skin, which had been exposed to local heating, responded with an elevated perfusion consisting of oxygenated blood. This strengthens the hypothesis that the flow increase occurs through dilatation of larger deeper lying skin vessels and not in the capillaries.

  • 29.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Arildsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Reflektionsspektroskopi på EML-behandlad och värmeprovocerad hud2000In: Svenska läkarsällskapets Riksstämma,2000, 2000, 250-250 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Arildsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Reflectance spectroscopy2000In: Eight Int Symp CNVD 2000,2000, 2000, 45-50 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Lindbergh, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Karlsson, M. G. Daniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics.
    Casimir-Ahn, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Myocardial tissue oxygenation estimated with calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during coronary artery bypass grafting2008In: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 13, no 5, 054030- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study using a method able to assess tissue oxygenation, taking into account the absorption and the level of scattering in myocardial tissue using a calibrated fiber optic probe. With this method, interindividual comparisons of oxygenation can be made despite varying tissue optical properties during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, there are needs for methods allowing continuous monitoring and prediction of the metabolism in the myocardial tissue. 14 patients undergoing CABG are investigated for tissue oxygenation during different surgical phases using a handheld fiber optic spectroscopic probe with a source-detector distance of less than 1 mm. The probe is calibrated using a light transport model, relating the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (mu(a) and mu()(s)) to the measured spectra. By solving the inverse problem, absolute measures of tissue oxygenation are evaluated by the sum of oxygenized hemoglobin and myoglobin. Agreement between the model and measurements is obtained with an average correlation coefficient R-2 of 0.96. Oxygenation is found to be significantly elevated after aorta cross-clamping and cardioplegic infusion, as well as after reperfusion, compared to a baseline (p < 0.05). Tissue oxygenation decreases during cardiac arrest and increases after reperfusion.

  • 32.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Lindbergh, Tobias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Larsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Strömberg, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Myocardial blood volume and oxygenation monitoring during thoracic surgery2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ilias, Michail A.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Chris D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A diffuse reflectance spectroscopic study of UV-induced erythematous reaction across well-defined borders in human skin2010In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 16, no 3, 283-290 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The colour of tissue is often of clinicaluse in the diagnosis of tissue homeostasis andphysiological responses to various stimuli.Determining tissue colour changes and borders,however, often poses an intricate problem and visualexamination, constituting clinical praxis, does notallow them to be objectively characterized orquantified. Demands for increased inter- and intraobserverreproducibility have been incentives for theintroduction of objective methods and techniques fortissue colour (e.g. erythema) evaluation. The aim ofthe present paper was to study the border zone of anUVB provoked erythematous response of humanskin in terms of blood volume and oxygenationmeasured by means of diffuse reflectancespectroscopy using a commercial probe.

    Material and Methods A provocation model, basedon partial masking of irradiated skin areas, definestwo erythema edges at every skin site responding tothe UV irradiation. In every subject, 5 test sites wereexposed with a constant UV light irradiance (14mW/cm2), but with different exposures times (0, 3,6, 9, 12 seconds). An analysis of the spectral datameasured across the two edges was performed for every scan line. The oxygenized and deoxygenizedhemoglobin contents were estimated in everymeasurement point, using a modified Beer-Lambertmodel.

    Results The fit of the experimental data to the model derived by the modified Beer-Lambert law was excellent (R2>0.95). Analyzing data for the chromophore content showed that the erythematous response in provoked areas is dominated by the increase in oxyhemoglobin. The width for the left and right border zone was estimated to 1.81±0.93 mm and 1.90±0.88 mm respectively (M±SD). The unprovoked area between the two edges was estimated to 0.77±0.68 mm.

    Conclusion While the chosen data analysis performed satisfactory, the ability of the probe design to differentiate spatial aspects of a reaction with abrupt borders was found to be suboptimal resulting in a probable overestimation of the erythematous edge slope. Probe modification or imaging are possible solutions.

  • 34.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ilias, Michail
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    A spectroscopic study of the borders of UV-induced skin erythema2003In: International Congress for Bioengineering and the Skin. Congress of the International Society for Skin Imaging,2003, 2003, 180-181 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Setterud, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An alternative supervision model of Master thesis2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Setterud, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Master students and supervisors’ conceptions and experiences of an alternative model of supervision2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Ilias, Michail A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Häggblad, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology UHL.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visible, Hyperspectral Imaging Evaluating the Cutaneous Response to Ultraviolet Radiation2007In: Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues V / [ed] Daniel L. Farkas; Robert C. Leif; Dan V. Nicolau, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2007, 644103-1-644103-12 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo diagnostics of skin diseases as well as understanding of the skin biology constitute a field demanding characterization of physiological and anatomical parameters. Biomedical optics has been successfully used, to qualitatively and quantitatively estimate the microcirculatory conditions of superficial skin. Capillaroscopy, laser Doppler techniques and spectroscopy, all elucidate different aspects of microcirculation, e.g. capillary anatomy and distribution, tissue perfusion and hemoglobin oxygenation. We demonstrate the use of a diffuse reflectance hyperspectral imaging system for spatial and temporal characterization of tissue oxygenation, important to skin viability. The system comprises: light source, liquid crystal tunable filter, camera objective, CCD camera, and the decomposition of the spectral signature into relative amounts of oxy- and deoxygenized hemoglobin as well as melanin in every pixel resulting in tissue chromophore images. To validate the system, we used a phototesting model, creating a graded inflammatory response of a known geometry, in order to evaluate the ability to register spatially resolved reflectance spectra. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility to describe the UV inflammatory response by calculating the change in tissue oxygen level, intimately connected to a tissue's metabolism. Preliminary results on the estimation of melanin content are also presented.

  • 38.
    Ilias, Michail
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Stücker, M.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Karaktärisering av blodperfusionen i hudtumörer2002In: VINNOVA medicinteknisk konferens,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Ilias, Michail
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Stücker, M.
    Describing skin tumors in terms of perfusion estimates2001In: 7th Wold Congress on Microcirculation,2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ilias, Michail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stücker, M.
    Department of Dermatology, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of pigmented skin lesions in terms of blood perfusion estimates2004In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 10, no 1, 43-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a disease of increasing clinical and economical importance. The prognosis is good with early diagnosis. The chief differential diagnosis is benign melanocytic naevus, a common lesion in Caucasians. Attempts have been made to use bioengineering techniques to aid in the initial diagnosis. The present study proposes a method of extracting possibly discriminative blood perfusion properties in pigmented skin lesions by combining information on the lesions' blood perfusion with optical or visual information of their spatial extent.

    Methods: A total of 46 blood perfusion measurements were performed on 22 pigmented skin lesions, the ultimate diagnosis of which was three histologically proven malignant melanomas, four histologically proven benign naevi and fifteen naevi assessed by two specialist dermatologists as being benign. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging gave two different types of two-dimensional data sets (64×64 pixels), one representing the total backscattered light intensity at each measurement point (TLI image) and the second corresponding to perfusion values. The boundaries of each examined lesion were derived from the TLI image employing greyscale thresholding, thus resulting in an estimated region of interest (ROI) approximating the optical extent of the lesion. The ROI was superimposed on the perfusion image and extraction of perfusion features was then performed.

    Results: The processing of the TLI images was successful in delineating the lesions' boundaries. The first hypothesis that the mean perfusion quotients in MM and benign naevi are equal could not be rejected at the chosen 5% level of significance. The second hypothesis that the mean percent-age of elevated perfusion values (image pixels) within the ROI shows no difference between MM and benign naevi could be rejected at a 5% level of significance.

    Conclusions: This study has presented a method of extracting blood perfusion parameters of pigmented skin lesions by combining blood perfusion information with information on the lesion's optical extent. The proposed method of presenting data could prove to be a useful discriminative adjunct in the assessment of pigmented skin lesions.

  • 41.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Elizondo, Rodolfo A.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Edin, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olsen, David
    FibroGen Incorporated, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Merrett, Kimberley
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute–Vision Programme, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Lee, Chang-Jang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute–Vision Programme, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarek, James
    FibroGen Incorporated, San Francisco, CA, USA.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping.
    Griffith, May
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of Surgical Technique on Corneal Implant Performance2014In: Translational Vision Science & Technology, ISSN 2164-2591, Vol. 3, no 2, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Our aim was to determine the effect of a surgical technique on biomaterial implant performance, specifically graft retention.

     

    Methods: Twelve mini pigs were implanted with cell-free, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linked recombinant human collagen type III (RHCIII) hydrogels as substitutes for donor corneal allografts using overlying sutures with or without human amniotic membrane (HAM) versus interrupted sutures with HAM. The effects of the retention method were compared as well as the effects of collagen concentration (13.7% to 15% RHCIII).

    Results: All implanted corneas showed initial haze that cleared with time, resulting in corneas with optical clarity matching those of untreated controls. Biochemical analysis showed that by 12 months post operation, the initial RHCIII implants had been completely remodeled, as type I collagen, was the major collagenous protein detected, whereas no RHCIII could be detected. Histological analysis showed all implanted corneas exhibited regeneration of epithelial and stromal layers as well as nerves, along with touch sensitivity and tear production. Most neovascularization was seen in corneas stabilized by interrupted sutures.

    Conclusions: This showed that the surgical technique used does have a significant effect on the overall performance of corneal implants, overlying sutures caused less vascularization than interrupted sutures.

    Translational Relevance: Understanding the significance of the suturing technique can aid the selection of the most appropriate procedure when implanting artificial corneal substitutes. The same degree of regeneration, despite a higher collagen content indicates that future material development can progress toward stronger, more resistant implants.

  • 42. Kvernebo, K.
    et al.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Evaluation of lower limb muscle blood flow by single fiber laser Doppler flowmetry1987In: 7th Nordic Meeting on Medical and Biological Engineering,1987, 1987, 41- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Kvernebo, K.
    et al.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Kontinuerlig målning av muskelperfusjon med singel fiber laser Doppler flowmeter1987In: Norsk kirurgisk forening. Vetenskaplige förhandlinger,1987, 1987, 77-78 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44. Kvernebo, K.
    et al.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Single fiber laser Doppler flowmetry in the evaluation of lower limb muscle blood flow1987In: Nordisk Kirurgisk Förenings 43. Kongress,1987, 1987Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 45. Kvernebo, K.
    et al.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Single fibre laser Doppler flowmetry in the evaluation of human muscle blood flow1987In: Microcirculation - an update, vol 1 / [ed] Masaharu Tsuchiya, Amsterdam: Excerpta medica , 1987, 335-338 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46. Kvernebo, K.
    et al.
    Staxrud, L.E.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Assessment of Human Muscle Blood Perfusion with Single-Fiber Laser Doppler Flowmetry.1990In: Microvascular Research, ISSN 0026-2862, E-ISSN 1095-9319, Vol. 39, 376-385 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Latorre, Malcolm A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salerud, E. Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Characterization of a Surface Ag-AgCl Electrode using the Paxon Test Platform2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of an electrode for intraelectrode differences using both a traditional gain-phase method and the Paxon test platform. The direct gain-phase measurements are useful to extract the transfer function of the electrode, as well as some other base parameters. The Paxon test platform is a complementary method that tests electrodes under conditions that are more realistic than the gel-to-gel connection used in the gain-phase method. Testing stability over time e.g. DC signal drift (worst set 6,31 ± 43,00 nV) over a one hour of measurement duration was carried out. The Paxon also lets tests be performed beyond what the gain-phase methods can measure, for example electrode rotation, which would uncover variations in the symmetry of the electrode. When tested, the symmetry properties of the electrode (test set variations, start to end, over rotations 0,90,180 and 270 degrees) resulted in a peak to peak variation in detected amplitude of 5.3 ±8.9 mV. Intraelectrode variations were detected and quantized with the Paxon test platform.

  • 48.
    Latorre, Malcolm
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Describing Measurement Behaviour of a Surface Ag-AgCl Electrode Using the Paxon Test Platform2016In: XIV MEDITERRANEAN CONFERENCE ON MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING 2016, SPRINGER , 2016, Vol. 57, 442-445 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of bioelectrodes can be acquired with extended testing, which will lead to better methodology and data quality. Today electrodes are evaluated for intraelectrode differences and performance with a traditional gain-phase method, while using the physical axon action potential generator (Paxon) test platform offers extended test possibilities. The direct gain-phase measurements are useful to extract the transfer function of the electrode, as well as some other base parameters. The Paxon test platform is a complementary method that tests electrodes under conditions that are more realistic, mimicking real measurement situations in comparison to the gain-phase method. The Paxon also allows tests to be performed beyond what the gain-phase methods can measure, for example electrode rotation, which would uncover variations in the symmetry of the electrode. When tested, the symmetry properties of the electrode, where the electrodes are rotated in steps of 90 degrees, resulted in a peak to peak variation in detected amplitude of 5.3 +/- 8.9 mV. Therefore, the Paxon appears to be a feasible test platform for characterizing electrodes beyond the gain-phase tests in a semiautomatic manner.

  • 49. Lien, B.
    et al.
    Norstein, J.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Kvernebo, K.
    Flatmark, A.
    Perfusion i nyreparenchym bedömt ved singel fiber laser Doppler flowmetri1989In: Norsk kirurgisk forening. Vetenskaplige förhandlinger,1989, 1989Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50. Lien, B.
    et al.
    Norstein, J.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Kvernebo, K.
    Flatmark, A.
    Renal microvascular perfusion evaluated by single fibre laser Doppler flowmetry.1992In: International journal of microcirculation : clinical and experimental / sponsored by the European Society for Microcirculation, ISSN 0167-6865, Vol. 11, 307-317 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
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