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  • 1.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Padban, Nader
    TPS Termiska Processer AB, Studsvik, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Larfeldt, Jenny
    TPS Termiska Processer AB, Studsvik, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SiC-FE gas sensor based combustion control in domestic heating systems, characteristics and utility2007Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SiC based field effect gas sensors have been evaluated for future possible use in combustion control schemes for domestic heating systems. Emphasis has been on the possibility to monitor the state of combustion and follow the development of the combustion process from an emissions point of view and to determine its cause. The sensor signals have been compared to true emissions data – CO and total hydrocarbon concentration – as obtained by an IR spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (FID) as well as flue gas concentration of oxygen as obtained by a paramagnetic cell. The sensor characteristics have been evaluated using multivariate statistics and the results suggest that, by using the signals from one or more SiC-based field effect sensors and a thermocouple, it seems possible to provide a rough picture of the state of combustion applicable to a control scheme in order to reduce emissions and increase the power to fuel economy.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Mike
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pardban, N.
    TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Larfeldt, J.
    TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The characteristics and utility of SiC-FE gas sensors for control of combustion in domestic heating systems [MISFET sensors]2004In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, 2004., 2004, p. 1157-1160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible utility of MISiCFET gas sensors in the application of combustion control in small-scale boilers has been tested and compared to commercially available resistive-type MOS sensors. The results suggest that by using the signals from one or more MISiCFET sensors, together with the measured temperature of the furnace, it seems possible to provide a rough picture of the state of combustion applicable to a control scheme in order to reduce emissions and increase the power to fuel economy.

  • 3.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ilias, Michail A.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anderson, Chris D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A diffuse reflectance spectroscopic study of UV-induced erythematous reaction across well-defined borders in human skin2010In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The colour of tissue is often of clinicaluse in the diagnosis of tissue homeostasis andphysiological responses to various stimuli.Determining tissue colour changes and borders,however, often poses an intricate problem and visualexamination, constituting clinical praxis, does notallow them to be objectively characterized orquantified. Demands for increased inter- and intraobserverreproducibility have been incentives for theintroduction of objective methods and techniques fortissue colour (e.g. erythema) evaluation. The aim ofthe present paper was to study the border zone of anUVB provoked erythematous response of humanskin in terms of blood volume and oxygenationmeasured by means of diffuse reflectancespectroscopy using a commercial probe.

    Material and Methods A provocation model, basedon partial masking of irradiated skin areas, definestwo erythema edges at every skin site responding tothe UV irradiation. In every subject, 5 test sites wereexposed with a constant UV light irradiance (14mW/cm2), but with different exposures times (0, 3,6, 9, 12 seconds). An analysis of the spectral datameasured across the two edges was performed for every scan line. The oxygenized and deoxygenizedhemoglobin contents were estimated in everymeasurement point, using a modified Beer-Lambertmodel.

    Results The fit of the experimental data to the model derived by the modified Beer-Lambert law was excellent (R2>0.95). Analyzing data for the chromophore content showed that the erythematous response in provoked areas is dominated by the increase in oxyhemoglobin. The width for the left and right border zone was estimated to 1.81±0.93 mm and 1.90±0.88 mm respectively (M±SD). The unprovoked area between the two edges was estimated to 0.77±0.68 mm.

    Conclusion While the chosen data analysis performed satisfactory, the ability of the probe design to differentiate spatial aspects of a reaction with abrupt borders was found to be suboptimal resulting in a probable overestimation of the erythematous edge slope. Probe modification or imaging are possible solutions.

  • 4.
    Häggblad, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ilias, Michail
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery.
    Salerud, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation.
    A spectroscopic study of the borders of UV-induced skin erythema2003In: International Congress for Bioengineering and the Skin. Congress of the International Society for Skin Imaging,2003, 2003, p. 180-181Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Wingbrant, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Unéus, Lars
    Svenningstorp, Henrik
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    Holmberg, Martin
    Gas sensor arrays for combustion control2005In: Encyclopedia of Sensors, eds. / [ed] Professor Rudolph A. Marcus, Nobel Prize Laureate, California: American Scientific Publishers , 2005, p. 139-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The applications of sensors range from medical diagnostics to industrial manufacturing and to defense and national security applications. When an area spans such a large diversity of research, and where research from many different countries is also involved, a review of these developments becomes especially useful. Because it bridges science and technology the field also provides a desired interaction between researchers and research in technologically advanced and developing countries. The present series of volumes, "The Encyclopedia of Sensors" , the first of its kind, is intended to provide a timely compendium of the entire field. As such it can be expected to play a significant role in worldwide future progress and understanding."

  • 6.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chemical Sensors and Multivariate Data Analysis2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sensors can be found in many different applications, such as in home appliances, vehicles, medical equipments, mobile technology etc. Nearly all products with a reasonable technological height have a sensor integrated.

    Chemical Sensors are devices able to sense the chemical environment and are today an active area of research. A great potential has been predicted for these kinds of sensors, meeting future demands of e.g. environmental monitoring, health-care issues and safety. The potential lies in the fact that chemical sensors are unspecific in general, responding to several different species in the ambient. By using several different sensors simultaneously a great portion of the chemical environment can be sensed at one instant.

    The data generated when making measurements with multiple chemical sensors contain a lot of information, but t he information is not clearly visible and it is not easy to interpret the data as it is.

    Along with the development of complex sensor systems comes the need for advanced data analysis procedures, able to interpret and visualize the information provided by the sensors. In this work, various aspects of data analysis procedures are discussed. Techniques for exploring large dataset are treated and a general overview is given on algorithms able to learn characteristic patterns within data. Difficult ies caused by unwanted sensor phen6mena such as drift and noise are identified and it is discussed how to counteract for these.

    The thesis touches upon applications where chemical sensors are useful, and which requirements these applications put on the sensors and the data analysis procedures.

    Work will be presented in which attempts have been made to learn the composition of flue gases produced by boilers used for heat and power production. It will be shown that it is possible roughly estimate the concentration of carbon monoxides, oxygen, and hydrocarbons by using a set of relatively in-expensive chemical sensors and by applying data analysis procedures. Work will also be presented in which it is discussed how to counteract for unintentional differences between sensor elements, a problem causing trouble prior to commercialization and mass-market production of chemical sensor systems.

    List of papers
    1. Initial studies on the possibility to use chemical sensors to monitor and control boilers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial studies on the possibility to use chemical sensors to monitor and control boilers
    2005 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 111-112, p. 487-493 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale boilers are quite often installed in facilities like schools, households and at local heat distributors. Because of economical considerations such boilers often lack appropriate control-systems, which results in inefficient and pollutant combustions with high levels of carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, and in ashes with unburned charcoal. Monitoring of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons, which is essential to be able to control a boiler, requires expensive instruments like flame-ionization detectors, IR- and mass-spectrometers.

    We demonstrate the possibility to use a low-cost chemical sensor array to monitor a small-scaled boiler. By using metal oxide sensors, metal insulator silicon carbide field effect transistors, and by applying multivariate data modeling, promising results have been obtained. The data modeling was made using a joint approach based on blind source separations and multiple linear regressions. This approach showed similar result compared to results from the well-known PLSR algorithm.

    Keywords
    Chemical sensor array, Pattern recognition, Combustion monitoring, Blind source separation, Canonical correlation analysis
    National Category
    Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14866 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2005.03.045 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Data driven approaches to characterizing cross-sensitive sensors and to improve calibration transer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Data driven approaches to characterizing cross-sensitive sensors and to improve calibration transer
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different data analysis procedures can be developed for applications where chemical sensors are used, and it is sometimes even necessary to do so in order to get any reasonable results. Many of these procedures put certain demands on the used sensors, e.g. that they remain stable during operation. For this reason, it is useful to first learn the characteristics of a device before initiating developments of advanced procedures.

    ln this paper, data driven modeling techniques are used to approximate sensor responses and cross sensitivity patterns. By keeping record of parameters in an adapted model structure the characteristics of a sensor can be extracted. The extracted information is valuable when developing analysis procedures.

    The paper shows how the complexity of the calibration transfer problem increases when cross-sensitive sensors are used, and also shows a simple example of how the problem can be solved using application know-how for measurements using gas sensitive Metal-Insulator-Silicon-Carbide-Transistors. These procedures are simple and can be performed by sensor manufacturers to develop calibration transfer algorithms that reduce or eliminate the need of calibration measurements for the user.

    Keywords
    calibration transfer, cross sensitivity, chemical sensors, pattern recognition
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100824 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-12 Last updated: 2013-11-12
  • 7.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multivariate Exploration and Processing of Sensor Data-applications with multidimensional sensor systems2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensor is a device that transforms a physical, chemical, or biological stimulus into a readable signal. The integral part that sensors make in modern technology is considerable and many are those trying to take the development of sensor technology further. Sensor systems are becoming more and more complex and may contain a wide range of different sensors, where each may deliver a multitude of signals.Although the data generated by modern sensor systems contain lots of information, the information may not be clearly visible. Appropriate handling of data becomes crucial to reveal what is sought, but unfortunately, that process is not always straightforward and there are many aspects to consider. Therefore, analysis of multidimensional sensor data has become a science.The topic of this thesis is signal processing of multidimensional sensordata. Surveys are given on methods to explore data and to use the data to quantify or classify samples. It is also discussed how to avoid the rise of artifacts and how to compensate for sensor deficiencies. Special interest is put on methods being practically applicable to chemical gas sensors. The merits and limitations of chemical sensors are discussed and it is argued that multivariate data analysis plays an important role using such sensors.

    The contribution made to the public by this thesis is primarily on techniques dealing with difficulties related to the operation of sensors in applications. In the second paper, a method is suggested that aims at suppressing the negative effects caused by unwanted sensor-to-sensor differences. If such differences are not suppressed sufficiently, systems where sensors occasionally must be replaced may degrade and lose performance. The strong-point of the suggested method is its relative ease of use considering large-scale production of sensor components and when integrating sensors into mass-market products. The third paper presents a method that facilitates and speeds up the process of assembling an array of sensors that is optimal for a particular application. The method combines multivariate data analysis with the `Scanning Light Pulse Technique'. In the first and fourth papers, the problem of source separation is studied. In two separate applications, one using gas sensors for combustion control and one using acoustic sensors for ground surveillance, it has been identified that the current sensors outputs mixtures of both interesting- and interfering signals. By different means, the two papers applies and evaluates methods to extract the relevant information under such circumstances.

    List of papers
    1. Initial studies on the possibility to use chemical sensors to monitor and control boilers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial studies on the possibility to use chemical sensors to monitor and control boilers
    2005 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 111-112, p. 487-493 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale boilers are quite often installed in facilities like schools, households and at local heat distributors. Because of economical considerations such boilers often lack appropriate control-systems, which results in inefficient and pollutant combustions with high levels of carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, and in ashes with unburned charcoal. Monitoring of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons, which is essential to be able to control a boiler, requires expensive instruments like flame-ionization detectors, IR- and mass-spectrometers.

    We demonstrate the possibility to use a low-cost chemical sensor array to monitor a small-scaled boiler. By using metal oxide sensors, metal insulator silicon carbide field effect transistors, and by applying multivariate data modeling, promising results have been obtained. The data modeling was made using a joint approach based on blind source separations and multiple linear regressions. This approach showed similar result compared to results from the well-known PLSR algorithm.

    Keywords
    Chemical sensor array, Pattern recognition, Combustion monitoring, Blind source separation, Canonical correlation analysis
    National Category
    Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14866 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2005.03.045 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Calibration Transfer Procedures Based on Sensor Models
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration Transfer Procedures Based on Sensor Models
    2008 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    This article treats the matter of calibration transfer, i.e. how to mathematicallysuppress sensor-to-sensor differences. We propose an approach in which the strategyis to find a model that compactly describes the behavior of a sensor type. Theparameters of the model serve as ‘data sheets’ and can be used to differentiate characteristicsbetween individual sensor devices. We illustrate that by keeping recordof these parameters it does not only becomes possible to characterize individualsensors, but also to calibrate their responses.

    As will be discussed, the main virtue of the suggested approach comes by itscompact and device specific description of the sensor response pattern. This opensup for the construction of flexible calibration transfer schemes. The idea is to let asensor manufacturer construct and distribute ‘data sheets’ describing the characteristicsof each sensor component. Customers can then to use these to mathematicallycounteract for sensor-to-sensor differences. The counteraction can be made at sensorlevel, prior to the signals enter any host system. This is important if a customerwishes to avoid extensive adaptations being made to a product as soon as a slightlydifferent sensor component must be used.

    The approach is tested on real experimental data made with Metal-Insulator-Silicon-Carbide-Transistors. Data driven modeling techniques were used to approximatethe sensor responses. The results of this paper positively demonstrate thatthe suggested approach can be used to counteract for sensor-to-sensor differences.

    Keywords
    Calibration transfer, pattern recognition, sensor model, chemical sensors, MISiCFET, commercialization
    National Category
    Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14867 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2009-02-25
    3. Sensor Array Optimization using Variable Selection and a Scanning Light Pulse Technique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensor Array Optimization using Variable Selection and a Scanning Light Pulse Technique
    2009 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 435-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the design of a chemical sensor. the constructor has several degrees of freedom setting parameters that influence the final characteristics of the component. For applications where several sensors are required, the number of possible parameter configurations increases dramatically. The work of configuring a sensor array is therefore tedious and many test sensors may need to be processed before a final configuration is found. The Scanning Light Pulse Technique (SLPT) is a technique for investigating insulator-semiconductor interfaces and can be used to scan surfaces with non-uniform properties, Thereby a virtual pool of test components can be evaluated simultaneously eliminating the need for processing individual test sensors. We report here on a method combining SLPT with algorithmic sensor selection techniques. This is a powerful combination providing the user with a candidate array configuration containing combinations of sensors optimal for the current application and data analysis algorithms. The need to process many individual test sensors is eliminated and the only sensor components that must be produced are those included in the final array. The selection techniques evaluated here are based on forward selection and Asymmetric Class Projection (ACP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Mutual Information (MI). The Suggested method is successfully evaluated using an experiment in which the purpose was to find means to detect small amounts of hydrogen in a background dominated by an interfering gas, in this case ammonia. In this particular study, the selection techniques based on ACP and CCA showed the most promising result.

    Keywords
    SLPT, chemical sensor, MIS, sensor selection, Assymetric Class Projection, CCA, LDA, mutual information, forward selection
    National Category
    Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14870 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2009.04.029 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Classification of Vehicles in a Multi-Object Scenario using Acoustic Sensor Arrays
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of Vehicles in a Multi-Object Scenario using Acoustic Sensor Arrays
    2008 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of distributed sensor networks is a topic gaining much interest. Detection, tracking and classification of objects moving within a geographic area is one possible application for such network. This article consider the classification of vehicles moving in an area monitored by a network of acoustic sensors. It is studied how to classify a target vehicle from acoustic recordings in which also interfering vehicles are present. Classification is made using a support vector classifer. The focus of this paper is on a combined beam-former and independent component analysis procedure used to separate the acoustic signature of a target vehicle from signatures of present interferences. An evaluation of the method is made on real data. The results show that the source separation method can help to improve classification performance. Properties of the joint separation-classification technique is analyzed and it is discussed under which circumstances the separation is most effcient.

    Keywords
    Support Vector Classifcation, Beamforming, Independent Component Analysis, multi object classifcation, distributed sensor network
    National Category
    Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14878 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-09-29 Created: 2008-09-29 Last updated: 2009-02-25
  • 8.
    Petersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Calibration Transfer Procedures Based on Sensor Models2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article treats the matter of calibration transfer, i.e. how to mathematicallysuppress sensor-to-sensor differences. We propose an approach in which the strategyis to find a model that compactly describes the behavior of a sensor type. Theparameters of the model serve as ‘data sheets’ and can be used to differentiate characteristicsbetween individual sensor devices. We illustrate that by keeping recordof these parameters it does not only becomes possible to characterize individualsensors, but also to calibrate their responses.

    As will be discussed, the main virtue of the suggested approach comes by itscompact and device specific description of the sensor response pattern. This opensup for the construction of flexible calibration transfer schemes. The idea is to let asensor manufacturer construct and distribute ‘data sheets’ describing the characteristicsof each sensor component. Customers can then to use these to mathematicallycounteract for sensor-to-sensor differences. The counteraction can be made at sensorlevel, prior to the signals enter any host system. This is important if a customerwishes to avoid extensive adaptations being made to a product as soon as a slightlydifferent sensor component must be used.

    The approach is tested on real experimental data made with Metal-Insulator-Silicon-Carbide-Transistors. Data driven modeling techniques were used to approximatethe sensor responses. The results of this paper positively demonstrate thatthe suggested approach can be used to counteract for sensor-to-sensor differences.

  • 9.
    Petersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Data driven approaches to characterizing cross-sensitive sensors and to improve calibration transerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different data analysis procedures can be developed for applications where chemical sensors are used, and it is sometimes even necessary to do so in order to get any reasonable results. Many of these procedures put certain demands on the used sensors, e.g. that they remain stable during operation. For this reason, it is useful to first learn the characteristics of a device before initiating developments of advanced procedures.

    ln this paper, data driven modeling techniques are used to approximate sensor responses and cross sensitivity patterns. By keeping record of parameters in an adapted model structure the characteristics of a sensor can be extracted. The extracted information is valuable when developing analysis procedures.

    The paper shows how the complexity of the calibration transfer problem increases when cross-sensitive sensors are used, and also shows a simple example of how the problem can be solved using application know-how for measurements using gas sensitive Metal-Insulator-Silicon-Carbide-Transistors. These procedures are simple and can be performed by sensor manufacturers to develop calibration transfer algorithms that reduce or eliminate the need of calibration measurements for the user.

  • 10.
    Petersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Initial studies on the possibility to use chemical sensors to monitor and control boilers2005In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 111-112, p. 487-493 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale boilers are quite often installed in facilities like schools, households and at local heat distributors. Because of economical considerations such boilers often lack appropriate control-systems, which results in inefficient and pollutant combustions with high levels of carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, and in ashes with unburned charcoal. Monitoring of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons, which is essential to be able to control a boiler, requires expensive instruments like flame-ionization detectors, IR- and mass-spectrometers.

    We demonstrate the possibility to use a low-cost chemical sensor array to monitor a small-scaled boiler. By using metal oxide sensors, metal insulator silicon carbide field effect transistors, and by applying multivariate data modeling, promising results have been obtained. The data modeling was made using a joint approach based on blind source separations and multiple linear regressions. This approach showed similar result compared to results from the well-known PLSR algorithm.

  • 11.
    Petersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klingvall, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sensor Array Optimization using Variable Selection and a Scanning Light Pulse Technique2009In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 435-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design of a chemical sensor. the constructor has several degrees of freedom setting parameters that influence the final characteristics of the component. For applications where several sensors are required, the number of possible parameter configurations increases dramatically. The work of configuring a sensor array is therefore tedious and many test sensors may need to be processed before a final configuration is found. The Scanning Light Pulse Technique (SLPT) is a technique for investigating insulator-semiconductor interfaces and can be used to scan surfaces with non-uniform properties, Thereby a virtual pool of test components can be evaluated simultaneously eliminating the need for processing individual test sensors. We report here on a method combining SLPT with algorithmic sensor selection techniques. This is a powerful combination providing the user with a candidate array configuration containing combinations of sensors optimal for the current application and data analysis algorithms. The need to process many individual test sensors is eliminated and the only sensor components that must be produced are those included in the final array. The selection techniques evaluated here are based on forward selection and Asymmetric Class Projection (ACP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Mutual Information (MI). The Suggested method is successfully evaluated using an experiment in which the purpose was to find means to detect small amounts of hydrogen in a background dominated by an interfering gas, in this case ammonia. In this particular study, the selection techniques based on ACP and CCA showed the most promising result.

  • 12.
    Petersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lauberts, Andris
    Department of Command and Control, Swedish Defence Research Agency, SE-581 11 Linköping, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Department of Command and Control, Swedish Defence Research Agency, SE-581 11 Linköping, Sweden.
    Classification of Vehicles in a Multi-Object Scenario using Acoustic Sensor Arrays2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of distributed sensor networks is a topic gaining much interest. Detection, tracking and classification of objects moving within a geographic area is one possible application for such network. This article consider the classification of vehicles moving in an area monitored by a network of acoustic sensors. It is studied how to classify a target vehicle from acoustic recordings in which also interfering vehicles are present. Classification is made using a support vector classifer. The focus of this paper is on a combined beam-former and independent component analysis procedure used to separate the acoustic signature of a target vehicle from signatures of present interferences. An evaluation of the method is made on real data. The results show that the source separation method can help to improve classification performance. Properties of the joint separation-classification technique is analyzed and it is discussed under which circumstances the separation is most effcient.

  • 13.
    Ulrich, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krantz-Rülcker, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simultaneous estimation of soot and diesel contamination in engine oil using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy2007In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 613-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to simultaneously predict the concentrations of soot and diesel in engine oil. For this purpose, we use a well defined measurement set-up to minimize interference from ambient noise, and to obtain a large amount of data in a short period of time. An imperative requirement is that soot and diesel affect the impedance in different ways over the employed frequency range. It was, for example, found that diesel had a larger influence at lower frequencies. Using partial least squares modelling we show that it is possible to simultaneously predict the concentrations of both soot and diesel in engine oil. Since the temperature in an engine varies, the influence of the oil temperature is investigated in a preliminary experiment. This study is a part of the development of an electrochemical on-board sensor for real-time monitoring of engine oil.

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